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AutoCad, AutoDesk, Unigraphis, Pro-E COURSE CONTENTS. Literature Past. ˛¢Basics of timo rantalainen, Computers and CAD. ˛¢Basic tools of edexcel igcse literature past, AutoCAD. ˛¢How to make 2D Drawing in essay on use of imagery AutoCAD. Edexcel Igcse Past Papers 2012. ˛¢How to edit and essay, modify AutoCAD Drawings. English Literature Past Papers 2012. ˛¢Working on Dimension Entities. ˛¢Working with Layer and moral objectivism, Blocks. ˛¢How to prepare and manage a layout. ˛¢How to edexcel english past papers 2012, Share data in moral a network. Edexcel Igcse English Literature 2012. ˛¢Working with Design Centre. Ww1 Essay. ˛¢Working with Tool pallets. Igcse Past Papers 2012. ˛¢CAD Standards , Batch Standards. Ww1 Essay. ˛¢Working with Plotting. ˛¢Create and edexcel english, Edit Parts. Effects Of Modern Essay. ˛¢Working with Assemblies. Igcse Past. ˛¢Assembly and Presentation Documentation. ˛¢Advanced Part Modelling Techniques. Persuasive On Recycling. ˛¢Documenting Sheet Metal. ˛¢Document Settings and Application Options. ˛¢Surfaces creating and edexcel igcse literature papers, editing. ˛¢Knowledge on Design Accelerators. Persuasive Essay. ˛¢Creating part features. 2012. ˛¢Editing freeform features. ˛¢Basic assembly concepts. Who Started Ww1 Essay. ˛¢Positioning assembly components. ˛¢Assembly revisions and english literature past, component replacements. Citing In Essay. ˛¢Assemblies €“ clearance and edexcel english literature past papers, analysis. ˛¢Introduction to essay on recycling, drafting. ˛¢Drawing and literature papers, views. ˛¢Creating dimensions, notes and objectivism essays, labels. ˛¢ Sheet metal Features. ˛¢ Surface creation and edexcel igcse literature past papers 2012, editing Techniques. ˛¢ parametric concepts. ˛¢Using the on use of imagery creo/parametric interface. ˛¢Creating sketcher geometry. Igcse Literature Papers 2012. ˛¢Creating extrudes, revolves, and ribs. ˛¢Creating datum features. Mla Format Sources In Essay. ˛¢Creating sweeps and igcse past 2012, blends. Effects Of Modern Technology Essay. ˛¢Variable section sweeps, helical sweeps and swept blends. ˛¢Group, copy, and edexcel past papers 2012, mirror tools. Rye Egyptian. ˛¢Layers, family tables. English Literature Past Papers 2012. ˛¢Assembling with constraints. Catcher. ˛¢Creating surface features. ˛¢Creating drawing views. Igcse Papers 2012. ˛¢Using advance assembly constraints.
˛¢Understanding simplified reps. Business Essay Management. ˛¢Creating cross-sections, display styles, and combined views. ˛¢Substituting components by rep, envelope, and edexcel literature papers 2012, model. Of Imagery. ˛¢Introduction to sheet metal design. English Literature Papers. ˛¢Primary walls, secondary and unattached walls. Essay. ˛¢Unbend, bend back and cuts. English Papers. ˛¢Notches and rantalainen, punches. ˛¢Sheet metal forms. English Literature Papers 2012. ˛¢Bending Unbending sheet metal geometry. ˛¢Converting solid parts. ˛¢Sheet metal drawings with flat states and bend order table. Tyco Fire and essay, Security India is english papers 2012, hiring CAD Engineer at Bangalore. Qualification: BE / BTech/Diploma (EEE, ECE, Instrumentation, Mechatronics, Telecommunication) Experience: 6 Months to 2 Years Hands on experience in who started AutoCAD. Assistant Design Engineer , 0-4 years, benguluru. Good in using design standards and cost reduction activity. Designer TP, 3 - 6 yrs Bengaluru/Bangalore.
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If you are looking for job after the edexcel igcse papers course we can certainly send your CV to effects of modern essay, prospective employers and the recruitment consultants or even help you to igcse literature papers, analyze your CV to effects of modern, make it look professional. Igcse English Literature Papers. Information on Admission AutoCAD 2D and 3D Training Enrollment:. Those candidates who wish to on recycling, enroll and igcse papers, attend the who started Autodesk revit Training programe, Landline: BTM Branch : 080 - 42108236, 9986917655. Marathahalli Branch : 080-42024661, 7899332878. Jayanagar Branch : 080 - 41502315. Rajaji Nagar Branch : 080 - 41713019. English Literature Past 2012. Chapter 1 €“ Introduction to persuasive essay on recycling, AutoCAD. Launching AutoCAD Cursor Cancelling a Command Menus and edexcel english past papers 2012, Colors Pulldown Menus Cascading Pulldown Menus Toolbars To Float a Toolbar To Dock a Toolbar Help Tooltips Loading Toolbars Status Bar Pointing Device (Mouse) Left Mouse Button Right Mouse Button Command Prompt Typing a Command Reissuing the management Last Command Undo Redo Function Keys Accelerator Keys On-Line Help.
Chapter 2 €“ Introduction to edexcel igcse, Commands. Ww1 Essay. Opening a Drawing New Drawings NEW Command Saving Drawings SAVE and igcse 2012, SAVEAS QUICK SAVE File Safety Precautions Auto save Temporary Files Security Options Exiting AutoCAD QUIT. Chapter 3 €“ Draw Commands. Line Command Cartesian Coordinate System Absolute Coordinates Relative Coordinates Polar Coordinates Orthogonal Lines Direct Distance Entry Circles and Arcs Circle Command Arc Command Command Aliases Line Alias Circle Alias Arc Alias. Chapter 4 €“ Erase and on use, Selection Sets. Edexcel Igcse Literature. Erase and catcher, Selection Sets Erasing Objects Selection Set Options Window and Crossing Remove from Selection Set OOPS Delete Key. Chapter 5 €“ Basic Display Commands. English Past 2012. Chapter 6 €“ Drawing Aids. Chapter 7 €“ Object Snapping. Running Object Snaps Object Snap Settings Osnap Settings Aperture. Chapter 8 €“ Setting Up a Drawing.
List Command Measuring Distances ID Command UNITS Command Drawing Limits Plot Scales and moral objectivism essays, Paper Sizes. Plot Command Plot Settings Adding a Plotter Plotter Manager Wizard Choosing a Plotter Driver Importing a PCP or PC2 file Define a Port Saving a Plot Configuration Name Plot Styles Add a Plot Style Named Plot Styles. Literature. Chapter 10 €“ Edit Commands. Move Command Copy Command Previous Selection Offset Command EXTEND TRIM Edgemode MIRROR Mirrtext ROTATE Reference Angle Rotation SCALE Scale by effects of modern technology, Specifying Length. Edexcel Literature Past Papers. Text Command Text Justification Style Command Font Files Multiline Text Mtext Command Type text or change an MTEXT setting MTEXT options Editing Text Spell Check Scale Text. Chapter 12 €“ Layers, Linetypes, and business essay management, Colors. Introduction to igcse literature past papers 2012, Layers and persuasive essay, Layer Dialog Box Changing the Layer of an igcse english papers, Object Making a Layer Current Layer Previous Layer States Color Command Loading and technology essay, Changing Line types Line weights Loading and Changing Line weights Object Properties.
Chapter 13 €“ More Edit Commands. Edexcel Igcse Literature. Chapter 14 €“ Advanced Display Commands. Essay On Use. Transparent Commands Multiple Command Calculator (CAL Command) PLINE options Editing Polylines Edit Vertex Options Editing Multiple Polylines Explode Command Turning Lines into Polylines. Edexcel Igcse English Past. Chapter 16 - More Draw Commands. Polygon Rectangle Spline Splineoptions Editing Splines Covert PLINE to on use of imagery, Spline Donut Ellipse Multilines MLINE Command Multiline Justifications Multiline Styles Editing Multilines Construction Line Ray Command.
Chapter 17 - Crosshatching. BHATCH Command BHATCHoptions Advanced Hatch Options Define Boundary Set Hatchstyle Boundary Options Gradient Hatch HATCHEDIT. Chapter 18 €“ Regions and Boundaries. Chapter 19 - Blocks and Attributes. Creating Local Blocks(BMAKE) Inserting Blocks Typing Insert (-INSERT) Control the english literature 2012 Color and Linetype of catcher rye egyptian essay, Blocks Wblock Command Purge Defining Attributes Editing Attributes Block Attribute Manager Synchronize Attributes Enhanced Attribute Extract.
Chapter 20 - Design Center and edexcel english papers, Tool Palettes. Design Center Overview Design Center Blocks Hatching from the Design Center. Effects Of Modern Technology Essay. Chapter 21 - Point, Divide, and Measure. Edexcel English Past 2012. Grips Overview Entity Grip Unselected Grip Selected Grip Cancelling Grips How To Use Grips Grips Settings (DDGRIPS Command) Chapter 23 - Advanced Selection Commands. Selection Modes Noun/VerbSelection Use Shift to Add to Selection Press and rantalainen thesis, Drag Implied Windowing ObjectGrouping Associative Hatch Groups Object Selection Cycling Draw Order ObjectFilters Quick Select Layer Filters. Igcse English. Chapter 24 - External References. External Reference Files Overview The following are Xref characteristics Attaching Xrefs Xref Layers Layer Dialog Box Xclip Xclipframe Binding an Xref To Bind an who started, Xref Xbind Editing Xrefs (Xref Manager) DetachingXrefs Unload an Xref Reload an Xref Opening Xrefs to Edit Overlay an igcse literature past 2012, Xref. Inserting Images Image Appearance Adjusting Image Appearance Image Transparency Erasing Images Image Quality Clipping Images. Linear Dimensions Aligned Dimensions Radial Dimensions Angular Dimensions Continued and Baseline Dimensions Leaders Leader Settings Quick Dimensions Modifying Dimensions DDEDIT Stretching Dimensions DIMTEDIT Dimension Edit Commands Ordinate Dimensions. Chapter 27- Dimension Styles. Creating Dimension Styles Lines and Arrows Text Primary Units Alternate Units Tolerances Fit Dimscale Dimension Overrride Dimension Variables.
Chapter 28 €“ Views and mla format sources in essay, Viewports. Named Views Ddview Command Typing the igcse english literature papers 2012 View Command View options Plotting Named Views Viewports Vports Command Viewport options. Chapter 29 - Model Space and essay on use of imagery, Paper Space. Creating a Layout Creating Mulitple Layout Mview Command Irregular Shaped Viewports Model Space Paper Space Scales - Zooming in Model Space Adding Text in edexcel igcse past Paper Space Plotting in Paper Space Layout Wizard Tilemode Viewport Layers. Objectivism. Chapter 31 - Drawing Utilities.
Chapter 32 - Data Management. Chapter 33 - OLE and edexcel igcse english papers 2012, External Applications. Copying from mla format in essay, AutoCAD Print Screen OLE Linking to edexcel english literature papers 2012, AutoCAD Hyperlinking Opening a Hyperlink. Chapter 34 - Communication and essay, Collaboration Tools. Igcse Literature Papers 2012. Plotting to the WEB Configuring DWF Files Publish Command Publishing WEB Pages e-Transmit.
Chapter 35 - External Applications and catcher rye egyptian essay, LISP Routines.
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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to igcse literature past papers 2012, the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to rantalainen thesis, getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the edexcel igcse past papers odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Citing Sources. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section.
As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and edexcel igcse english literature papers 2012, a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of citing in essay, Cover Letter Samples by edexcel Industry. Tips on mla format citing in essay, Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume.
In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in past papers 2012 first place in the hot dog eating contest at of modern, the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar.
It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for igcse english past 2012 how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in moral essays English and Spanish , and proficient in French.
Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills.
Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and edexcel english literature past papers, French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and mla format citing in essay, French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to igcse literature papers 2012, the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at moral, the top is very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of edexcel igcse papers 2012, adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is persuasive on recycling, proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category.
Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on igcse literature 2012, a resume. Timo Rantalainen Thesis. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is edexcel igcse english literature, not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to include examples of ww1 essay, how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is that HR managers want proof.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on literature papers 2012 lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of citing sources in essay expert contributors. Abby Gordon is igcse literature a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Catcher. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in 2012, New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for on recycling Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. Igcse English Papers 2012. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from thesis Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is edexcel english past 2012 a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.
Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to essay on recycling make the most important stuff jump off the edexcel english page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Timo. Give some thought to literature the format that will convey the timo rantalainen necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on edexcel igcse english literature papers 2012 your resume should serve the purpose of ww1 essay showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to literature the specific job.
Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of citing your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about english literature past every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from who started ww1 essay college, delete it from edexcel literature past your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the persuasive essay any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues.
5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the english literature papers underwriters in ww1 essay, the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by edexcel english 2012, a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from mla format citing sources Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is edexcel past more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. Thesis. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the edexcel literature past papers proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to moral the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of edexcel igcse english literature papers mid-way through your junior year abroad.
7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and essay not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of edexcel literature papers yours and timo thesis not aspirational hobbies). Igcse Literature Papers. Maybe you and rantalainen thesis one of the edexcel literature past papers interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from mla format sources true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations.
Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to english literature papers attend a meeting? 8. Essay On Recycling. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about edexcel papers 2012 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of catcher rye egyptian essay black and white on the page make your eyes happy?
Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the edexcel igcse english literature past 2012 same principle. Who Started Ww1 Essay. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. English Past Papers 2012. Then proofread it again. Of Modern Essay. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend.
And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. Edexcel Igcse English Literature Past Papers. 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless?
You remember how you uploaded it to catcher rye egyptian essay your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of edexcel igcse literature past 2012 you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the technology recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to past papers stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about rye egyptian your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways.
Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in edexcel english 2012, the world. Managed by essays, former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out more about us. Sign up for our newsletter.
Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Igcse English Literature Papers. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Who Started Ww1 Essay. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Lawyers Aren#8217;t Necessarily Good Managers#8230; So Why Do We Let Them Manage Firms? What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves?
Was UVA Law Alum Johnathan Perkins Pressured By The FBI Into Recanting His Account Of Racial Profiling? How Consultants Recommend Cutting Legal Bills. Edexcel English Past Papers 2012. Biglaw Firm#8217;s Move To New Office Means It#8217;s Time For Some Buyouts. Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy. Create A Workspace That Is Not Only Practical, But Enjoyable. Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on essay on recycling law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more.
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Essay on Ozone Layer Depletion: Top 6 Essays | Atmosphere | Environment. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on edexcel english past papers the Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation Essay on the Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Solution to moral Ozone Layer Depletion. Essay # 1. Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion : The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. Edexcel Igcse English Literature Papers 2012? If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere.
The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone in timo thesis, the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, O 2 . When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 2012 90% of all ozone.
In recent years, the thesis, ozone layer has been the igcse literature 2012, subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the objectivism essays, ozone layer protects both plant and igcse english literature papers animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in the mid-1980s. Mla Format Citing? The main cause of edexcel igcse english past papers, this is the release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons. Antarctica was an early victim of moral objectivism essays, ozone destruction. A massive hole in the ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica’s melting icecaps. English Past 2012? In the future, the ozone problem will have to be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. Essay # 2. Effects Essay? Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion: Only a few factors combine to igcse english past create the problem of ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of moral essays, CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by far the leading cause. Many countries have called for the end of CFC production because only a few produce the chemical.
However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. CFCs are used in industry in edexcel igcse past, a variety of moral essays, ways and edexcel igcse past papers 2012 have been amazingly useful in many products. Discovered in the 1930s by rye egyptian essay, American chemist Thomas Midgley, CFCs came to be used in edexcel literature past, refrigerators, home insulation, plastic foam, and timo thesis throwaway food containers. Only later did people realize the disaster CFCs caused in the stratosphere. There, the chlorine atom is removed from the edexcel english papers 2012, CFC and rantalainen thesis attracts one of the three oxygen atoms in the ozone molecule. English Past Papers? The process continues, and a single chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 molecules of essay, ozone. In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina followed the path of CFCs. Their research proved that CFCs were entering the atmosphere, and they concluded that 99% of all CFC molecules would end up in the stratosphere.
Only in 1984, when the edexcel english literature past papers 2012, ozone layer hole was discovered over persuasive, Antarctica, was the proof truly conclusive. Past? At that point, it was hard to question the destructive capabilities of CFCs. Even if CFCs were banned, problems would remain. Technology? There would still be no way to remove the CFCs that are now present in the environment. Clearly though, something must be done to limit this international problem in the future. Essay # 3. Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion: It includes, 1. The natural process. 2. The anthropogenic process. Atmospheric oxygen absorbs ultraviolet radiation shorter than 240 nm and photo-dissociates into two oxygen atoms. These unite with other O 2 molecules to literature past papers 2012 form ozone.
During the process surplus energy of nascent O 3 is who started often transferred to the nearby molecules as kinetic energy which slightly raises the igcse english literature 2012, surrounding atmospheric temperature. Ozone too is effective in catcher essay, absorbing particular short wavelength UV radiation in the range 230-320 nm, releasing atomic oxygen. This natural mechanism, however, does not necessarily upset the ozone equilibrium because the loss of ozone caused by natural process is compensated by the creation of ozone through atmospheric circulation. Thus a dynamic equilibrium existing between the edexcel igcse 2012, production and decomposition of ozone molecules constitutes one of the most important mechanism. The heat generated during the reaction causes a rise in timo rantalainen thesis, temperature of the stratosphere. Edexcel Igcse? Secondly, the persuasive, photochemical process absorbs most of the harmful solar ultraviolet radiations of wavelength from 2000 A to english literature 3500 A. Hence the atmosphere is heated because of this absorption and the earth’s biosphere is shielded from these radiations. Without it, life on the earth would be completely destroyed. The atmospheric layer of ozone surrounding us acts like a blanket, protecting or shielding us from the harmful UV radiations from the sun. So the ozone screen acts as our protective cover in cutting of the fatal UV radiations from the solar system. Ozone acts as a powerful oxidant because of its ability to remove electrons from other molecules.
It occurs as a natural component of air. It is also formed in ambient air by photochemical reactions of primary pollutants. Its higher concentration is generally found in large urban areas of the essay, world, which are characterized by automobile—dependent transportation and petroleum dependent energy production etc. Surface ozone is past papers produced as a result of chemical reactions in the atmosphere driven by the action of UV radiation in the sunlight, involving both nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic matter (VOM). While both NO x and VOMs are emitted in large amount by vehicles, other important sources of VOMs are solvents used in industrial and chemical processes. Effects Of Modern Technology Essay? According to edexcel igcse 2012 British scientists, this surface ozone is objectivism essays responsible for the substantial reduction in igcse literature, the yields of major crops like wheat and rice. The surface ozone, a secondary pollutant, can spread in high concentrations over rural areas. There are the other sources of timo rantalainen, ozone in the environment, such as gamma radiation used in food preservation plants, commercial UV lamps used for sterilization, high voltage electric equipments, dermatological phototherapy equipments and even in photocopying machines. Edexcel English Papers? Ozone also occurs in air and water purification plants and mla format sources in essay oil wax, textiles and inorganic synthetic industries. We know that there are natural chemical and photochemical processes which lead to the continuous formation and destruction of ozone in the stratosphere.
The balance between these processes would result in a steady condition with a well-defined and stable ozone layer. Edexcel Papers? However only timo rantalainen thesis oxygen chemistry cannot adequately explain the present situations. Edexcel Igcse English? Other chemical species also play a role in determining the actual concentrations and can lead to enhanced ozone destruction. Some of these species occur naturally, while others are of recent industrial origin. The amount of some of the natural species moving into the stratosphere has been augmented in recent years by a number of human activities. Many of the processes, which are responsible for the depletion of ozone layer, share a general mechanism of the type, Here X is the catcher essay, reacting species. The most common of these species have been identified to be free radicals, such as HO x (• H, • OH, HOO •), NO x (• NO, • NO 2 ) and ClO x (• CI, • CIO). Each of these species is capable of destroying the ozone layer in varying degrees, depending on altitude and the mixing ratio. For example, near the stratosphere the HO x radicals are responsible for about 70% of the total mechanism of ozone destruction, including the igcse papers 2012, oxygen only rye egyptian essay process. Lower in the atmosphere around 30 km, the edexcel igcse literature, NO x catalytic decomposition process dominates the ozone destruction mechanism.
The NO x cycle in the region just above the troposphere has been found to be responsible for about 70% of the ozone destruction, but recent studies show that this figure may be even more. The HO x radicals are generated by either of the following two photochemical reactions: where O is persuasive essay on recycling excited state oxygen. These reactive free radical species (• H or • OH) decompose ozone in the following manner: Production of • OH radical is largely due to edexcel igcse english past papers 2012 the natural processes and mla format their relative importance increases with increasing altitude. The hydrogen radical decomposes the ozone in the following way: The nitric oxide cycle contributes in a significant way in the natural destruction of stratospheric ozone in the lower region of the stratosphere: In the upper atmosphere, NO is produced by reactions involving atomic and ionic species of nitrogen and oxygen. These species are produced by english literature, the highly energetic radiation that penetrates that part of the atmosphere. Photodecomposition of N 2 is possible at altitude much greater than 30 km, producing both an electronically excited N( 2 D) and a ground state N( 4 S) atom.
The ground state nitrogen subsequently reacts with O 2 , producing another natural source of NO: At altitudes of less than 30 km, additional NO is also generated via a reaction: Where O( 1 D) is rye egyptian excited state oxygen. The principal source of nitrous oxide is the edexcel igcse literature past papers 2012, process of denitrification in soils having high concentration of nitrate ion: The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mixing rations is due (to some extent) to enhanced rates of denitrification resulting from greater use of nitrogenous fertilizers worldwide.
Although the mixing ratio of nitrous oxide in the troposphere is moral steadily increasing, the production of stratospheric nitric oxide through various processes can, in edexcel igcse english literature past papers, a large part, be attributed to natural causes. Nitrogenous fertilizers are also responsible for much of the increase. The nitric oxide that has been generated by combustion near ground level, or even at altitudes where subsonic aircrafts fly, is not considered to be major contributor to the stratosphere, because it has a very short (about 4 days) tropospheric residence time. The CFCs and halons are entirely manmade with wide applications in air conditioning, refrigeration, aerosols, electric and metal clearing, foam blowing and modern firefighting. They act as a catalyst in the destruction of ozone layer in the stratosphere.
The rate of destruction of ozone is further enhanced by the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) released from the exhausts of large fleet of supersonic aircrafts (SST). A wide range of essays, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are known, but widely used are CFCl 3 and igcse literature past CF 2 Cl 2 , which are in use since 1930. CFCs and halons remain inactive in the troposphere and it takes about 20-40 years for these chemicals to travel and reach the stratosphere, but after that their intermediate product (chlorine radical) retrains active for more than 100 years. Catcher Essay? The travelling time for CFCs and halons to reach to stratosphere may range from 20 to 40 years, that is, CFCs generated in edexcel english past 2012, the troposphere today may take 20 to rantalainen thesis 40 years to reach the stratosphere. Once these CFCs and halons reach to stratosphere, the chlorine and bromine atoms present in edexcel igcse literature, these chemicals are released as a result of interaction with UV radiations in mla format in essay, the stratosphere. In spite of the fact that CFC molecules are much heavier than those of air, they tend to be well mixed and homogeneously distributed throughout the english 2012, troposphere in the gas phase because of strong convective mixing. We know that CFCs are almost completely inert both biologically as well as chemically in the earth’s environment, including in the troposphere. Because they do not react, they circulate through the troposphere until they leak or escape into the stratosphere. Citing In Essay? At higher altitudes they are capable of undergoing UV photolytic decomposition, as a result of igcse literature past, being exposed to the intense flux of energetic UV radiation— CFCI3 + hv (? 290 nm) > • CFCl 2 + • CI.
The released chlorine radical is objectivism essays capable of taking part in the catalytic decomposition of ozone as follows: A second and perhaps third chlorine radical could also be produced by further decomposition of • CFCl 2 radical, generating additional • CI radical responsible for ozone depletion— Chlorine atoms catalyse the destruction of ozone. At 30 km, the natural contributions to edexcel english literature past 2012 ozone destruction by chlorine accounts for about 10% of the total. A significant natural precursor of atomic chlorine is CH 3 Cl, which is timo produced biogenically from the oceans, from the burning of vegetation and from volcanic emissions. Once in the atmosphere, CH 3 Cl undergoes photochemical reaction, Other natural sources of chlorine are various forms of chlorine. Such sources as HCl released by volcanoes or CI – ions released from sea-salt spray are short-lived in the troposphere and most of edexcel igcse english past papers, them are washed out through the rainfall before they reach the stratosphere. There are other catalytic cycles also involving chlorine. For example,
Bromine (from, say halons) can also replace chlorine in the cycle and together these reactions account for about 60% of the routes by which ozone is destroyed by essay, halogens. It should be noted that natural sources produce small amounts of atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, but there is a significant destruction of ozone by igcse english literature papers, chlorine derived from the anthropogenically produced CFCs. Taking into consideration the ozone depleting CFCs and moral objectivism essays halons, scientists are trying to edexcel literature papers 2012 modify the timo, relative amounts of fluorine, chlorine and igcse literature 2012 hydrogen in new compounds. Thus a common approach is to incorporate hydrogen in the structure, as in hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or replace chlorine and produce hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs). Increasing the content of essay, hydrogen reduces the inertness of the 2012, compound and in this way the lifetime of the compound in troposphere may be made short. The presence of essay, hydrogen means that the compounds are more reactive and igcse literature past flammable. But the higher reactivity is a disadvantage in many applications. If the citing, proportion of fluorine is increased at the expense of chlorine, then a highly stable compound will be formed because the bond energy of C-F bond is larger than C-Cl bond. This will reduce stratospheric photolysis to a very significant extent. Moreover, such compounds are excellent and persistent greenhouse gases. For compounds containing no chlorine, obviously no CI atoms can be released, so there is no potential to deplete ozone.
Increasing the chlorine content is undesirable, because the ability to destroy ozone will be higher and because compounds containing chlorine and hydrogen tend to be more toxic. From a combined industrial and environmental point of view, HFC-134a (CF 3 CH 2 F) is more promising. This HFC has intermediate stability and it is oxidised by the • OH radical in the troposphere and has residence time of 18 years. Edexcel Past Papers 2012? It is neither very flammable nor have chlorine. So it is not expected to have ozone depleting potential. HCFC-123 (CF 3 CHCl 2 ) is another replacement for persuasive on recycling, CFC. It contains chlorine, but has only about one tenth ozone depleting potential of igcse literature past papers, CFC—11 (CFCl 3 ), largely due to its relatively short tropospheric life time. Halons, the bromine analogues of CFCs have widely been used in fire extinguishers because of the following important reasons: (a) Their high density, due to which they settle over and smother a fire at ground level.
(b) Bromine atom terminates the who started, radical chain reactions which propagate the combustion process. Methyl bromide, used as soil fumigant, is also a potent ozone depleting substance. In fact, chemicals containing bromine are much more reactive than the chlorine analogues in terms of depletion of ozone. Because of this, ODP values for bromine compounds are very high. For example, ODP values of the halons bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF 2 ClBr (H-1211), bromotrifluoromethane, CF 3 Br (H-1301) and dibromotetrafluoroethane, CBrF 2 CBrF 2 (H-2402) are 3.0, 10.0 and 6.0 respectively. Essay # 4. Antarctic and edexcel english past Arctic Ozone Hole Formation: The ozone hole is actually an area of thinner normal ozone. Temperature is a key factor in ozone loss, along with chlorine and bromine chemicals. In 2001, the Antarctic ozone hole reached a maximum size of who started, more than 26.5 million sq.km – larger than the entire area of North America, including the US, Canada and Mexico combined. Edexcel Igcse Past? In the year 2000, it briefly approached 11.30 million sq. km.
In 2002, ozone hole over moral essays, Antarctica was not only much smaller than what it was in 2000 and 2001, but it has split into two. It was measured at 15.6 million sq. km. In September 2002, a figure well below the english literature papers, more than 24 million sq. km spread seen consecutively during the last six years. The hole’s total column ozone was measured below 220 dobson units. Ozone depletion is an annual phenomenon over mla format in essay, the South Pole during August and September when coldest temperatures are prevalent.
Thin clouds form in these cold conditions and chemical reactions on cloud particles help chlorine and bromine gases to rapidly destroy ozone. Edexcel Igcse English Literature Past Papers 2012? By early October, temperatures typically start to warm and the ozone layer starts to recover. The size and the duration of the hole depend on natural year to who started year variability of atmospheric conditions. In the Antarctic (and Arctic) conditions exist where spring time ozone depleting events may occur, resulting in a major loss of ozone over a relatively short time. The conditions include a complex combination of climate factors as well as accumulation of reservoir species which react vigorously to bring about a major loss of ozone, especially at the onset of the first day light of the polar spring. During the long dark winter in the Antarctic, a stream of air is drawn towards the South Pole, creating a giant vortex because of edexcel igcse english past papers, intense cold and the Earth’s rotation.
The area within the vortex acts like a self-contained chemical reactor in which unique chemical processes take place. For one thing, inside the reactor, stratospheric clouds form because of exceptionally low temperatures which exist in the absence of light. The clouds are classified into two types: (a) The polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) are formed at about 193 K and consist of about 1 µm diameter particles of essay on recycling, HNO 3 and H 2 O in the ratio of 1: 3. (b) The polar stratospheric clouds, which are formed when the temperature decreases to 187 K. These clouds are made up of relatively pure particles of water-ice upto 10 µm in past 2012, size. The accumulated gases— reservoir chlorine and nitrogen containing species (mainly hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid and chlorine nitrate) are also present in the vortex. During the of modern technology, winter, these species take part in heterogeneous reaction on the surface of PSCs and consequently release chlorine molecules and igcse literature past papers HOCl: The relatively stable situation remains until after the onset of sunlight. On Recycling? At that time solar radiation provides energy for the photolysis of edexcel igcse english past, chlorine and HOCl to produce the chlorine radical species.
The chlorine radicals so formed are then available for ozone depletion by catalytic cycles or according to following reactions: Depletion of ozone occurs rapidly so that even in who started, some days, ozone levels decrease dramatically to half or even less of their winter value. This situation persists until the air temperature rises, causing the vortex to break up and the PSCs to disappear. This occurs in mid to igcse english late spring, when chlorine radicals again become tied up by the formation of hydrochloric acid and chlorine nitrate, and the ozone begins to recover to pre-hole levels. In the moral objectivism essays, Arctic atmosphere, as a result of the eruption of Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines during 1991, sulphate was found to be present at higher concentrations than usual. Stratospheric sulphate is usually in edexcel igcse literature 2012, the form of an aerosol and acts as a catalyst for the removal of N 2 O 5 by who started ww1 essay, forming nitric acid. This reaction is a means by which NO x species are removed from the polar stratosphere, thus eliminating one of the species which is associated with holding cycles that tie up chlorine monoxide radicals (• CIO + • NO 2 + M > ClONO 2 + M). As a result, higher concentrations of reactive chlorine species are present, thus leading to more rapid ozone depletion. In addition, this reaction could occur to a large extent throughout the stratosphere (not just at the poles), decrease of the worldwide ozone concentration.
Essay # 5. Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion: Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is english literature past lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, 2% more UV-B is who started able to reach the surface of the planet. UV-B increase is one of the most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. The increased cancer levels caused by exposure to edexcel igcse literature papers this ultraviolet light could be enormous. The EPA estimates that 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of ozone depletion. About one million of these people will die. In addition to cancer, some research shows that a decreased ozone layer will increase rates of essays, malaria and other infectious diseases. Igcse English? According to the EPA, 17 million more cases of cataracts can also be expected.
The environment will also be negatively affected by rantalainen, ozone depletion. The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the food chain. Edexcel Papers 2012? Effects on animals will also be severe, and are very difficult to essay foresee. Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to igcse literature past survive. Citing Sources? If that happened, it would mean that all of the other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. Other ecosystems such as forests and deserts will also be harmed. The planet’s climate could also be affected by depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world. Essay # 6. Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion : The discovery of the ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. Igcse Past Papers 2012? Now, action must be taken to ensure that the ozone layer is not destroyed.
Because CFCs are so widespread and used in such a great variety of products, limiting their use is hard. Also, since many products already contain components that use CFCs, it would be difficult if not impossible to effects eliminate those CFCs already in existence. The CFC problem may be hard to solve because there are already great quantities of CFCs in the environment. CFCs would remain in edexcel igcse papers 2012, the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. Despite the essay on recycling, difficulties, international action has been taken to limit CFCs.
In the Montreal Protocol, 30 nations worldwide agreed to igcse reduce usage of CFCs and encouraged other countries to rantalainen thesis do so as well. However, many environmentalists felt the treaty did “too little, too late”, as the Natural Resources Defense Council put it. The treaty asked for CFC makers to only eliminate half of their CFC production, making some people feel it was inadequate. By the edexcel english literature past papers, year 2000, the US and twelve nations in Europe have agreed to ban all use and production of CFCs. This will be highly significant, because these countries produce three quarters of the effects of modern, CFCs in the world. Many other countries have signed treaties and written laws restricting the use of CFCs.
Companies are finding substitutes for CFCs, and igcse english papers 2012 people in general are becoming more aware of the dangers of moral, ozone depletion.