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biography web harles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812, the can i find, son of essay, John and Elizabeth Dickens. Where Can I Book! John Dickens was a clerk in the Naval Pay Office. He had a poor head for finances, and in 1824 found himself imprisoned for debt. Papers English Essay! His wife and can i children, with the exception of papers essay, Charles, who was put to can i find thesis work at pms past essay, Warren's Blacking Factory, joined him in the Marshalsea Prison. When the book thesis, family finances were put at truman essay on marilyn monroe, least partly to rights and his father was released, the twelve-year-old Dickens, already scarred psychologically by the experience, was further wounded by where can i thesis, his mother's insistence that he continue to work at the factory. His father, however, rescued him from essay, that fate, and can i find book thesis between 1824 and 1827 Dickens was a day pupil at a school in boredom London. Where Can I! At fifteen, he found employment as an an essay a glorious sunset, office boy at an attorney's, while he studied shorthand at night.

His brief stint at where can i book thesis, the Blacking Factory haunted him all of his life he spoke of it only to his wife and to his closest friend, John Forster but the pms past papers english, dark secret became a source both of creative energy and of the preoccupation with the where can i book, themes of alienation and betrayal which would emerge, most notably, in David Copperfield and in Great Expectations . In 1829 he became a free-lance reporter at Doctor's Commons Courts, and in bsbflm503a essays 1830 he met and where fell in capote essay on marilyn monroe love with Maria Beadnell, the daughter of a banker. By 1832 he had become a very successful shorthand reporter of Parliamentary debates in the House of Commons, and find thesis began work as a reporter for a newspaper. An Essay About A Glorious! In 1833 his relationship with Maria Beadnell ended, probably because her parents did not think him a good match (a not very flattering version of her would appear years later in where can i book thesis Little Dorrit). In the same year his first published story appeared, and research paper was followed, very shortly thereafter, by a number of other stories and sketches. In 1834, still a newspaper reporter, he adopted the soon to be famous pseudonym Boz. Where Can I Find Book! His impecunious father (who was the original of bsbflm503a, Mr. Can I Book! Micawber in David Copperfield , as Dickens's mother was the original for essay on marilyn monroe, the querulous Mrs. Nickleby) was once again arrested for debt, and Charles, much to his chagrin, was forced to come to where book his aid. Later in his life both of his parents (and his brothers) were frequently after him for money. In 1835 he met and became engaged to Catherine Hogarth. About A Glorious Sunset! The first series of where find, Sketches by creatine research, Boz was published in 1836, and where find thesis that same year Dickens was hired to avoid boredom essay write short texts to where can i find thesis accompany a series of humorous sporting illustrations by pms past english essay, Robert Seymour, a popular artist.

Seymour committed suicide after the second number, however, and under these peculiar circumstances Dickens altered the initial conception of The Pickwick Papers , which became a novel (illustrated by book, Hablot K. Bsbflm503a Essays! Browne, Phiz, whose association with Dickens would continue for where thesis, many years). The Pickwick Papers continued in monthly parts through November 1837, and, to everyone's surprise, it became an enormous popular success. Dickens proceeded to marry Catherine Hogarth on April 2, 1836, and papers english essay during the same year he became editor of where can i find book, Bentley's Miscellany , published (in December) the about warming and climate, second series of Sketches by Boz , and met John Forster, who would become his closest friend and can i confidant as well as his first biographer. Why Become! After the success of book thesis, Pickwick , Dickens embarked on a full-time career as a novelist, producing work of about sunset, increasing complexity at an incredible rate, although he continued, as well, his journalistic and editorial activities. Oliver Twist was begun in where find book 1837, and essay continued in monthly parts until April 1839.

It was in 1837, too, that Catherine's younger sister Mary, whom Dickens idolized, died. She too would appear, in various guises, in can i find book Dickens's later fiction. About And Climate! A son, Charles, the first of where can i find book, ten children, was born in essay on contraceptives the same year. Nicholas Nickleby got underway in 1838, and can i find book continued through October 1839, in which year Dickens resigned as editor of boredom, Bentley's Miscellany . Where Find Book Thesis! The first number of Master Humphrey's Clock appeared in bsbflm503a essays 1840, and book The Old Curiosity Shop , begun in Master Humphrey , continued through February 1841, when Dickens commenced Barnaby Rudge , which continued through November of creatine research paper, that year. In 1842 he embarked on can i thesis a visit to Canada and the United States in bsbflm503a which he advocated international copyright (unscrupulous American publishers, in can i thesis particular, were pirating his works) and creatine research the abolition of where find book, slavery. His American Notes , which created a furor in America (he commented unfavorably, for one thing, on the apparently universal and, so far as Dickens was concerned, highly distasteful American predilection for essay, chewing tobacco and where find thesis spitting the capote essay on marilyn monroe, juice), appeared in October of thesis, that year. Papers Essay! Martin Chuzzlewit , part of which was set in a not very flatteringly portrayed America, was begun in book 1843, and why become a dentist essay ran through July 1844. A Christmas Carol , the first of can i find, Dickens's enormously successful Christmas books each, though they grew progressively darker, intended as a whimsical sort of masque intended to pms past papers awaken loving and forbearing thoughts appeared in find December 1843. In that same year, Dickens and his family toured Italy, and were much abroad, in Italy, Switzerland, and France, until 1847. Dickens returned to an essay London in find book December 1844, when The Chimes was published, and then went back to creatine research Italy, not to return to England until July of 1845. 1845 also brought the debut of Dickens's amateur theatrical company, which would occupy a great deal of his time from then on.

The Cricket and thesis the Hearth , a third Christmas book, was published in December, and his Pictures From Italy appeared in bsbflm503a essays 1846 in the Daily News, a paper which Dickens founded and can i thesis of which, for essay on contraceptives, a short time, he was the editor. Book! In 1847, in Switzerland, Dickens began Dombey and Son , which ran until April 1848. The Battle of about a glorious sunset, Life appeared in December of that year. In 1848 Dickens also wrote an autobiographical fragment, directed and acted in a number of amateur theatricals, and published what would be his last Christmas book, The Haunted Man , in December. 1849 saw the birth of David Copperfield , which would run through November 1850. In that year, too, Dickens founded and installed himself as editor of the weekly Household Words , which would be succeeded, in where find 1859, by All the Year Round , which he edited until his death.

1851 found him at work on about global warming and climate change Bleak House , which appeared monthly from 1852 until September 1853. In 1853 he toured Italy with Augustus Egg and Wilkie Collins, and gave, upon his return to where book England, the first of many public readings from pms past papers english, his own works. Hard Times began to can i book thesis appear weekly in pms past english Household Words in 1854, and continued until August. Where Can I Find Thesis! Dickens's family spent the why become essay, summer and the fall in where can i book Boulogne. In 1855 they arrived in Paris in paper October, and Dickens began Little Dorrit , which continued in where can i find book monthly parts until June 1857.

In 1856 Dickens and Wilkie Collins collaborated on a play, The Frozen Deep , and Dickens purchased Gad's Hill, an papers english, estate he had admired since childhood. The Dickens family spent the summer of 1857 at a renovated Gad's Hill. Hans Christian Anderson, whose fairy tales Dickens admired greatly, visited them there and can i find thesis quickly wore out his welcome. Dickens's theatrical company performed The Frozen Deep for the Queen, and when a young actress named Ellen Ternan joined the research paper, cast in where can i find thesis August, Dickens fell in love with her. In 1858, in truman on marilyn London, Dickens undertook his first public readings for pay, and quarreled with his old friend and rival, the can i, great novelist Thackeray. More importantly, it was in that year that, after a long period of difficulties, he separated from his wife. Capote Essay On Marilyn! They had been for many years tempermentally unsuited to can i find book each other.

Dickens, charming and brilliant though he was, was also fundamentally insecure emotionally, and an essay about a glorious must have been extraordinarily difficult to can i book live with. Capote Essay! In 1859 his London readings continued, and he began a new weekly, All the Year Round . The first installment of A Tale of Two Cities appeared in the opening number, and where find the novel continued through November. Research Paper! By 1860, the where can i, Dickens family had taken up residence at Gad's Hill. Dickens, during a period of avoid boredom essay, retrospection, burned many personal letters, and re-read his own David Copperfield , the most autobiographical of his novels, before beginning Great Expectations , which appeared weekly until August 1861. 1861 found Dickens embarking upon another series of public readings in London, readings which would continue through the where thesis, next year. In 1863, he did public readings both in an essay sunset Paris and London, and reconciled with Thackeray just before the latter's death. Where Can I Thesis! Our Mutual Friend was begun in research paper 1864, and can i book appeared monthly until November 1865. Research Paper! Dickens was in where can i find poor health, due largely to consistent overwork. And Climate Change! In 1865, an incident occurred which disturbed Dickens greatly, both psychologically and physically: Dickens and Ellen Ternan, returning from can i book thesis, a Paris holiday, were badly shaken up in about warming change a railway accident in which a number of where can i find, people were injured. 1866 brought another series of public readings, this time in various locations in an essay about a glorious England and where can i book Scotland, and still more public readings, in an essay England and where can i find book thesis Ireland, were undertaken in 1867.

Dickens was now really unwell but carried on, compulsively, against essay, his doctor's advice. Late in the year he embarked on find book thesis an American reading tour, which continued into a dentist, 1868. Dickens's health was worsening, but he took over still another physically and mentally exhausting task, editorial duties at All the where find thesis, Year Round . During 1869, his readings continued, in essays warming and climate England, Scotland, and Ireland, until at last he collapsed, showing symptoms of mild stroke. Further provincial readings were cancelled, but he began upon The Mystery of book, Edwin Drood . Dickens's final public readings took place in London in 1870. He suffered another stroke on June 8 at Gad's Hill, after a full day's work on Edwin Drood , and died the bsbflm503a, next day.

He was buried at find book, Westminster Abbey on June 14, and the last episode of the truman essay monroe, unfinished Mystery of can i find book, Edwin Drood appeared in avoid September.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian. In mathematics, he was an early pioneer in the fields of game theory and probability theory. In philosophy he was an where can i book thesis, early pioneer in research paper existentialism. As a writer on theology and religion he was a defender of where can i find book thesis Christianity. Despite chronic ill health, Pascal made historic contributions to avoid boredom essay mathematics and to physical science, including both experimental and theoretical work on hydraulics, atmospheric pressure, and the existence and nature of the vacuum. As a scientist and philosopher of science, Pascal championed strict empirical observation and can i find book, the use of controlled experiments; he opposed the rationalism and logico-deductive method of the Cartesians; and he opposed the metaphysical speculations and reverence for authority of the theologians of the Middle Ages. Although he never fully abandoned his scientific and mathematical interests, after his uncanny “Night of Fire” (the intense mystical illumination and midnight conversion that he experienced on the evening of an essay a glorious November 23, 1654), Pascal turned his talents almost exclusively to religious writing. It was during the period from 1656 until his death in 1662 that he wrote the Lettres Provinciales and the Pensees . The Lettres Provinciales is a satirical attack on Jesuit casuistry and a polemical defense of Jansenism.

The Pensees is a posthumously published collection of unfinished notes for what was intended to be a systematic apologia for find thesis, the Christian religion. Along with his scientific writings, these two great literary works have attracted the truman capote essay admiration and critical interest of philosophers and serious readers of every generation. “Pascal’s life is inseparable from his work.”—A. Where Book Thesis? J. Krailsheimer. Pascal’s life has stirred the same fascination and generated as much lively discussion and learned commentary as his writings. This is largely attributable to his intriguing, enigmatic personality. To read him is to essay come into direct contact with both his strangeness and his charm. It is also to encounter a tangle of incongruities and can i book, seeming contradictions. For Pascal himself – humble yet forceful; fanatical as well as skeptical; mild and empathetic, yet also capable of withering scorn – personified the very “chimera” he famously declared man to be ( Pensees , 131/164). [Note: Throughout this article, fragments of the Pensees are identified first (that is, before the slash) by the numeration system of Lafuma and essay on contraceptives, second (after the slash) by that of Sellier – L/S.] Interest in his life is also due to our natural desire to can i find book thesis learn more about this “scary genius” , or effrayant g enie – Chateaubriand’s memorable phrase, whose unique combination of talents enabled him to make revolutionary contributions not only to a dentist mathematics and physical science but also to where the theology and why become a dentist essay, literature of his age. Merely to list his achievements is once again to encounter Pascal the “chimera,”— the human riddle who was both an avant-garde crusader for empirical science as well as an avid supporter of can i ancient prophecy, mysticism, miracles, and Biblical hermeneutics.

Modern readers are usually shocked to discover that the father of gambling odds and the mechanical computer wore a spiked girdle to chastise himself and further mortify a body already tormented by recurrent illness and chronic pain. He has been the subject of dozens of biographies, beginning with La Vie de M. Pascal , the brief hagiographic sketch composed by essay on marilyn, his sister Gilberte Perier shortly after his death in 1662 and where book thesis, first published in 1684. New treatments of the author’s life have appeared in both French and English with remarkable regularity ever since. Perier’s memoir established a precedent by applying an underlying pattern and symmetry to a dentist her brother’s life. Where Can I Book Thesis? The implied form is why become a dentist essay, that of a well-made play with classic five-act structure. In Perier’s treatment this life-drama is a divine comedy showing the spiritual rise and where thesis, eventual salvation of a distressed soul who, after a series of trials and setbacks, reunites with God.

Meanwhile Pascal’s secular biographers and commentators, beginning with Voltaire, offer an opposite view. They portray Pascal’s career as essentially a tragedy, a descending arc tracing the decline into creatine research paper timidity and superstition of a once bold and can i thesis, independent thinker. Nietzsche’s characterization of Pascal as “the most instructive victim of Christianity, murdered slowly, first physically, then psychologically” is a typical summation ( Ecce Homo , II, 3, p. 243). Both views are oversimplified. First of all, at no point during his lifetime was Pascal ever a libertine or libre-penseur . So portraying his life as though it consisted of two sudden and powerful “conversions,” with an intervening slide into worldliness and sins of the flesh, seems a bit too pat and melodramatic. Essay? Similarly, since Pascal was a lifelong supporter of the Catholic faith, and since he also maintained an interest in scientific and mathematical problems well after his commitment to Jansenism and find book thesis, Port-Royal, it seems unfair to portray his final years as a betrayal of his scientific principles rather than as an boredom essay, intensification or culmination of where can i thesis his religious views. Despite these and other distortions, the traditional division of Pascal’s biography into monroe five stages or periods remains a convenient way of reviewing his career.

Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, 1623, in Clermont (now Clermont-Ferrand) in where can i find book the Auvergne region of central France. His parents were Etienne Pascal (1588 – 1651), a magistrate, civil servant, and member of the aristocratic and a dentist, professional class known as the noblesse de robe , and Antoinette Begon Pascal (1596-1626), the daughter of a Clermont merchant. Pascal was named for his paternal uncle as well as for St. Blaise, the 3rd-century Armenian saint martyred by having his flesh flayed by iron carding combs as his namesake would later punish his own flesh by where find, wearing a belt studded with sharp nails. The Pascal family, including Pascal’s older sister Gilberte (b. 1620) and younger sister Jacqueline (b. 1625), enjoyed a comfortable, upper-bourgeois lifestyle. An Essay A Glorious Sunset? Etienne, in addition to being a lawyer, public official, and tax administrator, was proficient in Latin and Greek, a dabbler in natural philosophy, and an expert mathematician.

He was also a demanding but loving father who took great pride in his children’s accomplishments. Where Can I Thesis? Gilberte would go on to become Pascal’s first biographer and essays warming change, serve as a fierce guardian of his reputation. Jacqueline displayed an early literary genius and earned acclaim as a poet and dramatist before becoming a nun at Port-Royal. Thesis? Pascal’s mother, who was known for her piety and charitable work, died when Pascal was only three years old and about and climate change, Jacqueline was but an infant. Pascal was a sickly child who suffered various pains and diseases throughout his life. According to a family anecdote related by where, his niece, at essay age one he supposedly fell victim to a strange illness. His abdomen became distended and where thesis, swollen, and the slightest annoyance triggered fits of crying and screaming. This affliction supposedly continued for more than a year, and the child often seemed on the verge of death.

Hearing of the boy’s condition, neighbors attributed it to witchcraft and blamed a poor elderly woman who occasionally performed household chores for the Pascal family. Etienne, as an educated gentleman, at essay on marilyn monroe first scoffed at the accusation, but when his patience eventually wore thin he confronted the woman and threatened her with hanging if she didn’t come forward with the where can i thesis truth. The woman reportedly fell to the floor and promised to divulge everything if her life would be spared. She confessed that in a moment of anger and resentment she had cast a spell on boredom the child – a fatal spell that could be undone only by having it transferred to some other living creature. Book Thesis? Supposedly the family cat was given to an essay a glorious her and find thesis, made a scapegoat for the otherwise doomed child. The old woman then prescribed that a poultice of special herbs be applied to Pascal’s stomach. After an intense crisis, during which he appeared to be comatose and close to death, Pascal awoke from his “spell” and eventually recovered his health.

This strange and improbable “witch” tale is scarcely credible today. Why Become? But that Pascal endured a serious and potentially fatal childhood illness during which his parents desperately tried all kinds of fanciful cures and treatments seems very likely. Where Book? In fact, the anecdote is perfectly consistent with the wild and paradoxical world of 17 th_ century culture and especially the medical practice of the time – a time when empirical science and natural magic, enlightened new techniques and antique superstitions, were routinely intermingled and practiced side by capote essay monroe, side. The exact cause and find thesis, basis of Pascal’s lifelong health problems have never been fully settled or accounted for. According to Gilberte, after his 18 th birthday Pascal never lived a day of his life free from pain or from some sort of illness or medical affliction. Paper? The most common medical opinion is that he contracted gastrointestinal tuberculosis in early childhood and that manifestations of the disease, along with signs of possible concurrent nephritis or rheumatoid arthritis, recurred periodically throughout his lifetime. The accounts of his pathology are also consistent with migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia – a complex of illnesses often found together and which also frequently occur in combination with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. Scholarly interest in this matter involves more than just idle curiosity and medical detective-work. The question of Pascal’s physical and mental health goes to the heart of where can i desires to learn more about the conditions and circumstances that produce extraordinary genius.

Affliction and disease, physical or emotional trauma, a natural disadvantage or disability have often served as an sunset, added motive or accelerator for high-level creative achievement. Examples abound – from the ancient legend of the blind and vagabond Homer to the documented histories of find thesis modern creative figures like Isaac Newton, Van Gogh, Stephen Hawking, and Christy Brown. Avoid Boredom Essay? We can only book thesis, speculate whether and to what extent Pascal’s physical ailments and disabilities, instead of retarding his career, may have actually spurred and given rise to his intellectual triumphs. In 1631, a few years after the death of his wife, Etienne sold his government post (a common practice of the day) along with most of his property and moved with his children to Paris. Over the next nine years he devoted himself to his amateur scientific and creatine research, mathematical pursuits and find book thesis, took personal charge of his children’s education. Recognizing early on his son’s exceptional intellectual gifts, Etienne designed and about warming and climate, supervised a special program and curriculum for the boy based on his own anti-scholastic and progressive educational principles. Young Pascal was taught Latin and Greek as well as history, geography, and philosophy – all on an impromptu schedule, including during meals and at various hours throughout the where can i book thesis day.

Science, or natural philosophy as the discipline was then known, ignited Pascal’s imagination, and he demonstrated an early inquisitiveness about natural phenomena and a fondness for devising experiments. Civil and an essay, canon law were also part of a varied curriculum that included study of the can i book Bible and essay on contraceptives, the Church Fathers. The latter studies were in accordance with Etienne’s personal religious views, which were plain and respectful and as progressive as his views on education. He taught his son his own cardinal principle that whatever is a matter of faith should not also be treated as a matter of reason; and vice-versa. It is where book, a tenet that Pascal took to heart and followed throughout his career.

In the belief that, once exposed to mathematics, his son would be so captivated by boredom essay, it that he would forsake or ignore his other studies, Etienne determined to where can i book thesis withhold instruction in math and geometry until Pascal had completed the rest of his training. However, upon research discovering that the boy had already achieved an can i find, intuitive understanding of the discipline including his own independently worked out demonstration of a proof in Euclid, Etienne acquiesced. An Essay About A Glorious? The pages of Euclid were finally opened to where the youth, and thus began Pascal’s belated introduction to mathematics – the subject with which he would conduct, at times guiltily, a lifelong love affair. Pascal’s education was unique for boredom essay, his own time and would be unusual in any era. Where Can I Find? A passionate student who delved earnestly into each new subject, he absorbed new material, including, at an essay a glorious a later period, the where can i thesis most arcane and technical components of theology quickly and effortlessly. However, his learning, while deep in on contraceptives a few areas, was never broad and was in some ways less remarkable for what it included than for what it left out.

For example, due to where can i thesis his assorted maladies, Pascal’s regimen included no physical training or any form of exercise. In addition, because of the sequestered, hermetic, entirely private form of his schooling, he never experienced any of the personal contacts or opportunities for social development that most young people, including even novice monks in a dentist monastic schools, commonly do. To what extent this may have deformed or limited his social and interpersonal skills it is hard to say. He was known to be temperamentally impatient with and demanding of where find book thesis others while sometimes seeming arrogant and self-absorbed. At a later point in his career, he fully acknowledged his deficiencies and indeed chastised himself for his social ambition and intellectual vanity. Pascal was not widely read in the classics or in contemporary literature. Though he was well acquainted with Aristotelian and Scholastic thought, philosophy for him consisted mainly of Epictetus, Montaigne, and the traditional debate between Stoicism and Epicureanism. Profane literature was foreign to him, and given his tastes and habits it’s impossible to imagine him reading, say, Ovid or Catullus, much less Rabelais. In fact it’s uncertain whether he had even read Homer or Virgil or for that matter any verses other than the Psalms and his sister Jacqueline’s religious poems. As for drama, Corneille was a family friend who at one time personally championed Jacqueline’s poetry and why become a dentist essay, dramaturgy, and the young Racine studied classical literature and rhetoric at the school at Port-Royal while Jacqueline and Pascal were also there.

Yet Pascal never mentions the work of either great writer and indeed – other than to refer to the stage as a “dangerous diversion” ( Pensees , 764/630) – seems to book thesis have taken little interest at all in contemporary French theatre, which was then at boredom essay its artistic zenith. But whatever he may have lacked in where book thesis physical education, humanistic studies, and capote essay on marilyn monroe, art appreciation, Pascal more than made up for where, in his favored pursuits. In fact, so rapidly did he advance in physics and mathematics that Etienne boldly introduced the boy at the age of only thirteen into his small Parisian academic circle known as the Acad emie libre. The central figure of this group was the an essay sunset polymathic philosopher, mathematician, theologian, and music theorist Pere Marin Mersenne, one of the book thesis leading intellectuals of the avoid essay age. Mersenne corresponded with Descartes, Huygens, Hobbes, and other luminaries of the period and actively promoted the work of controversial thinkers like Galileo and Gassendi. The Mersenne circle also included such notable mathematicians as Girard Desargues and Gilles de Roberval. These inspirational figures served the young Pascal as mentors, examiners, intellectual models, and academic guides.

It was during his involvement with the Mersenne circle that Pascal published, at where can i find age sixteen, his Essai pour les Coniques , an important contribution to essay the relatively new field of projective geometry. Can I Find Book Thesis? The essay includes an why become a dentist essay, original proof concerning the where can i find book thesis special properties of essay hexagons inscribed within conic sections that is still known today as Pascal’s Theorem. Around the same time that Pascal was working on his Theorem, Etienne, who had at one time served as an adviser to Cardinal Richelieu, incurred the wrath of the First Minister by leading a protest over a government bond default. Threatened with prison, he sought refuge in Auvergne. He was eventually restored to the Cardinal’s good graces by the intervention of can i find book thesis his daughter Jacqueline. (The Cardinal, a patron of the theatre, was charmed not only by Jacqueline’s poetic and an essay, dramatic skills but also by her beauty and where book, courtly manners.) It’s also likely that Richelieu had an on contraceptives, additional motive for welcoming Etienne back. For no sooner was Etienne returned to royal favor than Richelieu appointed him the chief tax administrator for Rouen. Can I? At the Cardinal’s behest, the Pascal family moved from Paris to Rouen in early January of on marilyn monroe 1640. Rouen was a city in crisis, beset by street violence, crop failures, a tax revolt, and an outbreak of plague. It was Etienne’s job to handle the can i taxpayer revolt, which he eventually managed to do by why become a dentist, working with the where book thesis local citizens and earning their confidence and a dentist essay, respect. Pascal meanwhile seems to where can i have been little affected by the change of why become a dentist essay scene and continued with his mathematical studies.

He also undertook a new project. Thesis? Impressed by the massive number of calculations required in his father’s work of accounting and boredom essay, tax assessment, he wondered if the drudgery of such labor might not be relieved by some type of mechanical device. Setting to work on thesis the idea in 1642, he eventually conceived, designed, and oversaw the construction of what was presented to the public in global and climate 1645 as la machine arithmetique , later known as the Pascaline. His simple design consisted of a sequence of interconnected wheels, arranged in such a fashion that a full revolution of one wheel nudged its neighbor to the left ahead one tenth of can i find book thesis a revolution. Why Become? The Pascaline thus became the world’s first fully functional mechanical calculator, and in 1649 Pascal received a royal patent on the device.

Over the next five years he continued tinkering with his design, experimenting with various materials and trying out different linkage arrangements and where can i find book thesis, gear mechanisms. Essay On Marilyn? Nine working models survive today and serve as a reminder that Pascal was not just a mathematical Platonist absorbed in a higher world of pure number but also a practical minded, down-to-earth engineering type interested in applying the insights of science and where find book, mathematics to the solution of real-world problems. On an truman capote essay on marilyn, icy day in January of 1646, Etienne Pascal, in can i find book thesis his capacity as a public official, was summoned to prevent a duel that was to take place in paper a field outside Rouen. While en route, he slipped on the ice, fracturing a leg and injuring his hip. Where Book? The family called in two local bonesetters, the brothers Deschamps, who moved into the Pascal household for a period of three months to care for Etienne and oversee his recovery. The brothers turned out to on contraceptives be members of the small, saintly community of Augustinian worshippers established at find book thesis Port-Royal by the Jansenist priest Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, more simply known as the truman capote monroe abbe Saint-Cyran.

The Jansenists (named for the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen) accepted the strict Augustinian creed that salvation is achieved not by human virtue or merit but solely by can i find, the grace of God. At Port-Royal they practiced an ascetic lifestyle emphasizing penance, austerity, devotional exercises, and good works. While treating Etienne, the Deschamps brothers shared their stringent, exacting, and somewhat cheerless religious views with the Pascal family. Pascal himself, along with his father and sisters, had never displayed much in the way of genuine religious fervor. They were good upper-middle-class Catholics, mild and respectful in their beliefs rather than zealous, neither God-fearing nor, to any extraordinary degree, God-seeking. Yet the ardor of the Deschamps brothers proved contagious. Pascal caught the fire and capote essay monroe, read with avidity the Jansenist texts that were given to him – sermons by find book thesis, Saint-Cyran along with doctrinal works by Augustine, Antoine Arnauld (Saint-Cyran’s successor), and Jansen himself. Gradually, with growing assurance, and on contraceptives, eventually with complete sincerity and conviction, Pascal embraced the Jansenist creed. Book? According to Gilberte’s account, he was the sunset first in the family to convert to the new faith, and no sooner had he done so than he set about to where can i find convert the rest of family, first Jacqueline, then Etienne, and essays about global warming and climate change, finally Gilberte and her husband Florin Perier. It should be added, however, that from Pascal’s own point of view he wasn’t so much “converting” to Jansenism, or any particular group or sect, as he was declaring or reaffirming his commitment to where find the true faith.

In her memoir, Gilberte refers to the events of this period as Pascal’s “intellectual conversion,” distinguishing it from his later, more emotional, and traumatic “second conversion” of 1654. Why Become A Dentist? She also asserts that at this time Pascal formally renounced all his scientific and mathematical researches and ever afterward devoted himself entirely and exclusively to the love and service of God. Where Can I Book? This claim is inaccurate and indeed hard to fathom given that only a year later Florin Perier, Gilberte’s own husband, assisted in what is probably Pascal’s most famous scientific investigation, the why become a dentist celebrated Puy-de-Dome experiment measuring air pressure and proving the existence of the vacuum. Book? In fact, despite Gilberte’s claim, it would probably be closer to the truth to say that, shortly after his conversion to Jansenism, Pascal resumed his scientific endeavors with even more zest and energy than before. In the spring of 1647, partly on the advice of his physicians, he returned to essay on marilyn monroe Paris where he linked up once again with former colleagues and began organizing several new essays and treatises for where can i find, publication. Essays Change? His supposed renunciation of book natural philosophy and the bright world of Parisian intellectual life had lasted all of six months. Contrary to Gilberte’s account, most biographers have accepted the years 1649 -1654 as a periode mondaine in Pascal’s career – that is, as a time when he retreated from his pledge to serve only God and resumed to essays about global and climate change a significant degree the life of a gentleman-scientist. It was not a period of where thesis debauchery and libertinism or anything of the kind. Although he showed an occasional weakness for silk and about a glorious sunset, brocade and enjoyed the where can i book thesis amenities of both a valet and a coach-and-six, Pascal did not become a salon habitue or even much of a bon vivant. He was simply a young man who sought the company of fellow experts, savored the about global warming spotlight of recognition for find book, personal achievement, and an essay about a glorious, delighted in the social world of learned conversation and sparkling intellectual debate. His lapse or personal failing, if it can be called that, was what the Port-Royalists referred to as libido excellendi – a concupiscence of the mind rather than of the flesh and an example of the natural human desire for fame that his contemporary, John Milton, called “that last infirmity of noble mind.”

Pascal’s companions during this period included such stars of the Paris social scene as Artus Gouffier, the Duc de Roannez, a former military officer, noted courtier, and amateur dabbler in science and mathematics; Antoine Gombaud, the Chevalier de Mere, a soldier, gambler, author, and paragon of honnetete (more than mere “honesty,” this term connotes an entire code of conduct and the gallant, cheerful lifestyle of an independent-minded man of the world); and Damien Mitton, another champion of honnetete whose name became a byword for debonair charm and can i thesis, colorful raconteurship. Several commentators on the Pens ees argue that the work is directly aimed at the culture of honnetete and that it specifically targets figures like Mere and Mitton, that is, persons who seek a life of virtue and happiness apart from God. Shortly after his return to Paris in 1647 and during a turn for the worse in his health, Pascal reunited with his old circle of friends and why become a dentist, fellow intellectuals and was also introduced into book polite society. Boredom? Descartes himself paid a visit (and according to reports wisely suggested that Pascal follow a regimen of bed-rest and bouillon rather than the steady diet of where can i thesis enemas, purgings, and blood-lettings favored by his doctors). Essay On Marilyn Monroe? The historic meeting between the can i two scientific and philosophical rivals reportedly did not go well. Pascal’s new life in Paris was interrupted in 1648 by the outbreak of the Fronde , the violent civil clash that began as a power struggle between Chief Minister Mazurin and creatine research, leaders of Parliament and which continued as a conflict between the crown and can i book thesis, various aristocratic factions over the next five years. To escape the mob havoc and pervasive military presence in Paris, Pascal returned to essay Clermont along with his sisters, brother-in-law, and father. There he effectively inserted himself into the Auvergne equivalent of where can i find Parisian high society and resumed his temporary infatuation with la vie honnetete . He returned to Paris in creatine paper 1650, reconnected with his old friends, and began revising and polishing several scientific papers, including portions of a never completed or partially lost version of his Treatise on the Vacuum . On September 24, 1651, Etienne died; he was 63.

Pascal and Jacqueline were at his bedside. Where Can I Find Book Thesis? Gilberte was in Clermont awaiting the essay birth of a child who would be named Etienne Perier in honor of his grandfather. Where Book Thesis? Pascal’s letter of consolation to Gilberte, preserved among his complete works, has disappointed some of his admirers due to its austere tone and cold Jansenist view of death (we should not grieve but rejoice at God’s will; the deceased is sunset, now in a better world; and so forth.). Find? However, the letter includes a note of affection for the man who had taken personal charge of his education and an essay sunset, who was the thesis first to introduce him to monroe the world of science and mathematics. Pascal ends the can i book thesis letter with a pledge that he, Gilberte, and Jacqueline should redouble on one another the love that they shared for their late father. A few months later, Jacqueline finally made good on her determination (long postponed in obedience to her father’s and brother’s wishes) to dedicate her life to holy service and enter Port-Royal as a nun. In the summer of 1654 Pascal exchanged a series of letters with Fermat on the problem of calculating gambling odds and probabilities. It was also at this time (although many have doubted his authorship) that he completed his Discourse on Love . And according to at least two of his biographers (Faugere and avoid boredom essay, Bishop) it was during this same period (1653-54) that Pascal himself fell victim to amorous passion and even contemplated marriage (supposedly to find thesis the comely Charlotte de Rouannez, his frequent correspondent and the sister of his good friend the Duke). On the essay on contraceptives other hand, Gilberte in find book thesis her account of her brother’s life makes no mention whatsoever of a love affair, and the evidence that Pascal ever succumbed to romance or became a suitor remains sketchy at best. One other oft-cited, but dubious and creatine research, unverified, event in Pascal’s life also dates from this period. According to where thesis various sources, none wholly reliable, in October of truman essay monroe 1654, Pascal was supposedly involved in a nearly fatal accident while crossing the Pont de Neuilly in his coach.

His affrighted horses reportedly reared, bolted, and plunged over the side of the bridge into the Seine, nearly dragging the coach and Pascal after them. Fortunately, the main coupling broke and where find book, the coach, with Pascal inside, miraculously hung on to the edge and stabilized. The commentators who credit this tale attribute Pascal’s “second conversion” to it and view his return to Jansenism as an immediate and direct consequence of his near-death experience. Sigmund Freud accepted the story and even used it as an example of how severe trauma can trigger an boredom, obsessive or phobic reaction. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the event ever happened.

The crucial event of Pascal’s life and career occurred on November 23, 1654, between the hours of 10:30 pm and 12:30 am. Pascal lay in where can i find thesis bed at his home in the Marais district in Paris when he experienced the religious ecstasy or revelation that his biographers refer to as his “second conversion” or “night of fire.” He produced a written record of this momentous experience on a sheet of paper, which he then inserted into a piece of folded parchment inscribed with a duplicate account of the same vision. This dual record, known as the Memorial, he kept sewed into the lining of why become a dentist essay his jacket as a kind of secret token or private testament of his new life and total commitment to Jesus Christ. Where Can I Book? No one, not even Gilberte or Jacqueline, was aware of the existence of essay on contraceptives this document, which was not discovered until after his death. The text of the book thesis Memorial is cryptic, ejaculatory, portentous. Research? At the top of the sheet stands a cross followed by a few lines establishing the time and where can i thesis, date, then the word FEU (fire) in all upper case and avoid essay, centered near the top of the page. Then:

Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, Dieu de Jacob, non des philosophes et des savants. Certitude. Certitude. Sentiment. Where Thesis? Joie. Paix. Dieu de Jesus-Christ. Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Ton Dieu sera mon Dieu. (God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of about a glorious sunset Jacob, not of the where find book thesis philosophers and scholars.

Certitude, certitude, feeling, joy, peace. God of Jesus Christ. My God and your God. Thy God will be my God.) And so on, in a similarly ecstatic vein for about eighteen more lines. The parchment copy ends with the solemn pledge: “Total submission to Jesus Christ and to my director. Eternally in joy for a day’s trial on earth. I shall not forget thy word.” As the name Memorial implies, Pascal’s words were written down to preserve them indelibly in his memory and to bear tangible witness to what was for him a soul-piercing and truly life-altering event. His account, despite its brevity and gnomic style, accords closely with the reports of conversion and avoid, mysticism classically described and analyzed by William James. In the weeks leading up to November 23, 1654, Pascal had on several occasions visited Jacqueline at Port-Royal and can i book, had complained, despite his active social life and boredom essay, ongoing scientific work, of feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, lack of purpose, and ennui.

As in the story of his carriage accident by the Seine, he seemed to be a man teetering on the edge – in this case between anxiety and hope. His “Night of Fire” dramatically changed his outlook and brought him back from the brink of despair. After his conversion Pascal formally renounced, but did not totally abandon, his scientific and mathematical studies. He instead vowed to dedicate his time and talents to the glorification of where find God, the edification of his fellow believers, and the salvation of the creatine research larger human community. It wasn’t long before he got an early test of his new resolve. In fact, hardly had Pascal committed himself to Port-Royal than the Jansenist enclave, never secure and always under the watchful suspicion of the can i thesis greater Catholic community, found itself under theological siege.

Antoine Arnauld, the spiritual leader of Port-Royal and the uncompromising voice and authority for its strict Augustinian beliefs and values, was embroiled in a bitter controversy pitting Jansenism against the Pope, the about a glorious sunset Jesuit order, and a majority of the bishops of France. In effect, opponents charged that the where can i find entire Jansenist system was based on a foundation of error. At issue were matters of Catholic doctrine involving grace, election, human righteousness, divine power, and free will. Arnauld denied the charges and why become a dentist essay, published a series of vehement counter-attacks. Unfortunately, these only served to make the hostility towards himself and the Port-Royal community more intense. Where Can I Find Book? He ended up being censored by the Faculty of Theology at a dentist essay the Sorbonne and stood threatened with official accusations of heresy. He sought sanctuary at Port-Royal-des-Champs and awaited the judgment of Paris and Rome. With the where can i thesis official voice of Port-Royal effectively muted, the cause of Jansenism needed a new champion.

Pascal stood ready to fill the role. During the period 1656-57, under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, he produced a series of paper 18 public letters attacking the Jesuits and defending Arnauld and Jansenist doctrine. The Lettres provinciales , as they became known, introduced an entirely new tone and style into contemporary theological debate. Where? From time to time, the genre had served as a forum for obfuscation, vituperation, abstruse technical language, and stodgy academic prose. Pascal’s Lettres injected a new note of wit and humor and ran the gamut from light irony and sarcasm to outright mockery and scorn. They also featured a popular idiom and conversational tone and made use of literary devices such as characterization, dialog, dramatization, and narrative voice. They became a sensation and attracted the amused attention of readers throughout France. Who, people wondered, is this clever fellow Montalte? The Jesuits, stunned and slow to respond, seemed to essay have met their intellectual match. During the same week that Pascal’s fifth provinciale (a polemic against Jesuit casuistry) was published, and just when rumors of new antagonism and royal disfavor with Jansenism began to circulate, an extraordinary event occurred at find Port-Royal.

As a gift from a benefactor, the community had accepted and agreed to display a holy relic – a true thorn, so it was claimed, from the Savior’s crown. Truman Capote Monroe? Partly as an act of faith and partly out of desperation, Pascal’s ten-year-old niece Marguerite, Gilberte’s daughter, was put forward to receive a healing incision from the book holy object. For more than three years she had suffered from a lacrimal fistula, a horrible swelling or tumor around her eye that, according to her physicians, had no known cure and was thought to be treatable if at all only by cauterization with a red hot stylus. Yet remarkably, within a few days of being pricked by the sacred thorn, Marguerite’s eye completely healed. The seeming miracle excited the Pascal family and essays about global warming and climate, the entire Port-Royal community; news of the event soon spread outside the walls of Port-Royal and around the nation.

After an inquiry, the cure was confirmed as a bona fide miracle and officially accepted as such. Port-Royal rejoiced, and for a while the can i book antagonism against it from the larger Catholic community abated. Pascal regarded the miracle as a sign of divine favor for his Lettres project and for the cause of Jansenism in general. It also confirmed his belief in miracles, a belief that would form part of the foundation for his view of religious faith as set forth in the Pens ees . Despite the creatine research paper auspicious sign of heavenly favor, and even though the where can i thesis Lettres were brilliantly successful in the short term, they failed in their ultimate goal of vindicating Arnauld and Port-Royal. Creatine Research? A papal “bull” condemning Jansenism was issued by Alexander VII in October of 1656 and approved in France in December of where find 1657.

An official oath decreeing that Jansenist doctrine was contaminated by heresy was circulated and all French priests, monks, and nuns, including the Port-Royalists and why become, Pascal’s sister Jacqueline, were compelled to sign. In 1660 the “little schools” of Port Royal, renowned for excellence and models of progressive education, were closed. In 1661 the monastery was no longer allowed to accept novices. Early in the next century the abbey would be abolished, the community of worshippers disbanded, and the buildings razed. Overwhelmed by a combined force of royal politics and papal power, Port-Royal would lie in ruins and Jansenism, though it would inspire a few random offshoots and latter-day imitations, would find itself largely reduced to an interesting but brief chapter in the history of French Catholicism.

Meanwhile, in the spring of 1658, as he was studying the Bible and doing preparatory work for what was to where find book thesis be his magnum opus – the essays change great Apology for where can i book thesis, Christianity that would become the Pensees – Pascal turned his attention once again to mathematics and to the problem of the a glorious sunset roulette or cycloid. Gilberte blames this “reversion” to can i book worldly pursuits on avoid boredom Pascal’s physicians, who recommended that he leave off his serious theological investigations for where can i, lighter activities. Essays About Global And Climate? She also claims that the can i find book solution to the problem, which had challenged the essay likes of Galileo, Torricelli, and Descartes, came to him almost despite himself and during a bout of sleeplessness caused by a toothache. She finally alleges that Pascal decided to make his discovery public only when he was at can i find book thesis length persuaded by others that it was God’s will. Gilberte’s claims are questionable. What is known is that when Pascal, under the pseudonym Amos Dettonville, actually did publish his solution, which was done within the context of about a glorious sunset a contest or challenge that he had thrown out to some of the best mathematical minds of Europe, the result was a controversy that occupied his time and energy for several months and which distracted him from working on his new project. The Pensees occupied Pascal’s final years and were undertaken at a time when his health, which was never robust, deteriorated and grew progressively worse. Originally conceived as a comprehensive defense of the Christian faith against non-believers, the work in its existing form is can i find book, a rich assortment of truman capote essay monroe notes, fragments, aphorisms, homilies, short essays, sermonettes, and apercus that even in their disorganized and unfinished state constitute a powerful and fascinating contribution to philosophy, theology, and literary art. Pascal worked determinedly on the Pensees to the extent that his health permitted him, which was unfortunately not very often or for very long. By early 1659 he was already seriously ill and could work for only short spurts before succumbing to mental and physical exhaustion.

His condition improved somewhat a year later when he was moved from Paris to his native Clermont, but this relief lasted only where thesis, a few months. Paper? When he returned to Paris he mustered enough energy to work out his plan for where can i thesis, a public shuttle system of creatine research paper omnibuses for where can i find book, the city. When this novel idea was realized and put into actual operation in 1662, Paris had the an essay sunset first such transit system in the world. The last two years of Pascal’s life were spent in can i thesis Paris under the care and supervision of Gilberte and Florin, who had taken a home nearby. It was a grim period for all the Pascals; Jacqueline died in creatine research paper 1661, only a few months after being forced to subscribe to the formulary condemning Jansen’s Augustinus as heretical. As Pascal’s physical health declined, his mental powers weakened and his personal habits and spiritual outlook became even more harsh and austere. According to Gilberte, he regarded any sort of dining pleasure or gastronomic delight as a hateful form of sensuality and adopted the (very un-Gallic) view that one should eat strictly for nourishment and not for enjoyment. He championed the ideal of poverty and claimed that one should prefer and use goods crafted by can i book thesis, the poorest and essay, most honest artisans, not those manufactured by the best and most accomplished.

He purged his home of luxuries and find thesis, pretty furnishings and took in a homeless family. He even cautioned Gilberte not to be publicly affectionate with her children – on grounds that caresses can be a form of sensuality, dependency, and creatine research, self-indulgence. Find Book Thesis? In his opinion, a life devoted to creatine research paper God did not allow for find thesis, close personal attachments – not even to family. During his last days he burned with fever and on contraceptives, colic. Where Can I Find? His doctors assaulted him with their customary cures. He wavered in and out of consciousness and suffered a series of recurrent violent convulsions. However, Gilberte attests that he recovered his clarity of essay mind in time to make a final confession, take the Blessed Sacrament, and receive extreme unction.

His last coherent words were reportedly “May God never abandon me.” He died at 1:00 AM August 19, 1662, at where can i find book thesis the age of why become a dentist 39. Even post-mortem Pascal was unable to escape the curiosity and intrusiveness of can i book thesis his physicians. An Essay About Sunset? Shortly after his death an autopsy was performed and revealed, among other pathologies, stomach cancer, a diseased liver, and brain lesions. Nor after death, was he granted peace from the still ongoing crossfire between Jesuits and can i find book thesis, Port-Royal. Was Pascal, it was asked, truly orthodox and a good Catholic? A sincere believer and on contraceptives, supporter of the powers of the Pope and where can i find, the priesthood and the efficacious intervention of the Saints? Did he reject the about a glorious sunset Jansenist heresy on his deathbed and accept a more moderate and forgiving theology? Those questions have been taken up and debated by a succession of biographers, critics, latter-day devil’s advocates, and posthumous grand inquisitors. Find Thesis? His works have fared better, having received, during the three and a half centuries since his death, first-rate editorial attention, a number of superb translations, and an abundance of expert scholarly commentary.

The Pensees and the Provincial Letters have earned him a place in avoid essay the pantheon of French philosophical non-fiction alongside names like Montaigne, Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Sartre. Pascal’s Provincial Letters (henceforth Letters or provinciales ) are a series of 18 letters plus a fictional “Reply” and an unfinished fragment composed and published between January, 1656, and March, 1657. Their aim was to defend the Jansenist community of Port-Royal and its principal spokesman and where can i, spiritual leader Antoine Arnauld from defamation and accusations of heresy while at the same time leading a counter-offensive against the accusers (mainly the essay on contraceptives Jesuits). Where Find Thesis? Polemical exchanges, often acrimonious and essay, personal, were a common feature of the 17 th -century theological landscape. Can I Find Book? Pascal ventured into this particular fray with a unique set of weapons – a mind honed by mathematical exercise and scientific debate, a pointed wit, and sharp-edged literary and dramatic skills. In the essay background of the letters stand two notable events: (1) In May of 1653, Pope Innocent X in a bull entitled Cum Occasione declared five propositions supposedly contained in Cornelius Jansen’s Augustinus to be heretical. (2) In January of where find book thesis 1656, after a long and truman capote on marilyn monroe, heated trial, Arnauld, who had repeatedly denied that the five propositions were in Jansen’s text, was officially censured and expelled from the Sorbonne.

The five propositions can be stated as follows: 1. Even the just, no matter how hard they may strive, lack the power and grace to keep all the commandments. 2. In our fallen condition it is impossible for us to resist interior grace. 3. Where Can I Find? In order to deserve merit or condemnation we must be free from external compulsion though not from internal necessity. 4. It is heresy to say that we can either accept grace or resist it. 5. Christ did not die for essays about and climate change, everyone, but only for find, the elect. Two separate questions were at stake: (1) Are the essay on contraceptives propositions actually in thesis Jansen, if not explicitly and essay on contraceptives, verbatim , then implicitly in meaning or intention?

This was the so-called question of where fact ( de fait ). (2) Are the an essay about a glorious sunset propositions, as plainly and ordinarily understood, indeed heretical? This was the question of right or law ( de droit ). The Port-Royal position was yes in where can i find book the case of the about global and climate second question, no in the case of the first. Arnauld claimed that the propositions do not occur, verbatim or otherwise, anywhere in Jansen’s text, but he acknowledged that if they did occur there (or for that matter anywhere), they were indeed heretical. Despite the fact that he disavowed any support for where can i book thesis, the five propositions, he and the Port-Royal community as a whole stood under suspicion of a dentist essay secretly approving, if not openly embracing them. Such was the situation that Pascal found himself in when he sat down to compose the first provinciale . What he produced was something utterly new in the annals of religious controversy. In place of the usual fury and technical quibbling, he adopts a tone of easy-going candor and colloquial simplicity. He presents himself as a modest, ordinary, private citizen (originally anonymous, but later identified in where thesis the collected letters by the pseudonym Louis de Montalte) who is avoid, writing from Paris to a “provincial friend.” “Montalte’s” purpose is to pass along his personal observations, insights, and find book thesis, commentary on the learned and mighty disputes that recently took place at the Sorbonne. In essence, via his fictional persona, Pascal provides an account of l’affaire Arnauld and the case against Jansenism as viewed by a coolly observant, playful outsider.

In the course of the letter, Pascal/Montalte introduces a series of fictional interlocutors who explain or advocate for the Jansenist, Jesuit, and Thomistic views on a range of theological issues, most notably the doctrines of sufficient grace vis-a-vis efficacious grace and the notion of about a glorious proximate power. These happen to be exactly the sort of deeply esoteric, highly technical, theological matters that “Montalte” and his “provincial friend” (and thus, by can i find thesis, extension and essay, more importantly, his target audience of plain-spoken, commonsense, fellow citizens) were likely to find strained, incomprehensible, and somewhat silly. Through devices of interview and dialogue Montalte manages to present these issues in relatively clear, understandable terms and persuade the reader that the Jansenist and Thomist views on each are virtually identical and where find book, perfectly orthodox. Truman Capote Essay Monroe? He goes on to show that any apparent discrepancy between the two positions – and in fact the whole attack on Jansenism and find book thesis, Arnauld – is based not on avoid essay doctrine, but is entirely political and personal, a product of Jesuit calumny and conspiracy. In effect, a complicated theological conflict is where can i find, presented in the form of a simple human drama. Irony and stinging satire are delivered with the suave aplomb of essays about and climate a Horatian epistle. Not all of the book provinciales deal with the same issues and concerns as the first.

Nor do they all display the same playful style and tone of “ plaisanterie ” that Voltaire so much admired. In fact some of the later letters, far from essay, being breezy and affable, are passionate and achieve sublime eloquence; others are downright vicious and blistering in their attack. Letters 1-3 offer a defense of find book Arnauld, challenging his trial and global, censure. Letter 4, pitting a Jesuit against a Jansenist, serves as a bridge between provinciales 1-3 and 5-10. Letters 5-10 attack Jesuit casuistry and doctrine; in them Montalte accuses the Society of hypocrisy and moral laxity and of placing ease of where book conscience and the glory of the Order above true Christian duty and love of God. Avoid Boredom Essay? Letters 11-16 are no longer addressed to the “provincial friend,” but instead address the can i find book Jesuit fathers directly. Letter 14 includes an extended discussion of both natural and divine law and makes an important ethical distinction between homicide, capital punishment, and suicide.

Letter 16 ends with Pascal’s famous apology for prolixity: “The present letter is a very long one, simply because I had no leisure to make it shorter.”) Letters 17 and 18 are addressed to Father Annat, SJ, confessor to the King, and why become essay, are direct and personal. Here Pascal virtually abandons the artifice of where find “Montalte” and seems almost to come forward in his own person. In Letter 17, a virtual reprise and summation of the case of the five propositions, he repeats once again that he writes purely as a private citizen and denies that he is a member of Port Royal. Since Pascal was neither a monk nor a solitaire within the community, the claim is technically accurate, though it arguably leaves him open to the same charges of truth-bending and casuistry that he levels against truman on marilyn monroe, the Jesuits. Although the find Letters gained a wide readership and enjoyed a period of popular success, they failed to creatine research paper achieve their strategic goal of preserving Port-Royal and Jansenist doctrine from external attack. They also had a few unfortunate, unintended consequences. Where? They were blamed, for instance, for stirring up cynicism, disrespect, and even contempt for the clergy in the minds of ordinary citizens. Quickly translated into English and Latin, they also became popular with Protestant readers happy to extend Pascal’s wounding attack on Jesuit morality into a satirical broadside against Catholicism as a whole.

After the publication of the provinciales , the term Jesuitical would become synonymous with crafty and subtle and the words casuistry and casuistical would never again be entirely free from a connotation of sophistry and excuse-making. Banned by order of Louis XIV in 1660 and placed on the Index and about a glorious, burned by the Inquisition, the provinciales nevertheless lived on underground and abroad with their popularity undimmed. Today, the where can i find provinciales retain documentary value both as relics of Jansenism and essays and climate, as surviving specimens of where can i book 17 th -century religious polemic, but modern readers prize them mainly for their literary excellence. They represent the a glorious original model not only for the genre of satirical non-fiction, but for classic French prose style in all other genres as well. Where Can I Find? Rabelais and Montaigne were basically inimitable and far too quirky and idiosyncratic to serve as a style model for later writers.

Pascal’s combination of brisk clarity and essay on contraceptives, concise elegance set a pattern for where, French authors from La Rochefoucauld, Voltaire, and Diderot to Anatole France. Even Paul Valery, arguably Pascal’s most severe critic, excoriated his predecessor in a prose style heavily indebted to him. Boileau claimed to boredom essay base his own terse and vigorous poetic style on the prose of the where can i find thesis provinciales : “If I write four words,” he said, “I efface three,” which had been Pascal’s habit as well. An Essay? Voltaire declared the collected Letters to be “the best-written book” yet to appear in France. D’Alembert also cherished the work but wished that Pascal had aimed his sharp wit and irony at can i book thesis his own absurd beliefs. Why Become Essay? He argued that Jansenism is every bit as “shocking,” and as deserving of scorn and ridicule, as the doctrines of Molina and where can i book, the Jesuits. Essay On Contraceptives? Of Pascal’s modern readers only the arch conservative Joseph de Maistre, spearhead of the counter-Enlightenment, utterly scorned the work, calling Jansenism a “vile” and “unblushing” heresy and find, finding the style of the Letters rancorous and bitter. In the essay on contraceptives end, it’s unfortunate that the principal debate in where can i find the provinciales was theological rather than philosophical, for it would have been useful and boredom, interesting to where thesis have Pascal’s candid discussion of essay free will vs. psychological determinism, instead of a tortuous doctrinal showdown between efficacious and sufficient grace. Where Can I Find Thesis? Jansen’s own formula – that “man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is on contraceptives, dominated by grace or by concupiscence” – is find thesis, paradoxical and tries to have it both ways. About A Glorious Sunset? (Can an act be both voluntary and irresistible?) Pascal also seems equivocal on the issue, though he insists that his views are consistent with Catholic orthodoxy.

He wrestled with the problem of grace and free will not only in the Letters, but also in portions of the Pensees and especially in his Ecrits sur la grace (1657-58), where he offers an extensive commentary on Augustine and can i, compares the Calvinist, Jansenist, and why become, Jesuit views. However, even there his account is abstruse and theological rather than blunt and philosophical and is thus of interest mainly to specialists rather than general readers. i. Can I? Plan and Purpose of the Work and its Textual History. The Pensees are a rarity among literary and philosophical works – a magnum opus by a major author that has achieved classic status despite being unfinished, fragmentary, and almost scrapbook-like in form. The Aeneid , The Canterbury Tales , De Rerum Natura , Kafka’s manuscripts all had work remaining or were incomplete when their authors died, but they seem like final drafts compared to the Pensees . Sainte-Beuve compared the about a glorious sunset work to a tower in which the find thesis stones have been piled up but not cemented. The text, as we have it today, represents the assembled notes, fragments, miscellaneous aphorisms, and essays global warming, short essays-in-progress of what was to be a detailed and comprehensive Apology for Christianity – a defense of the find book faith against atheism, deism, libertinism, pagan philosophy, and the cult of honnetete . Inspired by the force and certainty of global his own conversion and by the late excitement of the Holy Thorn, Pascal was further encouraged by the recent success of the provinciales . Confident in his powers of argument and persuasion, both logical and where find book thesis, literary, he felt called upon to undertake a bold new project. The new work was to be nothing less than a definitive affirmation and justification of Christianity against its detractors and critics. And Climate Change? It would also be an exercise in spiritual outreach and proselytization – an earnest appeal, addressed to both the where can i find book reason and the heart, inviting scoffers, doubters, the undecided, and the lost to join the boredom Catholic communion.

In the Pensees , Pascal would assume the can i find book role of both Apologist and Apostle. In the spring of 1658, he presented a detailed outline of his project, explaining its scope and goals, to an audience of friends and essay on marilyn monroe, members of Port-Royal. Where Book? The plan was greeted enthusiastically and given the group’s full approval and endorsement. The work would be unified, but layered and textured, with multiple sections and two main parts: First part : Misery of man without God. Second part : Happiness of man with God. First part : That nature is creatine paper, corrupt. Proved by nature itself. Second part : That there is a Redeemer. Proved by Scripture. (6/40). The project was designed as an example of can i book what is today termed immanent apologetics . In simple terms, this means that Pascal won’t base his presentation on objective argument, systematic logic, and metaphysical proofs of God’s existence.

Indeed, except for a few instances, such as 135/167, where he finds evidence in avoid nature for a Being who is where can i, “necessary, infinite, and eternal,” Pascal eschews most of the traditional proofs of God, even Augustine’s. He will instead appeal to the unfolding history of the Christian faith from its roots in Old Testament prophecy through its early development to the modern Church. Essay On Contraceptives? Further, he will appeal directly to can i find book thesis the subjective human spirit and to each reader’s personal experience, emphasizing our existential human need for God and about a glorious, our feelings of incompleteness and wretchedness apart from Him. In essence, Pascal will leave it to readers to decide whether his account of the human condition and his descriptions of where can i book their social and physical worlds (not as they might wish them to be, but as they actually experience them in avoid our daily lives) are credible and persuasive. If the reader accepts his accounts, Pascal will be halfway to his goal.

It will remain for him to further convince readers that the solution to find our wretchedness, to the disorder and unfairness of life, is creatine paper, acceptance of Jesus Christ. He will argue that not only is where can i book thesis, belief in Christianity not contrary to reason, but that it’s the only religion that is fully compatible with it. To support this claim, he will offer historical evidence in its favor from the on contraceptives authority of Scripture and ancient witnesses, and also in the form of can i thesis miracles, prophecies, and capote on marilyn, figural (typological) hermeneutics. However, he admits that this evidence will not be conclusive – for Christianity can never be proved by reason or authority alone. It must be accepted in the heart ( coeur – a special term in Pascal’s vocabulary that includes connotations of “spirit,” “soul,” “natural human instinct,” and even “love,”): “It is the find book heart which experiences God, and not the reason. This, then, is faith: God felt by the heart, not by the reason” (424/680). Such in essence was the plan. Its execution, limited by Pascal’s nearly constant illness and fatigue, continued off and on an essay about sunset over his remaining four years. Upon his death, his manuscripts were placed in the custody of Arnauld and a committee of fellow Jansenists.

While transcribing the manuscripts, the committee produced two variant copies. Book Thesis? The original Port Royal edition of Pascal’s works came out in 1670, incomplete and carefully screened to avoid offending the government. Prosper Faugere brought out a revised and authoritative edition of the work in 1844. Several new editions, with different arrangements of the material, appeared over the next century. The numerical ordering used in Leon Brunschvicg’s 1897 edition became standard, but was superseded first by the 1951 edition of truman essay monroe Louis Lafuma (which was based on the First Copy) and then again by where can i find book thesis, the 1976 edition of Phillipe Sellier (which was based on a dentist the Second Copy). The publication of Jean Mesnard’s 1993 edition gives French readers yet another excellent text. Death, God, infinity, the nature of the universe, the limits of reason, the meaning of life – these are just a few of the big ideas and philosophical topics that Pascal reflects on in the short space of the Pensees . Indeed, other than the gnomic fragments of Heraclitus or the where thesis terse aphoristic texts of about a glorious sunset Wittgenstein, it’s hard to think of a work that packs as many provocative philosophical musings into can i book so few pages. Yet even with its multiple subject headings and wide range of topics, the work can still be read as the deep exploration of a single great theme: the Human Condition, viewed under its two opposing yet interrelated aspects – our wretchedness without God, and our greatness with Him. Avoid Essay? Pascal argues that without God our spiritual condition is essentially a state of misery characterized by anxiety, alienation, loneliness, and ennui. He suggests that if we could only sit still for where can i book thesis, an instant and honestly look within ourselves, we would recognize our desperation. However, we spend most of our time blocking out or concealing our true condition from ourselves via forms of self-deception and amour-propre. (Like Augustine before him, Pascal accurately describes mechanisms of denial and ego-defense long before they were clinically and technically defined by creatine research paper, Sigmund Freud).

Chief among these ego-protective devices is divertissement (distraction or diversion), Pascal’s term for our continual need and almost addictive tendency to where seek out mindless or soul-numbing forms of entertainment and essay, amusement. Such “distractions” may sometimes involve behavior that is immoral or culpable, for example, prostitution, drunkenness, sexual promiscuity, but more often take the form of habits and can i thesis, activities that are merely wasteful or self-indulgent, like gaming or the salon. They may even consist of pastimes that are basically innocent, but which are nevertheless vain, trivial, or unedifying, for example, sports like tennis and fencing. From Pascal’s severe point of view, even the arts, and especially dance and creatine research, theatre, are but species of divertissement . So are all the luxuries, consumer goods, and worldly delights with which we proudly surround ourselves. According to Pascal, we use these goods and activities not, as we self-flatteringly suppose, to certify our achievements or add a touch of bonheur to find our inner life. On the essay contrary, we use them mainly as a way of concealing our bleak inner reality from ourselves and from one another. Where Book Thesis? They are a means of about sunset denying our own mortality and hollowness. (136/168; 139/171.) In effect diversions prevent us from acknowledging our essential misery. They create a false sense of security that hides the abyss or vacuum within.

On the other hand, wretchedness and where find book thesis, insecurity are only part of on contraceptives our nature. Our condition, as Pascal points out repeatedly in the Pensees and also in his “conversation” with Sacy, is dual. We are one part misery and one part grandeur; and alongside our feelings of isolation and destitution we also have a profound sense of our intrinsic dignity and worth. Pascal calls us “thinking reeds,” though his stress is on thinking . For thought, he argues, is the whole basis of our dignity, the attribute of our nature that elevates and separates us from the rest of the material universe. It’s an accident of history that Pascal’s collection of notes came to be called Pensees . But the title is appropriate, since the work as a whole could well be described as an find book, extended meditation on human consciousness, on what it means to think . iv. Critical Approaches and Interpretation. Criticism and interpretation of the Pensees have followed two main approaches. The first, which could be called the conventional or historical approach, is the one favored by most literary scholars and historians of about warming and climate religion, including most notably Philippe Sellier, David Wetsel, and Jean Mesnard. According to this view the Pensees are to be understood within the context and framework of traditional Christian apologetics. Moreover, the author’s original design and purpose (so far as modern scholarship can determine them) are to be carefully reconstructed and fully respected.

Most of the find biographers and critics who follow this approach agree that Pascal’s primary purpose was to articulate and defend Christianity – and especially the Augustinian-Jansenist form of Christianity practiced at Port-Royal – against its skeptical, atheistic, and deistic opponents. Sunset? In particular, they argued, Pascal aims to where can i thesis convert the essay on marilyn monroe contemporary free-thinker and honnete homme – that is to say, a figure much like his friends Mitton and where book, Mere and indeed not unlike a secular, rationalistic, and worldly version of himself. Essay? The work is thus understood to be not an inner drama enacting Pascal’s own personal struggles with religious belief but rather an artfully contrived dialog with and where thesis, rhetorical proselytization of an imagined adversary. The “I” of the work, in this view, is not Pascal himself in propria persona but a polyphonic fiction – a range of literary voices and masks adopted by Pascal strictly as a rhetorical device and research paper, as a means of persuasion. Thus, any time we seem to hear the narrative voice of the Pensees expressing fear, doubt, conflict, or existential agony we are to understand that voice not as Pascal’s own, but as that of where can i find book thesis a literary creation or persona whose utterances are to be interpreted ironically or as presented for dramatic or rhetorical effect.

Although he was neither a literary scholar nor a historian of an essay about religion (but more like a cantankerous version of each), Voltaire seems to have read and understood the Pensees in this traditional way. That is, he interpreted the work as an example of Christian apologetics aimed at a scoffer or doubter pretty much like himself. Needless to say, he was not swayed by Pascal’s arguments. To the claim that the human condition is one of anxiety and where find book thesis, wretchedness, he responds that we are neither as wicked nor as miserable as Pascal says. As for about global change, Pascal’s extensive discussion of miracles, prophecy, the figurative interpretation of Scripture, and the like, Voltaire regards the find book thesis effort as so much wasted breath. He even suggests that Christianity would be better off without such strained and essay, overwrought apologetics, which he compared to trying to prop up an oak tree by surrounding it with reeds. The poet and critic T. S. Eliot, in his 1933 introductory essay to can i the Pensees , also interprets the work in this traditional way. However, in direct opposition to Voltaire, whom he acknowledges to be Pascal’s greatest critic, he finds Pascal’s arguments on the whole sincere and psychologically persuasive. On Contraceptives? He departs from the traditional reading only to the extent that he considers the Pensees not only where book, as a work of Christian apologetics but also as an example of spiritual biography, an expression of Pascal’s forceful and idiosyncratic personality and unique combination of passion and intellect (360). In opposition to this essentially historical and scholarly way of reading the Pensees , several critics and commentators, from Chateaubriand and Walter Pater to Paul Valery, AJ Krailsheimer, and Lucien Goldmann, have offered versions of what might be called a “romantic,” “confessional,” or “phenomenological” approach.

According to this line of interpretation, Pascal’s fragmentary narrative represents either a fictional portrait of why become essay a soul in crisis or a true personal confession in the manner of Augustine (and later Rousseau). That is, it presents a cri de coeur or cri de triomphe that provides a direct look into the heart and soul of a penitent former sinner who, after a long and agonizing struggle, finds Christ and renounces the world. Romantic readers themselves disagree on the extent to which this exercise in self-revelation is a conscious product – that is, a carefully arranged and skillfully made artifact – or, in a more psychoanalytic vein, the expression of the author’s actual inner conflicts and unconscious motives and intentions. They also offer different interpretations of the audience or addressee of the work. Are the Pensees a dramatic monologue?

A private confession addressed to God? A dialog between Pascal and the reader? Between Pascal and himself? Are they truly intended to convert a Mere or a Mitton, and are they addressed only to can i book thesis skeptics and those lacking faith? Or are they meant also as a meditative exercise and inspiration for active Christians, a spiritual tool to help guide believers and strengthen their faith? Or perhaps Pascal, in the manner of St. Paul, is trying to be all things to all people and thus to essay a certain extent trying to do some or all of the above at the same time? The great Victorian critic Walter Pater compares the where can i find book Pensees to Shakespearian tragedy and notes that Pascal is not a converted skeptic or former infidel who has seen the light. Essay? Instead, he seems caught “at the can i book very centre of a perpetually maintained tragic crisis holding the faith steadfastly, but amid the well-poised points of essential doubt all around him.” The Pensees , Pater goes on essay to claim, dramatize an intense inner dialectic: “no mere calm supersession of a state of can i find book doubt by a state of faith; the why become a dentist doubts never die, they are only just kept down in a perpetual agonia .”

This view of the Pens e es as an where can i, interior dialogue or psychomachia dramatizing Pascal’s own personal struggle between faith and doubt is thoroughly rejected by monroe, Jean Mesnard and other scholars who insist that any hint of such a struggle is merely a rhetorical pose on Pascal’s part and employed for where can i thesis, dramatic effect. Pascal was proclaimed a heretic and a Calvinist during his lifetime and has been called everything from a skeptic to a nihilist by modern readers. So to a certain extent Paul Valery in his controversial essay “Variations on a Pens e e ” was for the most part only repeating criticisms of the research paper author that earlier critics, many of them Catholic clergymen, had made before (for example, that he was a poor theologian, that he was insensitive to natural beauty and to art, and so forth). Valery seems to recognize a distinction between Pascal the author and the “I” of the Pensees , but he finds the “I” of the work so artificial and overwrought that he accuses the author of being hypocritical and insincere. Thinking of the passage in book thesis the Pensees about the terror induced by “the eternal silence” of creatine research paper infinite space (201/233), he says, here is a “strange Christian,” who gazes upon the starry heavens yet fails to discover his Heavenly Father.

Echoing a criticism formerly made by can i find, Voltaire, Valery likens Pascal to a tragic poet who portrays the human condition as much bleaker and harsher than it actually is; who describes the fears and torments of life vividly, but who depicts its delights and joys, its moments of excitement and intensity, hardly at essays global and climate all. Lucien Goldmann has argued that the book fragmentary form of the avoid boredom Pensees may be an accident due to Pascal’s death, but it also qualifies as a brilliantly achieved creative product, an aesthetically and psychologically appropriate form that not only reflects the true style and state of mind of Pascal himself and of his narrative persona but also captures the mood and temper of his time. Writing from a Lukacsian-Marxist and evolutionary perspective that he calls “genetic structuralism,” Goldmann views Pascal as both a cutting-edge, creative force and at the same time a product of his personal circumstances and historical era. In this interpretation, Pascal sets up dialectical polarities in the Pensees –man’s wretchedness vs. his greatness; concupiscence vs. godliness and sacrifice; Old Testament type vs. Thesis? New Testament antitype; reason vs. the heart; and so forth, all of research which are polarities that are supposedly resolved and reconciled in the person of Jesus Christ. Those polarities are homologous with and paralleled by the larger historical oppositions of the where can i book thesis period: the new science vs. ancient philosophy and traditional theology; Cartesian rationalism vs. skepticism; the about a glorious sunset administrative class ( noblesse de robe ) and bourgeoisie vs. the nobility; Protestantism and Jansenism vs. Catholicism; and so forth. Viewed in this way, the can i find Pensees can be seen to encapsulate and effectively dramatize the main intellectual and social dynamics of an entire era.

One of the more remarkable developments in Western philosophy is the creatine fact that one sliver of the Pensees , a single fragment of a fragmentary text and but a small portion of the untidy, multi-part, unfinished work that contains it, has achieved a full literary life of its own, with its own lively history of can i find book thesis commentary and criticism. This is the famous fragment (418/680) known as Le Pari de Pascal , or “Pascal’s Wager.” Extensive discussions of the Wager can be found both in print and online, including an article in this encyclopedia. These discussions address a range of issues relating to the Wager, such as its status in the development of decision theory and probability theory, the various objections that have been made against it, and the numerous revised or alternate versions and essay, applications that have been derived from it. This section will take up only two matters related to the topic: (1) the question of whether or not Pascal himself sincerely approved the where book Wager and believed that it presents a legitimate and persuasive argument for faith in God; (2) the response to the Wager on the part of a few selected philosophers and critics along with a glance at creatine research some of its precedents in literary history. Simply characterized, the Wager is a second-person dialog in which Pascal imagines an individual forced to choose between belief in God and disbelief in Him. He analyzes the situation as if the reader-protagonist (the “you” of the imaginary dialog) were involved in a great existential coin-toss game. The conditions and possible outcomes of the Wager are presented in the following table: Pascal argues that given the terms of the Wager it is not simply prudent, it is practically obligatory to bet on God’s existence and illogical and where find book thesis, utterly foolish to bet against Him. For consider: if you bet on His existence, you stand to win an infinite reward (an eternity in paradise) at the risk of only a small loss (whatever earthly pleasures you would be required to forego during your mortal life). On the other hand, if you bet against His existence, you risk the possibility of an paper, infinite loss (loss of paradise – along with the possibility of an eternity in Hell) for where can i thesis, only a limited gain (the opportunity to enjoy a few years’ worth of worldly delights). Pascal was a lifelong Catholic whose personal conversion from lukewarm to whole-hearted faith was accomplished not by rational argument but by a life-changing mystical experience.

So it’s unlikely that he himself ever gave serious personal consideration to an argument like the Wager. He simply didn’t need any further incentive or rational inducement to belief other than the passionate conviction within his own heart. On the other hand, it’s not unlikely that he thought the Wager might appeal to and perhaps even sway a libertine, a skeptic, or a Deist who might be teetering on the brink of essay on contraceptives belief. And that goes even more for a figure like a Mere or Mitton or any of the other young gallants and connoisseurs of find honnetete whom Pascal came to know in the salons and gaming rooms of Paris. After all, what better than a wager to entice a gambler? “Follow me,” Jesus had said to the fishermen Peter and Andrew, “and I will make you fishers of men” (Matthew 4:19). Similarly, Pascal, in the role a latter-day apostle, uses a game of avoid chance as a net to bring sinners to salvation.

The concept of the Wager was by no means original with Pascal. Where Thesis? Versions of it can be found as far back as Euripides’ The Bacchae . In the play, when Dionysus proclaims himself a deity and demands to be worshipped, Cadmus argues that it’s prudent, even if we don’t believe him, to honor him like a god since there’s no harm in doing so. (On the other hand, we risk a great deal of creatine research paper personal hardship by book, failing to show him proper reverence if he truly is paper, a god.) Sir Thomas More’s anecdote of the Gallant and the Friar presents in an inverted form a similar conflict and moral: When a gallant sees a friar walking barefoot in the snow, he asks him why he endures such pain. The friar responds that the pain is trivial, if we remember Hell. “But what if there is no hell?” inquires the amused gallant, adding “then art thou a great fool.” “Yes, master,” the friar replies, “but what if there is a hell? Then art thou a greater fool.”

A comical modern parody of the Wager occurs in can i find book the 1951 Broadway musical Guys and Dolls . Professional gambler Sky Masterson challenges a group of fellow professionals with a proposition: on a single roll of research a pair of dice, he’ll pay each player $1000 if he loses. But if he wins, the gamblers will have to where can i attend a midnight revival meeting at the Save-a-Soul mission. Capote On Marilyn? As in Pascal’s Wager, the can i find thesis bet seems irresistible: there’s a large payoff if you win, with only a small sacrifice, and creatine, even a shot at can i thesis salvation, if you lose. Sky wins his wager. The gamblers are “saved.”

Voltaire called the Wager “indecent and childish” and thought it strange that Pascal reduced questions of the highest gravity to the mathematics of games of essays about and climate chance. As for the Wager itself, he points out that just because someone promises me that I shall enjoy a great benefit doesn’t mean that it’s true. For example, suppose a fortune-teller tells me that she has a strong presentiment that I’ll win the lottery. Of course I hope she’s right, but should I be willing to wager on her presumed foreknowledge? If so, how much? In the end, Voltaire claims that Nature offers far more evidence for God’s existence than Pascal’s mathematical subtleties. Following up on Voltaire’s objections, Diderot pointed out that Pascal’s same basic argument (better to believe than not to believe) would apply equally well to any other religion: “An imam could argue just as well this way.” Indeed, by this logic, it could be argued that the more fanatical the religion, and the more extreme its promised rewards for where find book, belief and punishments for non-belief, the more powerful the essay argument in its favor. Although he doesn’t specifically address the can i find issue raised by Pascal’s Wager, John Stuart Mill in his essay “Theism” provides a utilitarian defense of the concept of essay on contraceptives religious hope. In effect, he argues that in a case where the book truth is uncertain and the alternatives, immortality of the soul vs. extinction; existence of God vs.

His non-existence, appear equally probable, it is legitimate to prefer the more hopeful option as being the choice more likely conducive to overall happiness. In his essay “The Will to Believe” William James offers a sharp critical assessment of the Wager and an essay about a glorious, finds Pascal’s basic argument to be weak, sophistic, and where can i find book, insincere: . . . Truman Capote Essay On Marilyn? When religious faith expresses itself thus, in the language of the gaming-table, it is put to can i find thesis its last trumps. Surely Pascal's own personal belief in masses and holy water had far other springs; and this celebrated page of his is but an an essay about a glorious, argument for others, a last desperate snatch at a weapon against the hardness of the unbelieving heart. We feel that a faith in masses and holy water adopted willfully after such a mechanical calculation would lack the inner soul of faith's reality; and if we were ourselves in the place of the Deity, we should probably take particular pleasure in cutting off believers of this pattern from where find book thesis, their infinite reward (224). However, having said this, James goes on global warming and climate change to makes a pragmatic case for where, voluntary belief similar to Mill’s utilitarian defense of “hope” and to some extent comparable to boredom Kierkegaard’s “leap of faith”. He argues that there are matters where the truth is in doubt and science is incapable of passing judgment as in the question of whether God exists. Where that choice is, in his terms, live (meaning that it seems of vital interest and value to us and engages us emotionally), momentous (meaning that it is non-trivial and has serious consequences), and forced (meaning that we must choose one way or the other and cannot simply sit the fence or stand aside), then it is lawful, indeed even necessary for us to weigh the risks and evidence and choose . In the find end, James basically recasts Pascal’s Wager in a new form, re-focusing on its existential and psychological dimensions and dispensing with what he regards as its stagy and cheapening gambling metaphors. Besides his two major works (the Pensees and the Provinciales ), Pascal also wrote several shorter works touching on a wide range of topics – from political legitimacy and why become a dentist, social order to Stoicism and romantic love. A brief overview and precis of some of the better known and more important of these minor works follows.

Essentially an extensive commentary on can i find book human nature and the doctrine of divine grace, the creatine paper Ecrits represent Pascal’s most ambitious venture into can i find book the arena of Catholic theological debate. First published in 1779, the work was written at the same time as the provinciales and covers much of the same ground (proximate power, concupiscence, free will, and so forth), though in boredom a more serious and less cavalier manner and in a more direct and methodical form. Along with other deep matters, Pascal here explicates Augustine’s distinction between human nature in can i find its unfallen state as pure, innocent, and naturally just, though capable of choice and error, and our postlapsarian condition, which is in thrall to capote essay monroe concupiscence and naturally prone, indeed practically bound to do evil if it were not for God’s prevenient grace. Adam was upright but free to fall; we children of Adam are weighed down by sin, and incapable of rising by our own effort. But, we are free to accept grace and can therefore be lifted up. Pascal dissects the problem of can i find book thesis free will in about global a similarly Augustinian fashion. Adam had free will in the sense that he could freely choose either good or evil, though he naturally inclined to can i the former. We, in our concupiscent state, are also free to choose. However, we are naturally inclined to prefer evil, which in our ignorant, fallen condition we commonly mistake for good. Pascal also points out that through the essay on contraceptives grace of can i Jesus Christ, a grace instilled by the Holy Spirit, we can achieve a redeemed will – a will sufficient to overcome concupiscence and capable of recognizing and choosing good.

Commentators on the Ecrits have questioned whether its depiction of grace (which is presented as something largely mysterious yet vital for salvation) is consistent with the essay rational apologetic approach and systematic style of argument that Pascal sought to use in the Pensees . Pascal’s essay on the “geometric spirit” outlines both a theory of knowledge and an intellectual capability or logical mental faculty. He asserts that geometry and mathematics are the only areas of human inquiry that provide knowledge that is both certain and infallible. He then supports this claim with arguments and demonstrations. He goes on to describe a certain quality or faculty of mind that he calls l’esprit geometrique , which he defines as the ability to take known or perceived truths and to present them in such a way – with such precise steps, perfect elegance, and logical rigor – that their truth cannot help but be recognized and approved by others. Such an irrefutable and triumphant persuasiveness – the ability to vanquish all doubt and counter-argument – seems to where can i thesis have been Pascal’s goal in all his writings, whether on essay scientific subjects or in matters of theological dispute. In any case, the “geometric spirit” is both a prominent characteristic of book Pascal’s own genius as well as an important epistemological idea (illustrating both the powers and limitations of the human mind) that he returns to repeatedly throughout his writings. iii. Discourse on the Passions of Love. Pascal’s authorship of the “Discourse on the Passions of Love” has been disputed for about global, the obvious reason that its subject (romantic love) and sentiments (that love exalts the soul, that those with the greatest souls make the truest lovers, that secret or undeclared love entails both exquisite joy and where can i find book, agonizing pain, and so forth) are highly uncharacteristic of the writer and creatine paper, would seem to be far outside his range of interest and expertise.

Yet the where can i book thesis style of the Discourse is distinctively Pascalian and some of the ideas contained in it (such as the distinction between the “geometric” mind and the spirit of “finesse”) are certifiably his own. Thus his authorship, while dubious, is at least possible, and boredom essay, so the question for can i find book thesis, his critics and biographers becomes: how to account for a work that seems so utterly contrary to Pascal’s own modest habits and essay, reputation, so much more in where find book the spirit of the salons of Paris rather than the cells of Port-Royal? The most popular way of dealing with the Discourse has been simply to dismiss it as uncanonical and regard it as, at bottom, some kind of anonymously composed pastiche that incorporates bits and echoes of Pascal along with selections from an essay about sunset, other sources. Alternatively, it could be argued that the Discourse is written in the style and spirit of the Paris salons because Pascal himself intentionally wrote it in that vein, possibly as a kind of where book literary exercise or demonstration on his part for the amusement of his friends Mere and Mitton and their circle. (One can indeed easily imagine the pair challenging their shy friend to attempt such an exercise and then delighting in his successful performance.) So even though the Discourse may indeed be Pascal’s, its content and truman monroe, sentiments are for the most part artificial and insincere, many of the expressed opinions being mere restatements or variations of age-old commonplaces and platitudes about can i romantic love taken either from the pr ecieuse poetry of his own era or from earlier literature. (See, for example, the medieval Rules of Courtly Love of Andreas Capellanus, a compendium of boredom essay witty, lofty, acerbic, or tongue-in-cheek observations about love very similar to Pascal’s.) iv. Discourses on find thesis the Condition of the Great. Despite its minor status, the “Discourses on the Great” is on contraceptives, nevertheless of interest since it is the only work of Pascal’s that attempts to formulate something like a social or political philosophy. The work (which is addressed to a young man of high degree) begins with a parable about can i a castaway on an island whom the inhabitants (owing to his close physical resemblance) mistake for creatine research, their long-lost king. Such, Pascal argues, is the book thesis condition of those born to nobility or wealth within society: it is only by coincidence or lucky accident and by the power of custom and convention, not by nature, that they have their status. From this it follows that persons of rank are obligated to essay conduct themselves with due humility and must never allow themselves to treat those on society’s lower rungs with insolence or disrespect. Pascal concludes the Discourses by reminding his young learner of his true condition and enjoins him to where can i thesis rule and lead with beneficence. Simply stated, the political philosophy expressed in the Discourses is noblesse oblige . Essays About Global Warming Change? Pascal acknowledges that the origins of human inequality are of two kinds, natural and institutional.

The former arise from relative abilities or deficiencies of mind or body. For instance, A has better eyesight than B; X is taller and stronger than Y).Institutional inequalities, unless they are sanctioned by divine law, are entirely conventional and sometimes even arbitrary and can be rescinded or overturned. That, as far as social theory is concerned, is about as far as Pascal goes in the Discourses. Since his primary purpose is to where can i thesis offer moral instruction to a young nobleman, he doesn’t address topics like property, the social contract, divine right theory, which was a view recently and on contraceptives, avidly affirmed by Louis XIV, or the ethics of revolt. From scattered comments in the Pensees , we know that he was politically conservative and despised violence. Apparently his experience during the Fronde led him to believe that even oppressive order is better than anarchy and that there is no worse social evil than civil war (see Pensees 94/128, 81/116, 85/119).

v. Prayer on the Proper Use of Sickness. Pascal’s “Prayer to God on the Proper Use of Sickness” is a striking work that has perplexed and offended some readers while stirring sympathy and admiration in others. Readers of the first sort, knowing of Pascal’s persistent illnesses and chronic pain, are disturbed to find him here not only begging forgiveness for the few pleasures he enjoyed during his brief intervals of health, but even thanking God for his lifetime of find book afflictions and earnestly beseeching Him for essay, more of the same. These readers view the “Prayer” as an where book thesis, expression of almost pathological morbidity and avoid, the testament of find book thesis a fanatic. Essay On Contraceptives? Interpreted in this way, Pascal’s portrayal of the pleasures of life as cruel and deadly and can i find book thesis, of disease and affliction as salutary and healing seem not so much holy paradoxes as evidence of the why become a dentist essay extent to where thesis which the gloom of Jansenism had darkened his entire outlook. This reading is defective in at least two ways. First, it ignores the fact that the paradoxes invoked in avoid the “Prayer”—life is find book, death; death is life; health is illness, illness is avoid essay, health; pain is pleasure, pleasure is pain; and where, so forth — are Christian commonplaces and that the rhetorical use of why become essay such figures had long been a standard feature of where can i thesis Christian discourse. Essays Global Warming? (See, for example, the can i find book thesis writings of Augustine or John Donne’s sermons and Holy Sonnets.) Second, any accusation of exaggerated melodrama or overstatement in the “Prayer” also overlooks the degree to which serious illness and devastating rates of about sunset mortality – plagues, deaths, executions, amputations – were an everyday part of life in Europe during the can i find 17th century. Viewed in this context, the “Prayer” may still strike modern readers as unnaturally bleak, but it expresses sentiments and feelings that many of Pascal’s contemporaries would have been familiar with and shared. The “Prayer” can be more accurately characterized as a simple statement of faith and essay on contraceptives, humility and a plea for patience and courage. Find Book Thesis? It expresses the blend of neo-stoicism and contemptus mundi that was common in prayers and sermons of the day. Christian stoicism had been recently introduced into French literature via the writings of Guillaume du Vair, and Pascal had likely read Epictetus’s Enchiridion in a glorious du Vair’s translation.

Although he remained critical of classical stoicism, he was apparently more accepting of du Vair’s version – a philosophical and theological view that holds that we should willingly accept, as a revelation of divine will, whatever fate God bestows on us. Far from find book thesis, being a fanatical doctrine, this was a code that even non-believers found agreeable. Indeed most of us find it admirable when individuals who are sorely afflicted with a disease or who have suffered the loss of an organ or limb accept their condition with fortitude and equanimity. vi. Pascal’s Conversation with M. de Saci on essays about and climate change Epictetus and Montaigne.

The minor work Entretien avec M.de Saci is not actually Pascal’s, but was composed by Nicolas Fontaine, a member of the Port-Royal community. It is the record of a conversation that took place between Pascal and his spiritual director Lemaistre de Sacy shortly after Pascal took up residence at Port-Royal in 1654. The work wasn’t published until 1736, but it’s an important document nevertheless since it represents the fullest discussion that we have of Pascal’s views on Western philosophy. The portrait of Pascal that emerges from the Conversation is well drawn and seems authentic, and the words and style are recognizably his own. Many of the ideas presented in the work can be found scattered throughout the Pensees , where they are expressed in nearly similar language and where once again Epictetus and where can i thesis, Montaigne stand as mighty opposites: the former championing but over-estimating the greatness and nobility of humankind, the latter recognizing but exaggerating our folly and ignorance. Pascal praises Epictetus as a brilliant philosopher whose knowledge of our essential moral duties and especially of our need for patience, courage, faith, and humility is unsurpassed.

Unfortunately, the philosopher’s “diabolic pride” leads him astray. About? For example, Epictetus wrongly supposes that human reason is a perfectly reliable guide to where book truth. He also errs in holding that the mind and the senses are sufficient for global change, perceiving and can i find book, understanding the true nature and overall justice of the cosmos. Of Montaigne, Pascal remarks that although he was a professed Catholic he nevertheless chose to forego Christian doctrine as a source of moral law and turned instead to his, admittedly fallible, personal judgment and natural instinct as ethical guides. Pascal then goes on to criticize Montaigne for truman capote on marilyn monroe, his utter and where book thesis, thoroughgoing Pyrrhonism symbolized by the device of a scales that Montaigne had emblazoned on the ceiling of his study with his famous motto Que sais-je? (What do I know?) inscribed beneath.

Pascal argues that, in contrast to Epictetus, Montaigne’s error consists not in glorifying or over-estimating human reason and knowledge but rather in denying them any credit or status whatsoever. Pascal confesses that it is pleasant sport to watch Montaigne poke holes in the arguments of his opponents and see “proud reason so irresistibly baffled by its own weapons.” Of course, ironically, Montaigne’s skepticism effectively undermines not just his opponent’s views but his own arguments as well. Near the end of the a glorious conversation, Pascal launches into an oratorical peroration describing how the errors, imperfections, and opposing polarities represented by where can i find book thesis, the two philosophers are ultimately mediated and reconciled in the person of Jesus Christ. @ It is therefore from this imperfect enlightenment that it happens that the one [that is, Epictetus] knowing the duties of essay on contraceptives man and being ignorant of his impotence, is lost in presumption, and that the other [that is, Montaigne], knowing the can i find impotence and being ignorant of the duty, falls into laxity; whence it seems that since the one leads to creatine research truth, the other to error, there would be formed from their alliance a perfect system of morals. But instead of this peace, nothing but war and a general ruin would result from their union; for book, the one establishing certainty, the capote monroe other doubt, the where can i book one the greatness of man, the other his weakness, they would destroy the essay truths as well as the falsehoods of find book thesis each other. Boredom? So that they cannot subsist alone because of their defects, nor unite because of their opposition, and thus they break and destroy each other to give place to the truth of the Gospel. This it is that harmonizes the contrarieties by a wholly divine act, and uniting all that is true and expelling all that is false, thus makes of them a truly celestial wisdom in which those opposites accord that were incompatible in human doctrines. . . . Such is the marvelous and novel union which God alone could teach, and which He alone could make, and which is only a type and an effect of the ineffable union of two natures in the single person of find book thesis a Man-God. No single paragraph better summarizes Pascal’s philosophical and on contraceptives, theological views than this climactic comparison. 3. Mathematical and Scientific Works. Pascal made his first important mathematical discovery and where can i thesis, published his first article, the Essay on Conics (1640), at the age of sixteen. Barely an essay at essays global warming all, the work is a one-page document consisting of three diagrams, three definitions, and two lemmas.

Although it had little immediate impact beyond a small circle of mathematicians, it was nevertheless a breakthrough contribution to the emerging new field of where can i find projective geometry. His discovery (which he referred to as his “Mystic Hexagram”) is essays global warming and climate change, known today as Pascal’s Theorem. It states that if six points are situated on a conic section (an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola), and if these points are then joined by line segments to form a hexagon, then if the sides of this hexagon are projected beyond the section, the pairs of opposite sides will meet in three points all of which lie on a straight line. Figure 1: Pascal's Mystic Hexagram. This illustration shows that when the opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed within a ellipse are projected, they will intersect at three points along a straight line. (In this case all the points lie entirely outside the ellipse.) After his death, Pascal’s unpublished mathematical papers (including what seems to have been a full treatise on conics) were collected by his nephew Etienne Perier. Eventually these manuscripts were turned over to the great German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz for can i find book thesis, his evaluation and use. Leibniz left behind an extensive set of notes on the collection and registered his admiration for Pascal’s genius.

Unfortunately Pascal’s original papers have all been lost. In 1644 the avoid boredom essay Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by Galileo, took a glass tube closed at where can i book one end and filled it with mercury. He then inverted the about global warming change tube, open end down, into a bowl also containing mercury and watched as the mercury in the tube dropped slightly leaving a vacant space at the top. Contrary to the prevailing scientific view upheld by Aristotelians and book thesis, Cartesians alike according to which a vacuum in nature is a physical impossibility, Torricelli surmised that the space at the top of the tube was indeed a vacuum and that it was created by the pressure of the external air, which exactly balanced the essay pressure exerted by the column of mercury inside the tube. Pascal learned of the experiment from his former mentor Pere Mersenne. Where Can I Find Book? Excited by avoid boredom, the controversial scientific issues at stake, he set to where find book thesis work devising his own experimental test of Torricelli’s results.

Just obtaining the required apparatus posed a huge challenge. Scientists of the about sunset era typically had to design, specify, oversee the production of, test, and of course pay for can i find, their own equipment. Pascal did all that and then went to work conducting his own experiments and demonstrations. Confident of essay his results, he went on tour to demonstrate his hypothesis, which he was able to do using tubes of can i find book different length and diameter and a variety of liquids. He published his findings in a short pamphlet New Experiments concerning the Vacuum (1647). The decisive experiment, proving that the level of mercury in the tube was due to why become external air pressure, was conducted at where can i find the Puy-de-Dome, the mountainous lava dome near Pascal’s native Clermont. Pascal designed and organized the experiment, but because of his health issues it was actually conducted by his brother-in-law Florin Perier along with a team of observers, clerics, and local officials. Using two identical tubes, the team measured the why become essay levels of mercury at can i a base point in the town. Then, with a portion of the party staying behind to monitor the mercury level in about global warming and climate one tube, which remained at the home base, Florin and the rest of the party ascended the mountain with the other tube and measured the mercury level at various elevations. It was found that the level of mercury in the mobile (or test) tube varied inversely with the altitude. Can I Book? Meanwhile, the mercury level in the stationary (or control) tube never varied.

Repeated experiments produced the same conclusive results: the level of mercury was due to air pressure, which also has the ability to create a vacuum. Pascal published a record of the experiment in a short document entitled “The Account of the Great Experiment of the Equilibrium of Fluids.” to which he appended a closing note that deserves quotation since it marks a historic turning point in the advance of why become a dentist modern science vis-a-vis ancient authority. On the basis of his experiments, he asserts “that nature has no repugnance for where can i book, the vacuum” and “makes no effort to boredom avoid it”: . . . all the find book effects that have been attributed to her horror have their origin in the weight and pressure of the air, that it is their sole and global, true cause. . . Where Can I Find Book? . It is a dentist essay, not on this occasion only can i find, that, when the weakness of men has been unable to find the true causes, their subtlety has substituted imaginary causes to which they have given specious names filling the ears and capote on marilyn monroe, not the mind. Thus it is said that the sympathy and where can i book, antipathy of natural bodies are efficient causes, responsible for many effects, as if inanimate bodies were capable of sympathy and antipathy; it is the same with antiperistasis and with many other chimerical causes, which but give a vain solace to man’s hunger to about a glorious sunset know hidden truths, and which, far from revealing them, serve only to cover up the ignorance of such inventors and to feed that of their followers. One other document relating to the vacuum that dates from this period (October 29, 1647) and which bears special mention is book thesis, Pascal’s reply to (the felicitously if improbably named) Pere Noel. A Jesuit priest who embraced the widely accepted doctrine (approved by both Aristotelian and Cartesian physicists) that nature is a material plenum and will not permit a vacuum, Noel had written a letter to avoid boredom essay Pascal defending the horror vacui viewpoint and where book, arguing that the empty space that Pascal claims to on contraceptives have observed at the top of the tubes in his experiments was not empty space at all but a space necessarily filled with “rarified air” or some other subtle form of substance . Pascal’s response is a perfect specimen of understatement and polite forbearance in which the tone often approaches but never quite crosses over into condescension or ridicule. The provinciales are usually cited as the original instance of classic French prose style, but the letter to Noel and book, indeed a number of paper Pascal’s scientific papers – all notable for their force, clarity, concision, and elegance as well as for their utter absence of bombast, fustian, and needless adornment – could also lay claim to setting the model.

An early paragraph in Pascal’s letter succinctly defines his criteria and standards of truth in matters of scientific investigation; two later paragraphs illustrate his tactful but forceful way of dealing with the where find book thesis kind of why become learned ignorance that Sir Francis Bacon had referred to can i as “vain imaginations” and the “idols of the theatre”: The rule [of scientific method] is never to make a decisive judgment, affirming or denying a proposition, unless what one affirms or denies satisfies one of the two following conditions: either that of itself it appear so clearly and distinctly to sense or to truman monroe reason, according as it is subject to one or the where can i book thesis other, that the mind cannot doubt its certainty, and this is what we call a principle or axiom, as, for example, if equals are added to equals, the results are equal; or that it be deduced as an infallible and necessary consequence from such principles or axioms . . . Essays Warming? . Everything satisfying one of these conditions is where can i thesis, certain and true, and everything satisfying neither is considered doubtful and uncertain. We pass decisive judgment on things of the avoid essay first kind and leave the rest undecided, calling them, according to where book their deserts, now a vision , now a caprice , occasionally a fancy , sometimes an idea , and at the most a happy thought ; and since it is rash to affirm them, we incline rather to the negative, ready however to truman essay monroe return to the affirmative if a convincing demonstration brings their truth to light…. For all things of this kind [that is, hypothetical entities] whose existence is thesis, not manifest to sense are as hard to believe as they are easy to invent. Essay? Many persons, even among the most learned men of the day, have opposed me with this same substance [that is, rarified air or some comparable ethereal matter] before you (but simply as an can i find, idea and not as a certain truth), and that is why I mentioned it among my propositions. Others, to a dentist fill empty space with some kind of where book matter, have imagined one with which they have filled the entire universe, because imagination has this peculiarity that it produces the about a glorious greatest things with as little time and where can i, trouble as little things; some have considered this matter as of the about and climate same substance as the sky and the elements, and others of can i find book thesis a different substance, as their fancy dictated, for they disposed of avoid boredom essay it as of their own work. But if we ask of them, as of you, that you show us this matter, they answer that it cannot be seen; if we ask that it make a sound, they say it cannot be heard, and so with all the remaining senses; and they think they have done much when they have convicted others of powerlessness to find book show that it does not exist by depriving themselves of all power to show that it does.

Pascal later composed, but never published, two detailed monographs that were discovered among his manuscripts after his death: a Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids and a Treatise on the Weight of the Mass of Air . These two treatises represent seminal contributions to the sciences of hydraulics and hydrostatics and include the capote essay on marilyn monroe discovery that if no other forces are acting on a fluid, the pressure will be the same throughout the fluid and can i find thesis, the same in all directions – an observation that is known today as Pascal’s Principle. Truman Capote On Marilyn Monroe? It is in recognition of his important work in the study of fluid mechanics that a standard unit of pressure is find book thesis, today known as the pascal (Pa), defined as a force equal to 1 Newton per square meter. c. A Dentist Essay? Pascal’s Triangle and Probability Theory. In 1654, Pascal responded to where find book thesis a series of problems posed by his friend Antoine Gombaud, the self-styled Chevalier de Mere, an about global, amateur mathematician and noted gambler. Suppose, Pascal was asked, that you are given 24 rolls of a pair of dice. What is the find book thesis probability of your throwing double sixes at least one time? Mere also asked a related question known as the truman capote essay monroe “problem of the points” (also known as the problem of the division of the stakes). This problem asks, if a wager game is can i find book, terminated before it has been completed, how should the contestants divide the stakes?

For example, suppose that A and B are playing a winner-take-all game in which a point is essay on contraceptives, scored on every try and the winner is the first player to reach ten points. How should the stakes be divided if the game is terminated after A has 7 points and can i, B has 5? Pascal developed solutions to an essay a glorious these and other problems relating to find thesis the calculation of gambling odds and in an exchange of letters shared his insights with the truman essay on marilyn monroe great Toulouse mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Together the two correspondents effectively founded the modern theory of probability. Part of the foundation for the modern theory is provided in can i book Pascal’s “Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle,” which he composed in 1653. (He sent a copy of this document to Fermat during their correspondence, but it was never published until after his death.) The Treatise explains how to construct and apply the remarkable configuration (in essence a triangular array of binomial coefficients) known today as “Pascal’s Triangle.” The array had been generated and used previously by paper, Chinese, Indian, Persian, and European mathematicians, and Pascal never claimed to have discovered or originated it.

He was simply interested in where can i book demonstrating its fascinating properties and an essay about sunset, powers. Figure 2. Pascal's Triangle. Pascal calls the square containing each number in where can i find book the array a cell . The numeral 1’s at the top of his triangle head perpendicular rows ; those on the left side of the triangle head parallel rows . He calls the third (diagonal) side of the triangle the paper base. Cells along any diagonal row are called cells of the same base . The first diagonal row (consisting of the number 1) is row 0. The second diagonal row (1, 1) is row 1; and so on. The number value of each cell is equal to where find thesis the sum of its immediately preceding perpendicular and parallel cells. For example, 120 in the base diagonal (item 4 in avoid boredom essay row 7) = 36 + 84.

Furthermore, the number value of each cell is also equal to the sum of all the cells of the preceding row (from the where can i find book thesis first cell to essay on contraceptives the cell immediately above the target cell). For example, 126 (the number value of cell 6 in row 5) = 1 + 4 + 10 + 20 + 35 + 56 (the sum of cells 1-6 of row 4). Pascal explains in detail how the Triangle can be used to where find thesis calculate combinations (that is to compute C in avoid boredom essay cases where n C r = n things taken r at where book thesis a time). As Pascal demonstrates, to find the answer we would move perpendicularly down to why become a dentist the nth row and then move diagonally r cells. For example, for 5 C 4, we would go perpendicularly down to row 5 and then move diagonally 4 cells and find that the number of combinations is 5. Similarly, if we calculate for 6 C 3 ,we would move down 6 rows and then diagonally 3 cells and find that the answer is 20. Can I Book Thesis? And so on. In another section of the Treatise, Pascal explains how to essay on contraceptives use the Triangle to solve the Problem of Points. Solutions to where book thesis Mere’s problems: 1. Probability of at least one double-six in 24 rolls of essay two dice: 1 - (35/36) 24 = 0.4914.

2. Problem of points: A needs 3 more points, B needs 5 more points. (Game will end after seven more tries since at that juncture one of the players must reach ten points.) Count 3 + 5 rows on the Triangle; then sum the first 5 items. That sum divided by the sum of all items in the row is A’s portion of the stakes. Then sum the remaining 3 items in the row and divide that total by where find book, the sum of about global warming and climate change all the items in the row. That will be B’s portion. From the Triangle: (1+7+21+35+35) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 99/128 = A’s portion. (1+7+21) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 29/128 = B’s portion. Expressed as a percentage, A receives 77.34375 percent of the stake; B receives 22.65625 percent of the stake. The idea of mathematical infinity – of a number that can be vaguely conceived but whose properties and nature can never be fully understood – has strong affinities with Pascal’s idea of God and also relates to his Wager and to his personal anxiety as he contemplates the “eternal silence of these infinite spaces” (201/233). Imagine Pascal’s Triangle.

Now realize that there are an infinite number of such triangles, each stretching out vertically and horizontally to infinity, with each diagonal base in can i the structure containing within it a theoretically infinite subset of ever-smaller triangles. Such is the paradoxical notion of infinity, a concept that astounded and haunted Pascal, and which has teased, baffled, and intrigued a long list of theorists and commentators from Nicholas of Cusa and essay, Giordano Bruno to Bertrand Russell and David Foster Wallace. Although the idea of infinity can fill the imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and where find, of our place in it: But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to admire the grandeur and power of nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on all sides, and to learn by this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a dentist, a negation of extension, between an infinitude and a negation of number, between an where thesis, infinitude and a negation of movement, between an infinitude and a negation of time. From which we may learn to estimate ourselves at our true value, and to form reflections which will be worth more than all the rest of geometry itself. A discovery that should have been Pascal’s final mathematical triumph wound up instead creating acrimony and controversy. In the spring of why become essay 1658, supposedly as a diversion while contending with a toothache, he took up the problem of the roulette or cycloid, a problem that had puzzled some of Europe’s best mathematicians, including Galileo and book, Descartes, for nearly a century. Figure 3: Cycloid. Imagine a point P on the circumference of a revolving circle. A cycloid is the curve described by P as it rolls along a straight line. The challenge is to essay on contraceptives discover and prove the area of this curve geometrically.

Pascal worked out his own solution and then, as was common practice at the time, issued a public challenge to fellow mathematicians. Under the name Amos Dettonville, an anagram of the where find pseudonym Louis de Montalte, which he had used to write the provinciales (an anagram of the motto Talentum Deo Soli – “My talent for God alone”—according to Morris Bishop), Pascal drew up a list of six problems relating to the cycloid and offered a prize of 600 livres to the first person to solve them (Bishop 222). If after a specified time limit, no solutions were reported, “Dettonville” would reveal his own. A problem arose almost immediately when Pascal discovered that his first four questions had in effect already been solved by his friend Roberval. The contest was therefore reduced to the final two questions, a change that, unfortunately, was not made clear to all the contestants. In addition, some contestants protested that the time limit was unreasonably short.

Christian Huygens and Christopher Wren published solutions, but did not compete for about a glorious, the prize. Where Can I Find? A few other eminent mathematicians participated and research paper, submitted answers. Where Can I? However, Pascal, finding none of the submissions fully satisfactory, eventually revealed his own solutions and declared himself the winner. Predictably, this provoked bitterness and suspicions of plagiarism or misrepresentation on all sides. Though the avoid boredom controversy left a blemish on Pascal’s reputation, his work on can i the cycloid has been admired by later mathematicians for its ingenuity and elegance, and he is credited, alongside his great contemporaries Galileo, Torricelli, Descartes, Mersenne, Roberval, Fermat, Wren, and Huygens, as having helped to solve the avoid essay curve once known for its power to find attract and captivate all who studied it as the “Helen of truman capote on marilyn monroe geometers.” In 1672, after having obtained and where find book, reviewed copies of an essay about sunset Pascal’s papers on conics and the cycloid, Leibniz attested to can i book their brilliance and concluded that were it not for an “evil fate” (by which phrase it’s unclear whether he meant their author’s short lifespan or his absorption in Jansenist theology) Pascal would have almost certainly gone on to make further and deeper mathematical discoveries. Summarizing Pascal’s scientific and essay on contraceptives, mathematical achievements, it can be said that in an age of amateurism, when everyone from priests and attorneys to soldiers and salonnieres dabbled in “natural philosophy,” he was a marvel who often found himself in a position analogous to that later experienced by Newton and Leibniz: that is, he had to communicate dramatically new, highly complex and abstract concepts to readers who lacked his extraordinary mathematical imagination and facility. Having made his discoveries more or less instinctively, using his own private mathematical inventions and where can i find, methods, he then found he had to on contraceptives “translate” his ideas into the conventionally accepted language and procedures of his peers and where book, fellow numerophiles. Applying his own terminology, one can say that he made his discoveries through what he called l’esprit de finesse , that is, the intuitive mind, with its instinctive twists and turns, lucky hunches, and inspired guesswork. Creatine Paper? He found, however, that in order to communicate his findings to others he had to turn to what he styled l’esprit geometrique that is, the geometric mind, which he defined as the skill or capacity for “demonstrating truths already found, and of elucidating them in such a manner that the proof of where them shall be irresistible”.

Excellence in science and mathematics, he argued, requires both capabilities. It was Pascal’s good fortune to possess both l’esprit de finesse and l’esprit geometrique in rare and powerful abundance. 4. Philosophy of Science and Theory of capote essay monroe Knowledge. Of the many great natural philosophers of the find 17 th century – a group that includes both theoreticians and experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and essays global and climate change, Gassendi – Pascal arguably was the one who came closest to articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of science consistent with and where can i, comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short. As Desmond M. Clarke has argued, Pascal was torn between his love of geometric proof and pure logical demonstration on the one hand and his skeptical, pragmatic instincts in favor of down-to-earth experimentalism and empiricism on the other.

As a result he seemed trapped in essay a kind of philosophical limbo. Find Book? (See “Pascal’s Philosophy of Science,” in Hammond, 118.) Similarly, although he seemed to recognize that our knowledge of the natural world is only probable and can never be certain, a part of him nevertheless remained enthralled by the “will-o-the-wisp” or “Holy Grail” of absolute certainty. In most other respects, Pascal’s outlook is ahead of its time and admirable in its self-restraint and in its awareness of its own limitations. Capote Essay On Marilyn? Unlike Bacon, he makes room for hypothesis and even imaginative insight and thesis, conjecture ( l’esprit de finesse ) and also allows a deductive component a la Descartes ( l’esprit geometrique ). He acknowledges that all hypotheses must be tested and confirmed by rigorous experiments, and avoid, even if he didn’t actually carry out his experiments exactly as described, he nevertheless accepts the necessity of such testing. Boyle in particular remained skeptical of where find thesis Pascal’s experiments, calling them “more ingenious than practicable.” He especially marveled at the availability of 40-ft. Essays About Global And Climate Change? Torricelli tubes and of brass fittings engineered to nearly microscopic precision. Can I Find Book Thesis? Attempting to reproduce one of Pascal’s hydrostatic tests involving a fly in a chamber of water, Boyle attests that “upon tryal with a strong flie” the creature “presently drowned” (243.)

Pascal fully understood that once a hypothesis is tested and confirmed, the problem of determining the true cause of the phenomenon still remains and becomes itself a matter for further conjecture. For example, take his prediction, experimentally confirmed, that the level of mercury in a Torricelli tube will decline as altitude increases. Pascal claimed that this phenomenon was due to the weight of essay on marilyn air, though he knew that other factors might also explain the same effect. Indeed, for all he knew, an invisible emanation from the where find thesis god Mercury may have influenced his results. (Ironically, the famous Puy-de-Dome experiment had been performed near an ancient temple to why become essay that deity). Can I? As Pascal observed to Father Noel, fanciful explanations for phenomena are as easy to imagine as they are impossible to disprove.

In his correspondence with Noel, Pascal at one point suggests that it is fatal for one’s hypothesis if an experimental test fails to confirm a predicted outcome. However, as he himself and his fellow experimentalists certainly knew, there can be nearly as many reasons why an expected result does not occur, such as defective apparatus, lack of proper controls, measurement errors, extraordinary test circumstances, etc, as there are explanations for a result that occurs as expected. Apparently in his haste to global champion the can i book new science of truman on marilyn monroe experimentalism against its critics, both Cartesian and Scholastic, Pascal wanted to at least be able to say that if experiments cannot conclusively prove a given hypothesis, then they may at least be able to disprove it. If this was his intention, he was anticipating by nearly three centuries Karl Popper’s theory of empirical falsification and opposed to (and seemingly fearful at the prospect of) any view similar to WVO Quine’s theory of find book confirmation holism, according to why become a dentist essay which all scientific claims are at best only probable and where, there is an essay about, no such thing as a decisive experiment. Que-sais-je ? (“What do I know?”) asked the skeptical Montaigne, a question that in can i his case was more rhetorical than sincere. Que puis-je savoir ? (“What can I know?”) was Pascal’s more earnest if also slightly skeptical variation. Essays About Change? Anticipating Kant, he wondered with what limitations and with what level of assurance we can confidently say we know what we believe we know. Pascal has been plausibly labeled an empiricist, a foundationalist, even a positivist and a skeptic.

The confusion is understandable and is due largely to the fact that his epistemological views are complex and seem in certain respects equivocal or inconsistent. For example, he accepts the rule of authority in some areas of knowledge, such as ancient history, while opposing and even forbidding it in others, especially physical science. He also recognizes three different types or sources of knowledge related to his so-called “three orders”: body/sense; mind/reason; heart/will or instinct, each with its own domain or area of applicability, level of certainty, and tests of confirmation and reliability. In a perfect world human reason would be 100 percent reliable and hold sway. Presumably, Adam, prior to the Fall, had such a pristine and certain view of things, such that there was a perfect congruency or correspondence between his inner perceptions and the outer world.

Pascal believes that the axioms and where find thesis, first principles of math, geometry, and an essay, logic constitute knowledge of this kind. They are perceived directly by reason and (along with any consequences that we can directly deduce from them) represent the only knowledge that we can know infallibly and where thesis, with certainty. It is with respect to such axioms and principles alone that Pascal accepts Descartes’ criteria of clearness and distinctness as reliable evidence of truth. Everything else is subject to error and doubt. A critic of Cartesian rationalism and the deductive method, which he referred to as “useless and uncertain” – 887/445, Pascal was for avoid essay, the most part an empiricist and where can i thesis, experimentalist who held that our knowledge of the natural world is acquired through the senses and essay monroe, must be tested and empirically verified by experiment. Reason also has a role in this process. It guides our observations and assists us in the forming of where can i find book thesis hypotheses and an essay about sunset, predictions. It is reason that also judges and approves (or disapproves) the where can i thesis final results, though it does so on research paper the basis of empirical evidence, not deductive logic or some preconceived system. In the Preface to his Treatise on the Vacuum , Pascal declares that reason and sense alone must rule and authority has no place in the establishment of can i find scientific truth. Authority is to be respected, he says, in history, jurisprudence, languages, and above all in matters of theology, where the authority of Scripture and the Fathers is omnipotent.

But, he argues that in the case of research physical science reverence for the ancients can actually cloud the where find truth and impede the advancement of on contraceptives knowledge, especially when such reverence is, blind, misplaced, or overly devout. He concludes the Preface with a witty reversal of roles in where can i find book the heated, ongoing debate between “ancients and moderns”: Those whom we call ancient were really new in all things, and properly constituted the infancy of mankind; and as we have joined to their knowledge the experience of the centuries which have followed them, it is in ourselves that we should find this antiquity that we revere in a glorious sunset others. If there is an element of mystery in Pascal’s theory of knowledge, it is in where can i thesis the source of knowledge and inner being that he terms le Coeur . In scattered places throughout the creatine Pensees he makes reference to a logique du coeur or an ordre du coeur . But what exactly he means by where book thesis, such phrases he never clearly explains. The term coeur appears most famously in fragment 423/680: The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. About A Glorious? We feel it in a thousand things.

I say that the heart naturally loves the Universal Being, and also itself naturally, according as it gives itself to them; and it hardens itself against find book, one or the other at its will. You have rejected the one, and kept the other. Is it by reason that you love yourself? “The heart has its reasons, which reason doesn’t know.” Not only essays about, has Pascal’s famous aphorism become an oft-quoted cliche, it has also managed to enter and even permeate popular culture in the form of song lyrics, as the title of a love memoir, and as a message of where can i find endearment or benediction on bumper stickers and greeting cards. Even people who have never read a page of the Pensees are familiar with the quote, and while it seems safe to avoid boredom say that Pascal had no such sentimental meaning in mind, amour , in its various senses from romantic love and self-love to charity and maternal instinct, seems an book thesis, inescapable association when we hear the phrase “reasons of the heart.” In fact, the a dentist essay Catholic scholar Romano Guardini has plausibly offered “love” and “charity” as appropriate translations or synonyms for coeur (133). It has also been suggested that by “heart” Pascal means something transcending reason and prior to it (Peters 168-171; Kearns 101-02), almost as if it were some kind of Kantian intuition, or as if it were a form of where find book thesis natural or divinely endowed intelligence on essay on contraceptives the very cutting edge of can i book perception; some instinctive faculty that, without contradicting reason, can either surpass it or supplement it. Essay On Contraceptives? (110/142). Find? Such a faculty, if it is indeed instinctive, would presumably be inborn and thus either a part of our basic nature and something that all humans share or a special gift or grace bestowed by God to about the elect. And if it is intuitive, then it possibly bears some relation to what Pascal elsewhere terms l’esprit de finesse , the subtle or intuitive component of intellect that somehow “sees” or penetrates directly into truths that l’esprit geometrique , the logical or sequential intelligence, can arrive at only via incremental, deductive steps. Heart-knowledge would then be like some faint glimmer or trace of the instantaneous, clairvoyant understanding that the where can i find book thesis unfallen Adam was believed to enjoy in Paradise. On Contraceptives? In any case, the notion of a raison du Coeur remains a critical crux in Pascal studies and posed a mystery and challenge to his readers. Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is where book, ascertainable by faith alone and that faith is separate from, superior to, and generally antagonistic towards reason.

Whenever the term shows up in paper a religious or philosophical discussion, it is where can i find thesis, typically in conjunction with a list that includes names like Tertullian, Luther, Montaigne, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and William James. Pascal’s name is often inserted into this group. Based on paper the foregoing definition of fideism, Pascal does not fit into such a list, though the tendency to include him is understandable. Perhaps the most compelling evidence in favor of labeling him a fideist is the striking fact of his midnight conversion and “Night of Fire,” the powerful, visionary experience, clearly more mystical than rational, on the basis of which he wound up explicitly rejecting “the god of the philosophers.” However, just because the where can i thesis medium or process through which a belief is achieved may not be rational, doesn’t mean that the belief itself is unreasonable. On Marilyn? For Pascal, that belief was his acceptance of can i find book thesis Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior. Kekule discovered the shape and creatine research, structure of the benzene molecule in a dream. Where Find Book Thesis? Though his means of discovery was non-rational, what he discovered was quite reasonable and proved true.

Another reason why Pascal’s religious views are sometimes confused with fideism is his notion of an infinite and hidden God, who is essentially beyond our comprehension and understanding and whose existence and nature transcends the limited perspectives of why become essay reason and sense perception. However, once again, just because God surpasses or eludes empirical sense and reason doesn’t mean that He is contrary to or incompatible with them. “Faith,” Pascal writes, “indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. It is above them, and not contrary to them” (185/265). As for God’s infinitude and incomprehensibility, they too surpass or confound reason, but aren’t necessarily contrary to it. The notion of can i book mathematical infinity baffles us in the same way. Avoid Essay? As Pascal points out, just because something is incomprehensible, for example, God, infinity, “a sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere,” doesn’t mean that it can’t exist (149,230/182,262). Some critics have even used the Wager itself (418/680) as a basis for linking Pascal to fideism since that fragment sets forth and vividly illustrates the view that God’s existence is uncertain and can’t be proved. Of particular significance in this respect is the paragraph in which Pascal, in an observation that seems to echo Tertullian almost as much as St. Can I Find? Paul, candidly acknowledges the “foolishness” of the Christian creed: Who then will blame Christians for essay on contraceptives, not being able to give reasons for their beliefs, since they profess belief in a religion which they cannot explain?

They declare, when they expound it to the world, that it is foolishness, stultitiam ; and then you complain because they do not prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is through their lack of proofs that they show they are not lacking in sense. But, again, not being able to prove or give a convincing explanation for a belief is not quite the same thing as saying that the belief is incompatible with or contrary to reason. Conspiracy theories are typically lamely supported and impossible to prove, but they are seldom implausible or illogical. Moreover, it is not just a fideistic claim, but a perfectly orthodox Catholic view (and indeed a widely observable fact) that reason has limits; that it is indeed, as Pascal claims, unreasonable to trust reason too much. “Reason's last step is the recognition that there are an infinite number of things which are beyond it.” (188/220.) Pascal eschewed metaphysical proofs of God’s existence not on fideistic grounds because he thought that, as rational constructions, they were contrary to faith, but because he felt they were emotionally sterile and too abstruse and technical to persuade a non-believer: The metaphysical proofs for the existence of God are so remote from human reasoning and so involved that they make little impact, and, even if they did help some people, it would only where can i book, be for the moment during which they watched the essay demonstration, because an hour later they would be afraid they had made a mistake. (190/222) And this is why I shall not undertake here to prove by reasons from nature either the existence of God, or the Trinity or the immortality of the soul, or anything of can i book that kind: not just because I should not feel competent to find in nature arguments which would convince hardened atheists, but also because such knowledge, without Christ, is useless and sterile. Even if someone were convinced that the proportions between numbers are immaterial, eternal truths, depending on a first truth in which they subsist, called God, I should not consider that he made much progress towards his salvation. The Christian's God does not consist merely of about global warming a God who is the author of mathematical truths and the order of the elements.

That is the portion of the heathen and Epicureans. (449/690) In the end, the strongest reason for denying Pascal a place within fideism is that he believed that even the find thesis most “irrational” proofs of Christianity – the prophesies, miracles, typological confirmations, and so forth – were not only an essay about, not contrary to reason but were in fact perfectly compatible with it. (He declared the Old Testament and New Testament prophesies “the weightiest proof” of Jesus’ divinity – 335/368.) That Christianity is reasonable though not provable by reason effectively summarizes one of the find book central arguments of the entire Pensees . Pascal is frequently included in the ranks of “existentialist” philosophers, alongside names like Augustine, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre. Again it can be asked (as it was in the case of his alleged affiliation with fideism) whether he belongs in such a list . Once again, the strict, technical response would seem to be that he isn’t an existentialist–although in this case the label is why become, arguably more appropriate and may even be justified. If a defining attribute of existentialism is endorsement of Sartre’s maxim that “existence precedes essence,” then Pascal doesn’t qualify. For in his view human beings enter the world with a largely defined and determined nature and a destiny that is partly charted, partly free. We are made in God’s image–and thus capable of rational thought and freedom of choice–butour reason is clouded, and our wills are depraved. Where Can I Book Thesis? We are broken creatures and would be hopelessly lost if it were not for divine grace. If such a view of the human condition is incompatible with existentialism, then Pascal is no existentialist.

On the other hand, if Augustine and Kierkegaard (or for that matter any Christian thinker) can be considered existentialists in some broad sense, then it is hard to research paper see why Pascal might not also qualify. Like Augustine and Kierkegaard, he emphasizes the priority of the individual and book thesis, the deeply personal character of our choice to believe. Like them, he values and essays about and climate change, personally exemplifies an extreme inwardness , indeed at times displays an almost fanatical absorption in his mental and spiritual life. And even if he couldn’t fully accept the assertion that existence precedes essence , he could at least approve Sartre’s accompanying claim that even a tiny increment of free will is decisive. Where? As Sartre puts the case, “if we are not entirely determined, then we are in effect wholly free.” Pascal would agree, though he would attribute this freedom to divine grace rather than accepting it as a mere donnee or product of happenstance. The Confessions , with its focus on the self and avoid essay, personal identity, and thesis, especially on the self as a cumulative record, inscribed in memory, of our life-altering decisions and events, is conceivably the first existentialist text. And in their strange way Kierkegaard’s pseudonymous texts, despite being oblique and seemingly self-effacing, also represent a form of personal confession and spiritual autobiography. The Pensees stands as an intermediate text in why become essay this series, an where can i find book thesis, experiment in autobiographical apologetics linking the essays about warming and climate change direct, confessional style of Augustine with the multiple personae, lyrical vignettes, and pensive fragments typical of Kierkegaard.

That human life without God is wretched and that the human condition is marked by restlessness, ennui, and anxiety is an observation common to all three writers. Where Can I Find Thesis? Another common feature of their work is the recurrent image of a vast gulf or abyss. Augustine compares the a dentist essay human soul to a deep abyss and can i book thesis, likens it to the Nothingness preceding the Creation (Genesis 1:2). Why Become A Dentist Essay? Without the light of God, he suggests, we are but a dark emptiness. Kierkegaard argues that human freedom necessarily entails a constant sense of anxiety, and his image of our condition is can i find book, that of a person standing on the edge of a dark precipice. Pascal’s dread of the sunset silence of infinite space (201/233) and similar images in the Pensees of void and darkness echo these sentiments. And in the background of this imagery also stands the legend of his personal idee fixe – that is, his feeling that he was constantly shadowed by a personal abyss. Where Can I Thesis? (This legend relates to the aforementioned story of his accident on the Pont de Neuilly when his coach supposedly almost plunged into creatine the Seine – an unconfirmed but oft-retold event that has been perpetuated and find thesis, basically permanently enshrined in Baudelaire’s poem “Le Gouffre” and in Freud’s writings on obsession.) In the Confessions Augustine describes the long ordeal that eventually leads to his conversion. But his narrative doesn’t end at that point. Instead, he must begin a new spiritual test and journey – that of actually living a Christian life.

Similarly, Kierkegaard never wrote of essay being a Christian, but always of becoming one. He regarded an where, authentic Christian life as a constant trial and task. Like Augustine, Pascal places even harsher spiritual demands on boredom essay himself after his conversion. And like Kierkegaard, he believes that true Christianity is an ever-striving imitatio Christi , a continual remaking of oneself in the image and spirit of Jesus. With these resemblances in mind, it’s hardly a stretch to say that entire portions of the Pensees , translated into Latin or Danish, could easily pass for an excerpt from Augustine or from Kierkegaard’s Training in Christianity or another of the author’s “edifying” texts. Similarly, if we place Pascal in a sequence of “Christian existentialist” writers, a line that arguably proceeds from Augustine to Kierkegaard and then on to, say, Unamuno and Berdyaev, we find the same emphasis on can i thesis personal experience and individual freedom and responsibility; the same rhetorical skill and verbal flourishes; the same flair for metaphor and self-dramatization. In short, if we accept existentialism as not so much a system or body of doctrine, but as more of a perspective or attitude towards life – an exacting and indeed tragic sense of life (depicted graphically and with Dostoyevsky-like force in fragment 434/686) – then Pascal can be considered an existentialist philosopher.

7. Conclusion: Pascal’s Reputation and Cultural Legacy. “Pascal never loses his capacity to offend as well as to edify”—Harold Bloom (1). “How few,” wrote Walter Pater in what was to be his last work, a sparkling critical essay on Pascal, “how select, are the literary figures who have earned the honor of receiving regular ongoing criticism, both appreciative and deprecatory, from their successors.” Pascal has earned that honor and is of that rare and select company, having acquired during the nearly four centuries since his birth a long line of admirers and detractors, including many of the why become essay leading names in can i thesis world literature. Voltaire, Diderot, D’Alembert, Condorcet, Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, Nietzsche, Tolstoy, T.S. Eliot, Borges, Bertrand Russell, Paul Valery, Harold Bloom – the list of important writers and thinkers who have studied Pascal and gone on to voice their appreciation or discontent could be extended literally for avoid essay, pages. In his introductory essay to the Pensees published in 1933, Eliot referred to Pascal as “one of those writers who will be and who must be studied afresh by men in every generation. It is not he who changes, but we who change.

It is not our knowledge of him that increases, but our world that alters and our attitudes towards it.” (355) For some reason Eliot assumed that our knowledge of Pascal was basically complete eighty years ago and that modern scholarship would do little to alter or augment our understanding of his life and work. On this point he was quite mistaken. In fact, on the contrary, owing to the biographical and textual labors of scholars like Lafuma, Sellier, and Mesnard, students of Pascal today have a much fuller understanding of the author’s personal life, family, medical history, intellectual and religious development, and social milieu, as well as a far better sense of the likely order, design, and method of the Pens ees , than any previous generation of readers. Nevertheless, Eliot’s main point – that Pascal poses a unique challenge to can i find book thesis modern sensibilities – holds true. In this respect, Pascal stands as a kind of existential reference mark: a polestar in relation to which we as readers are able (and in avoid boredom essay Eliot’s opinion obliged) to locate ourselves.

He remains a fixed point against which we are challenged to where find measure the sincerity and durability of essays about global warming and climate our own values and beliefs. Echoing what Pascal himself said about the experience of reading Montaigne, Pascal’s editor, translator, and can i thesis, commentator A.J. Krailsheimer has remarked that what we find when we read Pascal is actually something that we discover about ourselves (76). In effect, what both Krailsheimer and Eliot are suggesting is that ultimately there is not one Pascal, but many – possibly as many as there are readers of his texts. For example, Voltaire’s Pascal – the scientific genius and Enlightenment wit turned sour religious fanatic – is the reverse image of the Pascal adored by the Port-Royal community – the gentle saint who abandoned frivolous worldly pursuits to take up the Cross. For Nietzsche, Pascal’s maxim “ il faut s’abetir ” (“one must become stupid”) is appalling, a crucifixion of the intellect; for Unamuno it is a profound paradox and the highest wisdom. Valery’s Pascal is a sententious and badgering preacher, oblivious to the beauty of essay nature; the Pascal of Sainte-Beuve is an “athlete, martyr, and hero of the where can i find book invisible moral world.” What Gilberte Perier refers to as her brother’s “second conversion,” Bertrand Russell regards as an act of avoid boredom “philosophical suicide.” And so on.

In short, Pascal’s writings, and especially the Pensees , have served less as a window into the author’s soul than as a kind of mirror or prism reflecting the different outlooks and opinions of his readers. Of course any proper summation of Pascal’s cultural legacy must include his contributions to probability theory and game theory and his invention of the mechanical computer (in honor of which the Swiss computer scientist Niklaus Wirth aptly named his new programming language Pascal ). And, one must include all the other eponymous scientific, mathematical, and theological concepts (Pascal’s Theorem, Pascal’s Principle, Pascal’s Triangle, Pascal’s Wager, and so forth) that bear his name. In addition, every modern system of intra-urban or inter-urban shuttle transportation also owes a debt to can i book the philosopher, who first conceived such a system and a dentist essay, oversaw its original implementation in the city of Paris. However, Pascal’s most valuable gift to modern readers is arguably his unique style. Where Can I Find Book? His combination of research paper wit, irony, and aphorism, his ease and clarity, his air of someone skilled both in urbane conversation and erudite technical debate was to a large extent already present and on dazzling display in Montaigne. The same features reappear in find thesis the writings of Voltaire and why become, the philosophes. Book Thesis? And today, thanks largely to Pascal, these attributes have become a part of creatine paper French literary tradition.

However, what sets Pascal’s style apart, especially in the Pensees , is that supplemental to his characteristic elan and luster he adds a tone of existential angst: a visionary quality, together with an element of can i thesis strangeness that is utterly foreign to the works of Montaigne and Voltaire but which appears powerfully in writers like Dante, Kafka, and Borges. Pascal’s imagination, like theirs, seems haunted by the notion of infinity and by images of mystery and turmoil; by circles, mazes, precipices, and creatine, abysses: “At the far end of an infinite distance a coin is being spun . . Where Can I Find Thesis? .” 418/680. “Nature is an research paper, infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere” 199/230. Relatively few writers, and certainly few philosophers, have his uncanny quality, using that term in Freud’s sense as the ability to make familiar ideas seem strange and strange ideas seem familiar. Pater rightly called him the intellectual equivalent of lightning.

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Research Paper Examples by Fields of Study. This collection is meant to can i find book feature more than 100 anthropology research paper examples. Essays Change? Since its emergence as a scientific discipline in the middle of the 19th century, anthropology has focused on the study of humankind in terms of science and thesis reason, as well as logical speculation. Within a comprehensive and interdisciplinary framework, anthropology aims for a better understanding of and proper appreciation for about a glorious, the place of our species within earth history and organic development. As such, the scientific theory of biological evolution has been indispensable for can i book thesis, giving meaning and purpose to the awesome range of empirical facts and conceptual insights that now constitute the a dentist, rich content of present-day anthropology. Furthermore, cross-cultural studies emphasize the vast differences among human groups from the perspectives of material culture, social behavior, languages, and worldviews. Browse Anthropology Research Paper Examples. Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes.

Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Browse Archaeology Research Paper Examples. Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages, and has grown over the past century to encompass most aspects of language structure and use. Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and can i find thesis develops a common cultural representation of natural and social worlds. Browse Linguistics Research Paper Examples. Argumentative research paper examples section features research papers on various argumentative topics.

These example papers are to help you understanding how to write this type of written assignments. The argumentative research paper requires the student to an essay about a glorious investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Argumentative papers allow writers to express their opinion on a topic and support that opinion with strong logic and evidence. Browse Argumentative Research Paper Examples. The Latin root of “communication” – communicare – means “to share” or “to be in where find book thesis, relation with.” Through Indo-European etymological roots, it further relates to on contraceptives the words “common,” “commune,” and “community,” suggesting an act of find, “bringing together.” The notion of change, communication has been present and debated in the west from pre- Socratic times. The Hippocratic Corpus, for example, is where book, a list of symptoms and diseases; it discusses ways of “bringing together” the signs of a disease or ailment with the disease itself for the purposes of boredom essay, diagnosis and prognosis. Definitions of can i find thesis, communication often assume successful contact and interaction. About A Glorious? Yet the can i find book, importance of noncommunication (or miscommunication) in understanding what communication is should not be underestimated. This includes ambiguity, misunderstanding, lying, cheating, deception, and unconscious and research paper willful self-deception.

Browse Communication Research Paper Examples. The sample research papers on criminal justice topics have been designed to find book serve as model papers for about a glorious sunset, most criminological topics. These papers were written by can i find book, several well-known discipline figures and emerging younger scholars who provide authoritative overviews coupled with insightful discussion that will quickly familiarize researchers and creatine paper students alike with fundamental and where can i book thesis detailed information for each criminal justice topic. Browse Criminal Justice Research Paper Examples. Domestic violence occurs when a current or former intimate partner exerts dominance and creatine research control in a relationship through physical, sexual, or psychological-emotional abuse, resulting in physical or emotional trauma to can i find thesis the victim. Other forms of domestic violence include stalking and dating violence.

Other terms used for domestic violence include intimate partner violence, domestic abuse, family violence, spousal abuse, dating violence, wife abuse, and battering. Browse Domestic Violence Research Paper Examples. Child abuse is a very real and prominent social problem today. The impact of essay, child abuse affects more than one’s childhood, as the can i, psychological and truman monroe physical injuries often extend well into where find book thesis, adulthood. Most children are defenseless against abuse, are dependent on their caretakers, and are unable to protect themselves from these acts. Browse Child Abuse Research Paper Examples. Elder abuse is an about sunset, underdeveloped area of study. Find Book? Part of the problem inhibiting the development of about global and climate change, research in this area hinges on the lack of uniform definitions of can i book, elder about. Generally speaking, elder abuse can be defined in several ways: elder abuse as a violation of the criminal law, elder abuse as a violation of regulatory law, elder abuse as a social construction, elder abuse as social harm. Browse Elder Abuse Research Paper Examples. Readers interested in learning about economic analysis of paper, a topic or issue as well as students developing research papers will find sample research papers on various economic topics.

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Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology, atmospheric science, and geodesy) to where can i thesis the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an capote essay, integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to where can i find book thesis the study of environmental systems. Browse Environment Research Paper Examples. Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. Truman Essay? Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and find book its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and about warming change come to can i book thesis be. As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Avoid Essay? Browse Geography Research Paper Examples.

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Management Research Paper Examples. Management is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of essay on contraceptives, setting the book, strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees or volunteers to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to the people who manage an organization. Management is also an academic discipline, a social science whose objective is to study social organization and organizational leadership. Browse Management Research Paper Examples. Philosophy Research Paper Examples. Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation.

Historically, “philosophy” encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, “natural philosophy” encompassed astronomy, medicine and physics. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors, researchers and writers. Avoid Boredom Essay? Browse Philosophy Research Paper Examples. Political Science Research Paper Examples. This collection of political science research paper examples is an attempt to make fairly complex approaches in politics accessible to advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students. Can I Thesis? There is creatine research paper, very little in the way of reference works in political science that are sufficiently accessible that students can profitably use them to assist the pursuit of their research paper writing. In particular, we have sought to can i make a collection that would provide students with the essentials of various approaches (both theoretical and about global and climate methodological) in political science.

Our focus on can i book thesis essentials has meant covering fairly broad areas in the discipline, rather than specific research paper topics. In our view, this broad focus would be most useful to students. Browse Political Science Research Paper Examples. Psychology Research Paper Examples. Psychology research paper examples below attempt to capture psychology’s vast and essays about warming evolving nature. We believe that our choice of traditional and cutting-edge research paper topics reflects contemporary psychology’s diverse nature. Where Book? The diversity of the essay, APA divisions clearly reflects the where, changing face of contemporary psychology as well as represents wide subjects of psychological research.

They include General Psychology (Division 1), the Study of Social Issues (Division 9), Clinical Psychology (Division 12), Pharmacology and Substance Abuse (Division 28), Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (Division 33), Media Psychology (Division 46), International Psychology (Division 52), and Trauma Psychology (Division 56). Essays About Global And Climate Change? We hope that students will enjoy reading the research papers on different psychology topics as much as we have enjoyed collecting them for you. Browse Psychology Research Paper Examples. Religion is any cultural system of can i find thesis, designated behaviors and truman monroe practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the where book, divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or “some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life”. Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Browse Religion Research Paper Examples. Sociology Research Paper Examples.

This collection of sociology research paper examples is both interesting and informative in essays about global warming and climate, that the research paper content offers the student insight into the rich legacy and development of the discipline of sociology while also providing the requisite reference information for advanced study and research into each topic. In this regard, there is a sufficient amount of information to support the rich sociological legacy of enabling students ample opportunity to learn while also providing important insights for those who enthusiastically embrace social activism as a part of the sociological enterprise. Browse Sociology Research Paper Examples. A research paper is a piece of find thesis, academic writing that provides information about a particular topic that you’ve researched . It’s not as simple as writing an essay about your summer vacation, your family, or the last party you’ve been to, because you don’t have to do research to find out about your own personal experience. On the other hand, a paper about a topic such as ancient civilizations, capital punishment, civil society, or the history of advertising does qualify as a research paper. These are topics about which you, yourself, are not an expert, but that you can learn about by reading the work of experts—in other words, by doing research. Then you can summarize, analyze, and communicate in about a glorious sunset, writing what you have learned. Find Thesis? Ideally, you will do that in essay, a clear and interesting way. A research paper is an academic paper that is either argumentative or analytical. Where Find Book? The analytical version usually discusses studies and research done in a specific field, such as the impact of family violence on homelessness. An argumentative version would come out in support for one side, such as arguing that decreasing family violence means limiting the amount of homeless people.

Almost every college and university student is expected to write a research paper at essay some point in his/her academic career. The goal of the research paper – both analytical and argumentative – is to draw on both the book thesis, student’s knowledge of the studied subject. Writing a research paper is sometimes daunting for students who are new to the experience, or even for those who have written them before. Studying examples of research papers can help improve a student’s writing style and a glorious sunset their overall paper. Research paper examples should be used just as such: models on which to base your own research paper.

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Where the Assignment Editing Expert or the UK Study Help requires confirmation of any detail they will contact the Customer using the email address or telephone number provided by the Customer The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help may accept instructions received using these modes of contact and may reasonably assume that those instructions are generated from the Customer. Delivery – “Completion on Time Guarantee” The UK Study Help agrees to facilitate delivery of all Work before midnight on the due date, unless the due date falls on a Sunday, Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, or New Year’s Day (“a Non-Working Day”), in where find thesis which case the and climate, Work will be delivered the where book, following day before midnight The UK Study Help undertakes that all Work will be completed by the Assignment Editing Expert on time or they will refund the Customer’s money in full and deliver their Work for free The relevant due date for the purposes of this guarantee is the due date that is set when the order is allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert . Where a variation to warming and climate change the relevant due date is agreed between the UK Study Help and the Customer, a refund is not due The UK Study Help will not be held liable under this guarantee for any lateness due to where can i find thesis technical problems that may arise due to essay third parties or otherwise, including, but not limited to issues caused by Internet Service Providers, Mail Account Providers, Database Software, Incompatible Formats and find book Hosting Providers. The UK Study Help undertakes that if such technical problems occur with a system that they are directly responsible for or that third party contractors provide them with, that they will on request provide reasonable proof of these technical problems, so far as such proof is available, or will otherwise honor its Completion On Time Guarantee in avoid boredom full. The UK Study Help will have no obligations whatsoever in relation to the Completion on Time Guarantee if the delay in the delivery of the Work is as a result of the Customer’s actions – including but not limited to where the can i book, Customer has failed to pay an outstanding balance due in relation to the Order, sent in essay extra information after the order has started or changed any elements of the order instructions. Delays on book thesis, the part of the Customer may result in the relevant due date being changed according to an essay about sunset the extent of the delay without activating the Completion On Time Guarantee. Where the Customer has agreed for ‘staggered delivery’ with the Assignment Editing Expert , the Completion on where can i, Time Guarantee relates to the final delivery date of the Work and an essay about not to the delivery of thesis, individual components of the essay, Work. The Customer agrees that the details provided at where book, the time of placing their Order and making payment may be stored on the UK Study Help’s secure database, on the understanding that these details will not be shared with any third party The UK Study Help agrees that they will not disclose any personal information provided by the Customer other than as required to do so by any lawful authority, and/or to pursue any fraudulent transactions The UK Study Help operates a privacy policy which complies fully with the requirements of the Data Protection Act. The UK Study Help’s privacy policy is avoid boredom, available on the UK Study Help’s websites and a copy can be provided on request. The Customer may not request amendments to their Order specification after payment has been made or a deposit has been taken and can i the Order has been assigned to an Assignment Editing Expert The Customer may provide the Assignment Editing Expert with additional supporting information shortly after full payment or a deposit has been taken, provided that this does not add to or conflict with the details contained in their original Order specification If the capote, Customer provides additional information after full payment or a deposit has been taken and this does substantially conflict with the details contained in the original Order specification, the UK Study Help may at their discretion either obtain a quote for the changed specification or reallocate the Order, as soon as is reasonable, to a different Assignment Editing Expert without consulting the Customer.

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Unless payment is where find book thesis, taken at the time of placing an order, once the paper, UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and experienced Assignment Editing Expert to undertake the Customer’s order, they will contact the Customer by email to take payment. If, at book, their discretion, the UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the full value of the Order, the Customer acknowledges that the avoid essay, full balance will remain outstanding at all times and where can i find will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for the Work. The Customer agrees that once an essay on marilyn monroe Order is paid for then the Assignment Editing Expert allocated by the UK Study Help begins work on that Order, and that the Order may not be cancelled or refunded. Until payment or a deposit has been made and the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the Customer may choose to continue with the where can i find thesis, Order or to essay cancel the where can i find book thesis, Order at any time The Customer agrees to be bound by the UK Study Help’s refund policies and acknowledges that due to the highly specialized and essays about global warming change individual nature of the services that full refunds will only be given in the circumstances outlined in can i these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in which event any refund or discount is given at the discretion of the capote essay on marilyn, UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and Essay papers to the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to assist the buyer by providing a guideline and the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the copyright to the Work supplied through the can i book, UK Study Help’s services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on essay, its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and can i find book that the UK Study Help reserves the truman capote essay, right to refuse supply of services to those suspected of can i find, such behavior. The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of independent personalized research services in order to help students learn and about a glorious advance educational standards, and find book thesis that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the Customer’s own or as anyone else’s, nor be handed in as the Customer’s own work, either in essay whole or in part. In addition, the Customer undertakes not to carry out any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the Work and the Customer agrees to handle the Work in a way that fully respects the fact that the can i thesis, Customer does not hold the an essay a glorious, copyright to the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the where find thesis, UK Study Help has the right to refuse to carry out any further work for the person or organization involved and that the UK Study Help bears no liability for sunset any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for remuneration or otherwise after its completion.

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How to Write the MIT Application Essays 2017-2018. The Massachusetts Institute of find thesis Technology — abbreviated as MIT — is often regarded as one of the world’s best private research universities. Excelling in the physical science and truman capote essay, engineering disciplines, MIT boasts a noteworthy alumni network featuring 85 Nobel laureates, 45 Rhodes Scholars, and find book thesis, 52 National Medal of Science recipients. Beyond STEM, the university exudes a strong sense of entrepreneurship with its excellent programs in economics and management. Located on the outskirts of Boston in Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT offers students the opportunity to explore their intellectual curiosities in an urban environment. This metropolitan area gives students access to the city’s best corporations and research centers, making the school a top choice for both science and on contraceptives, business. With a U.S. News World Report ranking of #7 and can i book, an acceptance rate of 7.1% for its class of 2021, it’s no wonder that MIT shares the same prestige as most Ivy League schools. To those interested in applying, the school does not accept the Common Application and creatine, instead uses its own unique system called MyMIT. Applicants are required to complete 5 short essay questions, all of which ask about where find thesis your personal experiences and preferences.

While these prompts may seem intimidating at first, we here at CollegeVine are here to help you tackle MIT’s 2017-2018 application to the best of your ability! We know you lead a busy life, full of essays global and climate change activities, many of which are required of you. Tell us about something you do simply for the pleasure of it. (Response required in 100 words or fewer) One of the first things to thesis, note is the brevity of the response; with only 100 words, there’s no room to about a glorious, be too detailed. Even so, 100 words should be just enough for a few vivid sentences that really show the admissions officer what you do in your spare time. Where Can I Book Thesis. There’s no need to try to squeeze in an introductory or concluding sentence. For this prompt, it’s better to get straight to the point.

Next, remember that the prompt is asking for an activity that isn’t required of creatine you . If you’re the captain of your school’s varsity basketball team, then don’t write about basketball (even if you do play for thesis pleasure outside of school). MIT wants to know something about you that they can’t already find elsewhere in your application, something outside of research your academic and extracurricular responsibilities. Essentially, MIT is where find thesis, asking you: “What do you do in a dentist, your free time?” A great way to approach this prompt is to construct a brief anecdote to illustrate your passions. Do you love reading because you enjoy imagining yourself in fictional worlds? Do you find peace in painting natural scenery? Now is a great time to describe these experiences. Photography – Sitting on the pier, you watch as the sky transitions from blue to yellow, and book thesis, from yellow to orange. With your camera in hand, you capture the exact moment that the why become, sun touches the where can i find, horizon, the moment that the a dentist, colors begin to fade into a gradient.

Perhaps the sound of where can i find book your camera’s shutter acts as an essay instant stress reliever. Or perhaps you love the ability to capture nature’s wonders from a different perspective. Either way, the vivid imagery here makes writing an anecdote a very powerful approach. Baking – Do you love the aroma of homemade baking? Do you love experimenting with new recipes and creations? Maybe you love the meticulousness of measuring out ingredients and combining them to form one cohesive unit. If this sounds like you, write an anecdote about how you use baking as an can i find thesis outlet for your creativity. Use sensory details to essays global change, briefly go through the process of that new cupcake recipe you came up with, sharing with the reader your passion for thesis innovative baking. You’ll definitely make the admissions officer drool a little bit with this one.

Rubik’s Cube – You love the truman capote on marilyn monroe, thrill of solving a challenging puzzle. Starting with no instructions, you figured out the secret behind solving the cube and how to move each square to the right place. Thesis. After a few more tries, you can now solve it in just a few minutes, a reflection of about global change your ability to can i thesis, quickly learn and master difficult puzzles. While this may be a “nerdier” example, don’t be afraid to let your inner nerd shine (this is MIT after all). What makes each of these examples strong is the employment of imagery and sensory details.

Although the response must be brief, you want to make the admissions officer interested in what you love; appealing to the five senses is an excellent way to do so. Don’t tell them that you love photography, show them that you love it by transforming your answer into essays warming and climate change a story. Be honest — don’t lie for the sake of sounding more impressive. Where Can I. While volunteering at the local homeless shelter may sound very humble, don’t write about capote on marilyn that if it isn’t what you actually do in your free time. MIT can spot essays that try too hard and find book thesis, lying about humanitarian efforts is definitely one of those instances. While it’s important to avoid boredom essay, be honest, make sure to also use good judgement when articulating your response. Generally, anything goes for this prompt and you can essentially write about anything you’re passionate about. But if your favorite activity is find, “looking at memes,” it might be better to choose something else (especially after the Harvard incident).

Although you may not yet know what you want to major in, which department or program at MIT appeals to creatine, you, and why? (Response required in 100 words or fewer) Although not explicitly stated, MIT is using this prompt to where can i find, combine two commonly asked questions: “Why X Major?” and on contraceptives, “Why MIT?” As with the previous essay, there’s no room to provide too detailed of an explanation, but you must still briefly justify your response. The key word here is “why.” If you’re interested in chemistry but are also looking into a career in where can i find book, pharmaceutical manufacturing, you might write about your interests in MIT’s chemical engineering program. Or if you’re interested in economics, you can praise MIT’s Sloan School of Management, analyzing the ways in which the essay, school will help you hone in where, and develop your leadership skills.

If you want to conduct research in a STEM field, mentioning the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) and a glorious sunset, citing some specific projects can be a great way to where find book thesis, highlight your interests. For those looking to study EECS, you can discuss the appeal of capote essay monroe MIT’s new curriculum, which offers more flexibility and independence for undergraduate students. Perhaps when compared to other campuses, you find that MIT offers a stronger entrepreneurial culture, a quality that you find necessary for your academic success. If you have hopes of one day launching your own startup or designing your own program, now would be a great time to mention the program’s emphasis on entrepreneurship. Writing about your long-term goals and connecting them back to MIT’s academic culture (demonstrated through EECS example) is a very strong way to thesis, approach this prompt, as it answers both “Why X Major?” and “Why MIT?” Avoid vague answers such as “MIT is known for its excellent STEM programs” or “the Sloan School of a dentist essay Management is among the where can i thesis, best in the nation” — these types of answers do not answer the prompt nor do they highlight your interest in the school. No matter what major you intend on studying, remember to show admission officers how you plan to take advantage of MIT’s academic programs. Is there a specific professor you want to conduct research under? Is there a specific course you’re really excited to take?

If so, mention it! There’s no need to research paper, write a creative response to this prompt; the best approach is to where can i book thesis, be straightforward and specific. At MIT, we bring people together to truman essay monroe, better the lives of others. MIT students work to improve their communities in can i find book, different ways, from truman essay monroe, tackling the world’s biggest challenges to being a good friend. Describe one way in where can i, which you have contributed to your community, whether in your family, the classroom, your neighborhood, etc. (Response required in truman on marilyn, 200-250 words) As opposed to thesis, the previous two prompts, essay #3 gives you a little more room with 200-250 words; this should be just enough for an introductory sentence, one or two short body paragraphs, and a few concluding sentences. For this prompt, MIT wants to about sunset, see your selfless side by where book thesis looking at the strategies you take to help those around you. Don’t panic if you haven’t saved hundreds of on marilyn monroe lives or discovered the cure for cancer; as the prompt suggests, helping your community can be as simple as lending a shoulder for your friend to cry on. Whether big or small, think of where find book thesis a time that you made a positive impact on one or more people. Avoid Boredom. Maybe you have experience volunteering at where can i, the Red Cross or at your local retirement home. Or maybe you founded a club at an essay about a glorious sunset, your school with the goal of bringing education to children in thesis, need.

No matter what the cause is, show the admissions officers your generosity and willingness to make a difference in your community. Canned Food Drive – During the holidays, you organized a canned food drive to help feed the homeless in your community. Using your high school as a collection site, you set up donation boxes in a glorious sunset, front of each classroom and advertised the cause to your classmates. In the end, you were able to collect over a thousand cans, all of which were donated to where find book thesis, local homeless shelters. An Essay About A Glorious Sunset. With this, you contributed by bringing a little holiday joy to those less fortunate than you — seeing those people smile was enough to make you feel like you created a positive impact. House Fire – One of your friends lost his house to an unfortunate fire accident. Seeing that he was displaced, you opened up your home to him and his family, giving them the shelter and comfort that they needed. Since his family struggled financially, you created a GoFundMe page to raise money and help cover the fire damages. Soon, your kind gestures were recognized by the entire neighborhood, making your act of friendship seem much more large scale. Humanitarianism in a Foreign Country – Last summer, you traveled to West Africa on a mission to bring vaccines to underprivileged children.

Witnessing the torn state of the continent, you now make it your goal to engineer medical devices for those who have limited access to health care. Your efforts to find book, benefit the creatine paper, African community is what inspired your desire to study Biological Engineering at MIT, as you hope to can i, continue your humanitarianism. What each of these examples succeeds in doing is describing the impact that an action has on others. Whether it be putting a smile on research someone’s face or preventing a child from contracting a deadly disease, remember to can i find book thesis, show the reader what the outcome of your efforts were. Tying in your personal development is paper, another great way to heighten the magnitude of your contribution, as it gives your actions more significant personal meaning (humanitarianism example).

Ask yourself: How did you grow from this experience? What changes did you see? Don't Worry — We'll edit your admissions essay in a few hours. Submit your essay and we’ll get it back to you with helpful edits. Describe the world you come from; for example, your family, clubs, school, community, city, or town.

How has that world shaped your dreams and aspirations? (Response required in 200-250 words) Out of the 5 questions, this one is the most open-ended. MIT is asking this question to can i find book thesis, see how you have adapted to your environment and how this environment has shaped you as an individual. Boredom. A great way to start brainstorming for this prompt is to think about your dreams and aspirations first; what do you hope to where can i find book thesis, achieve in your lifetime? Next, reflect on your surroundings (your upbringing, your neighborhood, your school, etc.) and evaluate how this environment factored into capote on marilyn monroe your individuality. Perhaps you were a member of your school’s Model United Nations, and this fueled your desire to work in where find, politics. Or maybe your childhood love for building Lego masterpieces contributed to your goal of becoming a civil engineer. Either way, remember to reflect on capote on marilyn monroe your past (or present) and where, use this reflection to analyze your future. You spent a few years of your life living in Beijing, China. Living in a city where the sky is creatine, rarely blue and pedestrians wear masks to avoid breathing in the smog, you realized the dire state our environment is can i thesis, in.

Living in these conditions made you realize the need for green energy technologies and sustainable practices, inspiring your desire to study environmental engineering. Your mother working as a pediatric nurse meant you spent a significant amount of time watching her at the children’s hospital. The hospital was almost a second home to you, as you grew to on contraceptives, love observing and learning, eventually earning a chance to can i book thesis, volunteer there alongside your mother. While it pained you to see the suffering, you were touched by about global the amount of book thesis hope and joy the avoid, staff was able to provide the patients. Seeing this motivated you to pursue pediatrics and spread even greater amount of hope to those who need it the where can i find, most. What each of these examples succeeds in doing is analyzing the “world” that led to a specific realization. The key here is to demonstrate some sort of personal growth or moment in which you discovered your aspirations. For the first example, this could be the juxtaposition between traditional blue skies and the thick smog in Beijing; this was an eye-opening moment and made you look at the world from a different perspective, eventually influencing your career choice. For this prompt, it’s important to be specific. Tell us about the most significant challenge you’ve faced or something important that didn’t go according to an essay, plan.

How did you manage the where can i, situation? (Response required in 200-250 words) While it seems like this prompt is giving you two options to respond, the idea is relatively the same: discuss a challenge. Whether it is a personal struggle or a challenge you faced at school, MIT wants to know how you handle difficult situations and what you learn from such experiences. You want to construct an anecdote that goes through both the challenging situation and your thought process. When crafting your response, start by briefly describing the challenge, making sure to answer the question, “What was so significant about the challenge?” Next, go into detail about the essay, steps you took to tackle the obstacle and where can i find book, how you went about this process.

Make sure to discuss the outcome of the essay, situation and show the can i find book thesis, admissions officer how you matured from this experience. As you brainstorm and begin drafting your response, here are some guided questions to get you thinking: Why was this challenge so important to you? What is the significance? In that moment, what was your reaction to the situation? How did it affect you? Were the steps you took to manage the situation successful? Why or why not?

How did this challenge allow you to grow and mature as an individual? Try to essay, avoid “challenges” that are too trivial; although you may be upset that you got a B on that one calculus test, this is not a significant enough challenge to analyze. Where Thesis. For this prompt, it’s important to demonstrate personal growth and maturity, as this shows your capacity to boredom, adapt to difficult environments. You are a tennis player and have been ever since you could remember; playing tennis has become a part of your identity, and you couldn’t imagine a world without it. However, you experienced a tragic car accident, leaving you with a shattered right hand, your dominant playing hand. Rather than giving up the sport you love, you learned to adapt by training to strengthen your left arm and readjusting to accommodate your new circumstances. Although you slowly regained mobility and control over your right hand, you knew you would never be able to play the where book, same way again. Despite this, you transformed your weaknesses into strengths and made the most out of an unfamiliar situation. You are passionate about robotics and wanted to start a competitive robotics club at your school.

You gathered a group of truman monroe interested students and began the process of find book getting the an essay about a glorious, club approved by the administration. To your disappointment, your club was rejected. Instead of accepting defeat, you and your peers petitioned the school in hopes of having the board members reconsider their decision. Where Can I Find Thesis. After exhausting all possible measures, the school reversed its decision and funded your club; today, Robotics Club is one of the most popular student groups on campus. Overall, there are no secrets or gimmicks to any of these essays.

MIT is simply trying to get to know you better, whether it’s by asking you about your interests or your personal experiences. For each of these essays, remember to ask yourself: What do I want MIT to know about me? Don’t try to write something you think the admissions officer wants to hear; be yourself and be honest. Essay. Remember to show and don’t tell , and highlight the reasons you think you would be a great fit for where can i find book thesis MIT. Want us to quickly edit your college essay? Submit it to our Rapid Review Program , and we’ll get it back to you quickly with comments from our expert team. From school list creation to putting together a solid admissions narrative and helping you write competitive essays , we’ll help you every step of the way. We'll send them straight to your inbox. Latest posts by essays about global CollegeVine College Essay Team (see all)

How to Write the where can i find thesis, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Essays 2017-2018 - September 26, 2017 How to Write the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Essays 2017-2018 - September 25, 2017 How to Write the Yeshiva University Application Essays 2017-2018 - September 25, 2017. We’ll send you college prep tips #038; admissions info. 125 Cambridge Park Dr. Cambridge, MA 02140. Subscribe to our newsletter.

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