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blues music homework This lesson examines both the essay, content and form of relationship, lyrics in blues songs. In addition to holocaust planned highlighting the dissertation timeline, basic musical form of a blues song, it also addresses the essay planned, use of floating verses in bsc thesis, blues music, both within the holocaust, context of the original era in essays on sisterhood, which the songs were sung and essay planned also in essay section, relation to essay how this practice is perceived today. By completing this lesson, the student will: Understand and practice mapping out essay life a blues song Comprehend the difference between the use of floating verse and the violation of copyright law Investigate the origins of the blues Standards. Essay Holocaust. Addresses the following themes in bibtex, the National Curriculum Standards for essay holocaust planned, Music Education: Secondary: 7, 8, 9. The Road to background Memphis (segment toward the essay holocaust planned, end of process timeline, Black Spot on the Dial in which B.B. King's performance shows the essay planned, AAB form) Borrowing from the Blues. Origins of the Blues. This exercise explores song elements and looks closely at background, the blues song format.

Ask students to bring the lyrics of a favorite song to essay holocaust planned class (reminding them beforehand what appropriate and essays inappropriate choices would be). Start by essay planned discussing the background, lyrical parts of a song: Verses#151;In a song, a verse is holocaust a group of lines that constitutes a unit (similar to verses in new technology argumentative essay, poetry). Holocaust Planned. Typically, a song consists of several verses, and the rhyme scheme and writing for me rhythm are usually the same from essay holocaust planned verse to verse. Essay Parents. Chorus#151;A song's refrain (verse that repeats itself at holocaust, given intervals throughout the song). Bridge#151;Transitional passage connecting two sections of the song.

As you discuss, demonstrate the eassay writing, parts on essay holocaust an overhead projector using a song with which students are familiar. Eassay Writing For Me. Once students comprehend the holocaust planned, parts, ask them to identify the essay relationship parents, parts of the essay holocaust, song lyrics they brought to class, pointing out that not all songs contain all parts. Mention that blues songs, like many other songs, conform to process standard song structure in some ways while varying in holocaust, others. Have students listen to Lost Your Head Blues by bsc thesis bibtex Bessie Smith, recording the words as they listen. Once the essay holocaust planned, class has heard the entire song, transcribe the lyrics on the board in prose rather than verse form, filling in where student gaps exist.

Ask students to label each sentence with a letter, starting with A. Sentences that are the eassay writing, same should have the same letter. This should look like: Now, ask students to write the lyrics out in essay planned, song form. Where would the line breaks be? Where would the verse breaks be? The first verse of the essays on sisterhood, final product should look like: Inform students that this format, known as the essay holocaust, AAB blues format, is typical of essay, many blues songs. Essay Holocaust. The first line often presents an bibtex, idea or issue, the second line repeats it (perhaps with a slight variation), and planned the third line develops or resolves the idea presented in by sandra essay, the first and second lines.

To further illustrate this blues form, show the holocaust, segment Black Spot on essay relationship parents the Dial from essay The Road to Memphis in eassay writing, which B.B. King performs a song in the AAB format. [See Film Tie-Ins for details on the film segment.] Finally, demonstrate how blues music frequently veers away from the AAB format. Playing a variety of songs, including Stack O' Lee by holocaust Mississippi John Hurt, When Will I Get to Be Called a Man by Big Bill Broonzy, and for me Mannish Boy by Muddy Waters, can illustrate how the AAB form is by no means the exclusive song format of the blues. Floating verses#151;the same lyrics or phrases used in more than one blues song#151;are very common in essay holocaust planned, blues music. Essay Parents. To illustrate the notion of essay planned, floating verses, ask students to essay background read the lyrics of holocaust, two blues songs: I Believe I'll Dust My Broom (1936) by Robert Johnson and bibtex Dust My Broom (1951) by planned Elmore James. Students should identify phrases and lines borrowed from essay experience Johnson by essay holocaust James. Inform them that Johnson borrowed lyrically from others as well. Essay. Specifically, phrases from holocaust three early blues songs#151;Kokomo Arnold's Sagefield Woman Blues and parents Sissy Man Blues and Carl Rafferty's Mr. Carl Blues#151;appear in I Believe I'll Dust My Broom.

Ask students what they think about this kind of borrowing. Why would blues singers borrow from one another in this fashion? How might the essay holocaust planned, original writer feel about essay life his/her phrases appearing in the lyrics of another blues musician's songs? How might the essay planned, fact that the blues is section based largely on essay holocaust African American oral tradition, in which stories were passed down from generation to generation, have shaped the phrase-borrowing that is so common to the blues? [Robert Johnson's song lyrics are at http://www.bluesroots.de/songbook1/10.htm and Elmore James' can be found at http://www.fleetwoodmac.net/penguin/lyrics/d/.] While borrowing lines or phrases from other blues songs was accepted practice, especially in early blues (up to essay parents the 1950s), blues musicians weren't necessarily happy when white artists borrowed their music, remaking it for white audiences. Essay. Illustrate this idea by watching the my name by sandra, segment Sam Phillips in holocaust, the film The Road to Memphis . After viewing, discuss: How do Sam Phillips and Ike Turner view the borrowing of experience life, blues music by white artists differently?

Why might Turner have been less approving of such borrowing than Phillips? How is this borrowing different from floating verses as previously discussed? Why might black blues artists in the 1950s not have seen white artists' borrowing as a compliment? Do cultural differences come into essay play when assessing appropriate and inappropriate borrowing? Conclude this exercise by background section assigning students to compose an holocaust, article in dissertation process timeline, the voice of Robert Johnson in which he describes the difference between the planned, practice of floating verse and new technology argumentative essay plagiarism. Research and Analysis. Holocaust. Assign students to process research the history of the essay planned, blues, focusing on both the music from argumentative essay which the essay, blues emerged (field hollers, work songs, spirituals, and relationship parents country string ballads) as well as early blues performers. Research should consider the holocaust planned, following: How the blues represents an new technology, extension of the African American oral tradition How the holocaust planned, AAB blues form connects to essay background African music and early African American music The connection between slave music lyrics and blues lyrics The history of the essay holocaust, floating verse Because these topics are very large (and the argumentative, focus of many academic studies of the blues), students should be encouraged to view their findings as ideas rather than as definitive answers. Essay Holocaust. When students have been given adequate research time, the class can hold a forum in which these issues are discussed. Bibtex. Assign students an essay where they either agree or disagree with the following assertion: Musicians who incorporate samples from other songs into essay their music today are no different from blues musicians who used floating verse. Therefore, copyright law should not apply.

The U.S. Copyright office at http://www.copyright.gov/title17 will provide some background. Of College. 1. Essay Planned. Blues lyrics, in relationship parents, addition to essay often following the AAB blues format, frequently tell a story. This exercise encourages students to consider the background section, storytelling feature of the blues while allowing them to planned write their own blues song in AAB blues format. Eassay Writing For Me. Start by playing B.B. Holocaust Planned. King's Three O'Clock Blues. Discuss the story in the song. Next, identify how the song conforms to the AAB blues format, with the first two lines in essays on sisterhood, the verse being the same and the third, different; the A line presents an issue, while the B line presents the holocaust planned, conclusion. Eassay. Give students a few minutes to essay holocaust planned brainstorm a short story about which to eassay writing for me write their own blues song.

Topics might include asking someone out on a date, completing a homework assignment, or performing in a school event#151;athletic or otherwise. Once students have each identified a story, inform them that they will use B.B. King's song as the holocaust planned, base from which to dissertation write their own blues song. Record the essay holocaust planned, song's first verses on the board: Well now, it's three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. Three o'clock in the morning. Bibtex. And I can't even close my eyes. Can't find my baby.

And I can't be satisfied. Essay Holocaust Planned. Assign students to cisneros essay change the holocaust planned, last line of the verse to background section a line corresponding with the story they want to planned tell. A student creation might read: Well now, it's three o'clock in bsc thesis, the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. Essay. Three o'clock in essays, the morning.

And I can't even close my eyes. My computer lost my report. And I'm just fit to be tied. Essay. Next, encourage them to essay parents move further away from the original in essay holocaust, another rewriting of the verse. This time, the background section, verse might read: Well now, I woke up early this morning. And my eyes were burning with pain. Essay Planned. I woke up early this morning. And my eyes were burning with pain. I stayed up all night writing. 'Cause my computer lost my report again.

Once all students have composed a verse to their own blues song, provide them time to essay write at least two additional verses. Holocaust. When class members all have their verses written, ask them to dissertation timeline post their lyrics up in the classroom. Invite students to read the work of their classmates, borrowing lines that they particularly like from essay holocaust planned one another's work and incorporating these lines into parents their own songs. Inform students that borrowing lines, a concept further explored in the Focus Exercise , was common practice in early blues. Holocaust Planned. 2. Process. Much that became rock and roll was borrowed from the blues, both in terms of the planned, music and essay relationship the lyrics.

To have students consider the essay holocaust, lyrical legacy of the blues on popular music, ask them to essay complete a side-by-side comparison of blues song lyrics and essay holocaust popular song lyrics from the same era, taking examples from the for me, 1950s, 1970s, and today. Planned. The following checklist of blues song elements can serve as a guide for assessing each song: ____geared toward a specific demographic. Background Section. ____no specific audience intended. Blues songs to consider can include: Some options for popular music comparisons: 1955 #10 hit: Fats Domino, Ain't That a Shame 1956 #5 hit: Chuck Berry, Maybellene 1957 #12 hit: Patsy Cline, Walkin' After Midnight 1958 #6 hit: Frank Sinatra, Witchcraft 1959 #7 hit: Bobby Darin, Mack the essay, Knife 1970 #1 hit: The Jackson 5, ABC 1971 #1 hit: Isaac Hayes, Theme From Shaft 1974 #6 hit: ABBA, Waterloo 1976 #1 hit: The Manhattans, Kiss and Say Goodbye 1979 #1 hit: Michael Jackson, Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough As a class, analyze both the form and topical content of the lyrics, focusing on dissertation timeline whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest that blues song elements crossed over into popular music of the essay planned, same time period. Readings: Burns, Loretta.

A Stylistic Analysis of process, Blues Lyrics . Essay Holocaust. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1977. Kovacs, Edna. Writing Across Cultures: A Handbook on Writing Poetry and background section Lyrical Prose . Hillsboro, OR: Blue Heron Publishing, 1994. Tracy, Stephen C., ed. Write Me a Few of Your Lines: A Blues Reader . Amherst: University of planned, Massachusetts Press, 1999. Web Sites:

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My Ed.D. thesis proposal: What does it mean to be ‘digitally literate’? I submitted the second version of planned, my Ed.D. thesis proposal a while back now. I had to re-submit as I failed the first submission. This was a bit of a shock to the system, never having failed anything academically before. It was actually partly my supervisor’s fault – who has now left the University of Durham and doesn’t have a doctorate himself… :p. I was advised to wait until I had the marks back for eassay the thesis proposal before posting it on my blog.

Upon reflection, I could see this was a sensible thing to do, so now I’ve heard back and I’ve passed I’m going to post it in its entirity. I received 63% for holocaust the following, which isn’t disastrous but less than I would have hoped for. Because it’s my second submission, however, the mark that’s recorded is 50%. At the of college life end of the day, I’m not overly concerned: my Ed.D. Holocaust Planned. overall is pass/fail… #128578; The comments on the following were: This is a solid proposal which provides a detailed reflection of the relevant literature in which the proposed study is to be grounded.

Although covered in less detail than the literature section, the proposal provides an appropriate methodological base for the research. The proposal suggests a cross-cultural component and it is important in this context that similarities as well as ‘discrepancies’ are identified and that the study does not become unmanageable. In general this is a good solid proposal. The proposal itself follows after the process timeline ‘tag’ cloud that is indicative of essay, its contents (courtesy of TweetClouds) What does it mean to be ‘educated’ and ‘digitally literate’? The impact of ICT and the knowledge society upon writing education in the 21st century. Society is changing at an unprecedented rate. The nature of the holocaust planned family, how we connect with other people, the ways in which our leaders are held accountable, and the extent to which the media controls our lives are fundamentally different even from 25 years ago. Members of every culture and society have the world of background section, everyday experience mediated by technologies, traditions and cultural norms or expectations. Essay Holocaust Planned. (Petrina, 2007:168; Achterhuis, 2001:71) The technologies which mediate life in the 21st century in parents, first-world nations are powerful communicative devices and are developing at an incredibly fast pace. This means that the essay holocaust way in argumentative essay, which the world is holocaust planned understood and presented to individuals can be somewhat incoherent and essay experience of college life, is certainly very different from essay, that of previous generations. In turn, unless they are willing to change to essay adapt to the needs and future requirements of learners, schools are in danger of becoming, ‘even more quaint and shaky against the backdrop of technology.’ (Smith Curtin, 1998:227)

Schools are the link between generations: they bridge the gap between the knowledge and skills of the previous generation and that of the next generation. One of the roles of educational institutions is to holocaust planned ensure that young people have the knowledge and skills for the world of work. But education is not simply about preparing young people for their working life, as evidenced by recent ‘personalising learning’ initiatives that have emerged across the western educational landscape. There remains something more holistic about the essays on sisterhood education system that aims at producing ‘educated’, ‘literate’ citizens. As we discover more about how the brain works and about how students learn best, so what we mean by an ‘educated’ person changes. Technology also has a role to play in this, as for some educational thinkers it to a great extent redefines what it means to be ‘literate’. Schools, therefore, are increasingly investing in and exploring educational technology in an attempt to ensure that they remain relevant to holocaust planned the world outside the school gates. Whilst there is a top-down drive to essays adopt such technologies, however, their pedagogical use is still being worked out at a grass-roots level.

With society in a state of flux and of radical transformation schools need to holocaust find a way of bridging the gap between their traditional role and the technologically-mediated world in which their pupils now inhabit. It is an open problem about which Jacques Delors (Delors, 1996a:172), president of UNESCO wrote in 1996: …there is a decisive issue at stake here, and it is important that schools and universities should have a central place in essay experience of college, a profound change that is affecting the whole of society. There is no doubt but that individuals’ ability to access and process information is set to become the determining factor in their integration not onlyinto the working environment but also into holocaust, their social and cultural environment. The concept that shall be discussed in what follows as ‘digital literacy’, therefore, would seem to be a key one for schools and individuals who want to play an active role in the ‘knowledge society’. There is a tension at process timeline the heart of school life between preparing students for an uncertain future whilst continuing traditional notions of what constitutes a school. Essay Holocaust Planned. Successfully resolving this tension should result in educational institutions producing ‘educated’ young people who are ‘literate’ within the domains they shall operate, both now and in the future. However, due to the scale of social change witnessed over the last 25 years, coupled with the essay relationship parents almost exponential rate of essay, technological development and uptake, resolution of this tension is becoming increasingly difficult for schools. What does an ‘educated’ person look like in the 21st century? Are traditional literacy skills enough? Although some work has been done in attempting to make a traditional curriculum more flexible, coherent and relevant, few explicit identifications of what constitutes a literate, educated person in the 21st century have been made (McCain, 2005:49). Having a clear focus as to what it means to essays have the requisite tools for life in the 21st century – to be ‘digitally literate’ – would enable schools to synthesise the traditional and the new more effectively.

Whilst definitions are both historically and culturally situated (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8), it should be possible to identify common usage, at least implicitly, of what educators and policy makers mean when they talk about being ‘educated’ – and therefore ‘literate’ in a 21st century sense. Essay Holocaust. In contrast to the view satirised by parents Charles Dickens’ character of Gradgrind in Hard Times (‘Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts’), to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century is a more slippery idea to essay holocaust planned pin down. There is little agreement as to essay what the purpose of essay, education is in the 21st century. Experience. Some thinkers on the topic are instrumentalists, seeing education as a means to a (usually vocational) end, whereas others stress the importance of the process. Holocaust Planned. Likewise, as has been argued extensively, (Barton Hamilton, 2000:11-12; Muller, 2000:56; Delors, 1996b:85) ‘literacy’ ranges across domains and applies to writing for me much more than reading and essay, pencil-and-paper writing. Agreement upon what it means to be a ‘literate’ person, therefore, is also difficult to find.

To have some clarity as to what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ will help move on the debates taking place at all levels in the western education system. Instead of these conceptions being an updated version of what was learned at school by the previous generation, there needs to be a thorough review of the needs of both students and the workplace. An active examination of the possibilities offered by new (educational) technologies should inform this review in order for it to be as forward-looking as possible. The views of stakeholders and on sisterhood, interested parties need to be analysed and holocaust planned, compared in order to discover motivations, potential conflicts and essays on sisterhood, areas of agreement. Once these notions of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century have been resolved then the way forward for education to holocaust move towards new pedagogies and ways of working should become clear. At present, however, the essay lack of clarity as to what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ means that teachers are subjected constantly to new proposals and reforms that aim to resolve the tension between the essay holocaust planned old and the new. Without an idea of the purpose of education, it would seem that these efforts are ultimately doomed to fail. To explore claims that traditional notions of literacy are not sufficient for 21st century education. Dissertation Process Timeline. To analyse policy documents from government down to planned school level in order to discover the background section level of coherence in evidence. Planned. To highlight discrepancies between pedagogy and practice regarding educational technology in schools. To survey briefly the situation in other countries regarding digital literacy skills.

To come up with workable, 21st-century definitions of what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ (i.e. Argumentative Essay. literate in the 21st century) Despite Tony Blair’s famous commitment to ‘education, education, education’, the planned Labour government in background, the United Kingdom is notoriously cagey when it comes to defining and setting out the purpose(s) of essay planned, education and schooling. Implicit in many of the essays pronouncements made and reforms undertaken is a focus upon the financial well-being of the individual, and therefore the nation. Achieving ‘economic well-being’ is even enshrined in essay, the compulsory Every Child Matters agenda to be implemented by schools (HMSO, 2003). Leaving aside the use of education as a vehicle to writing economic prosperity, however, at least one of the purposes of schooling must be to produce ‘educated’ young people. Essay Holocaust. What is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century, however, is difficult to define. Essay. In the past this was much more straightforward, defined by the educational elite. Today, however, even leading educational thinkers such as David Carr (2003:11-12) have difficulty in pinning down a notion of what it now means to be ‘educated’:

The best we can so far say is that to be educated is to come to appreciate or value for their own sake the non-instrumental or teleological (intrinsically valuable) features of those forms of knowledge, understanding and essay planned, skill for which a reasonable educational case has or can be made. Just to have studied or have some knowledge or skill, however, does not make one educated. One must be able to communicate one’s learning in a meaningful way and new technology essay, put it into practice. Carr argues that the notions of ‘education’ and essay holocaust, ‘schooling’ need to be untangled (Carr, 2003:15,134), much in the same way that clarification needs to essay relationship be sought over the difference between being ‘educated’ and being ‘literate’. With the multiplicity of ways in which knowledge can be communicated in essay planned, the 21st century comes new literacies to be able to of college transmit and essay planned, receive knowledge in essays on sisterhood, these new ways. It has been fashionable of late to ascribe to ‘literacy’ those characteristics that would have traditionally gone under the guise of essay holocaust, being ‘educated’. (Delors, 1996a:174; Snyder, 2002:181; Rodriguez Illera, 2004:49-50) Literacy, with the emergence of new domains of essays, application such as ‘computer literacy’ and ‘visual literacy’, has enjoyed an elevation in status. From being seen originally as being able to read and write or as a means to gaining an education, it is now widely regarded as an end in itself. An understanding of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century should lead to a greater understanding of what it means to be ‘educated’, if indeed the latter is something over and above the former. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the adjective ‘literate’ means, ‘acquainted with letters or literature; educated, instructed, learned.’ To many educational thinkers, however, this is an outdated definition. In 1958 UNESCO defined literacy as ‘the ability of an individual to read and holocaust, write with understanding a simple short statement related to his/her everyday life.’ The difficulty with both these definitions is that they categorise people as either literate or illiterate allowing for no shades of argumentative, grey. Planned. Literacy is defined on a ‘macro’, global level without an understanding of literacy within a given domain or for a specific purpose.

There is essay of college life no scope with these definitions to essay planned be able to describe an process individual as literate when it comes to pencil-and-paper-based reading and writing, but almost ‘illiterate’ when dealing within a domain mediated by technology. Understood broadly, literacy can be an elusive human construct: it means different things and involves different skills depending upon the culture and time period within which an individual operates. Whilst in the western world ‘literacy’ has traditionally meant the ability to read and write with pencil and paper, this makes a nonsense of societies with oral traditions and records. Postmodern educational thinkers have therefore attempted to deconstruct ‘literacy’, understanding it to consist in many different ‘literacies’. The main stimulus to this, as Kellner (2002:163) attests, is the widening use of technology in society: As technological convergence develops apace, individuals need to combine the skills of critical media literacy with traditional print literacy and new forms of multiple literacies to essay holocaust access and navigate the new multimedia environments. This depends on an enlarged view of literacy, one that goes beyond the mere functional skills set out in UNESCO’s 1958 definition. Literacy becomes ‘gaining the skills and knowledge to read and interpret the text of the world and to successfully navigate and negotiate its challenges, conflicts, and crises,’ (Kellner, 2002:157) ‘the application of… knowledge for specific purposes in specific contexts,’ (Scribner Cole, 1981 – quoted in argumentative essay, Rodriguez Illera, 2004:51), a ‘set of social practices’ that are ‘historically situated’ (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8,13). Literacy in the postmodern view is a fragmented notion: contextually dependent and culturally constructed. New literacies are being formed all the essay planned time (Reilly, 1996:218).

This has led to the compartmentalisation of different forms of essays on sisterhood, literacy such as ‘computer literacy’, ‘visual literacy’, and ‘critical media literacy’ which served to demonstrate how, for example, an extremely literate person on the traditional view could be ‘illiterate’ when it comes to communicating with the aid of technology. Whilst the postmodern deconstruction of literacy has been useful for purposes of clarification, something about the original holistic meaning of ‘literacy’ has been lost. Literacy is reduced to a science, as training within a given domain. There remains something of holocaust, a binary distinction between those who are literate within a domain and those who are not. UNESCO’s most recent definition in its 2004 position paper (UNESCO, 2004:13) recognises and addresses the limitations of both its own 1958 position and that of postmodern thinkers: Literacy is the ability to argumentative essay identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of holocaust planned, learning in enabling individuals to eassay writing achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to essay planned participate fully in their community and wider society. This definition is an Hegelian-type synthesis of the original, 1950s holistic definitions of literacy, and its more fragmented definition under postmodernism.

Literacy is background a process, not a state (Rodriguez Illera, 2004) and as such underpins abilities within a given domain. It is better, therefore, to holocaust planned talk of someone having or lacking literacy skills within the domain of digital technologies, rather than ascribing to them a state of being ‘digitally literate’ or ‘digitally illiterate’. Shades of writing, grey within each domain are recognised which build towards an overarching global ‘literacy’. As evidenced above, recent definitions of what it means to be ‘educated’ by those in control of education in the UK are hard to come by. Elsewhere in the western world they are more forthcoming, however.

A representative statement is enshrined, for example, in the definitions set down by Michigan State University as part of its VISION 2004 reorganisation: An educated person is someone who has learned how to acquire, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, understand, and holocaust planned, communicate knowledge and information. An educated person has to develop skills that respond to changing professional requirements and new challenges in society and the world at large. He or she must be able to take skills previously gained from serious study of one set of problems and apply them to for me another. He or she must be able to essay planned locate, understand, interpret, evaluate, and use information in an appropriate way and ultimately communicate his or her synthesis and understanding of that information in a clear and accurate manner. That is to say that being an ‘educated’ person involves taking skills and knowledge from one domain and applying them to another, as well as making links between areas of knowledge and keeping up to date with developments within one’s field and those which affect it. This definition appears to section have more in common with traditional conceptions of essay holocaust, wisdom than it does with those of writing, literacy (Town, 2003:54). Put simply, becoming literate can be thought of as acquiring the skills to be able to participate in the discourse of a particular domain, whereas becoming educated is to holocaust planned be able to range across domains and synthesise the knowledge that has been gained. The domains of knowledge within educational schools have traditionally been subject-based. Teachers are teachers of one or more specific subjects and the knowledge, if not the skills, learned are particular to relationship that domain. However, as Muller (2000:2) states, knowledge is intrinsically social – which means that the boundaries and constituent elements of domains of knowledge are socially determined and defined.

As a result, literacies change as societal definitions of domains of knowledge change. We view knowledge within a given domain through the lens of essay, current literacies (DiSessa, 2000:65) meaning that what an eassay writing for me individual can know and understand is limited by and dependent upon their use of essay holocaust, semantic and technological tools. Limiting the essay experience of college life ‘micro-literacies’ that make up the more holistic view of essay planned, literacy (‘macro-literacy’) is to limit the ability of the individual to access some of the knowledge within a given domain. For example, using the essay section ‘micro-literacy’ of familiarity with some digital technologies could allow Geography students to essay communicate in real-time with other students around the world. The knowledge they would gain from this would be of a different order from that which they could construct from the for me inputs of teacher and textbook. Each ‘micro-literacy’ the students develop counts towards a more global Geographical ‘macro-literacy’. In turn, this would feed into essay holocaust, an ever-higher ‘macro-literacy’ that enables the student to function in the world they inhabit.

To be ‘educated’, therefore, could be understood as making links between various domains, which in turn depends upon both micro- and macro-literacies. Macro-literacies cannot be developed without first developing micro-literacies. If knowledge is information contextualised within a given domain, and domains are dependent upon section cultural and essay planned, societal factors, then knowledge is affected by the rate of change of a society. When the rate of societal change and technological innovation is reasonably slow – or at least relatively stable – educational institutions are able to predict what an educated person will look like in ten to fifteen years’ time and prepare students accordingly. When the rate of parents, societal change and technological innovation increases, however, these predictions become less accurate and strategies have to employed in order for educational institutions to be able to function. Holocaust. In practice this means schools sitting on a spectrum somewhere between reactionary measures and furiously attempting to keep up with the latest initiatives. The difficulty that schools face, as Bourdieu (1988, cited in on sisterhood, Snyder, 2002:178) notes, is that to transform the present one must have a secure grasp upon it. Given the essay holocaust planned ‘precariousness’ of contemporary life this is difficult to achieve: the ‘sociality’ of essay relationship, knowledge means that domains of knowledge and of enquiry are constantly shifting. As a result educational institutions walk a tightrope between anticipating the world which their students will inhabit and introducing them to the knowledge and skills that have been and are currently being used by planned society.

The rate of change of eassay for me, society in the 21st century is being driven to a great extent by essay developments in technology. As the process timeline OECD report Learning to essay Change: ICT in Schools (2001:9) noted, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has changed the way we live and communicate with one another: The ubiquitous presence and utility of ICT in modern life are having a significant impact on the way we live, and even on the notion of an educated person. It has led to the concept of the on sisterhood knowledge society – sometimes also called the essay holocaust planned learning society or information society. There is a widespread awareness that these developments have profound implications for education, and that schools must change, but as yet little detailed consideration of the dissertation process timeline extent of the change needed and the advantages that ICT can bring. The growth of the holocaust knowledge society and the pervasiveness of the technology represent a major challenge and a major opportunity for education.

Education has a pivotal role to play in society as it is the essay relationship parents link between past and future generations. Essay Holocaust Planned. In the past this link has been relatively easy to achieve, as the essay knowledge and skills useful to essay holocaust acquire would vary only slightly within a generation. In the brave new world of digital technology, however, fundamental shifts in eassay, required knowledge skill sets and knowledge can occur several times within a generation. The most important skill one can have in a world where knowledge has a ‘half-life’ (Machlup, 1962) is to learn how to holocaust learn, to have a secure framework or scaffold upon essay relationship which new knowledge can be grafted and discarded when necessary. This changing nature of knowledge has been described by Siemens (2006) as knowledge having ‘broken away from holocaust, its moorings, its shackles’. Nowhere is this more evident than in the realm of educational technology where, using the tools already available in most schools, learners across the world can communicate, interact and for me, share. The feeling amongst many writers uneasy with current western-style education systems is that tools which can (and in planned, most cases should) be used to radically transform the way young people are educated in process, the future are being used to essay planned prop up the existing system. Essay Of College Life. Tools which should be used to create new literacies are being shoehorned to supplement or gloss those of the planned past. Some writers talk of essays, these digital tools being retro-fitted to outdated pedagogies to produce what could be termed ‘School 1.5’ instead of ‘School 2.0’. Ironically, when these tools do not lead directly to huge learning gains, at least on such measures as school league tables and the like, it is the tools themselves rather than the pedagogy and education system which are blamed.

Using relevant technologies is essential in 21st century education when it is the principal way by which the essay holocaust planned world is experience mediated to individuals; new pedagogies need to essay holocaust planned be constructed to use the tools and technologies invented and experience, used outside of the school gate. When tools such as online read/write reference resources become more accessible than books and lecture notes, a shift occurs in the way that learners conceptualise not only research, but the world itself. As many authors have noted, we use technology to shape the world – but tools, technological or otherwise, also shape us (Burnett, 2002:145; Apple, cited in essay planned, Darder, et al., 2003:454; Demetriadis, et al., 2003:34; Provenzo, et al., 1999:40; Sutherland, et al., 2004:6) Although he could not have envisaged the online worlds available to us through the Internet, the effect of such tools on eassay writing for me, learners is put perhaps most succinctly by Dewey (1925, quoted in Blacker McKie, 2003:235): A tool is a particular thing, but it is more than a particular thing, since it is a thing in which a connection, a sequential bond of essay holocaust planned, nature is dissertation timeline embodied. Planned. It possesses an objective relation as its own defining property. Timeline. Its perception as well as its actual use takes the mind to other things. The use of educational technology, then, mediates the essay experience of learners with regard to education and to knowledge, but then so does the use of any tool. Section. This process of human-created tools mediating human experience has an impact upon education: learners need to be able to holocaust use and shape these tools for their own ends. Writing For Me. To be ‘educated’ involves being able to leverage semantic and technological tools across domains in essay holocaust, order to dissertation process make connections. To view the possibilities and potential impact of educational technology requires a re-imagining of teaching and learning. Even with a reconceptualization of what it means to be ‘educated’ and ‘literate’ in the 21st century, what does not change is the human element in learning, a thread that winds its way from the Socratic dialogues through to 21st century classrooms and (virtual) lecture theatres.

Although there were fears in the early 1970s when computers first began to be integrated into the mainstream that society would become dehumanised, the former still serves as a tool to the latter. In fact, using ICT is more than just a tool, as computers and other digital devices are flexible enough to adapt to the user and present them with many different communication and processing options. It is perhaps better visualised as a plethora of many intellectual tools. This nuanced view is unfortunately missing in much of the discussions surrounding educational technology and the use of computers in schools more generally. Lemke (2002:45) perhaps demonstrates the most balanced understanding of the ways that educational technology can be used to enhance learning. New technologies can often do the job of simulating and talking about the essay typical activities of the community far better than the average teacher in the average classroom. Technologies will not, however, be able to relationship parents substitute for direct participation, nor will they be able to essay planned replace thoughtful guidance of students’ critical reflection and analysis, nor the emotional encouragement of achievement and essay, creativity that live teachers provide. The difficulty is that the majority of essay holocaust, educators do not understand the revolutionary potential of ICT to their day-to-day teaching.

What they see as akin to the television or overhead projector has, if not the ability to ‘blow up the school’ (Papert (1984), cited in Cuban, 1986:72), then certainly the ability to help create an environment where learners can construct their own educational tools. Dissertation Process. Micro-literacies can be thought of as having the ability to create, or at least modify, tools in order to essay holocaust planned make sense of the knowledge within a given domain. Teaching youngsters how to use existing, outdated tools when a culture is undergoing radical change, is at best anachronistic (Claxton, 2002:23). On Sisterhood. Educational technology is not the answer to everything – a teacher’s pedagogical outlook and holocaust planned, teaching ability is still the biggest determinant factor in the quality of a learner’s education – but technology does allow different kinds of ‘ecologies’ to essay experience life be created. These are more likely to be focused on holocaust, learning than on ‘teaching’. Essay Background Section. (Burnett, 2002: 145) ‘Learning ecologies’ demand a different approach to planned education than has been possible previously, and is reflected in some of the ‘personalising learning’ agendas that have made their way into essays, policy in some areas of western education. Instead of the school or teacher-centred model of learning that mass education has been built upon thus far, a learner-centred ecology has been mooted, especially by constructivists. The driving force behind this has been the possibilities opened up by ICT, which has driven curriculum change (OECD, 2001:15) and a rethink of what we mean by ‘literacy’. The difficulty lies in what Levin Riffel (1997:18) call the essay ‘logic of confidence’: schools can remain fundamentally unchanged so long as they are seen as embodying the right kind of activities and processes. Instead of taking steps to improve learning, tests are taken as a substitute.

Progress is essay measured by teachers becoming adept at getting learners through examinations at increasingly higher levels. As politicians also have an interest in these examination results, the whole system becomes somewhat of a charade. Essay. Given this barrier, the greatest bequest of ICT to writing for me education thus far may have been simply to point out how stale and boring traditional teaching actually is (Burniske Monke, 2001:258). Whilst educational systems remain in the straightjacket of results and are inextricably linked to a country’s political system, the essay planned possibilities of new technologies are likely to be directed towards existing hegemonic power structures. However, as Blacker McKie (2003:241) argue, ICT may provide the essay section perfect, invisible, weapon: a tool presented as neutral, but actually fundamentally value-laden and used to perpetuate the position of the elite within society. Essay Holocaust. Whilst those in positions of control can manipulate the education system and eassay writing, the political process to continue their hegemonic power, then the essay planned potential of essay parents, technology and holocaust, other innovations are likely to be minimal. Whilst the essay section use of technology is essay not inevitable, as a society we have made a decision to put it at the centre of eassay writing for me, our culture – much in the same way as we did with the automobile in the 1950s. (Balle, quoted in Eraut, 1999:89) To ‘jump off the wagon’ and consider a change of direction (Apple, quoted in Darder, et al., 2003:456) would involve a radical change in our civilization. Educators need, therefore, to use the tools available – especially those being used outside the school gates, the cultural experiences of the majority (Beavis, 1998:242). To do otherwise is to prepare young people for a reality that no longer exists – something that is perhaps best illustrated by the following tale told by Benjamin (1971, quoted in Tiffin Rajasingham, 2003:117), …a prehistoric tribe… decided to introduce systematic education for its children.

The curriculum was specifically designed to meet particular survival needs in essay holocaust planned, the local environment and so included such subjects as sabre-tooth-tiger-scaring-with-fire. But the climate of the region changes and the sabre tooth tigers perish. Attempts to change the curriculum to meet new survival needs encounter stern opposition. There will always be opposition to major reforms or a new direction: tradition and the status quo are powerful conservative forces. But education in the 21st century is about using knowledge and making connections to create educated people in timeline, a sense relevant to today’s society. To be ‘literate’ is a relative notion depending both upon the domain within which one is operating and the relevance of holocaust, that domain to contemporary life. Uniquely, in the 21st century we could be faced with a literacy problem despite over 99% of people in western society being able to read and write.

Whilst it will remain possible, at least for the time being, for new technology argumentative essay individuals to be considered ‘educated’ without using ICT, these individuals will miss out on a large chunk of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century. The micro-literacies they lack, involving the ability to connect and understand the world mediated by digital devices, will serve as barriers to communication and expression. Technology introduces new ways for humans to holocaust planned communicate and create, introduces new micro-literacies that contribute to the wider ‘macro-literacy’ construct and, as a result, redefines what is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century. What does it mean to be an eassay for me ‘educated’ person in the 21st century? Is there such a thing as ‘digital literacy’? How do ‘micro literacies’ feed into wider ‘macro literacies’? What is the most appropriate learning theory for the 21st century? The proposed thesis will be non-empirical; policy documents, official reports, and scholarly works will provide the data required. Whilst this negates problems surrounding ethical treatment of research subjects, issues remain as to essay holocaust how to approach and make sense of the background section data.

There are two main methodological paradigms to make sense of research data: the quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. A purely quantitative approach assumes that objective descriptions of ‘reality’ can be made and that context-free generalisations are possible. A purely qualitiative approach, on the other hand, denies any reality external to that created by holocaust the enquirer. On top of writing, this resides dialecticism, a meta-paradigm dependent upon the first two – and Pragmatism, more an heuristic to holocaust planned guide research using these paradigms. To attempt to understand domains, societies and digital spaces within the confines of a positivist quantitative paradigm would seem to essays on sisterhood be overly-restrictive.

When discussing the essay holocaust planned physical world it is possible to hold a post-positivist approach, acknowledging the reality of the external world whilst holding that our relations to it can only ever be subjective. Eassay Writing For Me. When discussing arenas that include digital spaces and connections, however, it is essay holocaust planned difficult to essay experience of college life see how even this nuanced view of the positivist project can be sustained. On the other hand, the qualitative paradigm also seems to suffer from a poverty of descriptive power when it comes to essay holocaust the ‘blended’ digital/physical arenas that constitute the ‘knowledge society’. Essays On Sisterhood. People do agree upon the way the world is, connect meaningfully, and experience things in broadly similar ways. To take a blindly poststructuralist/postmodernist view and to essay insist on the subjectivity of the external, therefore, would be to lose the new technology argumentative essay ability to describe blended arenas and essay, spaces in a meaningful way. A dialectical approach, meanwhile, whilst appearing attractive in synthesizing approaches, seems teleological which is something to be avoided. Certainly given the eassay writing radically democratic nature of the holocaust Internet, for example, no individual or group can direct the ends of the masses.

At the same time, the technology itself does not dictate what it is used for; this depends upon the human user(s). Perhaps the best approach to take, therefore, is the Pragmatic one. This is a ‘multi-methodology’ that looks to understand the world from dissertation, many viewpoints, therefore building up a more coherent picture. This fits in well with the idea discussed above of ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ literacies and also gives more of a picture of what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Pragmatism was originally formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce in the pragmatic maxim:

Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Holocaust. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object. (quoted in Potter, 1996:94) By this, Peirce meant that concepts (and therefore knowledge statements) emerge from the effects of things such as tools and objects. We need, therefore, to know how tools – digital and essays on sisterhood, otherwise – are actually being used rather than how it was that they were intended to be used. Essay Holocaust Planned. Objects and concepts cannot be separated and considered to have a separate ‘reality’ from the sum total of the essay of college effects they have upon people and the environment. Essay Holocaust Planned. As a result, considering these effects from experience of college life, multiple points of view allows us to understand better those objects and concepts.

In terms of essay planned, ‘digital literacy’ this means analysing how government pronouncements work in practice, how policy documents translate into on sisterhood, ‘reality’, and considering how representative are surveys and studies making claims about learners in essay holocaust, the 21st century. The thesis, then, shall include data collection in the form of analysis of policy documents from government down to grass-roots level. An adaptation of the eight-step process outlined by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) shall be considered as a model to move from research question through to analysis. This, briefly stated is: Formulation of research question(s) Outline of purpose of mixed research Selection of research methodologies Data collection Data analysis Data interpretation Legitimation Final report with conclusions drawn. The data being collected in this non-empirical thesis comes from a multitude of sources.

As a result, the Pragmatic method will allow for research from various backgrounds to be juxtaposed and synthesised where appropriate to give a bigger and more coherent picture. Steps 4-6, data collection, analysis and interpretation will therefore be somewhat combined rather than in distinctive ‘steps’. Step 7 (Legitimation) will have to come at the same time as Step 3 (Selection of methodologies) to give credence to the entire project. This will result, therefore, in a five-step process: Formulation of research questions(s) Outline of purpose of research Selection and legitimation of research methodologies Data collection, analysis and interpretation Conclusion. This process within the Pragmatic framework will allow an understanding to be gained of how the many stakeholders, interested parties and pressure groups within the UK education system conceive of ‘digital literacy’ and what it means to be ‘educated’.

A multi-methodological approach should ascertain the extent to which these conceptions are diverse. Eassay. At times, ‘hard’ data – such as that provided by research from a predominantly quantitative perspective – will be analysed and at others a ‘thicker’, more descriptive perspective will be required. The thesis will not attempt to make general and sweeping claims about the whole education system but instead, where appropriate, highlight conflicts, disagreements and disparities in the wording and essay holocaust planned, implementation of policies surrounding digital literacies. This should inform what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Finally, a comparison shall be drawn with other countries in terms of varying approaches to 21st century education and what it means to be ‘digitally literate’. Difficulties shall certainly arise here in terms of ease of access to policy documents below governmental level. However, where it would seem that the policies and background section, incentives evident in another country or culture would benefit the educational system in England and Wales, these shall be highlighted.

Those countries that it would be worth researching initially, it would seem, are Singapore (government commitment to digital infrastructure), the essay planned United States (for purposes of comparison), and writing, another European country such as Sweden or Norway. This, whilst not the main focus of the thesis, should nevertheless give a flavour of global links, issues and concerns and situate the rest of the discussion in a context. The proposed thesis shall focus upon the concept of essay holocaust, ‘digital literacy’, using a Pragmatic method in dissertation process timeline, an attempt to holocaust understand the educational landscape within which it resides in England and experience life, Wales. By comparing and contrasting research, governmental policy documents, the views of various groups within education and on the fringe, and what goes on in schools, a broad view of essay holocaust, what literacy means in the 21st century should be obtained. These shall then be compared and contrasted both internally and on sisterhood, with other countries, especially economic competitors to the UK as a whole. Achterhuis, H. Essay. (2001) Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn (Indiana University Press) Apple, M. (2003) ‘Is the New Technology part of the process timeline solution or part of the problem in education? (in A. Darder, M. Baltodano R.D. Torres, The Critical Pedagogy Reader; London) Barton, D. M. Hamilton (2000) ‘Literacy Practices’ (in Barton, D., Hamilton, M. Ivanic, R. (eds.), Situated Literacies: reading and writing in context, London) Beavis, C. (1998) ‘Computer games, culture and curriculum’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Page to Screen: taking literacy into the electronic era; London, 1998) Blacker, D. J. McKie (2003) ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (in N. Blake, et al. Essay. (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education; Oxford, 2003) Burnett, R. (2002) Technology, Learning and Visual Culture (in I. Dissertation Timeline. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: Communication, Innovation and Education in the Electronic Age, London) Burniske, R.W. L. Monke (2001) Breaking Down the holocaust planned Digital Walls: learning to teach in a post-modem world (New York) Carr, D. (2003) Making Sense of Education: an introduction to the philosophy and theory of parents, education and teaching (London) Claxton, G. (2002) ‘Education for essay holocaust the Learning Age: A Sociocultural Approach to Learning to parents Learn’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for Life in holocaust, the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Cromer, A. (1997) Connected Knowledge: Science, Philosophy, and Education (Oxford) Cuban, L. (1986) Teachers and Machines: the classroom use of technology since 1920 (London) Delors, J., (1996a) Choices for education: the political factor, in argumentative, J. Essay. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France) Delors, J. (1996b) The Four Pillars of Education, in J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France, 1996) Demetriadis, S., et al. (2003) ‘ Cultures in negotiation’: teachers’ acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools’ (Computers Education, 41, 2003) Dickens, C. (2007 ed.) Hard Times (London) DiSessa, A.A. (2000) Changing Minds: computers, learning, and essay relationship, literacy (London) Eraut, M. (1991) Education and the Information Society: a challenge for European policy (London) Friedman, T.L. (2005) The World Is Flat: the globalized world in the 21st century (London) Johnson, R.B.

A.J. Onwuegbezie (2004)’Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come’ (Educational Researcher, Vol. 33, No.7, 14-26) Kellner, D.M. (2002) ‘Technological Revolution, Multiple Literacies, and essay holocaust, the Restructuring of Education’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Lemke, J.L. (2002) ‘Becoming the Village: Education Across Lives’ (in G. Essays On Sisterhood. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Levin, B. Essay Holocaust. J.A. Riffel (1997) Schools and the Changing World: struggling toward the future (London) Machlup, F. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (New York) McCain, T. (2005) Teaching For Tomorrow: teaching content and problem-solving skills (Thousand Oaks, California) Michigan State University (2004), VISION 2004 statement (http://www.msu.edu/unit/provost/Educated_Person.htm, accessed 3 October 2007 – cached at http://tinyurl.com/38f3am) Muller, J. Essay Relationship. (2000) Reclaiming Knowledge: social theory, curriculum and education policy (London) OECD (2001) Learning to Change: ICT in Schools Okan, Z. (2003) ‘Edutainment: is learning at risk?’ (British Journal of Educational Technology, 34:3) Petrina, S. (2007) Advanced Teaching Methods for the Technology Classroom (New York) Postman, N. (1993) Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology (London) Potter, V.G. (1996) Peirce’s Philosophical Perspectives (New York) Provenzo, E.F., et al. (1999) Computers, Curriculum, and Cultural Change: an introduction for teachers (London) Reilly, B. (1996) ‘New Technologies, New Literacies, New Patterns’ (in C. Fisher, D.C. Dwyer K. Yocam (eds.), Education and Technology: reflections on holocaust planned, computing in classrooms (San Francisco) Rodriguez Illera, J.L. (2004) ‘Digital Literacies’ (Interactive Educational Multimedia, number 9 (November 2004) Siemens, G. (2006) Knowing Knowledge (http://www.knowingknowledge.com, accessed 24 August 2007) Smith, R. Timeline. P. Curtin (1998) ‘Children, computers and life online: education in a cyber-world’ (in I. Snyder, Page to Screen, London) Snyder, I. Essay Planned. (2002) ‘Communication, Imagination, Critique – Literacy Education for the Electronic Age’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and relationship, education in the electronic age, London) Stonier, T. C. Conlin (1985) The Three C’s: children, computers, communication (Chichester) Sutherland, R. InterActive project team, ‘Designs for Learning: ICT and knowledge in the classroom’ (Computers Education, 43, 2004) Tiffin, J. L. Holocaust Planned. Rajasingham, (2003) The Global Virtual University (New York) Town, J.S. Eassay Writing. (2003) ‘Information Literacy: definition, measurement, impact’ (in A. Martin H. Rader (eds.), Information and IT literacy: enabling learning in the 21st century, London, 2003) UNESCO (2004) ‘The Plurality of Literacy and its Implications for Policies and Programmes (France) Wow Doug – looks pretty darn impressive to me. Holocaust Planned. Also looks like a heck of a lot of work. Relationship Parents. Well done! How dare they fail your first submission – it was a masterpiece ;o)

PS love the essay holocaust quotation in your new header – very amusing :oD. Thanks for the praise, Jenny and Lisa! #128578; @Lisa: This is actually the one of dissertation process timeline, which you kindly agreed to proof-read a draft. Have you noticed that the quotation in the header changes when you refresh the page? :-p. I subscribe to George Siemens elearningspace and received an email today, with a link to your blog. It’s come at an opportune time, I’m considering concept papers for my ed.D. as well (at Nova Southeastern Uni).

For a course leading up to my concept paper, I wrote papers on social networking, globalisation and technological progress as well as trends in education. ON another note, where I teach ( an International School in Kuala Lumpur) is moving towards at 1:1 program. Essay. We’ve visted 3 different schools, where terms such as “21st century learners” and “21st century literacy skills” are mentioned, however not articulated. I loved your proposal, similar to the direction where I am heading. Hi Bron, glad you liked the proposal and you found it useful! #128578;

George Siemens has linked to this proposal, but for some reason it doesn’t seem to essays have shown up with a trackback… :-s. Thought your proposal was great. I’m starting my research for my Ed.D in primary schools in the West of Scotland. Essay. My topic is very similar to yours, ‘The impact of life on literacy practices: Digital Literacy in primary schools’. I’ll send you my first paper soon.

I’ll send you my first paper soon. That would be great Jane – thanks! It’ll be interesting to compare and process timeline, contrast not only primary/secondary issues, but those of the Scottish/English systems. #128578; I#039;m leading an initiative at my universtiy that aims to define and deliver Digital Fluency as a core graduate attribute. 6 months into essay holocaust, this work and people here are now getting really interested in the concept and its relevance to 21st century learning. Let me know if you#039;d be interested in eassay writing, this -happy to share what we#039;ve learnt so far. That sounds very interesting! With Jane at the Primary level, myself at the Secondary level and you at University level, we’ll have it all covered. Do get in touch via the contact form directly to let me know what you’re up to. #128512; quite impressive, indeed. would like to know what the evaluators thought to be the missing 37 % ? I sympathise on the failure thing. Check out essay holocaust my post on the subject.

I reckon this is a good topic, but potentially broad. There’s certainly a wealth of material on the blogosphere that you could use. There are quite a few analogies with functional literacy that can be drawn. First if all: your work looks very good. I don’t understand what your evaluators might want more… I’m working (and it will be very probable also part of my PhD..) on parents, a project about the concept of “digital competence”. We are developing also tests and other assessments. Maybe it could be useful share our works… 1. Is DL the same at all age levels (e.g., high school graduate vs college graduate)? 2. Is DL the holocaust same for parents all professions?

3. Who is to define DL — you? Pretty subjective and not very research based. 4. Put all research results in a table to essay holocaust see which one says what skill is needed. 5. Won’t your results be outdated almost by the time you’re finished? Thanks for the questions and feedback. My response: 1. That’s certainly something I’ll be looking at. Essay Relationship. My gut feeling is that they’d all be on the same spectrum, yes.:-) 2. I’d need some counter-examples to prevent me simply saying ‘yes’.

In the same way that ‘literacy’ ranges across domains, so ‘digital literacy’ does, I think. 3. I’ll be looking at how others have defined digital literacy and holocaust planned, whether definitions of other terms come close to what I’m getting at. I’ll be looking for consensus, common sense and tentative suggestions, not dogmatic statements about essay relationship parents what I believe – so I hope it will be research-based and moving towards some type of objectivity. :-p. 4. I’m not entirely sure what you mean by this. Could you elaborate? 5. Perhaps, but hopefully not! Also, I’m undertaking the Ed.D. for a variety of reasons. One of the holocaust planned strongest is for my development and so I interact with a wide range of dissertation process, literature and resources.

It’s as much about me grappling with issues as it is holocaust about contributing something original.:-) 4. If you’re going to research what others say about DL and what skills are included in those definitions, then it makes sense to eassay writing put that info into a table so that you can compare visually across columns/rows. I’m due to essay holocaust planned start my Ed.D next year. It’s really interesting and useful to read your proposal. Eassay Writing For Me. At present I’m considering focusing on the relationship between the primary school and parents (stakeholders) in light of the essay Ed changes since 1988. Your proposal is impressive.Incidentally,I just passed my Ed.D proposal.I am studying at the university of Sheffield.I am focusing on boys and literacy.But I am curious:How can a non doctoral research supervisor manage the work of a doctoral student?

@Andre: Exactly! I haven’t been too impressed with the lack of urgency in finding myself a new one, either… #128577;

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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in planned, the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and for me, Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in essay, the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and eassay writing, Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of essay planned, Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and essay, development specialists, and planned, students of essay relationship, cooperatives throughout the United.

Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and holocaust, countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and on sisterhood, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and essay holocaust planned, Applied Economics, University of writing, Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. Holocaust Planned? The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of essay of college, Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an essay planned, autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. On Sisterhood? True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and essay holocaust planned, North dictated.

In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. Essay Of College? movement.

The unique conbenefits on planned, the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of new technology argumentative essay, early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the essay holocaust creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in essay background, nearly all countries. Essay Planned? Chapters 2 and 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the essay background section co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the holocaust planned the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of on sisterhood, each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to essay holocaust, (part of the ICA cooperative definition). Relationship Parents? numerous and essay, varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative?

Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the writing for me business directly by voting on significant and essay holocaust planned, long-term business decisions and essays on sisterhood, indirectly through their representatives on holocaust planned, the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to on sisterhood, elect their board of directors and on planned, other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Essay Relationship? Cooperative law in a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of one vote per holocaust, member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to essays, prevent control by a minority of members.

For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to essay holocaust planned, a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the eassay individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the holocaust planned cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).

Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. Essay Relationship Parents? The purpose of essay holocaust, these limits is to relationship, assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and essay planned, growth.

An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Essay Background Section? Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of holocaust planned, economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of process timeline, their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in holocaust, larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.

In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the eassay for me case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in holocaust planned, nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. Writing For Me? 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at holocaust planned least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. Essay Section? 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income.

They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in planned, terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and new technology, other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Holocaust Planned? Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by dissertation timeline sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in essay holocaust, housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.

8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Essay Section? Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of essay holocaust, their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to essay background section, serve member needs and are focused on essay holocaust, generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of experience of college life, several ifferent ways a business can choose to holocaust planned, legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Relationship Parents? Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.

Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Essay? Indeed, providing education, training, and essay, information to members is one of the holocaust seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the timeline biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of essay, cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.

Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in writing, chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and holocaust planned, was marked by a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Essay Experience Life? Examples of essay, inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of essay background section, charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and essay holocaust, the steam engine.

The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to move into cities to find work. Relationship Parents? Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and holocaust, were subjected to writing, harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of planned, new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and background section, other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Planned? Co-ops then, as now, were created in of college life, times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.

9 stock. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. Essay Holocaust Planned? As a result, large numbers of essays on sisterhood, small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of essay holocaust planned, expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Essay Section? Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for essay holocaust planned improved working and living conditions.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of essay background section, cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in holocaust planned, times and places of economic stress and essay experience, social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the essay holocaust world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in process, London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in holocaust, England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and essay parents, assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the planned first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.

A number of bills were introduced in background, the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in essay holocaust planned, operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Essay Experience Life? Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.

Purchasing cooperatives already existed in holocaust, most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Background Section? Guilds had binding rules for essay holocaust planned production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in essay, 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and essay holocaust, Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only dissertation, did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. Essay? 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the new technology argumentative essay poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.

They both envisioned rural villages composed of essay holocaust, farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of new technology argumentative, Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and essay holocaust planned, labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in eassay writing for me, Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to holocaust, an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.

Owen’s attack upon on sisterhood, individualism, the holocaust planned family, competition, private property, the process timeline market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of planned, cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the “father of parents, cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on holocaust planned, the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. Eassay? William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in planned, England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for eassay for me the actual organization of cooperatives.

Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the holocaust development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the new technology welfare of the essay planned working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in essay life, theory as well as in practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. Holocaust? King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.

King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of on sisterhood, cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the essay holocaust communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. Process? 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of holocaust planned, governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. Essays On Sisterhood? In addition to the advocacy of holocaust planned, Owen and experience of college, King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.

Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the essay second in 1831 in Birmingham, and essay, the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and holocaust planned, later congresses. For instance, the section Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in essay holocaust planned, 1826 quickly grew to section, about 300 consumer cooperatives by essay holocaust planned 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of essays on sisterhood, a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in 1830. King was compelled to essay planned, discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. Background? By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and holocaust planned, King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and essay background, shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.

Although their first co-op effort failed after only essay planned, two years, a core group of section, 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for essay holocaust planned a modest shop on argumentative, Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of its members. Essay? In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for on sisterhood the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. Essay Holocaust? For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.

The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is parents now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the holocaust registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in essay parents, trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. Essay Planned? 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. 5. Net income is essays on sisterhood distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.

6. Essay Holocaust Planned? Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of essay experience of college, goods and services at planned market prices. 8. Duty to educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. 12.

Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in background, David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on essay holocaust planned, equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the section norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in essay planned, all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). Relationship? The phenomenal success of the essay planned Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the essays cooperative movement in essay holocaust, England needed. Rochdale became the essays cooperative beacon for others to follow.

It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and holocaust, North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the eassay writing for me societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of planned, their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to essay background section, five percent. Essay Holocaust Planned? Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for essay background section members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to holocaust planned, invest in other cooperatives.

As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world. Timeline? THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the essay holocaust world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of essay, cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the holocaust most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and writing for me, political unrest in the region.

The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. W. Essay Holocaust? Raiffeisen, a mayor of eassay for me, a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. Essay Holocaust? The cooperative gave potatoes and eassay writing, bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the holocaust planned problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to essays, transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the essay little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and new technology argumentative, farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. Essay? The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.

The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the writing grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of holocaust, Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the first in dissertation timeline, Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the credit needs of artisans and essay holocaust planned, other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.

Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to of college life, inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the essay planned not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.

Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in writing, Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by essay holocaust planned the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. Essays? 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in holocaust, agriculture.

Many of the cooperatives in essay section, these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in essay planned, the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. Essays On Sisterhood? 2 and essay, 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per essays on sisterhood, capita basis, are by holocaust comparison astounding. In the case of India and essay relationship, other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.

More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the essay planned cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and background section, Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the planned developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of background, cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.

The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of essay, cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an dissertation process, important factor in the growth of essay, Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for process timeline selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. Essay Holocaust Planned? 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. Writing For Me? 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. Essay Holocaust Planned? 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. Eassay Writing For Me? 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.

0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. Essay? 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. Process? 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. Holocaust? 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.

1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. New Technology Essay? 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.

London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Essay Planned? Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. Experience Life? 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. Holocaust? 07 23,573 17.

49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and writing for me, membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. Essay Holocaust? 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. Dissertation Timeline? html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the holocaust following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. Relationship? ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.

5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at essay holocaust planned both state and federal evels, and on sisterhood, judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and essay holocaust, movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the of college life birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the planned signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Essay Background? Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on essay holocaust, a similar London association created in 1696.

25 Although European models and relationship, European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on holocaust planned, the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. Experience? 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an holocaust planned, artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and timeline, a collective response to essay holocaust, harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of of college, Agriculture. Holocaust? The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the for me country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.

Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. Holocaust? THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and dissertation process timeline, mutuals in essay planned, the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to for me, get such a paper?

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