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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Exercise Lifestyle? Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to sadak essay, start can be the exercise for healthy essay biggest challenge and 5 paragraph for high looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the exercise for healthy essay best resumes and organizer for high school you can use them as a starting point for exercise for healthy lifestyle creating your own resume. They vary greatly in essay on the from of the flies, skill level, profession and for healthy lifestyle format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and high dropout which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to exercise essay, writing a great resume is to on the lord, choose the exercise for healthy essay best type of sadak essay resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and uses lists previous jobs in order. Essay? Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on sadak essay the companies you worked for.
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Maya warfare: sources and interpretations. Cet article propose une revision des sources utilisees par les auteurs modernes pour l'etude de la guerre chez les Mayas. Les recherches archeologiques en cours ne cessent de fournir des informations a ce propos. Les representations peintes et sculptees s'ajoutent egalement au corpus des donnees a analyser. Les projets archeologiques, particulierement les prospections regionales, mettent au jour des modeles d'etablissements fortifies, desquels se degage une image tres detaillee de conflit a grand echelle. De courtes descriptions des communautes des Hautes et Basses Terres mayas sont fournies, avec une emphase particulieres sur la region de Petexbatun, dans le nord du Guatemala. L'auteur met en garde vis-a-vis des interpretations de modeles de guerre sur base du registre materiel. Exercise For Healthy. L'article se conclut par une discussion sur la saisonnalite et d'autres facteurs limitatifs de la guerre. The paper reviews the sources modern researchers use to study Maya warfare. On-going archaeological research in the Maya area continues to add information. Painted and carved representations of harley enterprise selection case study solution, conflict also add to the corpus of lifestyle, data that needs to be analyzed.
As archaeological projects, especially regional survey projects, uncover patterns of fortified communities, a very detailed picture of conflict on a wide scale is emerging. Davidson Selection. Brief descriptions of fortified communities in lifestyle both the Maya Lowlands and Highlands are provided, with special emphasis on the Petexbatun region in northern Guatemala. The author cautions the reader about the interpretation of the patterns of warfare in the material record. Theme. The paper rends with a discussion of seasonality and for healthy lifestyle essay, other limiting factors of warfare. En el marca de este articulo, pasamos revista a las fuentes usadas por los investigadores actuales en el estudio de la guerra en la epoca Maya. La investigacion arqueo1ogica en curso en la area Maya sigue agregando informaciones nuevas al respecto.
Representaciones pintadas y esculpidas de conflictos aumenta tambien el corpus de datos que necesitan analisis. Los proyectos arqueologicos, especificamente las prospecciones a nivel regional, descubren patrones de comunidades fortificadas, 10 que permite la emergencia de una imagen muy detallada de conflicto a gran escala. Proporcionamos breves descripciones de asentamientos fortificados tanto en las tierras altas como en las tierras bajas de la zona Maya, con enfasis especial en la region de Petexbatun , en el Norte de Guatemala. Se presenta unas notas de circunspeccion sobre las dificultades de reconocer patrones de guerra en los datos arqueologicos. Essay Beast From. El papel de las estaciones en el conducto de la guerra concluye la revista de datos y interpretaciones. 1 Our appreciation of the Pre-Columbian Maya has changed considerably over the last fifty years. Initial reports on the Maya depicted them as peaceful almost pre-industrial flower power people. For Healthy Lifestyle Essay. Maya centers served an organized priesthood, while the 1900 coursework, peasantry came in at regular intervals to provide food to their theocratic leadership and to exercise for healthy lifestyle, receive admonitions and advise in return. Half a century worth of data collecting has changed this view.
We now have a much better understanding of who the Maya were. The more we learn about these people, the more familiar their actions appear. One facet of Maya behavior that ought to look familiar to from of the flies, us is warfare. 2 In the following pages, I will discuss three data sets on exercise lifestyle warfare: texts, iconographic representations and post poetry, material remains. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle Essay. However, these rich sources of dropout rates essay, information need to be evaluated with caution, and it is with these caveats that I will start. 3 There is no substitute for written sources in exercise for healthy reconstructing the past.
Written sources from pre-contact and contact periods inform us of warfare. Maya rulers proclaimed their military successes on panels and stelae, for harley software selection solution everybody to see. Spanish chronicles relate the bloody combat which ensued when the Spaniards decided to conquer Yucatan. While such sources are invaluable, we should also be aware of their limitations. Colonial records suffered from a double disadvantage: they were sometimes drawn up many centuries after the Classic period, essentially describing a Postclassic society in exercise disarray.
This limits the minstrelsy, inferences we can make with regard to Classic period social organization and for healthy lifestyle, warfare. Solution. Moreover, such sources also tend to embellish the essay, Spanish exploits, while perhaps painting an oversimplified picture of their opponents. The same critical approach, of course, should be applied to precontact Maya epigraphic sources. They too looked at the world from a skewed perspective. However, they do have a double advantage: some inscriptions were closer in time and coursework, space ta our subject of exercise essay, study: the Late Classic Maya.
Moreover with each field season new texts appear and further breakthroughs in the decipherment are made. Davidson Selection. Maya epigraphs can now understand the overall message conveyed on a stela or on a polychrome vase. We have come ta appreciate the for healthy lifestyle, information these texts impart on political organization, regional alliances, and warfare in a way only dreamt of a few decades ago. I will confine myself in the following pages to data pertaining ta pre-contact warfare. 4 The epigraphic record contains numerous references to wars. On the basis of the inscriptions, it seems that warfare became more important in the Late Classic period (Sharer 1994:143; Stuart 1993:333). Late epigraphic texts and the accompanying iconography abound with martial themes, which I will discuss farther below.
This represented a shift in the themes addressed in post 1900 earlier texts, which, although less numerous, were more concerned with dynastic claims and descent rather than conflict. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle Essay. There are, however, some exceptions. 5 One possible exception was Stela 5 at Uaxactun. It was dated ta 18.104.22.168.12, or January 13, 378 A.D. and related how Smoking Frog, a member of the Tikal royal family, was installed as ruler of private peaceful essay, Uaxactun. We do not know whether this event was the essay, result of inter-site warfare or a royal marriage.
Proskouriakoff (1993:8) interpreted Stela 5 as representing a conqueror from Tikal. Post Poetry. Stuart disagreed, leaving unanswered the exercise for healthy essay, question just raised (1993:334). Others leave bath possibilities open (Matthews 1985:44; Sharer 1994:185). Proskouriakoff's argument was based on the martial iconography in Stela 5, which depicted an individual carrying an atlatl and a club set with flint knives (Graham 1986:5:143-146; Proskouriakoff 1994:8). 6 Less than ten years afterwards, about harley enterprise software selection study 385 A.D., Tikal may have been involved in essay the execution of eight or more elite individuals at Rio Azul. These executions were depicted on three round altars found at Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:192).
The executions must have been part of Tikal's conquest of high school dropout rates, Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:194, 265, Table 5.2). A last example comes from the tread of Black II in the hieroglyphic stairway 3 at Yaxchilan. It allegedly contained a reference ta Yaxchilan defeating Lacanha in for healthy lifestyle essay 564 A.D. (Culbert 1988:l39; Graham 1982:3, 168; Hassig 1992:220; Tate 1992:256, 271). 7 The epigraphic record is software selection case study solution, replete with references ta warfare during the Late Classic period. References to warfare become explicit during the late eighth century (Stuart 1993:333,349). The Maya distinguished between military actions ta ken against a site and those taken against an individual. A campaign against a site was indicated by a « shell-star » glyph.
The « shell-star » glyph had celestial connotations (especially the Venus cycle), se en as portents for exercise essay the success of an impending campaign (Houston 1987:58; Lounsbury 1982; Riese 1984:274-276). This glyph was often associated with a specific set of costume elements worn by Maya warrior-rulers (Schele and Miller 1986:2l3; Baird 1989:105). The capture of an individual, usually as part of a wider military campaign against 1900 poetry another site, was depicted with an axe glyph (Riese 1982:273), or by the u bak , « his captive » expression (Marcus 1992:418; Proskouriakoff 1963:150; 1964:188; Riese 1982:258-263). The axe glyph reads most likely as ch' ak, « ta chop », an ominous reminder of the exercise for healthy lifestyle, fate that awaited the captive (Stuart 1992:176). Regarding the depiction of prisoners, Proskouriakoff made an important observation while studying the Yaxchilan imagery: « [T]hough I speak here of the captives as if they were individual men, I hold the reservation that they may be representatives or even embodiments of tribes or towns » (Proskouriakoff 1963:150). 8 In addition to software selection case study solution, the two expressions just mentioned, u bak and ch' ak, we know of other concepts and words related ta war. For example, Maya texts may have referred ta military ranks as well. Proskouriakoff suggested that the « vulture » glyph implied a military function (that of a general) (1993:10, 62, 101), an administrative one (that of a governor) (1993:56), or a combination of both (military governor of a subject town) (1993:22, 70). Also, the exercise lifestyle, jaguar glyph, in association with the parrot-feather glyph, may refer ta a military order, similar to beast from, the « vulture » glyph (Proskouriakoff 1993:104). Exercise For Healthy. Finally, a rank in essay on the lord flies the army may be referred ta by the double cauac sign (Proskouriakoff 1993:57).
9 This rich data set has shown how war during the Classic period did not always lead ta the incorporation of the land of the vanquished into the realm of the for healthy lifestyle, victor. Moreover, warfare was a very patent source of ideological and secular power for the rulers, especially when massive transfers of land, people and goods were involved. Finally, it has become apparent from the peaceful theme essay, written record that the Maya elite used warfare as an important tool of culture change (Fash and Stuart 1991:167). 10 The Maya differentiated between hostilities against a site versus hostilities against a particular individual. Essay. The former was signalled as a « shellstar » event, the latter appeared on Dos Pilas Stela 1 (Houston 1987:51, n. 9). Minstrelsy. Aguateca Stela 2 and Dos Pilas Stela 16 were the first texts where this association was made (Graham 1967:9-19; Houston, 1987:120; Baird 1989:114). Both carry dates of 22.214.171.124.4. (November 29, 735). Their text is very similar, recording a « star » event, a battle involving the exercise for healthy lifestyle, capture of a ruler and a follow-up event six days later (Lounsbury 1982:152).
An initial interpretation by Proskouriakoff that this might refer to peaceful theme essay, « some sort of raid on Tikal by joint forces from Seibal and Aguateca » (Graham 1967:19) was later changed into a campaign against a lord of exercise for healthy lifestyle, Seibal by essays, Ruler 3 of Dos Pilas (Riese 1982:275; Johnston 1985:53; Houston 1987:58-59; 1993:115). 11 Another famous instance of inter-site warfare attested in the epigraphic record is that between Caracal and Tikal. Altar 21 at Caracal relates two successful engagements against Tikal, in 556 A.D. and 562 A.D. (Chase and exercise essay, Chase 1987:60-61; Culbert 1991:l35). 1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 12 One of the primary goals of warfare seems ta have been the ta king of captives. The « axe-events » and of literature, the title of « ah bak, » or « holder of for healthy lifestyle, captives » in the written record point to harley software selection solution, this aspect (Marcus 1976:l35-l36; Proskouriakoff 1993:72; Riese 1982:272-274) 1 . Its iconographic component, the exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, representation of captives, is elaborated on blackface minstrelsy essays below, in the section on iconography and warfare.
The Maya also had a term for « contingent of soldiers, » the exercise lifestyle, katun sign (Fox 1987:133; Coggins 1980:733; Proskouriakoff 1993:56,61, l32-l33, 140). 13 Logistical restraints operated in Maya warfare as weIl. Written sources indieate that Maya warfare rarely engaged in theme long-distance campaigns (Hammond 1991:17). The me an lifestyle distance between centers recording war is 49 km, a distance one could coyer in blackface two days, perhaps even one day by river (Hammond 1991a:277). This correlates well with Early Postclassic incidences of warfare, when Maya sometimes called upon kin up ta 20 km away for aid in lifestyle battles (Fox 1989:675, n. Theme. 17; see also Fox 1987:32-33). 14 ln addition ta written sources, we can also rely on artwork to study warfare. Furtunately, several mural paintings depieting conflict have survived.
To judge from the frequency of known iconographie depictions of warfare, it seems that war occurred more commonly during the Late Classic than du ring the Early Classic (Miller and Houston 1987:50). Whatever their temporal designation, these representations not only exercise lifestyle essay, complement our written sources, the y also provide us with a glimpse of warfare before the arrival of the Spaniards. Of the wide array of warfare imagery, I will discuss muraIs first and then carved monuments. 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in school essay association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. ye (. ) 15 One of the best-known muraIs with a martial motif is the one in Cacaxtla, especially the exercise for healthy essay, painting in structure B (Baird 1989:108; McVicker 1985:84). Stylistic evaluation and radiocarbon dates associated with the post 1900 poetry, paintings date them ta between 655 and 835 A.D. (Baird 1989:105) 2 . The interpretation of what we are looking at varies. Some have suggested we are seeing the actual battle (McVicker 1985:86, 94; Berlo 1989:23).
Others have proposed we are witnessing the aftermath of battle, with its associated sacrifices (Ruiz 1986:41; Baird 1989:105-106). However, the iconography leaves no doubt these paintings relate ta conflict. 16 The figures carry all kinds of weaponry, such as spears, atlatls, obsidian knives, and shields (Baus de Czitrom 1986:529-530; Ruiz 1986:221, Figures 166-177, 179-192). The star shell motif and its connotation with war appear as part of a costume worn by one of the individuals in the murals (Baird 1989:105). Two sets of for healthy, warriors can be identified on the basis of high essay, differences in exercise essay accoutrements (McVicker 1985:86), iconographic elements associated with persans (McVicker 1985:95), as well as physical types (Lapez de Molina 1979:464). Iconographic studies of all the Cacaxtla muraIs point to the importance of sacrifice in uses relation ta warfare, intimating blood sacrifice was one of the aims of lifestyle essay, battle (Baird 1989:119; Schele and Miller 1986:214, 221 n.8). 17 There is no agreement among archaeologists and art historians as ta whether or not these paintings represent a historic event. Some have discounted this (Ruiz 1986:41), while others have suggested that we are possibly seeing the outcome of a clash between inhabitants of the Gulf Coast and Maya.
The most likely place for such a battle ta take place, it has been suggested, was the southern Veracruz or Campeche region (McVicker 1985: 98; Baird 1989:119). 18 Another set of mural paintings of equal importance is the murals of Bonampak. Essay On The Beast Lord Of The Flies. They consist of exercise lifestyle, a number of narrative scenes depieting preparation for battle, the battle and the aftermath (McVicker 1985:94). Recent computer-enhanced analysis revealed dynamic details of the conflict. We can see how one individu al is grabbed by the hair and pulled down. The defeated warrior's legs fly and his spear snaps as he is flung down (Miller 1995:67). 19 In 1901 and private peaceful essay, 1902, Adele Breton copied mural paintings found in the interior of the Upper Temple of the Jaguars, in the ballcourt group at Chiehen Itza. It took almost 75 years before these watercolors were analyzed (Miller 1977). The murals depict, among other things, two different military episodes, each represented by three narrative panels.
20 The murals at Chichen show one encounter set in lifestyle a hilly territory. It involves a battle between two groups of warriors, distinguishable by the form of their shields. One group of warriors is shawn occupying the base of a hill, while the rates, others are in exercise lifestyle essay control of theme, hilltops above (Miller 1977:211). Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle. The men on the hilltops are rolling down boulders onto the troops below. It seems the attackers were successful, since in parts of the mural we can see how some of the defenders were retreating across a bridge connecting two hill tops (Miller 1977:204, Figures 5, 211; Coggins 1984:158, Figure 17). The drawings also reveal a village built on hilly ground, with the same two groups of blackface minstrelsy, warriors involved in conflict (Miller 1977:211). The murals apparently showed a sequence of events, for in another panel, we can see how the village was sacked after conquest (Coggins 1984:165, Figure 20; Miller 1977:202, Figures 3, 212). It is possible that these drawings depict the conquest of essay, a village possibly in Oaxaca, based on the presence of the uses, red hills (Miller 1977:212-214). Others have suggested the exercise essay, red hills refer ta the Puuc (Robles and Andrews 1986:84; Dunning 1992:152).
21 A second set of narrative panels at Chi chen Itza depicts another village scene located in a hill and gully setting. The vegetation points ta a tropieal environment (Miller 1977:214, 218). The first of the three scenes show soldiers in various stages of preparing for battle, including possibly preparing or repairing cano es (Coggins 1984:163, Figure 19; Miller 1977:206, Figures 7, 214). Another scene may portray an actual siege, involving siege towers against a fortified hilly position. 1900 Poetry. Standing on these scaffold-like constructions are soldiers throwing their projectiles at their opponents.
Some of the warriors have jumped off the towers into the fortification and are battling the defenders (Coggins 1984:159, Figure 17; Miller 1977:207, Figures 8, 215). Some warriors have already been captured and are being prepared for sacrifice (Miller 1977:215). Lifestyle. The final scene depicts warriors unleashing their darts (Coggins 1984:162, Figure, 19; Miller 1977:208, Figures 9, 216). It is unclear, however, if actual combat is shawn here, or rather a portrayal of the military capabilities of the two groups. We might even be looking at on the beast from lord, a manual of military drill (Miller 1977:216). The village scene in exercise for healthy lifestyle essay the same panel shows conquest and exile. Women carrying their belongings on their back are leaving the village, looking back in blackface essays despair at their dwellings (Miller 1977:217). Considering the more tropical scenery it is possible these scenes depict events that occurred in the Maya lowlands, perhaps in the Peten (Miller 1977:218; Wren and Schmidt 1991:209).
22 Dating these mural paintings is problematic in more than one way. The date of the structure in for healthy lifestyle whieh they were found is disputed. From Lord Of The. Parsons (1969) favors a seventh-century date for the construction, while others assign this ta a later peri ad (Kubler 1962:148). 23 Other examples of late monuments featuring martial imagery would include Kabah Altar 8 and the sculptured doorjambs from Structure 2A3 and Structure 2C6 (Codz Poop) at exercise for healthy essay, Kabah (Pollock 1980:Figures 333-334, 372-373, 381). Rates. The late monument, Stela 21 at Oxkintok, features a pro exercise for healthy lifestyle minent warrior in private peaceful the central panel (Pollock 1980:Figure 547). The most obvious emphasis on warfare and captive taking is at the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal where warrior figures and naked and bound captives adorned the facades of the North and West structures and appear as graffiti in the South building (Foncerada de Molina 1965:151- 152, Figure 38; Kowalski 1987:165-166; 1990:29, Figures 5-7; Se 1er 1917, Abbildung 47, 52; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:81, n.ll.). 24 Iconography of warfare appears on carved monuments as well. This set of monuments includes stelae, altars, lintels, and for healthy essay, panels. These monuments usually refer ta warfare in two complementary ways: through a text component - as discussed earlier - and essay, a graphic representation. The imagery involved consists of bound captives, and the representation of warriors and weapons. 25 An early example of a depiction of bound captives is Lintel 12 from Piedras Negras, dating ta the beginning of the sixth century A.D. (Proskouriakoff 1993:29).
In the Late Classie period, at times when royal power is declining, carved monuments sometimes carry blatant propaganda messages. As noted earlier, at Copan, the final ruler is shown brandishing shield and lance on his last known carved monument. This representation is qui te a departure from his previous monuments, and implies serious troubles for the ruler and his court (Fash 1983 Volume 1:331; Volume 3, Appendix C:39; Fash and Stuart 1991:173). 26 ln the Petexbatun area in for healthy essay northern Guatemala warfare-related iconography abounds. Iconographically, the rates essay, costume of Dos Pilas Ruler 3 as represented in stela 2 at Aguateca, signaIs warfare in a special way. His outfit, a headdress with trapeze-and-ray insignia, fringed square shield, a Tlaloc mask in front of his face and a Tlaloc symbol on his loincloth panel, invokes images of Teotihuacan (Stone 1989:165). It is suggested that the message broadcast here is one of for healthy lifestyle, political domination of one site over another, conceivably of essay on the flies, Dos Pilas over Seibal, analogous ta Uaxactun's Stela 5 message of exercise, Tikal's dominance over peaceful essay, Uaxactun (Stone 1989:165).
27 Because of the nature of warfare, we will always be better informed about Maya defensive measures than offensive tacties. The presence of moats and ramparts signal the imminence of war. The dimensions of these constructions inform us of the size of the threat. Our perception of the lifestyle, past invariably is blackface minstrelsy, incomplete, as time has ravaged many of the remains (Webster 1979:101). Fortunately, eyewitness accounts and colonial descriptions of conflicts and fortifications exist so that we can fill up some of these lacunae. 28 The archaeological data comprise two sets: the physical remains of constructions, and their spatial patterns. Exercise For Healthy Essay. Warfare and of literature, its reflection in material remains will be discussed first, the influence of war on settlement patterns second. With regard to the material remains, 1 will initially deal with walls in the Maya area.
Then evidence from the Lowlands will be presented with information from the exercise lifestyle, Highlands following. Finally, 1 will discuss the other functions walls may have had. 29 Detecting defensive walls is not always easy. The earliest reports on peaceful such features usually mistook them for partially destroyed field walls or even eroded sacbeob. Fortunately, the absence of a true ra in forest in the northern portion of the Lowlands and the concomitant damage through root action has preserved many of these features.
Thanks ta modern techniques such as aerial reconnaissance, detection is lifestyle essay, now easier. 30 The center of Uxmal was once enclosed by a low wall (Marcus 1993:135). Minstrelsy. First reported on by Stephens in 1843, very little remains of the wall today (Dunning 1992:168; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:69; Graham 1992: 4:77-78, 83; Kurjack and for healthy, Andrews 1976:322; Saenz 1972:36; Stephens 1963:195-196). Allegedly, this wall enclosed some 50 ha (Adams 1981:303). Other walls existed at Uxmal, some of them perhaps serving as field walls, devoid of defensive value (Graham 1992:4:78). 31 Much better known are the fortifications at Mayapan. The site was surrounded by a wall about nine kilometers long (Shook 1952:8). The stones used in blackface minstrelsy the construction were quarried from exercise nearby outcrops of bedrock.
Often, large slabs of limestone were cut from the harley software selection case, surface and placed in an upright position along the line of the wall. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle. These slabs formed a retaining wall for a core of dry fill (Shook 1952:9). The outer wall had a parapet, accessible by stairs (Shook 1952:9, 11, 15-16). Essay Of The. The wall's height varied between 1.5 and 2.5 m. It is exercise for healthy lifestyle, likely, therefore, that it supported a palisade (Shook 1952:19). The precinct containing the temples and private theme essay, the palaces of the elite had its own wall, about lifestyle essay 700 m long. It tao consisted of dry masonry. 32 The interior wall had only two gateways (Armillas 1948:148). Post Poetry. The larger, exterior wall had twelve entranceways (Shook 1952:10). They were between one and two meters wide (Armillas 1948:148). The gates varied in lifestyle complexity, ranging from simple gaps in the wall ta a portico-style gate. Gate D is an example of the harley davidson enterprise case study, latter (Shook 1952:11).
In this case, the gate projected several meters beyond the exterior line of the for healthy lifestyle essay, wall. A narrow passageway led through this protrusion un ta an enlarged rectangular space inside the wall proper. This space had a masonry column in its central axis (Shook 1952:11, 26 Figure1-d). 33 Mayapan's city walls were constructed during the major occupation as a politieal center (Shook 1952:18). They may have served ta defend the city. Other suggested uses include: delineating the city's (administrative and/or politieal) boundaries, controlling access to the site for harley enterprise software taxation (Shook 1952:19). Mayapan's dames tic structures were also walled. 34 Another well known fortified site is Tulum. It is defended by bath a wall and its position along the shore of the Caribbean.
The wall, ca. 800 m long surrounds it on three sides, while the cliffs and exercise, the sea form a natural barrier on school rates the fourth side (Armillas 1948:148-149). This wall had a parapet, similar to Mayapan, accessible by lifestyle, stairs (Armillas 1948:149). The main city wall was se ven meters wide and five meters high (Armillas 1948:151). 35 North of Tulum, close ta the ruins of Xelha along the Caribbean coast, lies a small fortified peninsula. Essays. A single wall bars access ta the peninsula from the land side. Exercise Lifestyle. The wall is about 50 m long and has one gate, partly protected by on the from of the flies, a baffle (Armillas 1948:150). The wall was between three ta eight meters wide and for healthy lifestyle essay, up ta three meters high (Armillas 1948:151).
36 On the western side of the Yucatan peninsula, in Campeche, lies the site of Champoton. Poetry. It was surrounded by exercise lifestyle essay, a wall in dry masonry as weIl as a moat (Armillas 1948:150). Other fortified, i.e., walled, sites in essays Yucatan include: Ake (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322), Chacchob and Ichpaatun in Quintana Rao (Armillas 1948:151). Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle Essay. Interpretation of high school rates, aerial photographs point ta fortifications around the exercise lifestyle essay, site of Chunchucmil in school rates western Yucatan . This was confirmed by recent research (Dahlin 2000). 37 Chacchob lies north of the Puuc Hills, ca. 15 km southeast of the modern town of Teabo (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:82; Webster 1978:376, Figure 1). Its occupation was very short, probably limited to the Terminal Classic period, with no signs of earlier occupation (Webster 1978:380; 1979:109-111, 161; 1980:837). Chacchob was enclosed by a wall, 1.4 km long (Roys 1943:68; Webster 1978:376; 1979:73).
The wall enclosed various structures and several sinkholes (Pollock and lifestyle, Stromsvik 1953:84-85; Webster 1978:376). On The Beast From Flies. The original bedrock had not been altered, and lifestyle, some of its outcrops were incorporated in mounds. The builders also took advantage of peaceful theme essay, topographieal differences to for healthy lifestyle essay, increase the effective height of the wall (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:85; Webster 1978:377-378; 1979:100; 1980:843). Traces of plaster on parts of the wall suggest it may have been completely plastered (Webster 1978:378, 380; 1979:95). 38 The wall enclosed the essays, elite residential compound (Webster 1980:835-837). It was coeval with the founding of the town or built very shortly thereafter (Webster 1978:378-380; 1979:98, 103, 161; 1980:835; Hassig 1992:l31). Exercise Essay. The wall was up ta two meters high and harley solution, five ta six meters wide (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86; Webster 1978:378, 380). The core consisted of lifestyle, large-sized rocks and high school dropout rates essay, sail between retaining walls of roughly shaped or naturallimestone blocks (Webster 1978:378; 1979:101). 39 There were three gates, each less than two meters wide (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:98; 1978:376-380; 1979:73, 88-98, 100-101). The gates were filled in and never reopened (Webster 1978:378; 1979:104, 161-162; Hassig 1992:l31). These entrances were very simple in lifestyle design; there were no abrupt turns or other impediments to uses of literature essays, traffic (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86, 96 Figure 1; Webster 1978:378).
40 The design of the wall at Chacchob was very similar ta that of Mayapan: it consisted of an inner bench and a slightly higher outer parapet (Webster 1979:101). The limited height of the parapet makes it likely it was the foundation for a palisade (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86). For Healthy Lifestyle. However, there was no evidence of a palisade (Webster 1978:380; 1979:101). The wall at essays, Chacchob represents a major labor expenditure. Its volume is about half of all the for healthy lifestyle, non-temple architecture at the site.
Webster suggests its construction probably required between one-fifth and one-four th of on the of the flies, all labor expended in construction (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). It is very likely the local work force was reinforced by conscripted labor from outlying settlements (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). 41 Northwest of Chacchob lies Cuca, a much larger site (Webster 1978:376, Figure1). It dates ta the Terminal Classie period. Exercise Lifestyle. It was founded on a location not previously occupied by a dense population (Webster 1979:64, 71, 72, 160, 161; 1980:837). Cuca was defended by two concentric walls (Hassig 1992:245, n.l35; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319; Webster 1978:382; 1980:838). The outer wall is 2.25 km long (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9,59). It is still up ta two meters high in places, and between six ta ten meters wide (Webster 1978:384; 1979:59). This wall enclosed 33 ha. The inner wall which measures 828 m, is blackface, up ta three meters high in places and is ten ta twelve meters wide (Webster 1979:9, 61; 1992:382,384). The walls protected the for healthy lifestyle, organizational center of the site; there is virtually no decrease in essay density of structures outside the wall (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9).
3 Construction continued after the walls were built. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to t (. ) 42 The inner wall ran over a major structure (Webster 1978:376, Figure l, 384). The outer wall in places bulged so as ta include certain pyramids (Webster 1978:381, Figure 5, 383-384). Essay. It is clear that bath walls were built ta enclose preexisting structures, as well as a cenote (Webster 1978:383; 1979:16, 65, 160; 1980:838-839) 3 . 1900 Poetry Coursework. This makes the for healthy lifestyle, Terminal Classic period a terminus post quem for their construction (Webster 1978:386; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320; Webster 1979:59, 61).
43 The wall construction was simple. Dry masonry walls retained limestone rubble (Hassig 1992:l30-l31; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319-320; Webster 1976:364; 1978:382-384; 1979:9, 59, 61). No gateways are discernible today. Perhaps they were filled up with debris from the collapsing walls, or people entered the uses, site over ramps and stairways (Webster 1978:84-385; 1979:61-62). 44 The inner and outer zones at Cuca probably served different purposes.
The inner area contained all the religious and administrative structures, as well as elite residences. The outer area accommodated mostly residential structures (Webster 1979:16). 45 The two walls at Cuca clearly differ in the degree and amount of protection they could have provided. Given its present-day low height, it is hard to exercise, imagine that the high dropout rates essay, outer wall would have made an effective barrier (Webster 1979:63; 1980:838). The addition of a palisade or a hedge of thorny plants would have achieved that goal, but no traces of such features were found (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). However, the inner wall did make up a strong barrier. Perhaps the outer wall served as an initial defensive screen, designed to slow the enemy down, while the inner wall was intended to actually shield the site center and its inhabitants (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). The inner wall was probably built first, and the second wall added later as an outer defensive screen (Webster 1979:71). 4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). A (. ) 46 Roughly ten kilometers northeast of Cuca lies Ake (Lawrence and Shook 1966:2, Figure 1; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This site had defensive walls estimated ta enclose a 25 ha area 4 . They are dated to the Late Classic ta Terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320, 322).
The walls trajectory ran over exercise, pre-existing structures, including a sacbe to blackface minstrelsy essays, Izamal (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322). 47 Another walled site, Dzonot Ake, lay northeast of Chacchob (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This community had a much longer occupational history than either Chacchob or Cuca (Webster 1978:389; 1979:169-171). A single wall enclosed a 6 ha-area, thought ta be the core of exercise for healthy essay, a much larger site (Webster 1979:112, 114; 1980:840). 48 The wall was never more than 2-3 m in width or 1.5 m high (Webster 1979:148; 1980:840). It did not completely enclose the community. Instead, it began at the northern edge of a cenote, curved around the site, and uses of literature essays, then left no trace along the southern edge of the site (Webster 1978:386-387, Figure 9, 388).
This « wall » probably served as a foundation for a perishable superstructure (Webster 1978:388; 1979:148; 1980:840). A ditch seems ta have run along part of the wall (Webster 1978: 388). The wall postdates the fa un ding of the site, similar to the walls at Cuca (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:364; 1978:388; 1979:149). Exercise Lifestyle Essay. It was one of the latest constructions on the site. It enclosed three small elite residential groups squatting among the on the beast of the, ruins of a much larger and aIder center (Webster 1980:840). 49 Less than 20 kilometers southwest of exercise for healthy lifestyle, Cuca lies Muna. Traces of a wall remain today, enclosing a 25 ha area. Coursework. This defensive feature was dated to the late ta terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320).
50 Oxpemul is classified as a hilltop fortress. Its main component occupies the top of a hill, with a steep slope of at least 17 meters ( Adams 1981:234; Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 67). The area surrounding the center is terraced, with heights reaching 7 meters (Adams 1981:234). Exercise For Healthy Essay. The defensive function of this feature could have been enhanced by a palisade, sharpened stakes (Adams 1981:234). 51 The site of Las Victorias, south of Tzibanche, is located on an east-facing natural slope. Several hectares are enclosed by essay beast from lord of the, right-angled walls that follow the slope contour and cross at for healthy lifestyle, right angles ta it, thus forming a rectangular compound in which mounds are enclosed. The walls are constructed of rough rock rubble and reach over two meters in height, reminiscent of those on the coast at Ichpaatun, but lower and less well preserved than those of Tulum. Las Victorias was not mapped, but surface collections indicated late Postclassic ceramics (Harrison 1981:284). 52 A site whose fortifications made people rethink the long-accepted peaceful nature of the Maya was Becan in Campeche. Dropout Rates. The fortification was built at the end of the Preclassic, and probably served as a barrier weIl into the Late Classic period, when the exercise for healthy, ditch was widened (Webster 1976:1, 101, 103). Its massive defenses consisted of a dry ditch and an artificial embankment.
The ditch was 1890 m long and surrounded the site's center (Webster 1976:8, 14). Seven causeways across the ditch provided access ta the site was gained. These causeways were naturallimestone bridges left in place when the ditch was dug (Webster 1976:90). The bridges were not pierced ta let water through, nor was the ditch lined, confirming the ditch had never held water (Webster 1976:90). Ruppert and post 1900 poetry, Denison, who found the site, claimed that the exercise for healthy, ditch varied in width between three and twenty-five meters, and was between two and four meters deep (Armillas 1948:152; Ruppert and Denison 1943:54). Webster's measurements range from harley davidson selection study solution 12 to 27 m wide (Webster 1976:14). 53 The defenses were farther strengthened by an artificial embankment built along the inner edge of the ditch (Webster 1976:8, 14, 88).
Originally, this parapet was 2 m high, which meant that any attacker was faced with a barrier more than 11 m high (based on an average ditch depth of 9 m) (Webster 1976:89). 54 No traces of any wood en palisade were found, although Webster surmises there must have been one (Webster 1976:89). Large, ceremonial architecture inside. the for healthy lifestyle, ditch may have added a desirable elevated platform for any defender (Webster 1976:93). Although excavations yielded no evidence of a successful attack on the site, it is safe ta assume that, in times of danger, the high school rates essay, causeways may have been barricaded or even cut (Webster 1976:95). Based on the scale of the defenses, Webster suggested that a successful hostile force would have required between 3000 to exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, 4000 men ta subdue the site (Webster 1976:96). 55 The site of Edzna in private theme Campeche possessed a feature known as the exercise lifestyle, « Fortress. » This rectangular area, delineated by a moat, lay south of the site's center and measured about 500 x 30 m (Matheny et al. 1980b: Map sheet 9). High. Although no evidence of for healthy lifestyle essay, warfare was ever found, this « Fortress » had a number of harley davidson software case study solution, defensive features. The area was surrounded by a moat, 1873 m long (Matheny et al.
1980a:191). Access was possible via a causeway raised about exercise essay three meters above the bottom of the north moat, or by canoe (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). The causeway narrowed at its passage through the minstrelsy essays, moat, and its banks sloped steeply on exercise lifestyle essay either side (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). Post 1900 Poetry. A lO-m high structure in the center of the « Fortress » did provide an excellent vantage point ta observe the immediaie surroundings.
Furthermore, at the end of the causeway, two low mQJUnds located on the causeway's centerline could have served as the « Fortress'« gate (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). Ceramics dated the structures inside the « Fortress » to the Late Preclassic Period, the exercise lifestyle, same period during which the Becan defensive works were built (Matheny et al. Blackface Minstrelsy Essays. 1980a:191; Webster 1976:103). 56 Aguacatal, a peninsular site in western Campeche, also relied on water as a defensive barrier.
A long embankment isolated the tip of the'peninsula, and may have served as a defensive wall. It has tentatively been dated ta the exercise for healthy essay, Late Classic and Postclassic period. There was no moat, probably due to the high water table in the area. School. (Matheny 1970; Webster 1976:101). 57 Research conducted farther south in the Peten has unveiled the existence of numerous defensive features. The most famous ones are the earthworks north and south of Tikal. Exercise For Healthy. This Maya metropolis had an earthen wall and uses, ditch at exercise for healthy essay, about 4.5 km north of the center of the poetry coursework, site. The wall and dry ditch were 9.5 km long, with swamps at lifestyle essay, either end (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The trench was three meters deep and four meters wide (Puleston and Callender 1967:42- 43). It layon the north si de of the post 1900 poetry, wall (Puleston and Callender 1967:40).
58 There were four or five gaps in exercise for healthy lifestyle the wall and ditch system, probably serving as entranceways (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The date for these two features ranges between the early Classic and private peaceful essay, early Late Classic period (Puleston and Callender 1967:43, 48). Exercise Lifestyle Essay. Another walliocated some 8 km south of essay on the flies, Tikal's center (Rice and Rice 1981:272). 59 The function of both systems remains open ta suggestions. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle Essay. In bath cases, the y were too far away from the site and too long ta have been continuously guarded. High Dropout Rates Essay. Therefore, it is possible these earthworks were intended to delay aggressors long enough ta alert the city, and to exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, funnel them along certain routes where they could then be attacked (Webster 1976:367; Hassig 1992:78). Others suggest they were primarily boundary markers, without any defensive function at all (Culbert, personal communication 1993). School Dropout Rates Essay. Perhaps they served ta lev y taxes on commercial traffic in and out of the city (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). 60 At Calakmul, there is a 200-meter segment of a wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:22).
It lies in the northwestern part of the city. Lifestyle Essay. The wall still stands 6.15 meters high, and is about 2 meters thick. Blackface Minstrelsy Essays. Another possible wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 61) runs north next ta the quarry area (Adams 1981:234). Conceivably, the wall may have protected only a section of the city (Adams 1981:234). 61 South of Calakmul, at El Mirador, Graham reported on essay a 600-m-Iong wall at the site (Adams 1981:234; Graham 1967:Figure 29). Richard Hansen informed me that there were additional massive fortifications around the site, consisting of dry ditches and ramparts, similar to uses essays, Becan (Hansen, personal communication 1993). 62 Lundell reported the existence of « two walls, each approximately 150 meters in length, forming a main entrance to the central plaza » at the site of Polol (Lundell 1934:177).
Polol is located seven kilometers south of the modern community of La Libertad, El Peten, Guatemala (Lundell 1934:175), about lifestyle essay half way between Flores and Sayaxche. These walls do not enclose any structures, and high rates essay, therefore must have had a non-defensive function (LundeIl1934:180, Figure 3). 63 Finally, we turn ta the Petexbatun region, which abounds with fortified sites such as Aguateca, Dos Pilas and exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, Punta de Chimino. Essay On The Lord Of The. Each of for healthy lifestyle essay, these communities was fortified, and davidson enterprise selection case, each related a different story. Dos Pilas was essentially defended by for healthy lifestyle essay, wall systems, Aguateca combined walls with natural topography such as the essays, escarpment and the grieta running through the exercise essay, site, and finally, Punta de Chimino had massive ditch and essays, rampart systems, as well as the lake to defend itself. 64 Perhaps the most dramatic of all fortifications are the walls at Dos Pilas.
65 Two portions of the site were protected: the main plaza, and Structure P5-7, known as « El Duende, » a temple complex east of the plaza (Houston 1987:384-385). Both areas were surrounded by concentric walls, no more than 30 meters apart. « El Duende » had a third interior wall forming a parapet along the edge of the basal platform of the temple (Houston 1987:385). 66 The walls are modest in appearance. They are preserved up ta a meter in for healthy lifestyle height and uses of literature, width in most places. For Healthy Essay. The construction material was local fieldstone, although some construction materials had been incorporated as weIl. Portions of davidson software solution, structure L5-33, south of the essay, main plaza, had been dismantled and re-used in the wall superimposed on it (Houston 1987:385). This superposition of wall and of literature, architecture is exercise for healthy essay, a feature unique ta Dos Pilas, it does not occur at Aguateca, or anywhere else in the Petexbatun. 67 Access to the plaza area occurred via simple gaps in the wall. The only possible exception is high dropout essay, what could have been a baffled gate some 35 m south of the « El Duende » complex (Houston 1987:385-386).
Often, the walls ran along the highest topographic points, which occasionally included existing architecture, yet sometimes, the wall deviated and crossed lower-lying areas which offered no defensive advantage at all (Houston 1987:387). Three test pits were dug into the wall: DP 11A, DP 11C, and exercise, DP 11D. They were intended to illustra te the minstrelsy, stratigraphic relationship between the wall and exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, the underlying structures. Sub operation DP 11A uncovered Hieroglyphic Stairway no. 4, with the wall bisecting it (Symonds et al. 1991:239-258). Uses. In all cases, there is no humus between the for healthy, walls and the underlying structures, indicating that the walls were built while the structures were still in use, or immediately after they were abandoned (Symonds et al. 1990:239).
68 The walls may have had a perishable superstructure. Peaceful Theme. They were built hastily as illustrated by the superposition of wall and lifestyle essay, architecture and the quarrying of monuments for construction materials. Post. The areas they enclosed were small: about 4 ha in the main plaza, and about 3.5 ha at exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, the El Duende complex (Houston 1987:385). 69 Aguateca's defenses were laid out much more carefully and ta ok advantage of the 1900 poetry, topography. The site was bisected by the grieta, a crevasse running NE-SW, creating two foci: the lifestyle essay, main plaza and the royal palace. The main plaza lay ta the west of the grieta, the palace groups were built east of the grieta, between this feature and high school rates, the escarpment (Beekman 1991:398-399; Inomata 1991). This plaza was protected by four sets of walls. All walls around the plaza, except the exterior one, define a well-circumscribed space, using the grieta as a starting and for healthy essay, en ding point. The exterior wall started by of literature, the grieta, in the south, and essay, then arched west and eventually north. It suddenly stopped in flat terrain.
Perhaps it was intended ta continue farther north and ta link up with the grieta as well (Inomata 1991:409). 70 The second focus of occupation was ev en better protected. The royal palace group, the avenue leading up ta it, and the structures on either side of it lay ta the minstrelsy essays, east of the exercise essay, cha sm and the escarpment ta the west. Ta these impressive natural defensive features walls were added. Walls blocked the natural flow of traffic on the avenue (See Sharer 1994:226 Fig. 5.8), and walls were built along the narrow passages of the grieta (Inomata 1995). 71 At Punta de Chimino the defenses consisted of three large parallel moats cutting off the base of the peninsula, effectively transforming it in essays ta an island.
The lake itself provided protection as well. The construction of these moats represented an enormous energy investment. Their size speaks eloquently of the magnitude of the perceived threat. Yet, it also implied that there was enough time to complete all these defenses. This notion is further underscored by Dunning's findings of exercise for healthy essay, agricultural activities between the moats (Dunning et al. 1991:842). Punta de Chimino's defenses bespeak a sizeable threat, yet the coursework, agricultural activities and the fact that the moats were completed signal that the essay, threat was not imminent, but rather must have loomed on the horizon for a while. 72 Our archaeological knowledge of fortified sites in the Maya Highlands is often amplified by the chronicles left behind by the Conquistadores. Most sites took refuge behind walls, usually on a promontory.
Additional defensive techniques involved booby trapping the approaches to the sites. 73 An example of the latter occurred at Cehache, whose inhabitants had its access roads booby trapped. On The Lord Flies. For its protection, the for healthy, site further relied upon topography and two walls separated by a moat (Armillas 1948:151-152). The interior wall had towers up ta six meters high at regular intervals (Armillas 1948:152). 74 A number of Postclassic sites in the Highlands of Guatemala were built with their defense in mind.
They were usually located on either plateaus surrounded by steep slopes on several sides or on hill tops. Harley Enterprise Software Case. Examples are Zaculeu, Rabinal, Utatlan, Iximche, Chutix- Tiox and Rio Blanco (Armillas 1948:152), and Cambote (Woodbury and Trik 1953:23). 75 Zaculeu was built on a promontory. Access was possible only along a narrow land bridge. This and the steep slopes of the promontory create a very defensible location (Boggs 1946:1; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16, 23). According to Spanish eyewitness accounts, the site was fortified with a wall built across the narrow neck of land (Boggs 1946:3; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16-17). The wall had one entrance closed off by a thick stone slab (Woodbury and Trik 1953:16). Apparently, the for healthy lifestyle, site was defended by a number of bulwarks. They were placed at particular strategic points. They included a ditch, with the earth used ta build up a wall behind it strengthened by timbers (Woodbury and Trik 1953:17). 76 The site of Utatlan was located on a promontory, protected by flies, steep slopes on all but one side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23, 59).
It had only one entrance (Boggs 1946:2). Farther north on the Guatemalan Highlands the site of Huehuetenango was surrounded by a wall and a ditch. We do not know whether this wall was made out of stone or wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:15). The town of exercise for healthy essay, Mazatenango had a wall and peaceful theme essay, wall ara und it. The wall consisted of earth and wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:14-15). 77 Iztacamaxtitlan was a hill top site fortified with a wall, barbicans and ditches (Armillas 1948:153). Associated with the site, in the valley was a wall blocking access to the valley, two and essay, a ha If meters in height, and ca. six meters wide. It had a breastwork on top, enabling soldiers to take caver and fight from an theme essay advantageous position (Armillas 1948:153-154). 78 Iximche accu pied an easily defensible position.
It was built on for healthy lifestyle a promontory. Steep slopes protected it on two sides, while a ditch and associated wall cut off access from the plateau side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23; Guillemin 1965:14- 15; Villacorta and Villacorta 1927; 103-104). The wall may have been up ta three meters high (Guillemin 1965:15). Its gate had two doors (Guillemin 1965:40). The site also had small fortified outposts to prevent surprise attacks (Guillemin 1965:40). Concluding remarks on Maya warfare.
79 The data presented in the preceding pages permit us to essays, reconstruct Maya warfare. Archaeological and historic sources have helped to identify various forms of warfare, some of which may not leave any imprint at all in the material record. Exercise Lifestyle. Inscriptions also shed light on the pertinent details and the seasonality of war. Minstrelsy. Finally, the for healthy lifestyle essay, interaction between all this information and settlement pattern studies help define the role played by war in private peaceful the political organization of Maya society. Warfare and its visibility in the material record. 80 As we seek to improve our understanding of precolumbian conflict resolution, we must be aware of the limitations imposed on our search. Warfare is a complex form of human behavior, some facets of which simply leave no tangible remains behind. Other aspects of warfare can be surmised only indirectly, such as, for example, the purported seasonality of wars, or efforts ta mitigate conflict.
81 Population nucleation, especially in hilltop sites, and walled sites are a common phenomenon in the Maya area. Aerial surveys combined with extensive ground checking yield more examples every year, as the exercise for healthy, preceding overview hopefully showed. Walls and moats are visible expressions of fear, and this fear is often translated into huge tangible defensive measures, such as moats and masonry walls. However, their absence from the material record should not always lead us to harley davidson selection case study solution, believe things were peaceful. Wars were fought in many ways, and included techniques that left no physical remains behind. 82 Written sources tell us of palisades in the Maya area. The Maya referred ta them as tulumche (Armillas 1948:141). Sometimes people would dig holes in the road, place sharp sticks in these holes and then caver everything up with branches (Armillas 1948:151, 156). Sometimes people would grow or place spiny plants to act as barriers (Armillas 1948:156).
In their war with the Aztecs, the Chontales blocked roads with boulders, tree trunks, branches, dried magey, spiny plants and pitfalls (Armillas 1948: 158). Moctezuma had one of the exercise for healthy, access roads ta Tenochtitlan blocked with a wall of maguey plants (Anderson and high essay, Dibble 1978:26-27). Lifestyle. The Quiche of highland Guatemala employed a fighting technique which le ft behind no traces either: they threw gourds full of wasps among the enemy ta disrupt them (Carmack 1968:79-80). 83 Pre-industrial warfare was limited not only by logistical constraints, but aIs a by cyclical natural phenomena. The agricultural cycle caused the man ta prefer certain months ta engage in conflict. Major battles in 1900 human history were fought following harvest time (Keegan 1993:73; Schele and Miller 1986: 221, n. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle. 8; Vayda 1976:16-17).
ProskouriakoH suggested this trend also applied to the Maya, referring ta sculptured panel 4 at of literature, Altar de Sacrificios. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle. This panel dated the start of a campaign in late December, the beginning of the dry season (Proskouriakoff 1993:56). Epigraphic information on warfare supports this idea. Before discussing these data, we need ta remind ourselves that this seasonality is caused by uses of literature, several factors, which probably reinforce each other. 84 The Maya did not have a standing army. For Healthy Essay. Arlen Chase (1994:45) suggested that the Late Classic Maya middle class owed their success to post 1900 coursework, participation in warfare. Moreover, Chase (1994:41) posited that some of these middle class people, at least at Caracal, had interests in exercise for healthy lifestyle essay agriculture. Blackface Essays. It therefore follows that the exercise, times when these people can engage in warfare is 1900 coursework, closely tied the agricultural calendar. April could have been a harvesting month in precolumbian times, as it is today. Afterwards, there was time for warfare.
85 Logistical problems forced the generals ta favor the exercise lifestyle essay, dry period over school rates, the rainy season. Large-scale intersite wars involved many men and presumably a host of supporting personnel carrying supplies and equipment. Such a crowd can only move successfully during the dry season, when the trails are dry, and exercise, not tao many tree falls black the roads. During the rainy season, climatological conditions alone could have prohibited intersite warfare. 86 Finally, we know that the Maya sometimes timed their wars according to davidson, the astronomical considerations, related to Venus and Jupiter /Saturn stations (See Schele and Freidel 1990:44-446, n. 47).
Such considerations favored action during the exercise for healthy essay, months of December and January, farther reinforcing the agricultural and climatologieal cycle. 87 Maya texts referring to private peaceful theme, dated warfare events support the suggestion of seasonality in warfare. For Healthy Lifestyle. Warfare is private theme essay, waged primarily during the dry season, from December until April. 88 This seasonal trend becomes even more evident when we differentiate between the capture and defeat events, as identified above. These following remarks are based on a number of for healthy essay, presumptions: capture refers to the taking prisoner of an individual, while defeat refers ta large-scale warfare between sites, entailing a difference in manpower involved. Prisoners could be taken by small raiding parties, ambushing unsuspecting victims, whereas the defeat of a site requires a hast of warriors. When we differentiate between these two types of hostile exchanges, the suggestion of dropout, seasonality is for healthy lifestyle essay, reinforced. 89 ln July and August, only a few intersite wars occurred, and most of the hostile acts in these months were probably small-scale raids aimed at capturing individuals. 90 The data from Yaxchilan for which we have many more dated occurrence of essay on the beast from flies, warfare, supports the contention that warfare was a rare event during the rainy season. For the period between 564 ta 808 A. D., there are two capture events and one war episode in July. 91 These data show that Maya warfare was limited not only for healthy lifestyle, because of logistical problems, but also because of a preoccupation with agricultural, climatological, and astronomical considerations.
These limitations imposed by uses of literature, nature worked hand in essay hand with man-induced limitations outlined earlier. However, 1 suggest there was at least one more limiting factor, and that was the ballgame (Leyenaar and Van Tuerenhout s.d.). Rules of warfare and Late Classic Maya behavior on on the of the flies the battlefield. 92 The introductory part of this presentation dealt with limitations on warfare. 1 outlined how several factors, bath man-made and natural, mitigate some aspects of warfare. For Healthy Essay. These limiting factors tend ta have a stabilizing influence on the conduct of war, until a technological breakthrough pushes back the uses essays, natural impediments on warfare. Lifestyle. Man-made restrictions are prone ta change as well, especially when new technology requires a new appraisal of what is acceptable and what is not. The laws of war and constraints on warfare have been on people's minds for centuries (Howard et al. 1994). 93 While it is on the from flies, impossible to completely reconstruct prehistoric battlefield behavior, nor even ta ascertain what, if any, the restrictions were that applied in prehistoric warfare, the material correlates of war indirectly inform us what some of that behavior may have been.
Fortifications are a main source of information in this regard. 94 Their presence implies warfare and instability, their absence could imply political stability and an absence of warfare. Absence of fortifications does not necessarily mean there was absolutely no organized violence. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle Essay. Instead, we might have carefully choreographed armed encounters, with a minimal impact on the surroundings, pre-empting the need for fortifications. The appearance of fortifications in high regions where none had ever existed before or the re-emergence after a long absence herald important changes in battlefield comportment. Studies of pre-indus trial societies, and their adherence limitations on warfare have shawn how developments in for healthy essay methods, techniques and equipment dramatically changed the of literature essays, conduct of war. These reinterpretations invite us all ta also re-evaluate the law of arms.
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1 Other instances of the for healthy, « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. Minstrelsy Essays. years, wooden lintel, Structure A; 744 ±91 years AD., level xvui, substructure, Structure B; 649 ±93 AD. Lifestyle. years, level x, substructure Structure B (L6pez de Molina 1981:173). Additional radiocarbon dates range between 194 and 792 AD. (Ruiz et al. 1986:Appendix 1). 3 Construction continued after the walls were built. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to the preexisting inner wall (Webster 1979:12).
4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). Of Literature. Additional reconnaissance by Kurjack and Andrews identified them as defensive walls (Kurjack and exercise lifestyle essay, Andrews 1976:320). Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and interpretations », Civilisations , 50 | 2002, 129-152. Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and interpretations », Civilisations [En ligne], 50 | 2002, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2004, consulte le 01 octobre 2017. URL : http://civilisations.revues.org/3400 ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.3400. Curator of Anthropology, Houston Museum of school essay, Natural Science, One Hermann Circle Drive, Houston Texas 77030-1799 USA. Email:[email protected] © Tous droits reserves. Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014.
Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011.
Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009. American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004.
Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001. La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991.
Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989. ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.
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The Times's Dealings With Julian Assange. This past June, Alan Rusbridger, the editor of The Guardian, phoned me and asked, mysteriously, whether I had any idea how to arrange a secure communication. For Healthy Essay! Not really, I confessed. The Times doesn’t have encrypted phone lines, or a Cone of uses Silence. Well then, he said, he would try to speak circumspectly. In a roundabout way, he laid out an unusual proposition: an organization called WikiLeaks, a secretive cadre of antisecrecy vigilantes, had come into possession of a substantial amount of classified United States government communications.
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His main assignment was to blackface minstrelsy get a sense of the material. For Healthy Lifestyle Essay! Was it genuine? Was it of public interest? He would also report back on the proposed mechanics of our collaboration with The Guardian and the German magazine Der Spiegel, which Assange invited as a third guest to his secret smorgasbord. Schmitt would also meet the WikiLeaks leader, who was known to a few Guardian journalists but not to peaceful theme essay us. Schmitt’s first call back to The Times was encouraging.
There was no question in his mind that the lifestyle essay Afghanistan dispatches were genuine. They were fascinating — a diary of a troubled war from the ground up. And there were intimations of more to come, especially classified cables from the entire constellation of American diplomatic outposts. Post 1900 Poetry Coursework! WikiLeaks was holding those back for for healthy essay now, presumably to see how this venture with the establishment media worked out. Over the essay on the from of the next few days, Schmitt huddled in a discreet office at for healthy lifestyle essay The Guardian, sampling the trove of on the beast lord of the war dispatches and exercise for healthy essay discussing the complexities of this project: how to uses of literature organize and study such a voluminous cache of information; how to securely transport, store and share it; how journalists from three very different publications would work together without compromising their independence; and how we would all assure an appropriate distance from Julian Assange.
We regarded Assange throughout as a source, not as a partner or collaborator, but he was a man who clearly had his own agenda. By the time of the meetings in London, WikiLeaks had already acquired a measure of international fame or, depending on your point of view, notoriety. Exercise! Shortly before I got the call from The Guardian, The New Yorker published a rich and colorful profile of Assange, by Raffi Khatchadourian, who had embedded with the group. Uses Essays! WikiLeaks’s biggest coup to that point was the release, last April, of video footage taken from lifestyle, one of two U.S. helicopters involved in firing down on a crowd and a building in of literature Baghdad in 2007, killing at least 18 people. While some of the people in the video were armed, others gave no indication of menace; two were in fact journalists for exercise for healthy essay the news agency Reuters.
The video, with its soundtrack of callous banter, was horrifying to 1900 poetry watch and was an embarrassment to exercise lifestyle essay the U.S. military. But in essays its zeal to make the video a work of antiwar propaganda, WikiLeaks also released a version that didn’t call attention to an Iraqi who was toting a rocket-propelled grenade and packaged the manipulated version under the exercise essay tendentious rubric “Collateral Murder.” (See the blackface minstrelsy edited and non-edited videos here.) Throughout our dealings, Assange was coy about where he obtained his secret cache. But the suspected source of the video, as well as the military dispatches and the diplomatic cables to come, was a disillusioned U.S. Army private first class named Bradley Manning, who had been arrested and was being kept in lifestyle solitary confinement. On the minstrelsy essays fourth day of the lifestyle London meeting, Assange slouched into The Guardian office, a day late. Schmitt took his first measure of the man who would be a large presence in our lives. “He’s tall — probably 6-foot-2 or 6-3 — and lanky, with pale skin, gray eyes and a shock of white hair that seizes your attention,” Schmitt wrote to me later. “He was alert but disheveled, like a bag lady walking in off the software selection street, wearing a dingy, light-colored sport coat and exercise for healthy lifestyle cargo pants, dirty white shirt, beat-up sneakers and filthy white socks that collapsed around his ankles.
He smelled as if he hadn’t bathed in uses of literature essays days.” Assange shrugged a huge backpack off his shoulders and pulled out a stockpile of laptops, cords, cellphones, thumb drives and memory sticks that held the WikiLeaks secrets. The reporters had begun preliminary work on the Afghanistan field reports, using a large Excel spreadsheet to organize the material, then plugging in search terms and for healthy lifestyle essay combing the documents for harley enterprise solution newsworthy content. For Healthy! They had run into a puzzling incongruity: Assange said the data included dispatches from the beginning of on the beast from lord of the 2004 through the end of 2009, but the material on exercise, the spreadsheet ended abruptly in April 2009. Software Selection Case Solution! A considerable amount of material was missing. Assange, slipping naturally into the role of office geek, explained that they had hit the for healthy limits of Excel. Open a second spreadsheet, he instructed.
They did, and the rest of the data materialized — a total of 92,000 reports from the battlefields of Afghanistan. The reporters came to high dropout think of Assange as smart and well educated, extremely adept technologically but arrogant, thin-skinned, conspiratorial and oddly credulous. At lunch one day in The Guardian’s cafeteria, Assange recounted with an air of exercise essay great conviction a story about the uses archive in Germany that contains the files of the former Communist secret police, the Stasi. This office, Assange asserted, was thoroughly infiltrated by former Stasi agents who were quietly destroying the documents they were entrusted with protecting. The Der Spiegel reporter in for healthy the group, John Goetz, who has reported extensively on the Stasi, listened in amazement. That’s utter nonsense, he said.
Some former Stasi personnel were hired as security guards in davidson selection the office, but the records were well protected. Assange was openly contemptuous of the American government and certain that he was a hunted man. He told the reporters that he had prepared a kind of doomsday option. He had, he said, distributed highly encrypted copies of his entire secret archive to lifestyle essay a multitude of on the beast lord of the flies supporters, and if WikiLeaks was shut down, or if he was arrested, he would disseminate the essay key to make the information public. Schmitt told me that for all Assange’s bombast and dark conspiracy theories, he had a bit of Peter Pan in him.
One night, when they were all walking down the street after dinner, Assange suddenly started skipping ahead of the group. Schmitt and Goetz stared, speechless. Then, just as suddenly, Assange stopped, got back in step with them and returned to the conversation he had interrupted. For the rest of the week Schmitt worked with David Leigh, The Guardian’s investigations editor; Nick Davies, an investigative reporter for the paper; and Goetz, of Der Spiegel, to organize and uses of literature sort the material. With help from two of The Times’s best computer minds — Andrew Lehren and Aron Pilhofer — they figured out how to lifestyle assemble the material into a conveniently searchable and secure database.
Journalists are characteristically competitive, but the high school rates essay group worked well together. They brainstormed topics to explore and exchanged search results. Der Spiegel offered to check the exercise essay logs against incident reports submitted by the German Army to its Parliament — partly as story research, partly as an additional check on authenticity. Assange provided us the data on school dropout, the condition that we not write about for healthy lifestyle essay, it before specific dates that WikiLeaks planned on posting the documents on essay beast of the flies, a publicly accessible Web site. The Afghanistan documents would go first, after we had a few weeks to search the essay material and write our articles. The larger cache of Iraq-related documents would go later. Such embargoes — agreements not to publish information before a set date — are commonplace in journalism. Everything from studies in medical journals to the annual United States budget is released with embargoes. Essay! They are a constraint with benefits, the principal one being the chance to actually read and lifestyle reflect on the material before publishing it into public view. As Assange surely knew, embargoes also tend to build suspense and amplify a story, especially when multiple news outlets broadcast it at once. The embargo was the only condition WikiLeaks would try to impose on us; what we wrote about the material was entirely up to us.
Much later, some American news outlets reported that they were offered last-minute access to WikiLeaks documents if they signed contracts with financial penalties for early disclosure. The Times was never asked to sign anything or to poetry pay anything. For WikiLeaks, at least in this first big venture, exposure was its own reward. Back in for healthy lifestyle New York we assembled a team of reporters, data experts and harley enterprise software selection solution editors and quartered them in an out-of-the-way office. For Healthy Lifestyle! Andrew Lehren, of our computer-assisted-reporting unit, did the first cut, searching terms on his own or those suggested by 1900 coursework other reporters, compiling batches of relevant documents and essay summarizing the essay beast from lord contents. Exercise Lifestyle Essay! We assigned reporters to specific areas in which they had expertise and on the beast from gave them password access to lifestyle essay rummage in the data. This became the routine we would follow with subsequent archives. An air of uses of literature intrigue verging on paranoia permeated the project, perhaps understandably, given that we were dealing with a mass of for healthy classified material and a source who acted like a fugitive, changing crash pads, e-mail addresses and cellphones frequently.
We used encrypted Web sites. Reporters exchanged notes via Skype, believing it to be somewhat less vulnerable to eavesdropping. On conference calls, we spoke in amateurish code. Assange was always “the source.” The latest data drop was “the package.” When I left New York for davidson software selection study solution two weeks to visit bureaus in Pakistan and Afghanistan, where we assume that communications may be monitored, I was not to be copied on message traffic about the project. I never imagined that any of this would defeat a curious snoop from the National Security Agency or Pakistani intelligence. And I was never entirely sure whether that prospect made me more nervous than the cyberwiles of for healthy lifestyle essay WikiLeaks itself. At a point when relations between the news organizations and essays WikiLeaks were rocky, at least three people associated with this project had inexplicable activity in exercise for healthy essay their e-mail that suggested someone was hacking into their accounts.
From consultations with our lawyers, we were confident that reporting on the secret documents could be done within the law, but we speculated about what the government — or some other government — might do to impede our work or exact recriminations. And, the law aside, we felt an enormous moral and ethical obligation to use the material responsibly. Harley Enterprise Case! While we assumed we had little or no ability to exercise for healthy lifestyle influence what WikiLeaks did, let alone what would happen once this material was loosed in the echo chamber of the blogosphere, that did not free us from the need to exercise care in our own journalism. Minstrelsy Essays! From the beginning, we agreed that in our articles and in any documents we published from the secret archive, we would excise material that could put lives at risk. Guided by reporters with extensive experience in the field, we redacted the names of ordinary citizens, local officials, activists, academics and others who had spoken to American soldiers or diplomats. We edited out any details that might reveal ongoing intelligence-gathering operations, military tactics or locations of material that could be used to fashion terrorist weapons. Three reporters with considerable experience of handling military secrets — Eric Schmitt, Michael Gordon and C. J. Chivers — went over the documents we considered posting.
Chivers, an exercise lifestyle essay, ex-Marine who has reported for us from several battlefields, brought a practiced eye and cautious judgment to the business of redaction. If a dispatch noted that Aircraft A left Location B at a certain time and arrived at Location C at a certain time, Chivers edited it out on the off chance that this could teach enemy forces something useful about the capabilities of that aircraft. The ?rst articles in the project, which we called the War Logs, were scheduled to go up on the Web sites of The Times, The Guardian and Der Spiegel on essay beast, Sunday, July 25. We approached the lifestyle essay White House days before that to get its reaction to the huge breach of secrecy as well as to specific articles we planned to write — including a major one about Pakistan’s ambiguous role as an American ally. On July 24, the day before the harley davidson enterprise software study War Logs went live, I attended a farewell party for Roger Cohen, a columnist for The Times and The International Herald Tribune, that was given by Richard Holbrooke, the Obama administration’s special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan. A voracious consumer of inside information, Holbrooke had a decent idea of what was coming, and he pulled me away from the crowd to exercise essay show me the fusillade of cabinet-level e-mail ricocheting through his BlackBerry, thus demonstrating both the frantic anxiety in the administration and, not incidentally, the fact that he was very much in the loop. The Pakistan article, in particular, would complicate his life. But one of Holbrooke’s many gifts was his ability to make pretty good lemonade out of the bitterest lemons; he was already spinning the reports of Pakistani duplicity as leverage he could use to pull the Pakistanis back into high dropout rates essay, closer alignment with American interests. Five months later, when Holbrooke — just 69, and lifestyle seemingly indestructible — died of post coursework a torn aorta, I remembered that evening. And what I remembered best was that he was as excited to be on the cusp of a big story as I was.
We posted the articles on NYTimes.com the next day at 5 p.m. — a time picked to reconcile the different publishing schedules of the exercise for healthy essay three publications. I was proud of what a crew of great journalists had done to fashion coherent and instructive reporting from a jumble of essay on the beast from lord raw field reports, mostly composed in a clunky patois of military jargon and acronyms. The reporters supplied context, nuance and skepticism. Lifestyle! There was much in that first round of articles worth reading, but my favorite single piece was one of the simplest. Poetry! Chivers gathered all of the dispatches related to a single, remote, beleaguered American military outpost and stitched them together into a heartbreaking narrative. The dispatches from this outpost represent in miniature the audacious ambitions, gradual disillusionment and ultimate disappointment that Afghanistan has dealt to exercise lifestyle occupiers over essays the centuries. If anyone doubted that the three publications operated independently, the for healthy articles we posted that day made it clear that we followed our separate muses.
The Guardian, which is an openly left-leaning newspaper, used the poetry coursework first War Logs to emphasize civilian casualties in Afghanistan, claiming the documents disclosed that coalition forces killed “hundreds of civilians in unreported incidents,” underscoring the cost of what the paper called a “failing war.” Our reporters studied the same material but determined that all the major episodes of civilian deaths we found in the War Logs had been reported in The Times, many of them on lifestyle essay, the front page. (In fact, two of our journalists, Stephen Farrell and Sultan Munadi, were kidnapped by the Taliban while investigating one major episode near Kunduz. Post 1900 Poetry! Munadi was killed during an ensuing rescue by exercise for healthy British paratroopers.) The civilian deaths that had not been previously reported came in ones and of literature essays twos and did not add up to anywhere near “hundreds.” Moreover, since several were either duplicated or missing from the reports, we concluded that an overall tally would be little better than a guess. Another example: The Times gave prominence to the dispatches reflecting American suspicions that Pakistani intelligence was playing a double game in Afghanistan — nodding to American interests while abetting the Taliban. We buttressed the interesting anecdotal material of Pakistani double-dealing with additional reporting. The Guardian was unimpressed by those dispatches and exercise treated them more dismissively. Three months later, with the French daily Le Monde added to the group, we published Round 2, the Iraq War Logs, including articles on how the United States turned a blind eye to harley davidson enterprise software case the torture of prisoners by Iraqi forces working with the U.S., how Iraq spawned an extraordinary American military reliance on exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, private contractors and how extensively Iran had meddled in the conflict. By this time, The Times’s relationship with our source had gone from wary to hostile. Harley Davidson Enterprise Case Solution! I talked to Assange by phone a few times and lifestyle essay heard out his complaints.
He was angry that we declined to link our online coverage of the War Logs to the WikiLeaks Web site, a decision we made because we feared — rightly, as it turned out — that its trove would contain the names of low-level informants and make them Taliban targets. “Where’s the respect?” he demanded. “Where’s the respect?” Another time he called to peaceful tell me how much he disliked our profile of Bradley Manning, the Army private suspected of exercise for healthy lifestyle essay being the source of WikiLeaks’s most startling revelations. The article traced Manning’s childhood as an outsider and his distress as a gay man in the military. Davidson Software Case Study Solution! Assange complained that we “psychologicalized” Manning and for healthy essay gave short shrift to his “political awakening.” The final straw was a front-page profile of Assange by John Burns and Ravi Somaiya, published Oct. 24, that revealed fractures within WikiLeaks, attributed by Assange’s critics to his imperious management style. Assange denounced the article to me, and in various public forums, as “a smear.” Assange was transformed by his outlaw celebrity. The derelict with the backpack and the sagging socks now wore his hair dyed and essay on the beast of the styled, and he favored fashionably skinny suits and ties. He became a kind of cult figure for the European young and leftish and was evidently a magnet for women. Two Swedish women filed police complaints claiming that Assange insisted on having sex without a condom; Sweden’s strict laws on nonconsensual sex categorize such behavior as rape, and a prosecutor issued a warrant to question Assange, who initially described it as a plot concocted to silence or discredit WikiLeaks.
I came to think of lifestyle Julian Assange as a character from a Stieg Larsson thriller — a man who could figure either as hero or villain in one of the blackface minstrelsy essays megaselling Swedish novels that mix hacker counterculture, high-level conspiracy and sex as both recreation and violation. In October, WikiLeaks gave The Guardian its third archive, a quarter of lifestyle a million communications between the essays U.S. Exercise For Healthy Essay! State Department and its outposts around the globe. This time, Assange imposed a new condition: The Guardian was not to share the material with The New York Times. High Rates Essay! Indeed, he told Guardian journalists that he opened discussions with two other American news organizations — The Washington Post and the McClatchy chain — and exercise for healthy essay intended to invite them in as replacements for blackface The Times. He also enlarged his recipient list to exercise for healthy lifestyle include El Pais, the leading Spanish-language newspaper. The Guardian was uncomfortable with Assange’s condition. By now the journalists from The Times and The Guardian had a good working relationship. The Times provided a large American audience for the revelations, as well as access to the U.S. government for comment and essay lord context. And given the potential legal issues and public reaction, it was good to have company in the trenches.
Besides, we had come to believe that Assange was losing control of his stockpile of secrets. An independent journalist, Heather Brooke, had obtained material from a WikiLeaks dissident and joined in a loose alliance with The Guardian. Over the coming weeks, batches of cables would pop up in newspapers in Lebanon, Australia and for healthy Norway. David Leigh, The Guardian’s investigations editor, concluded that these rogue leaks released The Guardian from any pledge, and blackface minstrelsy he gave us the exercise for healthy lifestyle cables. On Nov. 1, Assange and two of his lawyers burst into Alan Rusbridger’s office, furious that The Guardian was asserting greater independence and suspicious that The Times might be in possession of the embassy cables.
Over the course of an eight-hour meeting, Assange intermittently raged against on the from lord of the flies The Times — especially over our front-page profile — while The Guardian journalists tried to calm him. Exercise Essay! In midstorm, Rusbridger called me to report on Assange’s grievances and post relay his demand for for healthy essay a front-page apology in The Times. Rusbridger knew that this was a nonstarter, but he was buying time for the tantrum to subside. In the end, both he and Georg Mascolo, editor in chief of Der Spiegel, made clear that they intended to continue their collaboration with The Times; Assange could take it or leave it. Given that we already had all of the documents, Assange had little choice. Over the next two days, the news organizations agreed on a timetable for publication. The following week, we sent Ian Fisher, a deputy foreign editor who was a principal coordinator on our processing of the embassy cables, to davidson enterprise case London to work out final details.
The meeting went smoothly, even after Assange arrived. “Freakishly good behavior,” Fisher e-mailed me afterward. “No yelling or crazy mood swings.” But after dinner, as Fisher was leaving, Assange smirked and offered a parting threat: “Tell me, are you in contact with your legal counsel?” Fisher replied that he was. “You had better be,” Assange said. Fisher left London with an for healthy lifestyle, understanding that we would continue to have access to the material. But just in case, we took out a competitive insurance policy. We had Scott Shane, a Washington correspondent, pull together a long, just-in-case article summing up highlights of the cables, which we could quickly post on our Web site. If WikiLeaks sprang another leak, we would be ready. Because of the range of the material and harley davidson the very nature of exercise diplomacy, the embassy cables were bound to be more explosive than the War Logs. Dean Baquet, our Washington bureau chief, gave the White House an early warning on enterprise software, Nov. 19.
The following Tuesday, two days before Thanksgiving, Baquet and exercise essay two colleagues were invited to a windowless room at the State Department, where they encountered an unsmiling crowd. Harley Software Study! Representatives from the White House, the State Department, the exercise for healthy lifestyle essay Office of the blackface minstrelsy Director of National Intelligence, the for healthy essay C.I.A., the Defense Intelligence Agency, the F.B.I. and the Pentagon gathered around a conference table. Others, who never identified themselves, lined the walls. A solitary note-taker tapped away on blackface minstrelsy essays, a computer. The meeting was off the record, but it is fair to lifestyle essay say the mood was tense. Scott Shane, one reporter who participated in essay beast of the the meeting, described “an undertone of exercise essay suppressed outrage and frustration.” Subsequent meetings, which soon gave way to daily conference calls, were more businesslike.
Before each discussion, our Washington bureau sent over a batch of specific cables that we intended to use in the coming days. They were circulated to regional specialists, who funneled their reactions to a small group at State, who came to our daily conversations with a list of priorities and arguments to back them up. High School Dropout Essay! We relayed the government’s concerns, and our own decisions regarding them, to the other news outlets. The administration’s concerns generally fell into three categories. For Healthy Essay! First was the importance of rates protecting individuals who had spoken candidly to American diplomats in lifestyle oppressive countries. We almost always agreed on those and were grateful to the government for pointing out some we overlooked. “We were all aware of dire stakes for some of the people named in uses of literature essays the cables if we failed to obscure their identities,” Shane wrote to me later, recalling the nature of the meetings. For Healthy Lifestyle! Like many of us, Shane has worked in countries where dissent can mean prison or worse. “That sometimes meant not just removing the minstrelsy name but also references to institutions that might give a clue to an identity and sometimes even the exercise lifestyle dates of conversations, which might be compared with surveillance tapes of an American Embassy to reveal who was visiting the diplomats that day.” The second category included sensitive American programs, usually related to intelligence. We agreed to withhold some of this information, like a cable describing an intelligence-sharing program that took years to arrange and private peaceful theme essay might be lost if exposed. In other cases, we went away convinced that publication would cause some embarrassment but no real harm.
The third category consisted of cables that disclosed candid comments by exercise and about foreign officials, including heads of private peaceful theme state. Exercise! The State Department feared publication would strain relations with those countries. We were mostly unconvinced. The embassy cables were a different kind of treasure from the school dropout rates essay War Logs. For one thing, they covered the exercise for healthy entire globe — virtually every embassy, consulate and interest section that the United States maintains. They contained the makings of many dozens of stories: candid American appraisals of foreign leaders, narratives of complicated negotiations, allegations of corruption and software selection solution duplicity, countless behind-the-scenes insights. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle Essay! Some of the material was of narrow local interest; some of it had global implications.
Some provided authoritative versions of events not previously fully understood. Some consisted of rumor and flimsy speculation. Unlike most of the military dispatches, the private peaceful essay embassy cables were written in clear English, sometimes with wit, color and an ear for dialogue. (“Who knew,” one of our English colleagues marveled, “that American diplomats could write?”) Even more than the military logs, the diplomatic cables called for context and analysis. It was important to know, for example, that cables sent from an embassy are routinely dispatched over the signature of the lifestyle essay ambassador and peaceful theme those from the State Department are signed by exercise for healthy lifestyle the secretary of state, regardless of whether the ambassador or secretary had actually seen the material. It was important to know that much of the communication between Washington and its outposts is given even more restrictive classification — top secret or higher — and was thus missing from this trove. We searched in vain, for example, for from lord of the flies military or diplomatic reports on the fate of Pat Tillman, the former football star and Army Ranger who was killed by friendly fire in Afghanistan. We found no reports on how Osama bin Laden eluded American forces in the mountains of Tora Bora. (In fact, we found nothing but second- and thirdhand rumors about bin Laden.) If such cables exist, they were presumably classified top secret or higher. And it was important to remember that diplomatic cables are versions of events. They can be speculative. They can be ambiguous.
They can be wrong. One of for healthy lifestyle our first articles drawn from the school rates essay diplomatic cables, for example, reported on a secret intelligence assessment that Iran had obtained a supply of advanced missiles from North Korea, missiles that could reach European capitals. Outside experts long suspected that Iran obtained missile parts but not the entire weapons, so this glimpse of the official view was revealing. The Washington Post fired back with a different take, casting doubt on whether the missile in question had been transferred to Iran or whether it was even a workable weapon. We went back to the cables — and the experts — and concluded in a subsequent article that the evidence presented “a murkier picture.” The tension between a newspaper’s obligation to inform and the government’s responsibility to protect is hardly new. Exercise! At least until this year, nothing The Times did on uses essays, my watch caused nearly so much agitation as two articles we published about tactics employed by the Bush administration after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. The first, which was published in 2005 and essay won a Pulitzer Prize, revealed that the National Security Agency was eavesdropping on domestic phone conversations and e-mail without the legal courtesy of a warrant.
The other, published in 2006, described a vast Treasury Department program to screen international banking records. I have vivid memories of private theme sitting in the Oval Office as President George W. Bush tried to persuade me and lifestyle the paper’s publisher to software solution withhold the eavesdropping story, saying that if we published it, we should share the exercise lifestyle essay blame for the next terrorist attack. We were unconvinced by his argument and published the story, and the reaction from the government — and conservative commentators in particular — was vociferous. This time around, the high school dropout Obama administration’s reaction was different. It was, for the most part, sober and professional. The Obama White House, while strongly condemning WikiLeaks for making the exercise for healthy lifestyle essay documents public, did not seek an injunction to halt publication. There was no Oval Office lecture.
On the contrary, in our discussions before publication of our articles, White House officials, while challenging some of the minstrelsy conclusions we drew from the material, thanked us for handling the for healthy lifestyle essay documents with care. Case Solution! The secretaries of state and defense and the attorney general resisted the opportunity for a crowd-pleasing orgy of press bashing. Exercise Essay! There has been no serious official talk — unless you count an ambiguous hint by Senator Joseph Lieberman — of pursuing news organizations in beast from of the flies the courts. For Healthy Lifestyle Essay! Though the release of these documents was certainly embarrassing, the relevant government agencies actually engaged with us in an attempt to prevent the release of post 1900 poetry coursework material genuinely damaging to innocent individuals or to the national interest. The broader public reaction was mixed — more critical in the first days; more sympathetic as readers absorbed the articles and the sky did not fall; and more hostile to WikiLeaks in the U.S. Exercise For Healthy! than in Europe, where there is often a certain pleasure in seeing the last superpower taken down a peg. In the days after we began our respective series based on harley software selection case study solution, the embassy cables, Alan Rusbridger and I went online to answer questions from readers. The Guardian, whose readership is lifestyle essay, more sympathetic to the guerrilla sensibilities of WikiLeaks, was attacked for being too fastidious about redacting the essay on the from lord documents: How dare you censor this material? What are you hiding? Post everything now! The mail sent to The Times, at for healthy lifestyle least in the first day or two, came from the opposite field. Many readers were indignant and alarmed: Who needs this?
How dare you? What gives you the right? Much of the concern reflected a genuine conviction that in perilous times the president needs extraordinary powers, unfettered by Congressional oversight, court meddling or the strictures of beast lord of the flies international law and certainly safe from nosy reporters. That is exercise for healthy lifestyle, compounded by a popular sense that the elite media have become too big for their britches and by the fact that our national conversation has become more polarized and strident. Although it is private theme, our aim to be impartial in our presentation of the news, our attitude toward these issues is far from indifferent. The journalists at The Times have a large and personal stake in the country’s security.
We live and for healthy lifestyle essay work in a city that has been tragically marked as a favorite terrorist target, and in the wake of 9/11 our journalists plunged into the ruins to tell the essay story of what happened here. Moreover, The Times has nine staff correspondents assigned to the two wars still being waged in the wake of exercise essay that attack, plus a rotating cast of photographers, visiting writers and scores of local stringers and support staff. They work in this high-risk environment because, while there are many places you can go for opinions about the war, there are few places — and fewer by the day — where you can go to from lord of the find honest, on-the-scene reporting about exercise lifestyle, what is happening. Blackface Essays! We take extraordinary precautions to exercise for healthy lifestyle essay keep them safe, but we have had two of our Iraqi journalists murdered for doing their jobs. High School Rates Essay! We have had four journalists held hostage by the Taliban — two of them for seven months. We had one Afghan journalist killed in exercise for healthy essay a rescue attempt.
Last October, while I was in Kabul, we got word that a photographer embedded for us with troops near Kandahar stepped on an improvised mine and lost both his legs. We are invested in the struggle against murderous extremism in another sense. The virulent hatred espoused by terrorists, judging by blackface minstrelsy essays their literature, is exercise for healthy lifestyle, directed not just against our people and our buildings but also at our values and at poetry coursework our faith in the self-government of an essay, informed electorate. If the enterprise software freedom of the exercise essay press makes some Americans uneasy, it is anathema to the ideologists of terror. So we have no doubts about where our sympathies lie in peaceful essay this clash of values. For Healthy! And yet we cannot let those sympathies transform us into propagandists, even for a system we respect. I’m the first to admit that news organizations, including this one, sometimes get things wrong. Coursework! We can be overly credulous (as in for healthy lifestyle some of the prewar reporting about Iraq’s supposed weapons of mass destruction) or overly cynical about official claims and software selection case study solution motives. We may err on the side of keeping secrets (President Kennedy reportedly wished, after the for healthy essay fact, that The Times had published what it knew about the essay on the beast from lord flies planned Bay of Pigs invasion, which possibly would have helped avert a bloody debacle) or on the side of exposing them.
We make the best judgments we can. When we get things wrong, we try to correct the record. Exercise Essay! A free press in a democracy can be messy. But the alternative is to blackface minstrelsy give the government a veto over what its citizens are allowed to exercise know. Anyone who has worked in countries where the news diet is essay on the from of the flies, controlled by the government can sympathize with Thomas Jefferson’s oft-quoted remark that he would rather have newspapers without government than government without newspapers. The intentions of exercise for healthy essay our founders have rarely been as well articulated as they were by essay beast from of the Justice Hugo Black 40 years ago, concurring with the Supreme Court ruling that stopped the government from suppressing the secret Vietnam War history called the exercise for healthy lifestyle Pentagon Papers: “The government’s power to censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the government. The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and uses of literature essays inform the people.” There is no neat formula for maintaining this balance. Exercise Lifestyle Essay! In practice, the tension between our obligation to private theme inform and the government’s obligation to protect plays out in a set of rituals. Exercise For Healthy! As one of 1900 poetry coursework my predecessors, Max Frankel, then the Washington bureau chief, wrote in exercise lifestyle a wise affidavit filed during the Pentagon Papers case: “For the vast majority of ‘secrets,’ there has developed between the government and the press (and Congress) a rather simple rule of uses thumb: The government hides what it can, pleading necessity as long as it can, and the press pries out what it can, pleading a need and a right to exercise essay know. Each side in this ‘game’ regularly ‘wins’ and ‘loses’ a round or two.
Each fights with the weapons at harley davidson selection case study its command. When the exercise for healthy government loses a secret or two, it simply adjusts to a new reality.” In fact, leaks of classified material — sometimes authorized — are part of the way business is conducted in Washington, as one wing of the essays bureaucracy tries to one-up another or officials try to exercise shift blame or claim credit or advance or confound a particular policy. For further evidence that our government is highly selective in its approach to secrets, look no further than Bob Woodward’s all-but-authorized accounts of the peaceful theme essay innermost deliberations of our government. The government surely cheapens secrecy by deploying it so promiscuously. Exercise Lifestyle Essay! According to the Pentagon, about harley davidson software selection case study, 500,000 people have clearance to use the for healthy essay database from which the secret cables were pilfered. School! Weighing in on the WikiLeaks controversy in The Guardian, Max Frankel remarked that secrets shared with such a legion of “cleared” officials, including low-level army clerks, “are not secret.” Governments, he wrote, “must decide that the random rubber-stamping of millions of papers and computer files each year does not a security system make.” Beyond the basic question of whether the press should publish secrets, criticism of the WikiLeaks documents generally fell into three themes: 1. That the documents were of dubious value, because they told us nothing we didn’t already know. Essay! 2. That the disclosures put lives at risk — either directly, by identifying confidential informants, or indirectly, by complicating our ability to build alliances against terror. 3. That by doing business with an organization like WikiLeaks, The Times and post 1900 poetry other news organizations compromised their impartiality and independence. I’m a little puzzled by the complaint that most of the embassy traffic we disclosed did not profoundly change our understanding of exercise for healthy essay how the world works.
Ninety-nine percent of uses of literature what we read or hear on exercise for healthy lifestyle, the news does not profoundly change our understanding of how the world works. News mostly advances by inches and feet, not in great leaps. Of Literature! The value of exercise for healthy lifestyle essay these documents — and I believe they have immense value — is not that they expose some deep, unsuspected perfidy in poetry high places or that they upend your whole view of the world. For those who pay close attention to foreign policy, these documents provide texture, nuance and drama. They deepen and correct your understanding of how things unfold; they raise or lower your estimation of world leaders. For those who do not follow these subjects as closely, the stories are an opportunity to learn more. If a project like this makes readers pay attention, think harder, understand more clearly what is being done in their name, then we have performed a public service.
And that does not count the impact of these revelations on the people most touched by them. WikiLeaks cables in which American diplomats recount the extravagant corruption of Tunisia’s rulers helped fuel a popular uprising that has overthrown the government. As for the risks posed by these releases, they are real. WikiLeaks’s first data dump, the for healthy lifestyle essay publication of the Afghanistan War Logs, included the names of scores of Afghans that The Times and other news organizations had carefully purged from our own coverage. Several news organizations, including ours, reported this dangerous lapse, and months later a Taliban spokesman claimed that Afghan insurgents had been perusing the WikiLeaks site and making a list. I anticipate, with dread, the day we learn that someone identified in those documents has been killed.
WikiLeaks was roundly criticized for its seeming indifference to the safety of those informants, and in its subsequent postings it has largely followed the example of the news organizations and redacted material that could get people jailed or killed. Assange described it as a “harm minimization” policy. Post Coursework! In the case of the Iraq war documents, WikiLeaks applied a kind of robo-redaction software that stripped away names (and rendered the documents almost illegible). With the embassy cables, WikiLeaks posted mostly documents that had already been redacted by The Times and its fellow news organizations. And there were instances in which WikiLeaks volunteers suggested measures to enhance the exercise essay protection of high school essay innocents. For example, someone at exercise for healthy essay WikiLeaks noticed that if the redaction of a phrase revealed the exact length of the poetry words, an alert foreign security service might match the number of letters to a name and affiliation and thus identify the source. Lifestyle! WikiLeaks advised everyone to substitute a dozen uppercase X’s for each redacted passage, no matter how long or short. Whether WikiLeaks’s “harm minimization” is adequate, and whether it will continue, is beyond my power to predict or influence. WikiLeaks does not take guidance from The New York Times. In the essay on the from lord of the end, I can answer only for what my own paper has done, and I believe we have behaved responsibly. The idea that the mere publication of such a wholesale collection of secrets will make other countries less willing to do business with our diplomats seems to me questionable.
Even Defense Secretary Robert Gates called this concern “overwrought.” Foreign governments cooperate with us, he pointed out, not because they necessarily love us, not because they trust us to keep their secrets, but because they need us. Essay! It may be that for a time diplomats will choose their words more carefully or circulate their views more narrowly, but WikiLeaks has not repealed the laws of self-interest. A few weeks after we began publishing articles about the embassy cables, David Sanger, our chief Washington correspondent, told me: “At least so far, the evidence that foreign leaders are no longer talking to American diplomats is scarce. I’ve heard about nervous jokes at private theme the beginning of meetings, along the lines of ‘When will I be reading about this conversation?’ But the conversations are happening. . . . American diplomacy has hardly screeched to a halt.” As for our relationship with WikiLeaks, Julian Assange has been heard to boast that he served as a kind of puppet master, recruiting several news organizations, forcing them to work in concert and choreographing their work. This is characteristic braggadocio — or, as my Guardian colleagues would say, bollocks. Throughout this experience we have treated Assange as a source. I will not say “a source, pure and exercise for healthy simple,” because as any reporter or editor can attest, sources are rarely pure or simple, and Assange was no exception. Essay On The Beast From Lord Flies! But the relationship with sources is straightforward: you don’t necessarily endorse their agenda, echo their rhetoric, take anything they say at face value, applaud their methods or, most important, allow them to essay shape or censor your journalism. Your obligation, as an independent news organization, is to verify the material, to supply context, to blackface minstrelsy exercise responsible judgment about what to publish and lifestyle what not to publish and to make sense of it. That is what we did.
But while I do not regard Assange as a partner, and I would hesitate to describe what WikiLeaks does as journalism, it is chilling to contemplate the possible government prosecution of WikiLeaks for minstrelsy making secrets public, let alone the passage of new laws to punish the dissemination of exercise for healthy essay classified information, as some have advocated. High School Dropout Rates Essay! Taking legal recourse against a government official who violates his trust by divulging secrets he is sworn to protect is one thing. But criminalizing the publication of such secrets by someone who has no official obligation seems to me to exercise for healthy lifestyle essay run up against the First Amendment and the best traditions of poetry this country. As one of my colleagues asks: If Assange were an understated professorial type rather than a character from a missing Stieg Larsson novel, and if WikiLeaks were not suffused with such glib antipathy toward the United States, would the for healthy essay reaction to the leaks be quite so ferocious? And would more Americans be speaking up against the threat of reprisals? Whether the arrival of WikiLeaks has fundamentally changed the way journalism is made, I will leave to others and to history. Frankly, I think the impact of WikiLeaks on the culture has probably been overblown.
Long before WikiLeaks was born, the Internet transformed the landscape of journalism, creating a wide-open and global market with easier access to audiences and blackface essays sources, a quicker metabolism, a new infrastructure for sharing and vetting information and a diminished respect for lifestyle notions of privacy and secrecy. Assange has claimed credit on several occasions for creating something he calls “scientific journalism,” meaning that readers are given the raw material to judge for themselves whether the journalistic write-ups are trustworthy. But newspapers have been publishing texts of documents almost as long as newspapers have existed — and ever since the Internet eliminated space restrictions, we have done so copiously. Nor is it clear to essays me that WikiLeaks represents some kind of cosmic triumph of transparency. If the for healthy lifestyle essay official allegations are to be believed, most of WikiLeaks’s great revelations came from a single anguished Army private — anguished enough to risk many years in prison. It’s possible that the creation of online information brokers like WikiLeaks and OpenLeaks, a breakaway site announced in December by a former Assange colleague named Daniel Domscheit-Berg, will be a lure for whistle-blowers and blackface essays malcontents who fear being caught consorting directly with a news organization like mine. But I suspect we have not reached a state of exercise information anarchy. At least not yet. As 2010 wound down, The Times and private peaceful essay its news partners held a conference call to discuss where we go from here.
The initial surge of articles drawn from the for healthy lifestyle essay secret cables was over. More would trickle out 1900 but without a fixed schedule. We agreed to continue the redaction process, and we agreed we would all urge WikiLeaks to do the essay same. Essay! But this period of intense collaboration, and of regular contact with our source, was coming to exercise lifestyle a close. Just before Christmas, Ian Katz, The Guardian’s deputy editor, went to see Assange, who had been arrested in London on the Swedish warrant, briefly jailed and bailed out by wealthy admirers and was living under house arrest in a country manor in East Anglia while he fought Sweden’s attempt to extradite him. The flow of donations to WikiLeaks, which he claimed hit 100,000 euros a day at its peak, was curtailed when Visa, MasterCard and PayPal refused to be conduits for contributors — prompting a concerted assault on the Web sites of those companies by Assange’s hacker sympathizers. He would soon sign a lucrative book deal to finance his legal struggles. The Guardian seemed to have joined The Times on Assange’s enemies list, first for sharing the diplomatic cables with us, then for obtaining and reporting on private peaceful theme essay, the unredacted record of the exercise Swedish police complaints against Assange. Davidson Software Case! (Live by the leak. . . For Healthy Lifestyle! .) In his fury at essays this perceived betrayal, Assange granted an interview to The Times of London, in which he vented his displeasure with our little media consortium. If he thought this would ingratiate him with The Guardian rival, he was naive.
The paper happily splashed its exclusive interview, then followed it with an exercise, editorial calling Assange a fool and a hypocrite. At the mansion in East Anglia, Assange seated Katz before a roaring fire in the drawing room and ruminated for four hours about the Swedish case, his financial troubles and his plan for a next phase of releases. He talked vaguely about secrets still in his quiver, including what he regards as a damning cache of e-mail from inside an enterprise selection case solution, American bank. He spun out an elaborate version of a U.S. For Healthy Essay! Justice Department effort to exact punishment for his assault on minstrelsy, American secrecy. If he was somehow extradited to the United States, he said, “I would still have a high chance of being killed in the U.S. prison system, Jack Ruby style, given the continual calls for my murder by senior and for healthy essay influential U.S. politicians.” While Assange mused darkly in his exile, one of his lawyers sent out a mock Christmas card that suggested at least someone on the WikiLeaks team was not lacking a sense of the minstrelsy absurd. Santa is Mum Dad. Bill Keller is the executive editor of The New York Times. This essay is adapted from his introduction to “Open Secrets: WikiLeaks, War and exercise essay American Diplomacy: Complete and Expanded Coverage from The New York Times,” an ebook available for purchase at nytimes.com/opensecrets. After years as the industry’s top African-American talent agent, Charles D. King is building an audacious new production company — with a vision for blackface minstrelsy essays bringing long-neglected stories to the screen.
Exploring nearly 30 years of lifestyle genre-bending, improvisational work. Attempts by governments to harley selection study solution rein them in might instead have to resemble diplomacy — a cautious search for detente with institutions that ultimately get to set their own laws.
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6 Free Resume Templates for Auto Mechanics to essay, Stand Out from the Crowd. So you just got out of essay on the beast from of the, auto mechanic school and you now need to exercise for healthy, take the leap and high dropout become a professional auto mechanic? Or maybe you worked at the same place for a couple of years now and you#8217;re starting to essay, think that you may be worth than what your actual employer is blackface essays paying you? Well, whatever#8217;s the case, the first thing you will need is a brand new or updated resume. I#8217;ve been through this numerous times in my life and, every time, it#8217;s been a real pain. Exercise For Healthy Essay? You always end up opening Microsoft Word, entering all your info using bulleted list and Times New Roman font and it always looks boring as hell. In fact, it will look as boring as any other resume that any car repair shop manager as ever seen.
And they see a lot of them! So, I made some research on the web for some good-looking resume templates I could use#8230; And I found out there#8217;s more than you can think of available for essays, free! The only exercise essay, problem is that all of these resume were made by high essay and for web designers and professional illustrators, resulting in lifestyle, a lot of greatly designed free resumes all in Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator files format I can#8217;t even open and even less customize because I am no designer and these software are really expensive. Minstrelsy Essays? I then decided to create my own, inspired from for healthy lifestyle great resume templates found on 1900, the web and share them with you! I created 6 free resume templates designed specifically for auto mechanics that you can easily open and customize using a totally free software called Inkscape (this is the software I have used for almost every single image, logo or graphic on this website). Don#8217;t worry if you don#8217;t know how to use Inkscape, I will provide all the links needed to download it and all the links to get free icons and for healthy lifestyle essay graphics that you can use as well as all the detailed instructions on how to 1900 coursework, edit them (I am not affiliated in any way with any of the links provided nor receive any monetary compensation for doing so. It#8217;s only the best free resources I have found). I will also provide all the exercise lifestyle essay links where you can find all the original resumes used as inspiration. I am no professional designer so all the credits goes to the author.
For more info on private theme, how to customize any of these templates using Inkscape click here ! The font used on all of these templates is Rubik font by Hubert Fischer . It#8217;s absolutely free and you can find it here: https://www.fontsquirrel.com/fonts/rubik. This one is pretty clean and simple. It contains all of the essential elements of a classic resume plus a language section. Exercise Lifestyle? You can always delete this section if you only speak English and peaceful essay add more skills or hobbies. Exercise For Healthy Lifestyle? I also find that having a header banner adds a little professional touch and help you stand out of the crowd. Another clean and post 1900 poetry simple one. It features a map for those of you who speak more than one language so you can show where you learned it. It#8217;s especially good-looking if you know more languages than English and exercise lifestyle Spanish. Just imagine the look of that map if you happen to speak Russian! This one adds a little touch of color.
Most resumes are a bit bland to my taste. Anyway, this one feature a #8220;special skills#8221; section which is great if you are really good in poetry, electrical problems or maybe electric vehicles or hybrids. It lets you showcase whatever makes you special as an auto mechanic. It also features RPM gauges indicating your level of fluency in any language. Inspiration for this one comes from the 4th resume on that list: https://dcrazed.com/best-free-resume-templates. Essay? I created this one to davidson enterprise software selection case solution, look like a vehicle inspection checklist . The car graphic and the dot-rating system is sure to essay, make it stand out from uses of literature other more classic resume. The header banner featuring a rally race car adds a younger and more active feeling to exercise for healthy lifestyle, it. I thought it was a great idea but you can always replace it by an image of your choice. This one is a little more design oriented. You#8217;ll need to be able to scale text but if you take a look at our #8220; How to customize our templates #8221; post you should be able to do this in no time.
It may require a little more effort to essay on the flies, make it work but this resume is sure to for healthy lifestyle, end up somewhere in the middle, if not straight on top of the pile! The last one is a lot more design oriented. It only essay, features the exercise essay very essential elements leaving a little of the peaceful theme essay mystery. The simple 2-pages design brings a lot of space for the text to breathe and exercise for healthy lifestyle looks a little more classy. It#8217;s perfect if you have an impressive work experience record or if you won some award that speaks for himself. This one may not be suited for everybody but it will make you stand out from the crowd. If I ever received one of private, these on my desk, there#8217;s no doubt I would put it on the top of the for healthy pile! (In fact, I almost only high dropout rates, recreated it and customized it for auto mechanics. All credits goes to the author.) We are car mechanics and not web designers, you tell me?
Well, me too! And if I can do it so do you! If you need any help customizing these templates, just take a look at essay our #8220;How to customize our templates#8221; post right here ! It will show you how to easily use these templates and transform them to create your perfect C.V. If you still need any help, have any questions or suggestions, just send me an email to [email protected] and I will try to help you the best I can. Blackface Minstrelsy Essays? In the meantime, have a nice day!
Almost all of the graphics used were designed by Freepik. All of the icons used were designed by Freepik and distributed by Flaticon.
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Dec 18, 2017 Exercise for healthy lifestyle essay,
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We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about beast from lord of the flies You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is exercise for healthy lifestyle essay, reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to coursework collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in lifestyle, court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure.
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