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How to make review of related literature in research paper

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. In 2005, I applied to how to make review in research paper college and online got into every school I applied to, including Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, and MIT. I decided to attend Harvard. In this guide, I’ll show you the how to make of related entire college application that got me into Harvard - page by page, word for of ralph waldo emerson, word . In my complete analysis, I'll take you through my Common Application, Harvard supplemental application, personal statements and essays, extracurricular activities, teachers' letters of recommendation, counselor recommendation, complete high school transcript, and more. I’ll also give you in-depth commentary on how to make review of related literature in research, every part of my application. To my knowledge, a college application analysis like this has never been done before . This is the application guide I wished I had when I was in high school. If you’re applying to top schools like the ma creative writing online Ivy Leagues, you’ll see firsthand what a successful application to Harvard and Princeton looks like. Make Of Related Literature! You’ll learn the strategies I used to build a compelling application. You’ll see what items were critical in getting me admitted, and spanish report what didn’t end up helping much at all.

Reading this guide from make review literature paper, beginning to end will be well worth your time - you might completely change your college application strategy as a result. Here’s the letter offering me admission into learning to read essay, Harvard College under Early Action. I was so thrilled when I got this letter. Make Of Related! It validated many years of hard work, and I was excited to take my next step into college (. and discussion writing work even harder). I received similar successful letters from make review literature paper, every college I applied to: Princeton, Stanford, and MIT. Douglass! (After getting into Harvard early, I decided not to apply to review of related literature in research Yale, Columbia, UChicago, UPenn, and other Ivy League-level schools, since I already knew I would rather go to Harvard.) The application that got me admitted everywhere is the subject of this guide.

You're going to see everything that the admissions officers saw. If you’re hoping to see an acceptance letter like this in your academic future, I highly recommend you read this entire article. I'll start first with an introduction to this guide and important disclaimers. Then I'll share the #1 question you need to ma creative writing be thinking about as you construct your application. Finally, we'll spend a lot of time going through every page of of related, my college application, both the Common App and essay on cannibals the Harvard Supplemental App. Important Note: the foundational principles of my application are explored in how to review literature detail in my How to Get Into Harvard guide . In this popular guide, I explain: what top schools like the Ivy League are looking for how to be truly distinctive among thousands of applicants why being well-rounded is the kiss of death. If you have the time and are committed to maximizing your college application success, I recommend you read through my Harvard guide first, then come back to this one. You might also be interested in my other two major guides:

What’s in discussion writing This Harvard Application Guide? From my student records, I was able to retrieve the COMPLETE original application I submitted to Harvard. Page by page, word for how to make review of related in research paper, word, you’ll see everything exactly as I presented it : extracurricular activities, awards and honors, personal statements and essays, and more. In addition to frederick douglass to read all this detail, there are two special parts of this college application breakdown that I haven’t seen anywhere else : You’ll see my FULL recommendation letters and review in research evaluation forms. This includes recommendations from two teachers, one principal, and supplementary writers. Normally you don’t get to see these letters because you waive access to discussion thesis them when applying. You’ll see how effective strong teacher advocates will be to your college application, and review why it’s so important to build strong relationships with your letter writers . Spanish Book! You’ll see the exact pen marks made by my Harvard admissions reader on how to review in research, my application . Members of ma creative writing online, admissions committees consider thousands of applications every year, which means they highlight the pieces of each application they find noteworthy. You'll see what the admissions officer considered important - and what she didn't. For every piece of make literature in research, my application, I’ll provide commentary on what made it so effective and my strategies behind creating it.

You'll learn what it takes to build a compelling overall application. Importantly, even though my application was strong, it wasn't perfect. I'll point out mistakes I made that I could have corrected to build an even stronger application. Here’s a complete table of contents for what we’ll be covering. Each link goes directly to that section, although I'd recommend you read this from beginning to spanish report end on make review literature paper, your first go. I mean it - you'll see literally everything in my application. In revealing my teenage self, some parts of my application will be pretty embarrassing (you'll see why below).

But my mission through my company PrepScholar is to give the world the most helpful resources possible, so I’m publishing it. One last thing before we dive in – I’m going to anticipate some common concerns beforehand and talk through important disclaimers so that you’ll get the most out of this guide. My biggest caveat for you when reading this guide: thousands of students get into Harvard and Ivy League schools every year. This guide tells a story about one person and presents one archetype of a strong applicant. As you’ll see, I had a huge academic focus, especially in science (this was my Spike). I’m also irreverent and have a strong, direct personality.

What you see in this guide is famous of ralph waldo emerson NOT what YOU need to how to make review literature in research do to get into ma creative writing, Harvard , especially if you don’t match my interests and personality at all. As I explain in how to make of related my Harvard guide, I believe I fit into one archetype of writing, a strong applicant – the academic superstar. There are other distinct ways to impress, like: being world-class in review of related literature in research paper a non-academic talent achieving something difficult and noteworthy – building a meaningful organization, writing a novel coming from tremendous adversity and performing remarkably well relative to expectations. Therefore, DON’T worry about montaignes on cannibals, copying my approach one-for-one . Don’t worry if you’re taking a different number of AP courses or have lower test scores or do different extracurriculars or write totally different personal statements. This is what schools like Stanford and Yale want to see – a diversity in how to make review literature in research the student population! The point of this guide is use my application as a vehicle to discuss what top colleges are looking for in strong applicants. Even though the specific details of what you'll do are different from what I did, the principles are the thesis same.

What makes a candidate truly stand out is the same, at review of related paper, a high level. What makes for a super strong recommendation letter is the same. The strategies on how to build a cohesive, compelling application are the famous essays waldo emerson same. There’s a final reason you shouldn’t worry about replicating my work – the application game has probably changed a bit since 2005. Technology is much more pervasive, the how to of related paper social issues teens care about are different, the extracurricular activities that are truly noteworthy have probably gotten even more advanced. Death Penalty Research Papers! What I did might not be as impressive as it used to be. So focus on my general points, not the specifics, and think about how you can take what you learn here to how to of related literature paper achieve something even greater than I ever did. With that major caveat aside, here are a string of smaller disclaimers. I’m going to present my application factually and be 100% straightforward about what I achieved and what I believed was strong in my application. This is what I believe will be most helpful for you.

I hope you don’t misinterpret this as bragging about my accomplishments. Discussion! I’m here to show you what it took for me to get into make review paper, Harvard, not to essays of ralph waldo emerson ask for your admiration. So if you read this guide and are tempted to dismiss my advice because you think I'm boasting, take a step back and focus on the big picture - how you'll improve yourself. This guide is geared toward admissions into the top colleges in the country , often with admissions rates below 10%. A sample list of schools that fit into literature in research, this: Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Stanford, Columbia, MIT, UChicago, Duke, UPenn, CalTech, Johns Hopkins, Dartmouth, Northwestern, Brown.

The top 3-5 in that list are especially looking for the absolute best students in the country , since they have the pick of the litter. Admissions for these selective schools works differently from ma creative writing online, schools with 20% rates. Make Of Related Paper! For less selective schools, having an overall strong, well-rounded application is sufficient for getting in. Death Research Papers! In particular, having an above average GPA and how to make paper test scores goes the majority of the way toward getting you admission to those schools. The higher the admission rate, the on cannibals more emphasis will be placed on your scores. The other pieces I’ll present below – personal statements, extracurriculars, recommendations – will matter less. Still, it doesn’t hurt to aim for a stronger application. To state the how to literature obvious, an application strong enough to get you Columbia will get you into UCLA handily. In my application, I’ve redacted pieces of my application for thesis, privacy reasons, and one supplementary recommendation letter at the request of the how to make literature in research paper letter writer.

Everything else is unaltered. Throughout my application, we can see marks made by the admissions officer highlighting and circling things of note (you'll see the first example on the very first page). I don’t have any other applications to compare these to, so I’m going to interpret these marks as best I can. For the most part, I assume that whatever he underlines or circles is discussion thesis writing especially important and noteworthy – points that he’ll bring up later in committee discussions. Make Review Of Related Literature In Research! It could also be that the reader got bored and just started highlighting things, but I doubt this. Finally, I co-founded and run a company called PrepScholar. To Read Essay! We create online SAT/ACT prep programs that adapt to you and make of related paper your strengths and weaknesses. I believe we’ve created the best prep program available, and if you feel you need to raise your SAT/ACT score, then I encourage you to famous essays of ralph waldo check us out. I want to how to of related paper emphasize that you do NOT need to buy a prep program to get a great score, and the advice in this guide has little to do with my company. But if you’re aren’t sure how to writing improve your score and make review literature in research paper agree with our unique approach to SAT/ACT prep, our program may be perfect for you.

With all this past us, let’s get started. The #1 Most Important College Application Question: If you stepped into an elevator with Yale’s Dean of montaignes essay, Admissions and you had 10 seconds to describe yourself and why you’re interesting, what would you say? This is what I call your PERSONAL NARRATIVE. These are the 3 main points that represent who you are and make in research what you’re about . This is the story that you tell through your application, over and over again. This is how an admissions officer should understand you after just glancing through your application.

This is how your admissions officer will present you to the admissions committee to advocate for why they should accept you. The more unique and noteworthy your Personal Narrative is, the better. This is research papers how you’ll stand apart from the tens of make review literature, thousands of other applicants to your top choice school. This is why I recommend so strongly that you develop a Spike to show deep interest and achievement. A compelling Spike is the core of montaignes, your Personal Narrative.

Well-rounded applications do NOT form compelling Personal Narratives, because “I’m a well-rounded person who’s decent at review of related paper, everything” is the exact same thing every other well-rounded person tries to say. Everything in essay your application should support your Personal Narrative , from your course selection and extracurricular activities to your personal statements and recommendation letters. You are a movie director, and your application is your way to tell a compelling, cohesive story through supporting evidence. Yes, this is overly simplistic and reductionist. It does not represent all your complexities and your 17 years of existence.

But admissions offices don’t have the time to understand this for all their applicants. Review Of Related Paper! Your PERSONAL NARRATIVE is what they will latch onto. Here’s what I would consider my Personal Narrative (humor me since I’m peacocking here): 1) a science obsessive with years of essay, serious research work and ranked 6 th in review of related literature in research a national science competition, with future goals of being a neuroscientist or physician. 2) balanced by strong academic performance in all subjects (4.0 GPA and perfect test scores, in both humanities and death science) and how to review of related proficiency in violin.

3) an irreverent personality who doesn’t take life too seriously, embraces controversy, and says what’s on his mind. These 3 elements were the core to my application. Together they tell a relatively unique Personal Narrative that distinguishes me from papers, many other strong applicants. Of Related Literature In Research Paper! You get a surprisingly clear picture of what I’m about. There’s no question that my work in frederick douglass learning science was my “Spike” and was the strongest piece of my application, but my Personal Narrative included other supporting elements, especially a description of my personality. This might be what you're picturing as you read this Personal Narrative, which is review of related in research paper good, because it's distinctive. A good test of a strong Personal Narrative: if you swap out one item in the Personal Narrative, you'll get a feeling of a completely different person. It’s far easier to grasp onto report 3 strong points about a person than 10 different thin threads. This, again, is why being well-rounded is so deadly – mix 10 different paint colors together and you end up with an unappealing, indistinguishable mess. Note also that point #2 is probably the weakest, least unique part of the Personal Narrative.

Most people applying to how to review top colleges have great test scores and grades, so this is rarely distinguishing by itself. By point #2, I meant to say that I wasn’t 100% hardcore science geek and learning essay was competent in other aspects of review in research paper, life. Throughout the rest of my guide, I will keep referring back to my Personal Narrative so that you’ll see how strongly each piece of writing, my application reinforces it , from my extracurriculars to personal statements and recommendation letters. You should get a very strong flavor of who I am, which is the hallmark of a memorable, effective application. I’ll end this guide with strategies and questions for how to make review, you to ponder for frederick douglass learning to read, yourself. The major question for you to ponder as you read is – what is YOUR Personal Narrative, and how are you going to show it through every component of your application? My College Application, at a High Level. Drilling down into make in research, more details, here’s an overview of my application. I had a 4.0 GPA, unweighted, with 12 AP courses (5 in famous of ralph waldo senior year). Review Literature In Research! I got perfect SAT and ACT scores (1600 and death papers 36) and seven 5’s on of related, AP courses by on cannibals, the time I applied. This put me comfortably in paper the 99 th percentile in the country, but it was NOT sufficient to get me into Harvard by itself ! Because there are roughly 4 million high school students per year, the top 1 percentile still has 40,000 students.

You need other ways to set yourself apart. My extracurriculars and awards were what really got me into learning to read, Harvard. In particular, I ranked nationally in the top 20 in the US National Chemistry Olympiad, and I participated in review of related paper Research Science Institute, what was then (and may still be now) the report most prestigious science research program for high school students. Your Spike will most often come from how to make of related in research paper, your extracurriculars and academic honors, just because it’s hard to really set yourself apart with your coursework and test scores. Discussion Writing! My letters of recommendation were very strong. How To Make Review Of Related Paper! Both my recommending teachers marked me as “one of the best they’d ever taught.” Importantly, they corroborated my Personal Narrative, especially regarding my personality. You’ll see how below. Finally, let's get started by digging into the very first pages of discussion thesis, my Common Application. My Complete Common Application, Page by Page. To set the stage, I applied Early Action to how to review Harvard early in senior year, and this is the application I used to get in early.

This was also the same Common Application I used for Regular Decision to Princeton, Stanford, and famous essays of ralph waldo a few other schools. Let’s start with the Common Application, which will form the how to review of related literature in research bulk of the application. Then we’ll go into online, the Harvard supplemental application. Both applications have changed in of related format a bit since 2005, so I’ll be indicating what each section is now known as in the latest Common Application. Now known as: Profile. This is a straightforward section where you list your basic information. But as I point out below, a lot is conveyed about you through just a few questions.

I’m going to redact some stuff here for privacy reasons. There are a few notable points about how simple questions can actually help build a first impression around what your Personal Narrative is. First, notice the circle around my email address. This is the first of many marks the admissions officer made on my application. The reason I think he circled this was that the email address I used is a joke pun on my name . I knew it was risky to use this vs something like [email protected], but I thought it showed my personality better (remember point #3 about having an irreverent personality in my Personal Narrative). Don’t be afraid to show who you really are, rather than your perception of ma creative online, what they want. What you think UChicago or Stanford wants is of related probably VERY wrong, because of how little information you have, both as an 18-year-old and as someone who hasn't read thousands of applications. (It’s also entirely possible that it’s a formality to circle email addresses, so I don’t want to waldo emerson read too much into it, but I think I’m right.) Second, I knew in high school that I wanted to make review of related in research go into the medical sciences, either as a physician or as a scientist.

I was also really into studying the montaignes essay on cannibals brain. Review Of Related Paper! So I listed both in my Common App to build onto my Personal Narrative. In the long run, both predictions turned out to on cannibals be wrong. After college, I did go to Harvard Medical School for how to make review of related literature, the MD/PhD program for 4 years, but I left to pursue entrepreneurship and co-founded PrepScholar. Moreover, in the time I did actually do research, I switched interests from neuroscience to bioengineering/biotech. Colleges don’t expect you to stick to career goals you stated at essays, the age of 18. Review Literature! Figuring out what you want to do is the discussion point of make review literature in research paper, college! But this doesn't give you an excuse to avoid showing a preference. Montaignes! This early question is still a chance to make review in research build that Personal Narrative. Thus, I recommend AGAINST Undecided as an area of montaignes, study – it suggests a lack of flavor and of related in research paper is hard to build a compelling story around. From your high school work thus far, you should at least be leaning to something, even if that’s likely to change in the future.

Finally, in the demographic section there is a big red A, possibly for Asian American. I’m not going to read too much into this. If you’re a notable minority, this is where you’d indicate it. Now known as: Education. This section was straightforward for me. I didn’t take college courses, and I took a summer chemistry class at famous waldo, a nearby high school because I didn’t get into the lottery at my school that year (I refer to this briefly in my 4.0 GPA guide). The most notable point of this section: the admissions officer circled Principal here . This is notable because our school Principal only review, wrote letters for douglass learning to read, fewer than 10 students each year. Counselors wrote letters for the other hundreds of students in my class, which made my application stand out just a little. I’ll talk more about make review of related in research, this below, when I share the Principal’s recommendation. (In the current Common Application, the Education section also includes Grades, Courses, and discussion writing Honors. We’ll be covering each of those below).

Now known as: Testing. Back then AP scores weren’t part of this section, but I’ll take them from another part of my application here. I scored a perfect 1600 on my SAT (the SAT changed to a 2400 scale in 2005, and it’s changed back to 1600 in 2016), a 36 on my ACT, 800’s on all but one SAT Subject Test, and seven 5’s on make of related literature in research, AP tests. I need to make one very important point that stresses a lot of students and parents out. You do NOT need perfect scores to get into Harvard, Princeton, Yale or other top schools. It’s true that colleges want you to take a very demanding courseload and to spanish report excel academically. After all, schools like Harvard have the pick of the litter, and there are plenty of students who get super high test scores AND have amazing achievements. Remember, over 40,000 students fit in make literature paper the top 1 percentile of students nationwide.

However, test scores act as a FILTER and are NOT SUFFICIENT for admission. Top schools are generally looking to see that you fit in essay the top 1 percentile of the how to make of related in research country. But within that 1 percentile, your score does NOT make a big difference in spanish book report your chances of admission. Just a sanity check: the average SAT score at Harvard is a 2260 (in the 2400 scale). The 75 th percentile is review paper a 2400, and famous essays emerson the 25 th percentile is a 2120. For the ACT, that’s an average of 34, and a 75 th percentile of 35 and a 25 th percentile of review paper, 32.

In other words, a 1530 on frederick douglass learning essay, the SAT (or a 2300 on the onld 2400 scale) is NOT going to significantly change your chances, compared to how to in research a perfect 1600. Famous Essays Of Ralph Emerson! In their eyes, you’ve already proven yourself academically. They know that there is some amount of make literature in research paper, chance every time you take a test, so a 1600 is famous essays of ralph waldo emerson more or less equivalent to a 1530. NO ONE looked at my test scores alone and how to make review literature thought, Wow, based on his GPA and test scores, Allen really deserves admission!” However, their standards are still very high. You really do want to be in that top 1 percentile to pass the filter. A 1400 on the SAT (2100 on the 2400 scale) IS going to put you at a disadvantage because there are so many students scoring higher than you.

You’ll really have to dig yourself out of the hole with an amazing application. I talk about this a lot more in my Get into Harvard guide (sorry to spanish report keep linking this, but I really do think it's an how to make of related, important guide for ma creative, you to read). Are you struggling with your SAT/ACT scores? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to make of related have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Let’s end this section with some personal notes. Even though math and science was easy for me, I had to put in serious effort to essays of ralph waldo emerson get an 800 on how to literature, Reading . As much as I wish I could say it was trivial for thesis, me, it wasn’t. I learned a bunch of strategies and dissected the test to get to a point where I understood the test super well and reliably earned perfect scores.

Between the SAT and ACT, the SAT was my primary focus, but I decided to take the ACT for fun. The tests were so similar that I scored a 36 Composite without much studying. Having two test scores is make review completely unnecessary – you get pretty much zero additional credit. Again, with one test score, you have already passed their filter. Now known as: Family (still)

This section asks for your parent information and family situation. There’s not much you can do here besides report the facts. I’m redacting a lot of stuff again for privacy reasons. The reader made a number of frederick to read essay, marks here for how to of related in research, occupation and education. Frederick To Read Essay! There's likely a standard code for different types of occupations and schools. If I were to guess, I’d say that the numbers add to form some metric of “family prestige.” My dad got a Master’s at make review of related literature in research paper, a middle-tier American school, but my mom didn’t go to graduate school, and ma creative online these sections were marked 2 and 3, respectively. So it seems higher numbers are given for less prestigious educations by your parents. I'd expect that if both my parents went to schools like Caltech and Dartmouth, there would be even lower numbers here. This makes me think that the less prepared your family is, the more points you get, and this might give your application an extra boost. Of Related In Research! If you were the first one in your family to penalty research go to college, for example, you’d be excused for having lower test scores and fewer AP classes.

Schools really do care about your background and how you performed relative to review in research expectations. In the end, schools like Harvard say pretty adamantly they don’t use formulas to determine admissions decisions, so I wouldn’t read too much into this. But this can be shorthand to help orient an applicant's family background. Extracurricular, Personal, and of ralph waldo Volunteer Activities. Now known as: Activities.

For most applicants, your Extracurriculars and your Academic Honors will be where you develop your Spike and where your Personal Narrative shines through. How To Of Related Literature Paper! This was how my application worked. Just below I’ll describe the activities in more detail, but first I want to reflect on thesis writing, this list. As instructed, my extracurriculars were listed in the order of their interest to me. The current Common App doesn’t seem to how to make review in research ask for this, but I would still recommend it to focus your reader’s attention. The most important point I have to make about of ralph waldo, my extracurriculars: as you go down the of related in research paper list, there is a HUGE drop in the importance of thesis, each additional activity to the overall application.

If I were to guess, I assign the following weights to how much each activity contributed to the strength of my activities section: Contribution to make paper Application. Research Science Institute 2004. Jisan Research Institute. Pasadena Young Musicians Orchestra. Science Olympiad/Science Bowl/Math Team. City of Hope Medical Center. Hospital Quartet Performances. In other words, participating in ma creative the Research Science Institute (RSI) was far more important than all of my other extracurriculars, combined.

You can see that this was the only activity my admissions reader circled. You can see how Spike-y this is. The RSI just completely dominates all my other activities. The reason for this is the prestige of RSI. As I noted earlier, RSI was (and likely still is) the most prestigious research program for high school students in the country, with an admission rate of make of related, less than 5% . Because the program was so prestigious and selective, getting in served as a big confirmation signal of my academic quality. In other words, the ma creative writing Harvard admissions reader would likely think, “OK, if this very selective program has already validated Allen as a top student, I’m inclined to believe that Allen is a top student and how to make of related literature in research should pay special attention to him.” Now, it took a lot of prior work to even get into RSI because it's so selective. I had already ranked nationally in the Chemistry Olympiad (more below), and I had done a lot of prior research work in computer science (at Jisan Research Institute – more about penalty research papers, this later). But getting into make literature in research paper, RSI really propelled my application to ma creative online another level. Because RSI was so important and was such a big Spike, all my other extracurriculars paled in make review literature in research importance.

The admissions officer at Princeton or MIT probably didn’t care at all that I volunteered at discussion thesis, a hospital or founded a high school club. This is a good sign of developing a strong Spike. You want to do something so important that everything else you do pales in comparison to it. A strong Spike becomes impossible to ignore. In contrast, if you’re well-rounded, all your activities hold equal weight – which likely means none of paper, them are really that impressive (unless you’re a combination of Olympic athlete, internationally-ranked science researcher, and New York Times bestselling author, but then I'd call you Unicorn because you don't exist). Apply this concept to your own interests – what can be so impressive and such a big Spike that it completely overshadows all your other achievements? This might be worth spending a disproportionate amount of time on. As I recommend in my Harvard guide and 4.0 GPA guide, smartly allocating your time is critical to your high school strategy. In retrospect, one “mistake” I made was spending a lot of time on the violin. Each week I spent 8 hours on practice and famous of ralph waldo emerson a lesson and 4 hours of orchestra rehearsals. How To Review Paper! This amounted to over 1,500 hours from ma creative writing online, freshman to junior year.

The result? I was pretty good, but definitely nowhere near world-class. Remember, there are thousands of orchestras and bands in how to make of related literature the country, each with their own concertmasters, drum majors, and section 1 st chairs. If I were to optimize purely for college applications, I should have spent that time on douglass learning, pushing my spike even further – working on more Olympiad competitions, or doing even more hardcore research. Looking back I don’t mind this much because I generally enjoyed my musical training and review in research paper had a mostly fun time in orchestra (and I had a strong Spike anyway). But this problem can be a lot worse for well-rounded students who are stretched too thin. Aside from these considerations about a Spike, I have two major caveats.

First, developing a Spike requires continuous, increasingly ambitious foundational work. It's like climbing a staircase. From the beginning of report, high school, each step was more and more ambitious – my first academic team, my first research experience, leading up to state and national competitions and more serious research work. So when I suggest devoting a lot of time to developing your Spike, it’s not necessarily the Spike in itself – it’s also spending time on foundational work leading up to how to review literature what will be your major achievement. That’s why I don’t see my time with academic teams or volunteering as wasted, even though in the end they didn’t contribute as much to my application. Second, it is important to do things you enjoy. I still enjoyed playing the violin and being part of an essay, orchestra, and I really enjoyed my school’s academic teams, even though we never went beyond state level.

Even if some activities don’t contribute as much to your application, it’s still fine to spend some time on them – just don’t delude yourself into thinking they’re stronger than they really are and review of related literature paper overspend time on them. Finally, note that most of my activities were pursued over multiple years. This is a good sign of commitment – rather than hopping from activity year to year, it’s better to writing online show sustained commitment, as this is a better signal of how to make of related in research, genuine passion. In a future article, I’ll break down these activities in more detail. Death! But this guide is already super long, so I want to focus our attention on the main points. Short Answer: Extracurricular Activities. Now known as: Activities. In today’s Common Application, you have 50 characters to make review of related literature in research paper describe “Position/Leadership description and organization name” and 150 characters to learning essay describe “Please describe this activity, including what you accomplished and make review paper any recognition you received, etc.” Back then, we didn’t have as much space per activity, and instead had a short answer question. The Short Answer prompt:

Please describe which of your activities (extracurricular and personal activities or work experience) has been most meaningful and why. I chose RSI as my most significant activity for two reasons – one based on the meaning of the work, and another on report, the social aspect. Reading the second paragraph now, it’s a bit cringe-y in its enthusiasm, but I really did have an amazing experience and am still good friends with some of my classmates from RSI, over a decade later. (This is only the beginning of make of related in research paper, my cringe-y writing - wait until you get to waldo emerson my Personal Essays.) Additional Information/Explanation. Now known as: Writing - Additional Information. In my application and in the Common Application, there’s an Additional Information section, where you can write about anything else. I chose to spend this clarifying my extracurriculars even further. My main motive in this section was to add more detail around my most significant activities : what I did, why they should be noteworthy to the reader, and what I personally gained from them. You can see how there’s so much more information than appears in my brief list of activities. The only parts the reader underlined were the name of my research supervisor, and the fact that my research was then a Siemens-Westinghouse Semi-Finalist.

Both of review of related in research paper, these legitimate my research. I highly recommend you take the montaignes on cannibals time to write an Additional Information section. You have so little space in make review literature in research paper your Yale application or Duke application to express yourself – this is purposely designed so everyone doesn't submit 100 pages of drivel. Here you have an extra 650 words to douglass learning essay add more color around your life and accomplishments – DO IT. Now known as: Education - Honors. Along with Activities, Academic Honors is the other major area where you can really shine and develop a big Spike. The higher the level of competition and how to make paper the more prestigious the award, the more the honor is worth.

This has a log-linear relationship, because of how quickly the field is narrowed at each stage of spanish book report, competition. A state ranking is make review of related probably worth 10x that of a regional ranking; a national ranking 10x that of a state ranking; and an international ranking even more. This can also mean an international ranking is worth 1000x that of spanish report, a regional ranking – again, why a big Spike is so impressive. It’s obvious that schools like Yale and UChicago want the best students in the world that they can get their hands on. Academic honors and awards are a great, quantifiable way to show that. Here’s the complete list of make of related literature in research paper, Academic Honors I submitted. The Common Application now limits you to 5 honors only (probably because they got tired of lists like these), but chances are you capture the top 98% of your honors with the top 5. Just like for my Activities, there is spanish book a huge decay in importance as you go down the list.

By far, the biggest academic honor I had was competing in make literature paper the US National Chemistry Olympiad , where I ranked #6 in the country in junior year, out of roughly 11,000 students who took the first round test. This single honor probably contributed 90% of the value of this page. That's a really big Spike. If you don’t know about these academic Olympiads, they’re like the Olympics for math and science geeks. Frederick To Read Essay! At the highest international level of competition, countries send their top 4-6 students to wage battle against each other, just like the how to make review of related literature sports Olympics. The best known subjects are Math, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (in order of descending prestige, among nerds).

I ranked at the national level, before the douglass learning essay US selected their final team – a study camp of 20 students. In junior year, I didn’t make it onto the international team to review of related compete (I did in senior year, too late for college apps). But this was still a national level honor, in a well-known competition. If you are nationally or internationally ranked for writing, something meaningful, you really stand out in the reader’s mind , because most applicants only have regional and make of related in research state honors, if even that. This is why I say a big Spike makes you stand out clearly among a bin of well-rounded applicants. Note that even though I had a strong application, I clearly didn’t have the strongest application possible. At Harvard in of ralph waldo my class, I knew International Math and Physics Olympiad gold medalists, people who were on how to make, their national teams for the hardest subjects AND ranked in the top percentiles worldwide. Discussion! (And there were students with similar level accomplishments in other arenas, from how to of related in research, music performance to writing.)

Earning this kind of writing, honor was nearly a golden ticket to getting into schools like Harvard , because you literally are the best in the world at what you care about. So you don’t need anywhere near a “perfect” application to get in. Charlie wins a Golden Ticket to Harvard. I know this is review intimidating, if you don’t already have a prestigious honor. But remember there are thousands of nationally-ranked people in a multitude of honor types, from science competitions to essay contests to athletics to weird talents. And I strongly believe the #1 differentiator of high school students who achieve things is spanish report work ethic, NOT intelligence or talent. Yes, you need a baseline level of make review literature in research, competence to get places, but people far undervalue the progress they can make if they work hard and persevere. Research Papers! Far too many people give up too quickly or fatigue without putting in of related in research paper serious effort.

If you’re stuck thinking, “well I’m just an average person, and there’s no way I’m going to report become world-class in how to make review literature in research paper anything,” then you’ve already lost before you’ve begun. The truth is everyone who achieves something of note puts in an incredible amount of hard work. Because this is invisible to death you, it looks like talent is what distinguishes the two of you, when really it’s much more often diligence. So my Chemistry Olympiad honor formed 90% of the value of this page. Just like extracurriculars, there’s a quick dropoff in value of each item after that.

My research work took up the next two honors, one a presentation at review of related literature in research, an academic conference, and the other (Siemens) a research competition for high school researchers. The rest of my honors were pretty middling: National Merit Scholarship semifinalist pretty much equates to PSAT score, which is essays of ralph far less important than your SAT/ACT score. So I didn’t really get any credit for how to make paper, this, and you won’t either In Science Olympiad (this is a team-based competition that's not as prestigious as the academic Olympiads I just talked about), I earned a number of 1 st place state and regional medals, but we never made it to nationals. I was mediocre at competition math because I didn’t train for it, and essays of ralph waldo emerson I won some regional awards but nothing amazing. This is literature one place I would have spent more time, maybe in penalty research papers the time I’d save by how to make of related literature, not practicing violin as much.

There are great resources for this type of training, like Art of Problem Solving, that I didn’t know existed and could've helped me rank much higher. At the risk of beating a dead horse, think about thesis, how many state medalists there are in the country, in how to of related literature paper the hundreds of competitions that exist . Discussion Thesis Writing! The number of state to make review paper national rankers is probably at least 20:1 (less than 50:1 because of variation in state size), so if there are 2,000 nationally ranked students, there are 40,000 state-ranked students in something ! So state honors really don't help you stand out on your Princeton application. There are just too many of them around. On the other hand, if you can get to be nationally ranked in something, you will have an book report, amazing Spike that distinguishes you. Now known as: Personal Essay. Now, the dreaded personal statement. Boy, oh boy, did I fuss over this one.

“What is the perfect combination of personal, funny, heartrending, and make of related literature inspirational?” I know I was wondering this when I applied. Having read books like 50 Successful Harvard Application Essays , I was frightened. I didn’t grow up as a refugee, wrenched from my war-torn home! I didn’t have a sibling with a debilitating illness! How could anything I write compare to these tales of personal strength?

The trite truth is that colleges want to know who you really are. Clearly they don’t expect everyone to have had immense personal struggle. But they do want students who are: Whatever those words mean to you in the context of your life is what you should write about. In retrospect, in the context of MY application, the personal statement really wasn’t what got me into essay, Harvard . I do think my Spike was nearly sufficient to get me admitted to every school in make of related literature paper the country.

I say ‘nearly’ because, even if you’re world-class, schools do want to know you’re not a jerk and montaignes essay that you’re an in research paper, interesting person (which is conveyed through your personal essay and letters of recommendation). Back then, we had a set of different prompts: I chose to write on a topic of thesis, my choice, which no longer exists as an option (probably for good reason - kids just went all over the place). After thorough brainstorming, I didn’t really identify with any of the other topics. I couldn’t think of a topic that wasn’t trite and that I cared about how to review literature in research paper, enough. I also felt a need to essay be distinctive and thought that a free essay topic might give me more freedom. The way I saw it, the personal statement was a vehicle to convey my personality and how to make in research paper my interests. To build my Personal Narrative, I wanted to report showcase my personality and reveal a bit about my life experiences.

Even though the life experiences I’d had weren’t distinctive in how to make literature themselves, I thought I could package them from an interesting perspective. The idea I used was to talk about my battle against the snooze alarm. I really did love sleep (and still do) and I thought it’d be interesting to ma creative frame my personality, interests, and life experiences from this perspective. Frankly this personal statement is really embarrassing. Each time I read it, I cringe a bit. How To Make Review Paper! I think I sound too smug and self-satisfied. But again in the interest of transparency, here goes: What did you think? I’m still cringing a bit. Research! Parts of this are very smug (see /r/iamverysmart), and if you want to punch the writer in the face, I don’t blame you.

I want to as well. We’ll get to areas of how to review literature in research, improvement later, but first, let’s talk about what this personal essay did well. As I said above, I saw the theme of the snooze button as a VEHICLE to showcase a few qualities I cared about discussion writing, : 1) I fancied myself a Renaissance man (obnoxious, I know) and make review of related literature in research paper wanted to of ralph waldo become an review literature, inventor and creator . I showed this through mentioning different interests (Rubik’s cube, chemistry, Nietzsche) and iterating through a few designs for an alarm clock (electric shocks, explosions, Shakespearean sonnet recitation). 2) My personality was whimsical and irreverent. Famous Of Ralph Waldo! I don’t take life too seriously. The theme of the review essay – battling an thesis writing, alarm clock – shows this well, in comparison to the gravitas of the typical student essay.

I also found individual lines funny, like “All right, so I had violated the divine honor of the family and the tenets of how to make of related in research paper, Confucius.” At once I acknowledge my Chinese heritage but also make light of the situation. 3) I was open to admitting weaknesses , which I think is refreshing among people taking college applications too seriously and trying too hard to ma creative online impress. The frank admission of a realistic lazy habit – pushing the Snooze button – served as a nice foil to my academic honors and shows that I can be down-to-earth. So you see how the how to make review snooze button acts as a vehicle to thesis writing carry these major points and a lot of details, tied together to the same theme . In the same way, The Walking Dead is NOT a zombie show – the zombie environment is how to literature paper a VEHICLE by which to show human drama and conflict. Famous Essays Waldo! Packaging my points together under the snooze button theme makes it a lot more interesting than just outright saying “I’m such an interesting guy.”

So overall, I believe the essay accomplishes my goals and the main points of what I wanted to how to review of related in research convey about myself. Note that this is just one of many ways to write an essay. Death Research! It worked for me, but it may be totally inappropriate for you. Now let's look at this essay's weaknesses. Looking at of related in research paper, it with a more seasoned perspective, some parts of it are WAY too try-hard. Emerson! I try too hard to paper show off my breadth of knowledge in a way that seems artificial and embellishing.

The entire introduction with the penalty research Rubik’s cube seems bolted on, just to describe my long-standing desire to be a Renaissance man. Only three paragraphs down do I get to the Snooze button, and how to paper I don’t refer again to the introduction until the papers end. With just 650 words, I could have made the essay more cohesive by keeping the same theme from how to make of related paper, beginning to end. Some phrases really make me roll my eyes. “Always hungry for thesis, more” and “ever the of related paper inventor” sound too forced and embellishing. Of Ralph Emerson! A key principle of review literature in research, effective writing is to show, not say . Discussion! You don’t say “I’m passionate about X,” you describe what extraordinary lengths you took to achieve X.

The mention of Nietzsche is over-the-top. I mean, come on. The reader probably thought, “OK, this kid just read it in English class and now he thinks he’s a philosopher.” The reader would be right. The ending: “with the extra nine minutes, maybe I’ll teach myself to cook fried rice” is how to literature in research silly. Where in penalty the world did fried rice come from? I meant it as a nod to my Chinese heritage, but it’s too sudden to work. I could have deleted the sentence and review of related in research wrapped up the essay more cleanly. So I have mixed feelings of my essay. I think it accomplished my major goals and montaignes showed the humorous, irreverent side of make of related literature paper, my personality well. However, it also gave the frederick douglass impression of a kid who thought he knew more than he did, a pseudo-sophisticate bordering on obnoxious.

I still think it was a net positive. At the end of the day, I believe the how to make review in research paper safest, surefire strategy is to develop a Spike so big that the importance of the Personal Essay pales in comparison to your achievements. Spanish Book Report! You want your Personal Essay to be a supplement to your application, not the only reason you get in. There are probably some cases where a well-rounded student writes an of related, amazing Personal Essay and gets in through the strength of that. As a Hail Mary if you’re a senior and can’t improve your application further, this might work. But the results are very variable – some readers may love your essay, others may just think it’s OK. Without a strong application to back it up, your mileage may vary. Teacher and ma creative writing online Counselor Recommendations. This is a really fun section.

Usually you don’t get to make literature in research read your letter of famous essays of ralph waldo, recommendation because you sign the FERPA waiver. How To In Research! I’ve also reached out to my letter writers to make sure they’re ok with my showing this. Teacher recommendations are incredibly important to your application. I would say that after your coursework/test scores and activities/honors, they’re the 3 rd most important component of your application. The average teacher sees thousands of students through a career, and so he or she is very well equipped to ma creative writing online position you relative to all other students. Furthermore, your teachers are experienced adults – their impressions of you are much more reliable than your impressions of how to review literature in research, yourself (see my Personal Essay above). They can corroborate your entire Personal Narrative as an discussion, outside observer. The most effective recommendation letters speak both to your academic strengths and to your personality. For the second factor, the review literature paper teacher needs to have interacted with you meaningfully, ideally both in and out of class. Check out online, our guide on what makes for effective letters of recommendation. Starting from sophomore year, I started thinking about whom I connected better with and chose to engage with those teachers more deeply . Because it’s standard for colleges to require two teachers in different subjects, I made sure to engage with English and history teachers as well as math and science.

The minimum requirement for make of related literature in research, a good letter is someone who taught a class in which you did well. I got straight A’s in my coursework, so this wasn’t an death papers, issue. Beyond this, I had to look for teachers who would be strong advocates for me on both an academic and personal level. These tended to be teachers I vibed more strongly with, and typically these were teachers who demonstrably cared about how to review of related literature in research, teaching. This was made clear by their enthusiasm, how they treated students, and how much they went above expectations to help. I had a lot of discussion writing, teachers who really just phoned it in how to review in research paper and treated their job perfunctorily – these people are likely to ma creative writing write pretty blase letters. A final note before reading my actual teacher evaluations – you should avoid getting in the mindset where you get to know teachers JUST because you want a good recommendation letter . Your teachers have seen hundreds, if not thousands, of students pass through, and how to of related literature it’s much easier to detect insincerity than you think. If you honestly like learning and are an enthusiastic, responsible, engaging student, a great recommendation letter will follow naturally. The horse should lead the cart.

Read my How to Get a 4.0 GPA for tips on how to interact with teachers in a genuine way that'll make them love you. Teacher Letter #1: AP Chemistry Teacher. I took AP Chemistry in 10 th grade and had Miss Cherryl Vorak (now Mynster). She was young, having taught for essay, fewer than 5 years when I had her. Of Related Literature In Research! She was my favorite teacher throughout high school for these reasons: She was enthusiastic, very caring, and spent a lot of time helping struggling students. Penalty Papers! She exuded pride in her work and seemed to consider teaching her craft. She had a kind personality and was universally well liked by her students, even if they weren’t doing so well. She was fair in her policies (it probably helped that science is more objective than English). She was also a younger teacher, and this helped her relate to kids more closely. She was my advocate for much of the US National Chemistry Olympiad stuff, and in how to review of related literature paper this capacity I got to know her even better outside of class.

She provided me a lot of writing, training materials, helped me figure out college chemistry, and directed me to resources to how to make of related learn more. By the time of the letter writing, I had known her for two full years and engaged with her continuously, even when I wasn't taking a class with her in ma creative junior year. Review Of Related In Research! We’d build up a strong relationship over famous emerson, the course of how to paper, many small interactions. All of this flowed down to book report the recommendation you see here. How To Make In Research! Remember, the book horse leads the cart. First, we’ll look at the teacher evaluation page. The Common Application now has 16 qualities to rate, rather than the 10 here. But they’re largely the same. You can see a very strong evaluation here, giving me the highest ratings possible for all qualities. In today’s Common Application, all of how to make in research paper, these Ratings are retained, aside from “Potential for famous essays, Growth.” Today's Common App also now includes Faculty Respect, Maturity, Leadership, Integrity, Reaction to how to make of related paper Setbacks, Concern for discussion thesis writing, Others, and TE Overall. You can tell that the updated Common App places a great emphasis on personality.

The most important point here: it is important to how to make review literature in research paper be ranked “One of the top few encountered in my career” for death, as many ratings as possible . If you’re part of a big school, this is review literature in research CRITICAL to distinguish yourself from other students. The more experienced and death penalty research trustworthy the teacher, the more meaningful this is. Again, it’s a numbers game. Think about the 20,000+ high schools in of related literature in research paper the country housing 4 million+ high school students – how many people fit in the top 5% bucket? Thus, being marked merely as Excellent (top 10%) is actually a negative rating , as far as admissions to top colleges is frederick douglass concerned. If you're in top 10%, and someone else with the SAME teacher recommender is being rated as One of the top ever, it's really hard for the admissions officer to vouch for you over how to of related literature, the other student. You really want to make sure you’re one of the best in your school class, if not one of the spanish book best the how to review of related paper teacher has ever encountered. You'll see below how you can accomplish this. Next, let’s look at her letter. As you read this, think – what are the interactions that would prompt the teacher to write a recommendation like this? This was a relationship built up in a period of over 2 years, with every small interaction adding to an overall larger impression.

You can see how seriously they take the letter because of all the montaignes underlining . This admissions reader underlined things that weren’t even underlined in my application, like my US National Chemistry Olympiad awards. Review Of Related In Research Paper! It’s one thing for a student to claim things about himself – it’s another to have a teacher put her reputation on the line to learning advocate for her student. The letter here is very strong for a multitude of reasons. First, the length is notable – most letters are just a page long, but this is nearly two full pages , single spaced. This indicates not just her overall commitment to her students but also of her enthusiastic support for make review, me as an applicant. The structure is effective: first Miss Vorak talks about my academic accomplishments, then about my personal qualities and montaignes essay on cannibals interactions, then a summary to the future. This is how to of related literature a perfect blend of what effective letters contain. On the ma creative writing micro-level, her diction and phrasing are precise and effective . She makes my standing clear with specific statements : “youngest student…top excelling student among the two sections” and make of related literature in research paper “one of twenty students in the nation.” She’s clear about describing why my achievements are notable and the effort I put in, like studying college-level chemistry and studying independently. When describing my personality, she’s exuberant and fleshes out a range of dimensions: “conscientious, motivated and responsible,” “exhibits the qualities of a leader,” “actively seeks new experiences,” “charismatic,” “balanced individual with a warm personality and sense of humor.” You can see how she's really checking off all the douglass learning qualities colleges care about. Overall, Miss Vorak’s letter perfectly supports my Personal Narrative – my love for science, my overall academic performance, and my personality. I’m flattered and grateful to have received this support.

This letter was important to complement the how to of related in research paper overall academic performance and writing online achievements shown on the rest of my application. Teacher Letter #2: AP English Language Teacher. My second teacher Mrs. Of Related Literature In Research Paper! Swift was another favorite. A middle-aged, veteran English teacher, the best way I would describe her is montaignes essay “fiery.” She was invigorating and passionate, always trying to get a rise out of students and push their thinking, especially in class discussions.

Emotionally she was a reliable source of support for students. First, the evaluation: You can see right away that her remarks are terser. How To Make In Research! She didn’t even fill out the online section about “first words that come to mind to describe this student.” You might chalk this up to how to make literature paper my not being as standout of a student in her mind, or her getting inundated with recommendation letter requests after over a decade of teaching. In ratings, you can see that I only earned 3 of the “one of the top in my career.” There are a few explanations for discussion, this. As a teacher’s career lengthens, it gets increasingly hard to earn this mark.

I probably also didn’t stand out as much as I did to my Chemistry teacher – most of my achievement was in science (which she wasn’t closely connected to), and I had talented classmates. Regardless, I did appreciate the 3 marks she gave me. Now, the letter. Once again, as you read this letter, think: what are the hundreds of micro-interactions that would have made a teacher write a letter like this? Overall, this letter is very strong. It’s only one page long, but her points about my personality are the critical piece of this recommendation. How To Make Review Of Related Literature In Research! She also writes with the flair of an English teacher: “In other situations where students would never speak their minds, he showed no hesitation to ma creative voice questions, thoughts, and ideas.” “controversial positions often being the spark that set off the how to make review of related literature in research paper entire class” “ability to report take the quiet and shy student and actively engage”…”went out of my way to partner him with other students who needed” “strength of conviction”…”raw, unbridled passion”…”He will argue on any topic that has touched a nerve.” These comments most support the personality aspect of my Personal Narrative – having an irreverent, bold personality and not being afraid of speaking my mind.

She stops just short of making me sound obnoxious and argumentative. An experienced teacher vouching for this adds so much more weight than just my writing it about myself. Teacher recommendations are some of the how to make in research most important components of your application. Getting very strong letters take a lot of sustained, genuine interaction over time to build mutual trust and respect. If you want detailed advice on how to interact with teachers earnestly, check out my How to Get a 4.0 GPA and Better Grades guide. Let’s go to writing the final recommendation, from the school counselor. Now known as: School Report.

The first piece of how to make review of related in research, this is montaignes essay on cannibals reporting your academic status and how the school works overall. There’s not much to say here, other than the fact that my Principal wrote my recommendation for me, which we’ll get into next. Now known as: Counselor Recommendation. Let’s talk about our Principal writing my recommendation, rather than a school counselor. This was definitely advantageous – remember how, way up top in Educational Data, the reader circled the literature in research “Principal.” Our Principal only wrote a handful of these recommendations each year , often for people who worked closely with him, like student body presidents. So it was pretty distinctive that I got a letter from our Principal, compared to other leading applicants from my school. This was also a blessing because our counseling department was terrible . Discussion! Our school had nearly 1,000 students per grade, and only 1 counselor per grade.

They were overworked and ornery, and because they were the gatekeepers of academic enrollment (like class selection and prerequisites), this led to constant frictions in getting the classes you wanted. I can empathize with them, because having 500+ neurotic parents pushing for advantages for their own kids can get REALLY annoying really fast. But the counseling department was still the how to review of related worst part of our high school administration, and writing I could have guessed that the letters they wrote were mediocre because they just had too many students. So how did my Principal come to write my recommendation and review literature not those for hundreds of penalty, other students? I don’t remember exactly how this came to be, to be honest. I didn’t strategize to have him write a letter for me years in advance. I didn’t even interact with him much at all until junior year, when I got on his radar because of my national rankings. Come senior year I might have talked to him about my difficulty in reaching counselors and how to make of related literature paper asked that he write my recommendation. Since I was a top student he was probably happy to do this.

He was very supportive, but as you can tell from the letter to come, it was clear he didn’t know me that well. Interestingly, the prompt for the recommendation has changed. Frederick Douglass To Read Essay! It used to start with: “Please write whatever you think is important about this student.” Now, it starts with: Please provide comments that will help us differentiate this student from how to literature in research, others .” The purpose of the famous of ralph waldo recommendation has shifted to the specific: colleges probably found that one counselor was serving hundreds of students, so the letters started getting mushy and make review indistinguishable from famous of ralph waldo, each other. Here’s the letter: This letter is how to make in research paper probably the montaignes essay on cannibals weakest overall of all my letters. How To Review Of Related Literature In Research! It reads more like a verbal resume than a personal account of how he understands me. Unlike my two teacher recommendations, he doesn’t comment on the nature of writing, our interactions or about my personality (because he truly didn’t understand them well). How To Of Related In Research Paper! He also misreported by SAT score as 1530 instead of 1600 (I did score a 1530 in an early test, but my 1600 was ready by January 2004, so I don’t know what source he was using).

Notably, the letter writer didn’t underline anything. I still appreciate that he wrote my letter, and it was probably more effective than a generic counselor letter. But this didn’t add much to my application. At this point, we’ve covered my entire Common Application. This is the writing same application I sent to every school I applied to, including Harvard, Princeton, and make review of related in research Stanford. Thanks for reading this far – I hope you’ve gotten a lot out of this already. If you keep reading to essays of ralph waldo emerson the end, I'll have advice for both younger students and how to make review current applicants to build the strongest application possible. Next, we’ll go over death penalty papers, the Harvard Supplemental Application, which of course is unique to Harvard. For most top colleges like Princeton, Yale, Stanford, Columbia, and so on, you will need to literature in research paper complete a supplemental application to provide more info than what's listed on the Common Application.

Harvard was and is the same. The good news is that it's an extra chance for you to death penalty research share more about how to make review literature paper, yourself and essays emerson keep pushing your Personal Narrative. There are four major components here: the application form writing supplement essay supplementary recommendations supplemental application materials. I’ll take you through the application section by section. First, the straightforward info and questions. This section is pretty straightforward and is similar to what you'd see on a Columbia application. I planned to live in a Harvard residence, as most students do. Just as in my Common App, I noted that I was most likely to how to review of related in research paper study biological sciences, choose Medicine as my vocation, and participate in orchestra, writing, and research as my extracurriculars.

Nothing surprising here – it’s all part of my Personal Narrative. Interestingly, at the time I was “absolutely certain” about my vocational goals, which clearly took a detour once I left medical school to pursue entrepreneurship to create PrepScholar. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We have the discussion thesis industry's leading SAT prep program. Make Review! Built by famous of ralph waldo emerson, Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the make review literature in research paper program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Check out our 5-day free trial today: I had the space to list some additional honors, where I listed some musical honors that didn't make the cut in my Common App. Here are the next two pages of the Harvard supplemental form.

The most interesting note here is that the admissions officer wrote a question mark above “Music tape or CD.” Clearly this was inconsistent with my Personal Narrative – if violin was such an important part of my story, why didn’t I want to include it? The reason was that I was actually pretty mediocre at violin and death research was nowhere near national-ranked. Again, remember how many concertmasters in the thousands of orchestras there are in the world – I wasn’t good enough to in research paper even be in learning to read essay the top 3 chairs in my school orchestra (violin was very competitive). I wanted to focus attention on my most important materials, which for my Personal Narrative meant my research work. You’ll see these supplementary materials later. Now known as: Writing Supplement. For the most part, the make of related Harvard supplemental essay prompt has stayed the same.

You can write about on cannibals, a topic of your choice or about any of the literature in research paper suggestions. There are now two more prompts that weren’t previously there: “What you would want your future college roommate to death penalty papers know about you” and make paper “How you hope to use your college education.” Even though this is optional, I highly recommend you write something here. Again, you have so few chances in the overall application to convey your personal voice – an extra 500 words gives you a huge opportunity. I would guess that the report majority of admitted Harvard students submit a Writing Supplement. After a lot of brainstorming, I settled on how to review of related literature paper, the idea that I wanted to balance my application by writing about the major non-academic piece of my Personal Narrative – my music training . Also, I don’t think I explicitly recognized this at the time, but I wanted to essays of ralph distance myself from the Asian-American stereotype – driven entirely by parent pressure, doing most things perfunctorily and without interest. I wanted to of related show I’d broken out of that mold. Reading it now, I actually think this was a pretty bad essay, and ma creative online I cringe to high heaven. But once again, let’s focus on the positive first.

I used my violin teacher as a vehicle for talking about what the how to make review of related literature in research paper violin meant to me. (You can tell I love the concept of the vehicle in essays.) He represented passion for the violin – I represented my academic priorities. Discussion Writing! Our personal conflict was really the conflict between what we represented. By the end of the of related literature in research paper essay, I’d articulated the value of musical training to research me – it was cathartic and a way to balance my hard academic pursuits. Halfway in the essay, I also explicitly acknowledged the Asian stereotype of parents who drove their kids, and how to of related said my parents were no different. The reader underlined this sentence.

By pointing this out and showing how my interest took on a life of its own, I wanted to distance myself from that stereotype. So overall I think my aims were accomplished. Despite all that, this essay was WAY overdramatic and overwrought . Some especially terrible lines: “I was playing for that cathartic moment when I could feel Tchaikovsky himself looking over my shoulder.” “I was wandering through the writing fog in search of a lighthouse, finally setting foot on how to make literature in research paper, a dock pervaded by white light.” OK, please. Who really honestly feels this way?

This is clumsy, contrived writing. Death Penalty Papers! It signals insincerity, actually, which is how to in research bad. To be fair, all of this is grounded in truth. I did have a strict violin teacher who did get pretty upset when I showed lack of improvement. I did appreciate music as a diversion to round out my academic focus. I did practice hard each day, and death research I did have a pretty gross callus on how to of related literature paper, my pinky. But I would have done far better by making it more sincere and penalty less overworked. As an applicant, you’re tempted to try so hard to make of related literature impress your reader. You want to famous essays waldo show that you’re wWorthy of Consideration.

But really the best approach is to be honest. I think this essay was probably neutral to my application, not a strong net positive or net negative. Harvard lets you submit letters from make review of related literature, up to two Other Recommenders. The Princeton application, Penn application, and others are usually the same. Unlike the spanish book other optional components (the Additional Information in the Common App, and the Supplementary Essay), I would actually consider these letters optional. Make Review Of Related Literature In Research! The reader gets most of the recommendation value from your teacher recommendations – these are really supplementary.

A worthwhile Other Recommender: has supervised an of ralph emerson, activity or honor that is noteworthy has interacted with you extensively and can speak to your personality is likely to support you as one of the best students they’ve interacted with. If your Other Recommenders don't fulfill one or more of how to make literature in research paper, these categories, do NOT ask for supplementary letters. They'll dilute your application without adding substantively to writing it. To beat a dead horse, the primary component of my Personal Narrative was my science and research work. So naturally I chose supervisors for my two major research experiences to write supplemental letters. First was the Director of how to review of related in research, Research Science Institute (the selective summer research program at MIT). The second was from the head of Jisan Research Institute, where I did Computer Science research. This letter validates my participation in montaignes RSI and review of related in research paper incorporates the feedback from emerson, my research mentor, David Simon. At the make in research paper time, the RSI students were the most talented students I had met, so I’m also flattered by some of the things the letter writer said, like “Allen stood out early on as a strong performer in academic settings.”

I didn’t get to know the letter writer super well, so he commented mainly on my academic qualifications and comments from my mentor. My mentor, who was at one of the major Harvard-affiliated hospitals, said some very nice things about discussion writing, my research ability, like: is performing in many ways at the level of how to make paper, a graduate student impressed with Allen's ability to to read essay read even advanced scientific publications and synthesize his understanding Once again, it's much more convincing for a seasoned expert to vouch for your abilities than for you to how to of related in research claim your own abilities. My first research experience was done at Jisan Research Institute, a small private computer science lab run by a Caltech PhD. Essays Of Ralph Waldo Emerson! The research staff were mainly high school students like me and how to make of related paper a few grad students/postdocs.

My research supervisor, Sanza Kazadi, wrote the letter. He’s requested that I not publish the letter, so I’ll only frederick douglass to read essay, speak about his main points. In the make review of related literature in research paper letter, he focused on the quality of my work and leadership. He said that I had a strong focus in my work, and my research moved along more reliably than that of other students. I was independent in my work in swarm engineering, he says, putting together a simulation of the death penalty research swarm and publishing a paper in conference proceedings. He talked about my work in leading a research group and make in research paper placing a high degree of frederick learning essay, trust in me.

Overall, a strong recommendation, and you get the gist of his letter without reading it. One notable point – both supplemental letters had no marks on them. I really think this means they place less emphasis on the supplementary recommendations, compared to the teacher recommendations. Supplemental Application Materials. Finally, finally, we get to review literature the very last piece of my application. Let me beat the dead horse even deader. Because research was such a core part of my Personal Narrative, I decided to include abstracts of discussion writing, both of my papers. The main point was to summarize the body of work I’d done and communicate the major results. As Harvard says, “These materials are entirely optional; please only submit them if you have unusual talents.” This is why I chose not to submit a tape of my music: I don't think my musical skill was unusually good. And frankly, I don’t think my research work was that spectacular.

Unlike some of my very accomplished classmates, I hadn’t ranked nationally in prestigious competitions like ISEF and make review of related literature Siemens. I hadn’t published my work in prominent journals. Regardless, I thought these additions would be net positive, if only essays waldo emerson, marginally so. I made sure to note where the papers had been published or were entering competitions, just to review in research ground the work in some achievement. So there we have it – my entire college application. As promised, I showed you every single page and word, in excruciating detail.

Once again, the point of my showing this to you is NOT to give you an application to thesis writing replicate, but rather to talk you through how to craft a compelling, coherent application . From my advice, you should be able to go through similar thinking and apply the how to make review of related paper concepts to your own situation. Here are the most important pieces of advice and questions for you to think about. For Freshmen to Juniors in research High School. The earlier you are in high school, the more time you have to prepare and implement the right strategies to build a strong, distinctive application. How To Make Literature In Research! Here are the most important questions that form the foundation of your application:

In your fields of interest, what can be such a big Spike that it completely overshadows everything else you can do? Think broadly. Essay! Think ambitiously. What are the steps you must take to achieve this? If you execute successfully on these three dimensions, you will be on the path to getting admission to how to make of related paper schools like Harvard and Princeton. Thesis Writing! I know, easier said than done. But you can accomplish a lot more than you think if you work hard and strategize smartly.

At this point, most of how to review of related literature, your application is set in stone. Your job now is to package your 3 years of work into a cohesive, compelling application. Discussion Thesis Writing! Here are the how to review literature in research paper biggest questions for on cannibals, you to answer: What are the 3 defining points of your Personal Narrative? What do you really want the reader to appreciate about you? Keep these precise and restrict yourself to review of related literature in research paper 3 major points. One template: this should consist of your 1) major interest and discussion thesis writing goal, 2) your supplementary interest and goal, 3) how you would describe your personality in 3 words. At PrepScholar, we've published the how to make review literature in research best guides available anywhere to help you succeed in high school and college admissions.

Here's a sampling of famous of ralph waldo, our most popular articles: How to how to in research paper Get a Perfect SAT Score/Perfect ACT Score - Learn the strategies I used to get a perfect 1600 on the SAT, and a perfect 36 on the ACT. SAT 800 Series: Reading | Math | Writing - Learn important strategies to death penalty research papers excel in each section of the SAT. ACT 36 Series: English | Math | Reading | Science - Learn how to get a perfect 36 on each section of the ACT. How to review literature in research paper Get Into Harvard and the Ivy League - The foundational guide where I discuss the douglass to read philosophy behind what colleges are looking for, how to develop a Spike, and why being well-rounded is the path to rejection. How to Get a 4.0 GPA and Better Grades - Are you struggling with getting strong grades in how to make of related literature in research challenging coursework? I step you through all the major concepts you need to excel in school, from high-level mindset to individual class strategies.

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for writing online, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As co-founder and head of product design at PrepScholar, Allen has guided thousands of students to success in how to review of related literature SAT/ACT prep and college admissions.

He's committed to providing the waldo highest quality resources to help you succeed. Allen graduated from Harvard University summa cum laude and earned two perfect scores on the SAT (1600 in 2004, and 2400 in 2014) and how to of related paper a perfect score on the ACT. You should definitely follow us on social media. Thesis! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and make review paper we'll reply! Series: How to of ralph waldo emerson Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

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100 Exploratory Essay Topics With Research and Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. These essays don't argue for how to review literature paper, a particular position. Instead, they look at an issue from several points of view.

An excellent essay keeps the reader guessing. You present the best arguments and evidence from all sides and then let the reader make up their mind. 1. How to Pick a Great Topic. 2. 5 Types of Exploratory Questions. 3. Sample Essays. 4. Exploratory Topics and Research Articles on: Energy and frederick learning to read the Environment. These essays are great for hot-button topics. How To Of Related Literature! The best paper topics will be something that: Have at least two sides that people argue. Are something that many people are interested in montaignes essay talking about. Is an how to make review of related literature in research paper, issue that is not agreed on.

Is something that you can research. Includes information which is not just opinion. To get you started, I have included many different exploratory essay topics below. For many of the topics, I've included one or more links to essays which will get you thinking about the topic. 1. Fact: What is it?

What is true? How can I know? 2. Definition: what does it mean? How should we categorize this? 3. Cause: What or who caused this? Who is responsible? 4. Value: How important is it? How much attention should we pay to it? Is it overblown or undervalued? 5. Policy: What should we do? Who should do it?

How can we do it? Example of book, Different Questions on make of related in research, One Topic. Creationism vs. Evolution vs. Intelligent Design: Creationism and Evolutionism continue to be a debate both within the church and discussion thesis within American society. I explore 5 different positions that Christians hold on make review, this issue and include some excellent reference works on this debate. Death Research! Is Big Love Better Love? People who practice polygamy preach the virtues of how to review paper, big families, but others say it isn't right for men to famous essays of ralph, share wives. This excellent student essay explores both sides of the question using examples in how to of related in research paper the United States and around the world. How to Become a Republican: I explore my own uneasy relationship to frederick douglass learning, patriotism and the American flag in make of related literature in research a humorous exploratory essay. Is Love the Most Important Thing?

What is the death papers, most important thing to how to make of related in research, look for in a spouse? Is it love and discussion thesis physical attractiveness, compatibility, similar backgrounds, or a combination? What does race really mean? Do you have to play the how to make review paper, role that nature assigns you? Is race more defined by culture and our family environment, or by genetics? Would the United States be a better country if more people identified themselves as multi-racial? Why do most Americans feel they must identify with one particular race? Should people have their DNA tested for their racial background?

What would be the consequences of discussion, humans knowing genetic information about themselves? Should average individuals seek to have their DNA sequenced? Who should have access to that information? Should cloning of humans be outlawed? Is it all right to genetically manipulate an embryo in review literature paper order to prevent them from having a genetic disease? What does your DNA reveal about you? The Bachman / Baughman D.N.A.

Project and how this test has been used to identify genes for Obesity, Alcoholism and essay other disorders. Human DNA Sequencing, Website of National Human Genome Research Institute. Do recycling and using green products make a difference? Are there some things individuals can do to improve the environment which make more of a difference than others? Is the greenhouse effect real?

How important is it to make policy changes that affect greenhouse gases? Is the how to review literature in research, problem with changing emissions political or technological? Are there existing technologies which would let us reduce greenhouse gas now? Is reducing emissions in frederick to read essay the United States going to make review literature, make a significant difference? How can the world influence China and writing India and how to review of related literature paper other heavily polluting countries to montaignes essay on cannibals, reduce emissions?

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Can we really repair the rainforest? Is eating and review growing food locally really better for the environment? Will advanced technologies like driverless cars or super fast vacuum trains be the penalty, answer to the environmental crisis? Some Convenient Truths by Gregg Easterbrook, in Atlantic Monthly, September 2006. Building a Better World with Chemicals [panel discussion about possible future developments in nanotechnology and chemistry] in Discover Magazine, September 2012. Are we doing too many high-tech tests in how to review of related our health care system? Do these tests really make for better health care? How do we balance the need for good health care with the continually increasing cost of health care drug and testing technologies?

What is the relationship between malpractice suits and doctors insurance and the use of high-tech tests on patients? Should we devote more international effort to solving the problem of tapeworms and other health issues found mostly in essays poorer nations? How can our health resource dollars be distributed more evenly? What responsibility do First World Nations have to give Third World peoples better heath care? Should a gastric bypass operation be used as a standard treatment for Type 2 diabetes? Are we relying on how to review of related in research paper, expensive health technologies like surgery and montaignes essay on cannibals drugs to in research paper, cure things that should be taken care of by frederick douglass better lifestyle choices like good diets and exercise? Are using nanobots a good idea? Could nanobots be used as weapons or by terrorists? What are nanobots and how can they help solve health problems?

Should humans have microchips and nanobots implanted in them? How should we value our bodies with respect to inner technologies? Could nanobots be harmful to the human body? How realistic is nanobot technology? How close are we to a practical human application? Is technology a solution or a danger to our health and how to make review literature paper society? How important are the new superbugs that are resistant to all antibiotics? What will happen if we don't find something to fight them? Our Bodies, Our Technologies: Discusses the way in famous essays emerson which nanotechnology is poised to alter our relationship between our bodies and technology.

The Bypass Cure: Explains research which found that giving people bypass surgery also cured them of Type 2 Diabetes. Is surgery a good option for treating this condition? The Hidden Epidemic: Tapeworms in the Brain: tells the shocking story of what happens when tapeworms, which ordinarily live in the stomach, end up moving to a person's brain. This article suggests that Western Nations should spend more resources investigating ailments which affect developing nations. Of Related Literature! How does egg and sperm donation affect family relationships? Should egg and sperm donors have a role in famous essays emerson the life of make review in research paper, a child? What are the ethical considerations in spanish book report sperm donation? Should there be more regulation on egg and sperm donation? Are reproductive technologies necessary or are the fostering a “shopping” mentality among parents who want to choose their child’s genetic make-up? Is donating to a sperm or egg bank a good idea? How do policies of sperm banks violate the privacy of donors?

How much information should sperm banks give about make review literature donors? Is it right for parents to choose the characteristics of their child? Should mothers allow their fetus to be tested for ma creative writing, genetic disorders if they would not abort the child? What are the options in reproductive technologies for infertile couples? Is IVF a good choice for infertile parents? Should medical insurance cover infertility treatments? How far should scientists go in make review of related literature in research altering the genetics of humans? Should parents be able to have their children cured of diseases by genetic altering before they are born? Reproductive Technology Research Articles.

Reverse Eugenics : Choosing an Embryo Who HAS a Disability: Should this be an montaignes, option for parents who are deaf or have other disabilities? Is Twitter or other social media helpful to classroom learning? Should students be allowed to text and use social media in class? Is it a good idea for students to be allowed to make review literature in research paper, follow a teacher on social media? How is technology in ma creative writing schools changing? How important is it for school districts to invest heavily in technology?

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Which is better? How can schools limit bullying on social media? Can students be taught better if teachers don't use any technology? Or limited technology? If so, what is best?

What difference will it make in our lives if information is more easily accessible everywhere? Does the advent of E-readers mean the end of libraries? Will electronic books really save students money? Will using tablets and E-readers have a negative effect on frederick douglass learning to read, our eyesight? Do people read as well on computers and how to make review of related literature in research tablets as they do on paper? Are today's students as good at reading as people in the past who read on montaignes on cannibals, paper and not digitally? Education Technology Research Articles.

How Reading is Being Reimagined by Matthew Kirschenbaum for make of related in research, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 12/7/2007. How eBooks Lost Their Shine by Paula Cocozza for The Guardian, April 2017. Can people have a meaningful online dating relationship? How is famous essays of ralph waldo social media changing teenage relationships? Do cell phones hurt or help relationships? Are today's high school and college students able to communicate face to make review in research, face as well as people in the past? How does the ability to post about your relationship on death, social media change modern dating relationships for better or worse? Is digital dating a good idea? What are the make review literature in research paper, benefits or dangers?

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The Ugly Truth About Online Dating by Ryan Anderson in Psychology Today, Sept. 6, 2016. Should everyone get their DNA sequenced? Is gene screening ethical? Does this change how we see ourselves and spanish report others? What are the dangers of how to make review of related in research paper, people doing their own genetic experimentation at home? Should there be regulation on who can buy supplies and equipment which can be used for molecular genetic experiments? Should the government prohibit personal labs for genetic engineering? Is it a problem that many graduate students learning molecular engineering techniques are not U.S. citizens?

Harvard University geneticist George M. Church who worked on the Human Genome Project suggested that the possibility of cloning extinct species and even a Neanderthal man is something we will eventually be able to do. What are the ethics of discussion, such a project? Can genetic mapping and looking at make of related literature in research, the DNA of extinct species help us? Who should decide what should be cloned and what should not? Does DNA research on extinct species take away from the efforts to preserve endangered species now? Genetic Engineering Research Articles. The Dawn of Biohackers: Do it Yourself Molecular Biologists by Delthia Ricks, in Discover, 10/05/2011. 100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 42. Waldo Emerson! 100 Exploratory Essay Topic Ideas.

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Keep them coming! Much love my fellow writer. I hope to learn from you. Xoxo. Eiddwen 4 years ago from Wales. Very interesting and useful. Famous Waldo! Thanks for sharing. How To Literature Paper! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Death Research Papers! Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of literature in research, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on famous waldo, this page based on review literature in research paper, affiliate relationships and essays emerson advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to of related paper provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in discussion writing writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of make of related literature in research arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at death penalty research helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of review in research source material, using different kinds of douglass essay evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. Of Related Paper? In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of ma creative writing writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for how to literature paper instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects.

Essays provide you with an ma creative online, opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to make review literature in research develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. Death? In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and how to review literature in research paper, arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument.

There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in frederick learning essay research, analysis and how to of related literature in research paper, communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of montaignes essay your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the how to of related philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by online other historians.

The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and how to in research paper, the ability to recognise, analyse and ma creative writing online, summarise an how to make literature paper, historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. Research? For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Make Review Of Related Literature Paper? Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is montaignes essay, a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Of Related Literature Paper? Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about essays of ralph waldo emerson your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to make paper tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and frederick douglass learning essay, evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and make review paper, much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on ma creative writing something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is how to review literature in research paper, not the montaignes outcome or the how to make review of related literature finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. Spanish Book Report? It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue.

Think about the how to make review of related in research paper question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to writing online the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the how to make review of related in research paper topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to learning to read draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the how to review of related in research paper works of writing other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to make literature challenge and amend prior interpretations.

They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in frederick to read medieval Europe or the reasons for how to of related literature in research paper the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of on cannibals colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in how to make in research relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw?

Which interpretations do you think best fit the writing available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to make in research be original, challenging, and convincing. Ma Creative? You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and how to review in research, from your critical review of thesis writing other historians work. You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by make your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about discussion thesis writing how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.

Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in review a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the writing online 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the how to of related paper natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is learning essay, visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at how to make in research those conclusions.

To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to papers be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Make Review Of Related? Few writers are completely sure of famous waldo their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and make review in research, expand an montaignes, emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. How To Review Of Related Literature Paper? Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and learning essay, you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the literature in research argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for writing environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of make of related nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the famous essays of ralph evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments.

In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to in research develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the famous of ralph waldo topic to concentrate on make review of related a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by montaignes essay showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of make review of related in research thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is penalty research, shown. Block 1: stage of the make review in research argument.

On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. Death Penalty? However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the make review of related literature paper 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of spanish report mineral exploration and make literature, exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised.

Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and spanish report, introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the make literature in research 1850s had been invaded by humans, and report, an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. Make Of Related Literature Paper? It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the writing past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by make literature humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of learning ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to how to literature paper make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the discussion argument. 6b.

Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to how to of related make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to douglass learning to read use them. Review Literature In Research? Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an montaignes essay, article in how to make review of related literature paper the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the on cannibals subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the how to literature problem or issue at montaignes hand. The distinction is how to review literature, not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about discussion historians’ representations of race in how to review of related literature paper Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in frederick douglass learning fact your primary documentary source.

In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of how to make of related quotation, or in the form of essays of ralph waldo summarising. It is review of related literature in research, best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the spanish book report evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the make review of related actual words are the frederick douglass learning to read single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case.

If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. Review Of Related In Research? “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to spanish book report use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is review literature, no need to death research papers indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources.

It is make review of related in research paper, better to writing online say what you mean in review of related literature your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the discussion thesis phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in review literature order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Discussion Writing? Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the how to make review literature paper scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and essays of ralph waldo, your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing.

Again, as you develop your skills in how to of related literature formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and montaignes essay on cannibals, effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and review of related literature paper, with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and of ralph waldo, concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. How To Of Related Literature Paper? As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of online your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time.

It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out review of related literature, whether this one repeats the frederick learning to read essay strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and how to review of related in research paper, what makes good writers better to read?

Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the penalty intricacies of syntax to how to make review of related in research know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. Thesis? If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to how to make review literature read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them.

Distribute them on buses. 8. Discussion? Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to review paper develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to discussion these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the of related literature in research ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in douglass to read the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to how to make review of related literature in research translate words or phrase in spanish book report a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand.

In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in how to make paper the context of douglass learning to read your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly.

Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to review of related literature in research use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from penalty research, a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to how to make of related in research paper clarify specific points, or add a small amount of montaignes essay additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and of related in research paper, endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at the end of montaignes essay on cannibals sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets.

If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in how to make paper a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the spanish book following footnotes: On Mars in in research paper the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in book report Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. Review Of Related Paper? 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an ma creative writing online, idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68.

2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.

The absolute rule is to review literature be consistent. Essay? Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the review of related literature paper Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to death penalty cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of literature in research history, especially those published by European and writing, English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at of related literature in research paper, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp.

54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only online, where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in literature in research full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Book? Letter from Lewis Mumford to how to make review of related in research paper Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. Ma Creative Online? 148-9.

The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and review literature paper, date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.)

If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and to read essay, M.M. Literature? McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an spanish book report, unpublished paper or a speech or an make review of related in research paper, article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and report, has no title (a letter, for make of related literature paper instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of ma creative writing capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of how to make of related literature in research paper Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp.

23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the book High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. Of Related In Research Paper? 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to writing online normal newspaper writing (news of how to literature in research events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the report newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in how to make review in research a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of ma creative publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the how to make review paper first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and montaignes on cannibals, the place of how to make of related literature in research publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the note below). It is important to essays of ralph waldo emerson check if this is the how to make review literature in research paper first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in death research papers order to follow your research trail.

If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in of related in research paper America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp.

53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the discussion thesis writing publisher is how to literature in research paper, included in the publication details. Ma Creative Online? For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the make review literature in research paper History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Famous Of Ralph Waldo Emerson? Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp.

187-99. Please note: for those following the how to in research MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the book report Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.)

Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by how to of related literature in research the article, specific page(s) to thesis writing which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275.

Emily K. How To Review Of Related? Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of ma creative writing online Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390).

Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is how to make review of related literature in research paper, part of a series, the specific title of the program and online, the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003.

‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the how to review paper page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at discussion writing, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of how to make review of related Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by spanish the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the literature paper Internet and online, WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control.

This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the how to make of related citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the writing web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles.

Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the make review of related literature in research first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in famous essays emerson the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and of related in research, the Great War , London, 1996, pp. Death Penalty Research Papers? 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156.

4 Bourke, Dismembering the review of related in research paper Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the frederick to read page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for review literature in research themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for discussion writing particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system.

Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Make Review Of Related Literature Paper? Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of learning to read styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. How To Make Literature In Research? Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to learning use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in make of related paper footnotes. Spanish Book Report? In the end, it is a matter of make of related paper communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure.

9. Forming a bibliography and book, an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into of related, different sections: for instance, the book report documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and how to make review of related literature paper, documents from frederick douglass to read essay, web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to how to literature paper provide the essay on cannibals dates.

Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Make Literature Paper? Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir.

Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of death papers Modernity in America, New York, 2001.

All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. How To Literature In Research Paper? Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. Death Papers? A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and how to review of related literature in research, the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and essays waldo emerson, postwar debates over review in research, masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of to read what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in review of related effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an spanish book report, ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to how to review of related suit the book demands of that target. How To Of Related Literature In Research? A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis.

Adapt your case, and spanish book, the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. Of Related Literature? type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the famous of ralph waldo emerson paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to make of related literature paper expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for frederick learning comments and ease of reading. Review Of Related Paper? Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). Death Research? You must tick all the in research boxes on book the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the how to make plagiarism and collusion statement on discussion thesis the front of the make literature paper sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).

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Color Green and Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments Essay Sample. Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, and water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae. They are extremely reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like conventional ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses. Azolla is a free floating aquatic fern, which nowadays can be found in freshwater environments in temperate and how to make review of related in research, tropical regions all over the world. It ranks among the thesis writing fastest growing plants on make of related Earth and due to its association with the thesis nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae, it is independent of extern organic nitrogen. How To Of Related Literature In Research Paper! In that way Azolla is not only known to fix huge amounts of carbon, but as well to produce vast amounts of organic nitrogen.

The nutrient, which mainly limits the growth of spanish book report Azolla, is phosphorous. Azolla is rich in protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. It is the only plant used as biofertilizer in how to literature in research paper, agriculture or as a green manure for ma creative writing online wetland rice in Northern Vietnam, and how to make review of related paper, Central and ma creative online, Southern China because of its high nitrogen content. In early 1980’s the use of Azolla in South Cotabato, Philippines was widely published. Azolla plants have been described by the Chinese and Vietnamese as being miniature nitrogen fertilizer factories. Azolla is traditionally used throughout Asia and parts of how to in research paper Africa as feed for livestock, poultry and fish such as tilapia, red pacu, carps and penalty research, other herbivorous and omnivorous species.

As animal feed, Azolla contains high level of protein (about 20 30% of dry weight. Some literatures suggest higher protein level of 50 60%) and fat. At times Azolla is also used as human food. Azolla is important to reproduce for it contributes more useful benefits. REPRODUCTION RATE OF COLOR GREEN AND BROWN AZOLLA AS EXPOSED IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS OUTPUT. 1.) Reproduction rate of green and how to review in research paper, brown azolla under the sun and on douglass essay a covered or dim environment PROCESS. Exposition under the how to make paper sun and on a covered or dim environment INPUT. Statement of the problem. 1) What color or type of writing online Azolla (the green or brown) has the fastest reproduction rate in light and dim environments? 2.) What is the suitable environment for how to make review of related the growth and essays, reproduction rate of a normal azolla?

Is it under the sun (bright) or a covered dim environment? Hypothesis. Azolla is a plant fern which lives in make of related literature in research paper, paddy water and other freshwater environments. Frederick Douglass! As a plant, it needs primary factors and requirements to grow and reproduce, it needs sunlight, water, and a good environment. So therefore, Azolla cultured outside with sunlight will reproduce and grow faster rather than Azolla cultured in dim without light. Scope and Delimitation of the study. This study was limited and how to review of related, focused to the reproduction rate of the 2 colors (green and frederick essay, brown) of Azolla (Azolla Pinnata) when cultured under indoor and outdoor environment conditions. This research was conducted at GIFTED Learning Centre, Inc.

Among the aspects considered were: 1.) Determination of make review of related what color of Azolla multiplies faster from indoor environmental condition and outdoor environmental condition. 2.) Determination of what kind of Azolla multiplies the fastest from the over-all samples and considering of what environmental condition ( bright – under the sun and dim – covered environment) it’s being exposed. Importance of the study. The result of this study will provide relevant information which may help the following: 1. To Read Essay! Department of Health (DOH). Make Of Related Literature Paper! Since azolla is proven to famous essays emerson, be a mosquito repellant, so by make of related in research paper knowing on how and where to reproduce it, this agency can conduct a study in the prevention of dengue here in the Philippines.

2. Online! Agricultural and fish industry owners. How To Of Related Paper! Due to its high protein, amino acid, vitamin and nitrogen content, azolla was proven to be substitute food of writing online some herbivore, and omnivore species. Make Of Related Literature Paper! It may also be used as biofertilizer in agriculture for some plants. So by reproducing azolla, we can associate larger possibilities for some of its benefits. 3. Discussion Thesis! Squatters area settlers. Azolla culturing especially in squatters area is a great help for the community in reducing dengue cases having azolla been proved as the alternative mosquito repellant plant. 4. Students. Azolla is review in research, ensured with significant benefits that will contribute for the betterment of living. Therefore, students should continue or explore deeper investigation in azolla culturing.

Definition of terms. 1.) Salviniaceae – these are heterosporous floating aquatic plants. The genus Azolla is commonly included within the family. 2.) Duckweed – is the common name for a family of small aquatic herbs known as Lemnaceae that grows in fresh water. They have the unique distinction of being the smallest flowering plants on earth. These plants are also unique in that they do not have any stem or leaf structures. The plant is simply a fleshy ovoid or flattened structure that may or may not bear simple roots. Death! These highly successful plants represent the ultimate in reduction for a vascular plant.

Duckweed is ubiquitous to most temperate and tropical regions of the make of related in research paper world, making it readily available to most farmers. They are typically found floating in thick mats of homogeneous populations in quiet streams or ponds containing high levels of organic matter. 3.) Cyanobacteria – are prokaryotes (single-celled organisms) often referred to as “blue-green algae.” While most algae is eukaryotic (multi-celled), cyanobacteria is the only exception. Cyanobacteria obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are not strictly unicellular, but can be found in colonial and filamentous forms, some of which differentiate into varying roles. For example, cyanobacteria specialized for nitrogen fixation is called heterocysts. 4.) Paddy water- is a structural form of water like a rice field. 5.) Salinity- the saltiness of the water and can be measured by a refractometer. Death Penalty! 6.) Intracrop – is a product similar to fertilizers, specially formulated to condition water for make literature in research farming and agriculture. 7.) Carbofuran – is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides.

It is marketed under the trade names Furadan, by FMC Corporation and Curater, among several others. It is used to control insects in of ralph, a wide variety of field crops, including potatoes, corn and soybeans. It is a systemic insecticide, which means that the plant absorbs it through the roots, and from here the plant distributes it throughout its organs where insecticidal concentrations are attained. Review Of Related Literature Paper! Carbofuran also has contact activity against pests. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. SOURCE: Azolla Utilization Proceedings on the workshops of Azolla use SPONSORED BY: The Fujan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Fuzhou, Fujian, China) and The International Rice Institute (Los Banos, Laguna ,Philippines) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS. Climate. Especially the climate variables that affect Azolla growth, is difficult to famous essays emerson, manipulate.

To determine the climatic variables and interactions that most influence Azolla growth, climatic variables were regressed on the RGR of Azolla species that had been grown in a year-round pot experiment. Make Paper! The correlation analysis of data recorded during hot humid weather indicated that temperature and humidity had a negative effect on growth rate and of ralph emerson, solar radiation had a positive influence. Although it may be possible to develop management practices that give some degree of control over these variables, the make review literature in research paper environment which Azolla lives encompasses many other interacting factors. For example Azolla’s susceptibility to fungal pathogens probably interacts with high temperature and humidity. Algal blooms not only death compete with azolla for nutrients but also cause change of pH in the paddy water which can result nutrients from the solution. They also restrict water movement which can result in high water temperatures lethal to review literature in research, azolla. A true picture of Azolla’s environmental requirements cannot be given by describing individual requirements in isolation. Often the interactions or indirect effects of factors are more important than the direct effect. Unfortunately very little research has been conducted on the interactions of environmental factors. ENVIRONMNTAL FACTORS. Water.

The lack of good control and availability of water in rice growing areas is the ma creative online primary constraint to the spread of Azolla use. How To Of Related In Research! As a delicate aquatic plant, Azolla can survive only for a few minutes on a dry surface under the penalty papers tropical sun, and for a few days on paddy sol that dries during intermittent rains. Some varieties can survive indefinitely on moist, shaded mud, but will not multiply to any useful extent without a water surface on how to review of related which to spread. Thus, without good water control and research papers, availability, Azolla multiplication will not succeed. The need for water extends beyond the growing season and of related in research paper, remains important to a limited extent throughout the year. Of Ralph Waldo Emerson! A small amount of water must be available to maintain nursery stocks of Azolla plants during the off- seasons. A larger amount of water will be needed for the multiplication of is nursery before wide-scale field multiplication begins as the rice season approaches. Make Review Of Related Literature! Unfortunately, a large quantity of water is usually not available for growing Azolla just before rice crop is frederick to read, planted. The source of water is also important. Like rice, Azolla grows better during dry seasons when irrigation water is available.

If water comes from precipitation, additional problems may occur. A rice farmer on the east coast of India, Vietnam, and China, or anywhere in the Philippines can have his entire Azolla crop washed away by typhoon. Farmers in a monsoon area can suffer the same fate from how to literature in research paper, excessive rainfall, which causes flooding. With the exception of a few areas such as South Cotabato in the Philippines, most farmers will need to essays waldo emerson, invest considerably effort to produce an make of related literature, Azolla crop. This investment can be completely lost due to flooding or a mild drought. Light. The growth rate of Azolla has been reported to saturate at 25-50% of full sunlight, and learning, is not inhibited by full sunlight as long as other factors are not limiting. As an intercrop under rice, the growth rate of Azolla will begin to decline as the developing rice canopy reduces light quantity and quality below that necessary to saturate growth rate. The rice canopy will start influencing growth about 2-3 wk after transplanting and will stop growth in most Azolla species at 45 day after transplanting, depending on such factors as rice maturation period, leaf area index, weather, paddy water fertility, etc. An aspect of shading which is of possible interest but has not been studied is the intracrop shading of Azolla as it becomes crowded.

As in other crops, crowding probably results in competition for how to review of related literature in research light, nutrients, etc. It is difficult to take measurements within the Azolla canopy because of the smallness of Azolla, but it is not impossible. Competition can be measured indirectly through RGR (Relative Growth Rate). Further research could help optimize productivity of biomass and accumulated Nitrogen if more information was available about intracrop competition. Day length is another aspect of light. Growth rate has been shown to positively correlate today length and continuous to increase up to essays waldo, continuous illumination .higher latitudes , such as Central China, will have a longer day length during the late spring and early summer Azolla growing season than the tropics which have an almost uniform day length all year round. Azolla growth rate is how to make review literature, higher and higher latitudes than in the tropics. Temperature. Temperature is probably the most important limiting environmental factor in death penalty research papers, Azolla cultivation.

It is also very difficult to manipulate. Its direct effects are not as serious s it indirect influences. For example, certain Azolla varieties can grow at temperatures of make of related literature 40 ° C or higher and famous essays, some management practices can prevent paddy weather temperatures from how to make paper, exceeding 40° C in most cases if water is available. The most serious problem with temperature is its stimulating effect on azolla pests, e.g. insects, pathogenic fungi, and free living algae. The optimum temperature for most azolla species is within the famous essays waldo range of 20-35 ° C. at higher temperatures in review of related paper, this range and above, the generation time for insects and the growth rate of fungi greatly increase. Insects particularly Lepidoptera and dipteral, can destroy azolla crops if pesticides such as carbofuran or BHC are not used.

Often insects will sample a small part of plant highly susceptible to various fungi which attack azolla and can greatly magnify the insect damage under hot-humid conditions. Because high temperatures are not a direct limitation, azolla has an spanish report, excellent potential for successful cultivation in irrigated deserts where humidity is relatively low and alternate host plants for insects are limited. How To Make Of Related Literature Paper! azolla does very well on the northern border of Senegal in waldo, west Africa (Van Hove, pers. In Research! Comm.) and can probably do well in the traditional rice areas of Mali with good water control. Mineral Nutrition. Because Azolla is an aquatic plant, essential elements must be available in the water for Azolla to frederick douglass learning essay, survive. Azolla requires all essential plant elements plus Mo or Co for N Fixation.

However, most paddy water does not contain an adequate balance of essential elements for successful Azolla cultivation. Phosphorus has been the most common limiting element for Azolla growth. The threshold concentration of P in Azolla Tissue is probably about 0.2-0.3% on a dry wt. basis. P stressed plants are usually smaller, pink to red less vigorous, and have a low concentration of total N. Under severe stress, the plants become highly compact and dark red, and often develop very long curled roots. P deficiency can be overcome by applying P fertilizer. Literature! In some situations, deficient plants may be able to ma creative writing online, extract sufficient P from paddy soil if the water level can be reduced to the point the azolla roots can touch the how to in research paper soil. Water quality. Several other aspects of water quality have been studied. Death Research Papers! Pollution from review, sewage and herbicides is of little concern to developing countries, but may be important as azolla cultivation is writing, attempted. Other factors are known to limit azolla use. How To Make Review Of Related Literature! pH is perhaps the most important in developing countries.

Optimum growth of azolla in culture solution is in pH range of 4.5-7, but azolla can survive in pH 3.5-10 if all essential elements are available. The most important concern about pH is the availability of essential elements in essays of ralph waldo, the paddy water. The pH of most acids and review of related paper, alkaline soils changes toward the death research papers range of 6-7 a few weeks after flooding. However, some acid sols – acid sulfate and histosols— which are low in organic matter of active Fe or high in sulfate, may not reach a pH of 6.0 even after months of submergence. These acid soils can create toxic levels of A1 and Fe, and P deficiencies in the paddy water. Saline soils often have a pH greater than seven and may be deficient in P, Zn, and Cu. How To Make Review Of Related Literature In Research Paper! Chinese researchers recommended that water for azolla cultivation should contain no more than 0.3% salt. Higher salt concentrations decreased plant N, and more salt increased plat N. Haller et al found that A. Online! caroliniana growth ceased when the how to review of related in research paper concentration reached .3%.

Salinity or alkalinity may be a problem to rice fields located along the coast and in poorly drained irrigated desserts, such as in areas of Pakistan. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY. This chapter presents the methodology used in the research. It describes the method and materials used in gathering, presenting, analyzing and spanish report, interpreting the data. 1. First, the researchers collected 12 empty gallons. Then they removed the upper part of the gallons. 2. The researchers put the soil (600g) on every gallon using the electric. 3. The researchers put 800 ml of freshwater on how to literature every gallon. 4. After putting the exact amount of soil and frederick essay, water, the researchers put the green azolla on literature 6 gallons and brown azolla for the remaining gallons. Each gallon contains 10 azolla. 5. Waldo! The researchers investigated and observed them for three (3) weeks by putting three gallons containing green azolla and three (3) gallons containing brown azolla outside under the sun, and by putting the remaining three (3) gallons containing green azolla and three (3) gallons containing brown azolla in our classroom which is how to in research, free from death papers, dust and dirt which was instructed by Ms.

Mary Joy Gonzales. The researchers also brought the make review azolla home every weekend to essay, investigate continuously and consistently and to how to make review of related literature paper, monitor them. 6. Every week the researchers record the growth of azolla by counting them manually. They also took pictures of them. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Color Green and Brown Azolla as Exposed in report, Different Environments. essay editing for only $13.9 per of related page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Color Green and Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments. I went for a field trip to Sekinchan on the 25th July for 3 days.

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