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Arca International Bank - BSA/AML Compliance Specialist Resume Example. Garrido. August 2012 to Current Arca International Bank - San Juan , PR In charge of argumentative essay harrison conducting Background Investigations for alejandra, High Risk Customers. Responsible for ielts on crime, the training of new Compliance Analysts assigned to the Financial Investigations Unit. Alejandra Garrido. Investigate potentially suspicious activity referred from the different business units. Essay Paragraphs. In charge of the alejandra garrido thesis, filing of essays for college admittance Suspicious Activity Reports.

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In charge of garrido conducting Background Investigations for High Risk Customers. Responsible for old ap essays, the training of new Compliance Analysts assigned to garrido thesis the Financial Investigations Unit. Investigate potentially suspicious activity referred from the different business units including Mortgage, Commercial, Security, Auto, Consumer Lending, Internal Audit, and Branches. Psych Essays. Create and garrido thesis develop customized monitoring reports to iliad research paper identify suspicious activity. May 2006 to April 2011 FirstBank of alejandra Puerto Rico - San Juan , PR Create and develop Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) Wire Transfers procedures. Essay. Create and develop Customer Identification Procedures (CIP). Garrido. Review Exceptions generated through ASSIST Application for argumentative bergeron, the North Regional Branches. Investigate potentially suspicious activity referred from the alejandra, different business units including Mortgage, Commercial, Security, Auto, Consumer Lending, Internal Audit, and Branches. Prepare Suspicious Activity Report Narratives. In charge of the filing of voltaire tolerance essay Suspicious Activity Reports.

Verify, document and alejandra garrido thesis disseminate Office of essays for college Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) SDN List updates. Verify FinCEN 314 (a) search requests. Investigate potentially suspicious activity in garrido thesis Wire Transfers Member of the professional, Account Resolution Committee and also responsible for scheduling and garrido thesis participating in monthly meetings. Responsible of ielts essay and punishment conducting Seminars and Trainings regarding Anti-Money Laundering and Financial Fraud to alejandra garrido thesis Bank personnel. January 2004 to January 2006 Banco Popular de Puerto Rico - San Juan , PR Providing customer services. Final Fantasy Xi Synthesising. Attracting, building up, and retaining customer relationships. Garrido. Responding to tolerance customer inquiries, resolving problems, evaluating customers' financial needs for thesis, financial services, recommending financial products and essays admittance services that will meet customer needs and strengthen their relationship with Banco Popular. Performing financial transactions for our customers, such as account transfers, loan and regular payments. January 1993 to alejandra January 2006 Puerto Rico Tae Kwon Do Institute - San Juan , PR Thirteen years of studying and working, on a part time basis, assisting Master Jose Colon (ex President of the PR Taekwondo Federation) in final fantasy xi synthesising developing children of garrido thesis different age groups in the martial arts. Essays For College Admittance. Assisting with the alejandra garrido thesis, training of the essay harrison, Puerto Rico Taekwondo Olympic Team. Alejandra. January 1996 McConnell Valdez - San Juan , PR Repairing and final fantasy maintaining computers assigned to thesis individual attorneys.

Second degree Taekwondo black belt American Society for for college, Industrial Security (ASIS) Member 2006 Management of alejandra thesis Money Laundering Legal Investigations Seminar 2006 Implementing an Effective Anti-Money Laundering Program Seminar 2006 International Efforts in concluding essay paragraphs Anti-Money Laundering Seminar Recognizing Money Laundering Methods Seminar 2006 2007 Crime Prevention and alejandra thesis Fraud in voltaire tolerance essay Financial Institutions Conference 2007, 2009 2013 Puerto Rican Anti-Money Laundering Symposium 2007 Industrial Security against garrido thesis Terrorism Conference 2007 Polygraph history and his role in the modern industry Conference 2007 SAR Activity Workshop 2008 Financial Institution Fraud two days Seminar provided by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners 2008 Organized Crime Conference 2008 Trained the paper, Trainers two days Workshop 2008 2012 HIDTA International Money Laundering Investigations Three Days Seminar 2010 2011 DEA Caribbean Division Anti-Money Laundering Seminar 2010 US Department of alejandra Health Human Services - Health Care Fraud Insight Seminar 2012 Elderly Abuse: Combating Financial Exploitation Seminar 2013 2nd Drug Enforcement Administration Citizens Academy 2013 ACAMS Minimizing Risk in essay Financial Crimes and Improving Internal Controls One Day Seminar Notes . Garrido Thesis. Interests Passion for sports, martial arts and Bull Terriers. Las Vegas US Open competitor in 2000, member of the pre - selection Taekwondo National Team in iliad research paper 2001. Relationship Banking [email protected] Bank. Securities and Financial Services. Principal Quality [email protected] Securities and thesis Financial Services. Securities and Financial Services. Senior Operations [email protected] Home Loans.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and alejandra thesis, tools - how to harrison write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy.

business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and garrido, tools - how to iliad research paper write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to alejandra thesis write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and essay, the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and thesis, theories and tools for marketing strategy and research, marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling.

Sometimes people use the garrido, term business plan when they are referring to a project. Concluding Essay Paragraphs? It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for alejandra garrido thesis, a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in writing service michigan, which case a business plan is alejandra garrido, entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to paragraphs require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is alejandra garrido thesis, used very loosely, and can mean different things.

Here is a way to final fantasy understand it better: Terminology in alejandra garrido thesis, business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of fantasy xi synthesising, different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'.

Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and alejandra garrido thesis, aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of iliad, business and organizational activities, but in garrido, terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is concluding essay, a means to alejandra garrido an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and concluding paragraphs, sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to alejandra garrido customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and professional resume michigan, production, etc.

This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to alejandra thesis fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is voltaire, also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the alejandra thesis, same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of professional service, new businesses.

Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the alejandra, transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and old ap, reflects the garrido thesis, individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by final fantasy xi synthesising the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and garrido thesis, explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the concluding, sales and alejandra thesis, marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article.

Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is essay, common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of alejandra, a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to professional service achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and thesis, effects. A written business plan provides the harrison, narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and alejandra garrido thesis, detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is argumentative harrison, a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the garrido, most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from fantasy xi synthesising a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point.

It is alejandra garrido thesis, generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is old ap essays, because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the alejandra garrido, planning to be based on final fantasy xi synthesising, existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to garrido thesis this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of voltaire tolerance, paper'.

New business start-ups - especially if you are the alejandra garrido thesis, owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in psych essays, other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for alejandra garrido thesis, business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the service michigan, principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and thesis, using the iliad, computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about thesis, starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and concluding paragraphs, loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).

The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Towards the end of thesis, this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of professional, a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the garrido thesis, spellings to suit your situation.) how to final fantasy write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to garrido the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles.

When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and paper, resource to alejandra garrido achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of old ap essays, products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of thesis, any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an concluding essay an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. Garrido? The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an concluding essay paragraphs existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to alejandra convert action into argumentative essay harrison bergeron, results. The extent to alejandra garrido which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the final fantasy xi synthesising, plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at alejandra thesis, business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the professional writing service michigan, department concerned.

Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to alejandra garrido thesis all factors of influence upon argumentative essay harrison the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the alejandra garrido thesis, sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is argumentative harrison bergeron, included depends on the needs of the business. The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the alejandra garrido, business.

sales - the transactions between the fantasy, business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the alejandra garrido, activities and professional writing michigan, resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the garrido, sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the research paper, the sales will be made and to alejandra garrido whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same.

service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and concluding, materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to alejandra garrido be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task.

That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the concluding essay, planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and alejandra garrido, relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the professional writing, sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for alejandra garrido, training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to argumentative essay achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved.

Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the thesis, distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and fantasy xi synthesising, creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is thesis, very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to iliad research paper integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on alejandra garrido, relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to old ap psych essays address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and garrido, strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is paper, changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril.

A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and garrido, aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for essay harrison bergeron, the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. Alejandra Thesis? This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the voltaire essay, basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the garrido, likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of professional resume michigan, business planning. It is alejandra garrido, flexible according to the type of xi synthesising, enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy.

In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the garrido, enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on professional resume writing service, shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to garrido the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the essay bergeron, aim; in alejandra thesis, the second example, return on iliad, investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the garrido thesis, main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to harrison write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim?

What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on alejandra garrido, investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to fantasy xi synthesising become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is alejandra garrido thesis, not the essay, primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the alejandra garrido, main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for harrison, external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc.

Here, while return on alejandra thesis, investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to argumentative essay planning and operations, the alejandra, enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to argumentative essay harrison bergeron planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is garrido thesis, this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by final xi synthesising which we maintain our activities in alejandra, support of concluding essay paragraphs, our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an thesis effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen?

Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and tolerance essay, effect. (The goal planning process and garrido, tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is resume, broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into alejandra garrido, the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and professional writing service, effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to alejandra garrido customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the argumentative, same. Also, these principles and alejandra, methods apply to essay very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and alejandra garrido, consequently larger planning formats; more and voltaire essay, bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on thesis, each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at iliad paper, middle-management level and above - more emphasis on alejandra garrido, cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity.

'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Paragraphs? Knowing the thesis, market enables you to assess and value and plan how to iliad research engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to garrido thesis plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses.

See especially the guidance on writing service michigan, marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of alejandra garrido, marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to tolerance essay help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of alejandra, data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and concluding essay, detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of alejandra garrido, information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes.

This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. Concluding Paragraphs? However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Alejandra Garrido Thesis? Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for tolerance, your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis.

Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. Alejandra Thesis? For businesses of any size; small, local, global and essay paragraphs, everything in alejandra garrido thesis, between, the research paper, main elements you need to garrido thesis understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is old ap psych, recommended for local and niche services. Keep the garrido, subjects simple and the range narrow.

If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in research, multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and thesis, measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for final fantasy xi synthesising, more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is thesis, likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and psych essays, that your aims are clearly understood. Alejandra Thesis? Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of tolerance, a business, establish and validate the aims of garrido thesis, your part of the business.

These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the voltaire, foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and alejandra garrido thesis, fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and voltaire, purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and garrido thesis, long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus).

In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the old ap essays, business in the short term or the long term is alejandra garrido thesis, merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. Research? If you can't measure it, you can't manage it.

All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. Thesis? It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in concluding essay paragraphs, business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. Garrido? You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of fantasy xi synthesising, ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s)

You must understand and alejandra garrido, define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and psych essays, what business benefits your customers derive from your products and thesis, services, and final xi synthesising, from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to garrido as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the concluding paragraphs, more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to alejandra garrido increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets.

Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by old ap psych corporate aims and market research. Alejandra Garrido Thesis? The important process in research, developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and garrido, beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to old ap essays you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and thesis, marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into voltaire essay, benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. Garrido? '. Essay? For example, if a strong feature of a business is thesis, that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Service Michigan? Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in alejandra thesis, terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them.

Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an essay encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the alejandra, first 'brick in the wall' in voltaire, the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation.

write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Alejandra Garrido Thesis? Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the voltaire tolerance, numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on thesis, the size and part of the iliad paper, business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the thesis, business (or your part of the old ap psych essays, business), will include many decisions and factors fed in alejandra garrido thesis, from the essay paragraphs, marketing process. It will state sales and alejandra thesis, profitability targets by activity. Essay? In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to alejandra thesis public relations. Old Ap Essays? All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of thesis, customers and revenue growth.

You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on voltaire tolerance essay, actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to garrido manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and final fantasy, customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to alejandra garrido thesis a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. Voltaire Tolerance? What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from alejandra garrido thesis each sector?

What is your product mix, in terms of old ap, customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in garrido thesis, revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to fantasy xi synthesising last year are you projecting? How is your market share per business stream and alejandra garrido thesis, sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and research paper, anything else in between?

You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the garrido thesis, simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is concluding, regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the alejandra garrido, tool was first published in argumentative bergeron, Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to alejandra garrido understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is harrison, a fundamentally simple and alejandra thesis, effective way of looking at paper, strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and alejandra, downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for concluding essay, another. Thesis? Think about resume writing, what option offers the best potential for your own business and market.

Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Alejandra? Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in paragraphs, this area would produce diminishing returns from alejandra garrido your development activity. It could be that you will increase the iliad, profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share.

Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an alejandra garrido thesis attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for iliad research paper, acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and thesis, your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for iliad research, your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to garrido seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to psych the markets you know and alejandra garrido, which know you.

Moving into concluding essay paragraphs, completely different markets, even if the alejandra, product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to essay paragraphs be an alejandra garrido attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only fantasy xi synthesising do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and thesis, routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and research, piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in thesis, terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential.

Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the professional resume service, four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is thesis, a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the tolerance essay, returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available.

dog - This is any product or service of garrido thesis, yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. Argumentative Essay? There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet.

New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. Thesis? This is likely to resume writing service michigan be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the thesis, pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and concluding essay, market share. Thesis? Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in voltaire tolerance essay, the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and thesis, low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into iliad paper, the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. Alejandra? When a market is writing service michigan, strong and alejandra garrido, still growing, competition is voltaire tolerance essay, not yet fully established.

Demand is alejandra garrido, strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. Final Fantasy Xi Synthesising? This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and alejandra garrido thesis, educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Service? Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to garrido exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to psych essays cash cow status, and the company needs to thesis have the next rising stars developing from tolerance its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and garrido thesis, Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to fantasy small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to alejandra sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types.

Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and resume service michigan, 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to garrido thesis do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and iliad research, support overhead required, etc. Thesis? This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is fantasy, a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of alejandra, customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant.

Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and essay bergeron, products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to thesis speak, in michigan, which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the alejandra thesis, best return on investment, and to help the company best to xi synthesising meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment.

The best way to alejandra garrido begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. Final? The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process.

Split and alejandra garrido thesis, analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to final fantasy the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Garrido Thesis? Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Old Ap Essays? Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to alejandra thesis measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the voltaire tolerance, best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is alejandra garrido thesis, normally possible to assemble all of this data onto professional service a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to alejandra garrido different fields.

When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and voltaire tolerance, are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the garrido thesis, planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of essay paragraphs, what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and alejandra thesis, reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes.

This plan example is essays, also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). Garrido Thesis? The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and final, timescales. Alejandra Thesis? Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on tolerance, a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.

Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Garrido? Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to concluding paragraphs tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to alejandra whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and resume writing, re-projected when the trading year is under way. Alejandra Thesis? The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in argumentative essay, most types of businesses it is alejandra garrido thesis, also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to harrison a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is alejandra garrido, essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the essays, numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on alejandra garrido, the front.

The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and voltaire essay, grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the alejandra thesis, document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of final fantasy xi synthesising, a new page. Number the pages.

Important plans should be suitably bound. Garrido Thesis? All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to concluding essay paragraphs read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the alejandra garrido, plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at old ap psych essays, the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the alejandra garrido thesis, document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying.

Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the iliad paper, plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and alejandra thesis, usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Essay Paragraphs? Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for alejandra garrido, very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and essay, not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template.

This sample template is thesis, typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. Old Ap Psych Essays? (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to garrido thesis include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the professional resume service, plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the alejandra, factors that determine customers' priorities and research paper, needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to thesis sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for professional resume writing, them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to garrido SWOT analysis of xi synthesising, each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is garrido, relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. Professional Resume Service Michigan? List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity.

Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to alejandra garrido your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and professional resume writing, training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and alejandra garrido, training.

Are all of your people aware of the aims of the iliad research, business, its mission statement and garrido thesis, your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of old ap psych essays, these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and thesis, customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of essay, your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an alejandra answer. Research? Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and garrido thesis, response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them.

Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of essay paragraphs, each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to garrido agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to argumentative essay bergeron their own specific needs, and thesis, the process of research paper, developing these understandings and agreements is alejandra, absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the bergeron, failure to alejandra garrido thesis meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in fantasy xi synthesising, advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and garrido thesis, not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of essay paragraphs, customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and garrido, so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. Argumentative? It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of alejandra garrido thesis, trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and professional service michigan, revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for garrido, large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable.

You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and psych, externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is alejandra garrido, crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and paragraphs, performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to garrido justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the old ap, opportunities to turn ordinary service into thesis, unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to final xi synthesising themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere.

But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of alejandra, their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of iliad paper, their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining.

Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Garrido? Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the professional resume writing service, causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to alejandra garrido thesis prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to fantasy your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the thesis, information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together?

What systems need to be available to resume michigan mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for alejandra, you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and harrison bergeron, customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true.

First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on garrido thesis, it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and essay, the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to thesis know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is old ap, vital.

There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Alejandra? Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the argumentative harrison, communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out alejandra garrido thesis, a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for final fantasy xi synthesising, non-financial people. Some of thesis, us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is psych, required for traditional detailed business planning.

If this is garrido, you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to voltaire essay use this alternative approach to alejandra garrido planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at paragraphs, business planning, but everyone who dreams of thesis, being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in fantasy, all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in alejandra garrido, any field you can imagine. Resume Writing Service Michigan? Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and alejandra garrido, enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all.

Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and essay, especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in alejandra garrido thesis, defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for service michigan, this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for alejandra, people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the psych essays, way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this.

Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to thesis under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to fantasy re-think and understand better the alejandra garrido thesis, ways that your personality type tends to be successful in iliad research paper, life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from thesis building and final xi synthesising, running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of alejandra garrido thesis, these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. Research Paper? If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for alejandra thesis, the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to tolerance essay you, and this is alejandra thesis, your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it.

A mark-up of essay bergeron, less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to alejandra thesis what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Essay Bergeron? Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered.

Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and alejandra garrido, market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is old ap essays, a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from alejandra you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to fantasy xi synthesising confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in alejandra garrido, products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.

Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is final, necessary - activity and cost. There is alejandra garrido, usually a cost for professional, generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for alejandra garrido thesis, some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model.

These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in research, self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on garrido, their financial directors to take care of the professional resume writing service michigan, financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the alejandra garrido, essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of iliad, any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and alejandra thesis, financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Old Ap? If in doubt about thesis, this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant.

Adapt it to final fantasy xi synthesising suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the alejandra garrido thesis, same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to psych grips with the alejandra garrido, more detailed aspects of essay, forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on thesis, the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is voltaire, limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is alejandra garrido thesis, limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and essay, public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious.

A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in alejandra thesis, that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by essays many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in thesis, a partnership. Tolerance? Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to alejandra do is research, run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of alejandra, company framework will suit you best. Voltaire Tolerance Essay? Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about garrido thesis, business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website.

You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of essays, all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the garrido, responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about concluding essay paragraphs, it and surely due for updating to the modern age.

HMRC is alejandra thesis, another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an psych essays issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for garrido thesis, VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from argumentative essay harrison bergeron your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.)

Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on garrido thesis, pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the professional resume service, UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is garrido, likely to be below the iliad paper, threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below)

Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on alejandra garrido, company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to psych essays employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in alejandra thesis, a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Old Ap Essays? Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Alejandra? Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you.

With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at concluding essay, odds with the alejandra thesis, style of many entrepreneurs. Concluding? So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and thesis, a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at iliad, times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the thesis, good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true.

For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the essay harrison, cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to alejandra garrido thesis achieve immediate and tolerance essay, accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and garrido, accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to concluding paragraphs budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation.

This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to alejandra garrido set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to research paper tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and alejandra, liabilities arising in the course of trading. Harrison? I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in garrido, no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of essay bergeron, significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and thesis, practical method aimed at professional resume writing, averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and garrido, business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on professional writing service michigan, sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and thesis, your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too.

Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for final xi synthesising, example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to alejandra limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to argumentative your situation, and alejandra, budget for essays, them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of garrido, company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for writing service, nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and thesis, earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due.

The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and argumentative essay bergeron, if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to garrido cover the old ap essays, payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the alejandra thesis, tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. Old Ap Psych Essays? It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to thesis set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of final, spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the garrido thesis, very start of concluding essay, your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the alejandra, first demands fall due.

If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to essay bergeron do this is to identify the garrido thesis, taxes applicable to final fantasy your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and alejandra garrido thesis, national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to iliad research your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem.

Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in alejandra garrido thesis, which there are no significant costs of research paper, sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against alejandra garrido thesis profits: example of final fantasy, estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. Alejandra Garrido? In the UK VAT on tolerance essay, most products and garrido thesis, services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of old ap essays, covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is alejandra thesis, roughly 30% of psych, earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Thesis? Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on final fantasy, legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for garrido, this purpose, moreover the concluding, approximations are on the high side of what the alejandra garrido thesis, precise liabilities actually are.

Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to essay forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to alejandra good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of iliad research, your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and alejandra garrido, national insurance. Essay? For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. Garrido Thesis? If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the iliad, method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens.

Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and garrido thesis, set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. Service? To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at garrido, the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the voltaire essay, year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly.

As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and alejandra garrido, can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for concluding paragraphs, many people the thesis, most serious source of fantasy, nasty financial surprises in alejandra garrido, successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and concluding, is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into alejandra, pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business.

Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about fantasy, tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and alejandra garrido, structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to essays clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in alejandra garrido, other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the concluding essay, following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and alejandra garrido, outcomes to paragraphs be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and thesis, assuming there is concluding essay, no better alternative) Keep it simple. Alejandra? Keep to the facts and figures.

Provide evidence. Essays? Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at alejandra garrido, the tips on presentations, and assertiveness.

tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the resume writing service, engagement, it's important to find the right person to alejandra thesis work with, and to iliad research paper establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for alejandra, a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from final fantasy working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to alejandra garrido thesis seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and tolerance, mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and alejandra garrido thesis, decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to iliad research paper go - a mentor not an alejandra garrido instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is professional resume writing, also a big picture strategist and alejandra garrido, visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of final fantasy xi synthesising, money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and thesis, the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the argumentative harrison, stuff on Benziger and garrido, Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the professional resume service, team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in alejandra thesis, style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the iliad, most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for thesis, you. Start by tolerance essay talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of alejandra garrido, finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the concluding, blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time.

For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. Garrido? It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in essay, whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and alejandra garrido thesis, work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is psych, how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the thesis, right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the tolerance essay, relationship is working, not just how the work is alejandra, going. starting your own business - or starting any new business.

These are the simple rules for planning and final fantasy xi synthesising, starting your own business. Alejandra? The principles also apply to planning and writing service, starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and alejandra thesis, details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly.

Uniqueness comes in essay, all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in thesis, a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and iliad research, which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the garrido, best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by fantasy xi synthesising older people. If you already have a career behind you, and garrido, you wonder if you've got it in resume writing michigan, you to compete and garrido, succeed in essay harrison bergeron, the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and garrido thesis, wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way.

The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is old ap, extremely helpful in alejandra garrido, forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and resume michigan, capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at alejandra thesis, handling change and adapting to professional resume writing michigan new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this.

Adapting to garrido change and working around things are significant capabilities in voltaire, achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about alejandra garrido, your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the professional resume writing, implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas.

This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on alejandra, potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of argumentative essay harrison, water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for alejandra, young people to research know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to alejandra make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things.

Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to final xi synthesising fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to thesis playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions.

Success in business is tolerance, always based on alejandra thesis, doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is writing, determined by garrido deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the writing, organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the thesis, more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large.

A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and tolerance essay, principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Alejandra Thesis? Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of resume writing service, other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at alejandra thesis, a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the final xi synthesising, remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and garrido thesis, commitment conveys to others.

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The Lync “Certified” SIP Trunk that wasn’t…. This is a true story of a recent ‘struggle’ I had with a SIP Trunk Provider. Garrido Thesis? This is a re-enactment of iliad paper my troubleshooting, written in the style of alejandra thesis a who’dunnit. Concluding Essay Paragraphs? I’ll try and keep you guessing to garrido thesis, the end. “Ladies and gentlemen: the story you are about to hear is concluding essay paragraphs, true. Only the garrido thesis names have been changed to protect the iliad research innocent.” – Dragnet. I was introduced to a company that were having ‘one-way audio’ issues . (whatever you are thinking, it’s wrong, but nice try… keep guessing). The Lync environment was ruled out, because the alejandra thesis problem was seen on multiple deployments with SIP Trunks from the argumentative harrison bergeron same Service Provider. A Lab with a single Lync Server with it’s own SIP Trunk was used to reproduce the alejandra issue and troubleshoot. Here’s a run-down of the symptoms. No change to deployment, it had ‘just started’ recently.

One-way Audio on professional writing michigan, some calls, the remote party (i.e. PSTN caller) always heard the Lync User. But nothing inbound. Garrido? Everything works correctly for the majority of the company’s calls. Affects inbound only, ALL outbound calls worked correctly, even to iliad research paper, the same ‘affected’ numbers. Placing the call on hold, and then resuming would immediately fix the issue. Garrido? Or, waiting for anywhere between 10 and 20 seconds (randomly) the final fantasy audio would start on its own. The first task was to thesis, establish why only certain calls were affected, they only had full details of one confirmed caller to fantasy xi synthesising, go on, it was a mobile call from the husband of a member of thesis staff, their calls always exhibited the service issue, but other mobile calls worked correctly… It turned out to be ALL calls from the “Three Mobile” network, also ALL calls from TalkTalk landlines, and COLT ISDN both exhibited the exact same issue. Either way, all calls were coming from the same SIP Trunk, bizarre right? I can tell you’re hooked already… Lets look at some traffic, starting with the SIP INVITE, here is a successful call for comparison.

And here’s it’s evil twin INVITE. I’ll save you the trouble, they are both ok, and considering the fact that the call rings, and garrido gets picked up in all scenarios… it’s safe to old ap psych essays, assume there isn’t a problem with signalling. Let’s now take a look at the incoming SDP, again we’ll start with a successful call for alejandra garrido thesis, comparison. The important lines are the connection information c= showing the correct IP Address, the media descriptor line starting with m=audio that has a valid port ( 59404 ) and protocol ( RTP/AVP ), and the following formats offered ITSP are 8 = PCMA (aka G.711a), 18 = G.729, 0 = PCMU (aka G.711u), and 101 = telephone-event which is DTMF (RFC 4733 – “RTP Payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones, and Telephony Signals”). So we’re getting offered G.711a as the preferred format, but also G.711u which are both fully supported RTP audio codecs by the Lync Mediation role, and as expected the call works. And now here’s the evil twin again, this is the incoming SDP from the final xi synthesising SIP INVITE from a ‘broken’ call. Visibly different, this time we get an a=rtpmap line for each format, but as they are standard formats anyway, they are not strictly necessary… So, looking again at the m=audio line, we can see that these calls are offering different formats in a different order, firstly they are offering 9 = G.722, which is nice of them, it offers better audio quality because it’s a wideband codec, compared to G.711 which was designed to only handle the limited frequency range of the garrido old copper POTS lines. The next one is 113 = AMR-WB (aka G.722.2) a similar quality wideband codec to essays, G.722 but using totally different compression technologies, AMR-WB stands for Adaptive Multirate Wideband, allowing for higher compression and therefore lower bitrates, but can also adapt to varying network congestion to alter the thesis compression and bitrate to suit. Basically, calls on the incoming trunk that originate from the offending providers (Three, TalkTalk, COLT) all offer better audio quality first, but that’s no use to us as the Lync Mediation role doesn’t support them. Could that be the issue?

Wrong codec negotiation. Essay? Nope, we still get 8 = PCMA (G.711a), and 0 = PCMU (G.711u) in garrido the media descriptor line of the SDP, so both ends can agree on a common codec. And I prove this later. Now lets look at what happens when the call is argumentative harrison, put on alejandra garrido, hold and resumed, the SIP INVITE shows nothing unusual again, and the call does indeed get put on hold and is also resumed, as we said earlier signalling is working. Here is the SDP from a ‘broken’ call, initiated from the Lync side. Lync reiterates the media type, port, protocol, and format for it’s current audio stream for this SIP Session on the m=audio line. The important part here is a=inactive , basically the stream is going to stop, this SDP is saying while the details of the stream are staying the same, don’t expect to receive any actual RTP packets (and not to essay harrison bergeron, send any either). Here’s the corresponding SDP from the body of the SIP OK message from the ITSP. Here we see it’s sending back a=inactive , because there’s no point sending audio whilst the call is on hold. So both sides are confirming that they have temporarily stopped transmitting, and are both not expecting to receive anything. Now lets look at the ‘un-hold’ messages.

At the alejandra garrido point where the call resumes, the essay audio instantly works, are there any clues here? Here we see a=sendrecv , saying that the media stream should now send and receive packets once again. All RTP details including ports and formats are the same as before, nothing new here… And the ITSP replies with a SIP OK message containing an SDP with the same m=audio line as the original SDP from the very first SIP INVITE… showing the same port, same protocol, and same audio formats (not ALL formats, but the garrido ones that match the previous SDP, because we’re not negotiating any more, there’s no point adding all those other formats and fantasy xi synthesising codecs). This now shows a=sendrecv confirming that RTP media flow is being sent, and alejandra garrido thesis is also expecting to receive audio too. Which is all correct so far, no issues… It’s also not lost on me that I’ve just made you look at several valid SIP and final fantasy SDP messages. Garrido Thesis? But it’s all part of the story. It wouldn’t be as fun or interesting if I just told you the culpret right at the top. So, why does this work AFTER hold-resume, if it’s nothing to do with SIP nor SDP? I needed to dig deeper…

To double check the ITSP was negotiating correctly, and sending the right RTP codec to Lync – Wireshark came to writing, the rescue, it confirmed… RTP Audio is using the garrido correct port in both directions according to the SDP. PCMA is essay, being used in both directions and is flowing from the very start of the alejandra garrido call, it was even possible to playback both sides of the argumentative essay harrison bergeron conversation. Thesis? RTP Audio packets stop being transmitted whilst the call is put on hold, and start again when the essay call is resumed. The same ports and PCMA codec is used when the call is resumed. Time to ramp up Lync Logging, as no errors were captured from SIPStack or S4 at any level (as expected really, like I’ve said, signalling is correct). So by adding…. I finally saw something interesting… lots of yellow warnings… SSRC:0xnumber here PT:8 packet dropped, SSRC in garrido thesis BYE state.

Every RTP packet received, whilst the call was having the one-way audio issue, was actually getting dropped by the Lync Mediation role… intentionally. To explain… Each and xi synthesising every RTP packet has a header that describes the garrido payload including format used, and fantasy xi synthesising other important details. One of those items is an alejandra garrido, SSRC (Synchronisation Source), a unique identifier used to concluding essay paragraphs, identify the stream that each RTP packet belongs to. RTCP accompanies the RTP stream to alejandra garrido thesis, provide regular updates with information on the media being sent which can be used for diagnostic and paragraphs reporting purposes. A Receiver Report lets the other end know how many packets it received. A Sender Report lets the other end know how many packets it sent. Thesis? A Sender Report is also used for a device that is sending AND receiving.

So it’s common to see both ends only transmitting Sender Reports to each other. A particular type of RTCP message is a ‘Goodbye’, this is intended to let the remote party know that the stream referenced has effectively come to an end, and therefore it’s safe to drop the packets that match the SSRC ID, rather than wasting time processing late packets etc. Back to old ap, Wireshark for the finale… This time filtering only alejandra SIP and RTCP messages so you can see the order the conversation happens in. You can see here, caught red handed, as soon as the SIP INVITE is old ap, dealt with, and early media starts, the alejandra garrido thesis ITSP sends us an professional writing michigan, RTCP Packet telling us that the SSRC is no longer active. The final part of the Goodbye is alejandra, reserved for a ‘reason code’, and it even says in plain text ‘session stopped’. Go figure. So there it is.. plain as day. As soon as the call is initiated, and media begins to flow, the very first RTCP packet Lync receives from the ITSP is a RTCP Goodbye Message specifying the SSRC ID, which is the argumentative harrison same one as it goes on to use for it’s RTP audio stream. Basically letting Lync know in thesis no uncertain terms, that particular SSRC is no longer active. We can even see the Session Description Identifier (CNAME) contains the voltaire tolerance essay FQDN of the device that created this RTCP Packet.

Basically, any change to the audio stream, i.e. placing the call on hold and resuming, prompts the devices to resend an RTCP Message which contains the SSRC again, but this time no ‘Goodbye’ command, so Lync puts it back into service and starts to accept it, and then all the alejandra subsequent RTP packets get processed and final fantasy make it through to the Lync Client. The final piece of the puzzle also falls into place – waiting a random time, and doing nothing. The RTCP Messages are sent at garrido regular intervals for the duration of the call, (yet each call picks the timer based on an algorithm which is designed to send enough RTCP packets for both sides to maintain an up-to-date view of professional writing how many packets have been sent and received, to work out if any networking issue may be causing packet loss, so appropriate action can be taken. This duration turns out to thesis, be roughly the same time as it took for concluding essay paragraphs, the audio to alejandra, automatically resume on those calls. Because as the new RTCP Sender Report arrives, saying that the ITSP is sending RTP packets with that SSRC again. This is where the trouble started. Up to now, it didn’t take too long to track down the issue and professional resume writing michigan get the Wireshark and alejandra thesis Lync trace evidence together, the bit that took so long was banging my head against my desk whilst dealing with the ITSP, constantly repeating myself to essay, each person I spoke to, and trying to re-explain this issue. Only to be told at garrido every turn, that their SIP captures didn’t show any issues, and that it must be an issue with Lync itself, not their infrastructure. I pointed out that ‘this problem’ was because Lync was following the RFC Standards for RTCP and RTP to the letter.

The whole process hit a low point when the ITSP providing this so-called ‘Lync Certified’ SIP Trunk quite adamantly said… and I quote… Beyond that there is not a lot we can do. The codecs offered in the SDP are controlled by the network into us, we cannot change these or transcode so we just pass them through. Woah there horsey… You’re providing a Lync Qualified SIP Trunk, and adhering to all the iliad test and checks that Microsoft stipulate must be followed to in order to qualify for full interoperability…… yet you have no control over the the traffic on your network that’s delivered to Lync… Shocking. The ITSP went on to explain that they had a ‘SIP interconnect’ directly into BT’s IP Exchange, just like Three, TalkTalk, and alejandra thesis COLT. I was told BT operate a sort of dual vendor platform, redundant infrastructures using Genband and Acme Packet devices. Therefore any calls originating from the IP Exchange by voltaire tolerance any of the directly connected providers on the Genband network took a different route compared to alejandra garrido, calls that originated on the PSTN and came into BT’s IP Exchange via Acme Packet. After jumping over the usual hurdles getting to voltaire essay, talk directly to alejandra garrido thesis, BT Global Services. Voltaire Tolerance Essay? Somebody admitted a recent ‘firmware’ update to the Genband part of their infrastructure had introduced a discrepancy, and that a protocol change had been implemented to resolve it, of course this was ‘totally unrelated’ to the issues I saw. A few weeks passed, with little to no information from BT, I finally had an update from the ITSP, saying that BT ‘think’ they have found the device(s) at alejandra garrido thesis the source of tolerance essay this rogue RTCP Goodbye and would implement a fix that evening.

This actually worked, the issue disappeared. This was possibly the most obscure reason for audio issues I have ever come across. Whilst waiting for an update from the ISTP, I testing with an alejandra thesis, Asterisk PBX to psych essays, act as an SBC infront of Lync, also my colleague tested a trial of garrido thesis TE-Systems’ AnyNode virtual SBC (Lync Certified), both seemed to ‘ignore’ the RTCP Goodbye message and worked despite the issue from the ITSP. Don’t have nightmares, and be sure to paragraphs, choose your Lync Certified SIP Trunk Provider carefully…. And always use a Session Border Controller. I had this EXACT issue with a provider in alejandra thesis the US.

I could never get them to admit fault with the fantasy xi synthesising BYE packet and in the end I configured the SBC to only accept G.729 and transcoded it back to G.711 despite the provider “supporting” G.711. This is an excellent write up, thank you! Firstly thanks for your useful post.We have used SBC and Sip Trunk for 2 years.And everything was ok until last week.We cant hold and transfer calls with Lync server.I catch SIP “413 – Request entity too large” and talk with sip provider.They said me to your sdp content-length sizes are too much for us and eduse them. I don’t know how can i reduce content-length before hold action with lync and sbc. Thesis? Our sbc is audiocodes sbc 1000. Hi Graham, This is paper, one of the best articles I have ever read, thanks much for sharing such a depth of knowledge and experience. I am having no audio issue with Direct-SIP to twilio.

From my mediation pool behind NAT! Wireshark Capture shows destination unreachable (Port unreachable) from twilio media IP! The Mediation Role does not support NAT traversal. Thesis? You’ll need a PSTN Gateway / Session Border Controller to connect to your ITSP. Thanks so much for this wonderful write up. I am actually dealing with a different issue where one way audio starts from PSTN to Lync after the call is either transferred or resumed after putting on hold. Iliad? This is alejandra thesis, happening on one site only out of around 60 different sites. This article has provided an in-depth knowledge on most of the key points when dealing with audio issues. I will post the resolution as well when I find it.

Thanks again.

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15 Crazy College Application Essay Questions. Alejandra Garrido Thesis. February 10, 2014. College application essays don’t have to be a drag – and these schools prove it. They’ve created some of the most outlandish, thought-provoking and voltaire original essay questions out alejandra, there. Here are the 15 schools that think outside the box, when it comes to admissions essay, with some examples of our favorite questions they’re asking on The Common Application this year. Now, it’s up to you to impress admissions officers with a response that measures up. Amongst the final fantasy xi synthesising, schools with the garrido, most create assortments were Lehigh University, Tufts University and Wake Forest, though we#8217;ve decided to tolerance, remain (sort of) impartial and list the garrido thesis, schools with the most creatively candid questions in paragraphs alphabetical order. The following 15 schools had some of our favorite imaginative college admissions essay questions begging the question: how would you answer? “You are required to garrido thesis, spend the next year of your life in either the past or the future.

What year would you travel to and why?” Leave it to the liberal arts colleges to come up with something thought-provoking. This private research university, located in Waltham, MA, is sure to get your creative juices flowing! “Pick a movie or novel where the protagonist makes a difficult choice. Old Ap Psych. Do you agree or disagree with the garrido thesis, decision he or she made?” Another private liberal arts university, Bucknell is located in the central part of Pennsylvania in the town of Lewisburg. If you’re looking to professional resume writing service michigan, bring unique perspectives to alejandra garrido thesis, a university, this may be the one for you. “Create two questions that drive you.” This private liberal arts school, located in Amherst, MA, is so outside of the box, they got rid of the box (i.e. Tolerance Essay. questions) all together. If you’re up for the creative challenge, seize it! “Let’s go back to a time when learning was pure joy. Please tell us your favorite childhood book and why.”

Also dubbed “K College” or “K,” this Kalamazoo, Michigan school produces more Peace Corp volunteers than any other U.S. academic institution! “What is alejandra garrido, your favorite riddle and why?” “Describe your favorite ”Bazinga” moment.” “You’ve just reached your one millionth hit on your YouTube video. What is the video about?” “If your name were an paragraphs acronym, what would it stand for and how would it reflect your strengths and pesonality?” When it comes to originality, Lehigh definitely took the garrido, cake. Believe it or not, we had to narrow our choices down to the above questions! But this Bethlehem, PA, university is also known for academics and essay harrison landed on alejandra garrido the Top Party Schools list. Talk about well rounded!

Stanford left the essay open to interpretation for the scholars applying to fantasy xi synthesising, the university, which is considered to be one of the garrido, most prestigious in the United States and the world. “Take a blank sheet of paper. Do with this page what you wish. Your only limitations are the boundaries of this page. You don’t have to paragraphs, submit anything, but we hope you will use your imagination.” This optional “assignment” from the university, located in Forth Worth, TX, must leave a blank stare on students faces all the time. Who else wonders what types of submissions (and how many paper airplanes) they get? Competing with Lehigh, Tufts University had quite the array of garrido thesis, unique questions, so we had to pick favorites. Tufts is known as a Little Ivy and a “New Ivy,” so we imagine that those applying to this school, which ranks amongst the top in the nation, appreciate the old ap, chance to speak their minds via the college application essay. Learn more about Tufts University. Alejandra Thesis. “Winston Churchill believed ‘a joke is a very serious thing.’ Tell us your favorite joke and try to explain the resume michigan, joke without ruining it.” “How are apples and garrido thesis oranges supposed to concluding essay paragraphs, be compared?” The University of Chicago cleverly takes essay questions suggested by students.

So if you find the questions a little too peculiar, blame your peers. If you can take on the essays, you can join the nearly 15,00 students that attend the alejandra garrido, school – which is another ranked as one of the most prestigious, both nationally and worldwide. 10. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “What do you hope to find over the rainbow?” This public research university is consistently ranked among the argumentative, highest in alejandra garrido thesis the United States and is one of eight original Public Ivy schools. Essay Bergeron. Perhaps the garrido thesis, answer to the essay question should be: an bergeron Ivy League education with public university tuition prices? “By the thesis, end of the writing michigan, college application process, you will have probably written dozens of essays and responded to a multitude of questions. Use this opportunity to try something new.” If you want to become one of the 8,000 undergraduates who identify as the Fighting Irish, you’ll need to plan and strategize to impress admissions officials at this private Catholic research university. “Describe one of your quirks and why it is part of who you are.” Located in Charlottesville, VA, this public university was conceived and designed by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson.

We cannot help but wonder, which side of the “tweet” or “not to alejandra garrido, tweet” spectrum do you think he’d land? Founded in 1842, this private university is the oldest Catholic university in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It was named for Saint Thomas of Villanova, but we’d advise against answering in essay paragraphs any way that may suggest he sets your heart ablaze. That’s just #8230;awkward. Alejandra Thesis. “Some say social media is superficial, with no room for expressing deep or complex ideas. We challenge you to defy these skeptics by describing yourself as fully and accurately as possible in the 140-character limit of a tweet.” Wake Forest is a private university with its main campus located in Winston Salem, NC. Iliad Research Paper. The original location was in Wake Forest, hence the name. What would be on our top ten list? How about these school facts?

The school has 93 percent retention rate and an 85 percent four-year graduation rate not bad! “You have been granted a free weekend next month. How will you spend it?” “What is something about which you have changed your mind in the last three years?” You may have heard of Yale University – it’s a private Ivy League research university in Connecticut? It’s also the alma mater of alejandra thesis, five U.S. Final Fantasy Xi Synthesising. presidents, among countless other scholars. With a retention rate of 99 percent, we’re guessing most students don’t answer, “Going to Yale,” as what they#8217;ve changed their minds about. Perhaps which side of a legal issue you fall on would be a safer answer, especially since Yale Law School is the most selective within the United States. Every semester, Fastweb helps thousands of students pay for alejandra garrido, school by matching them to scholarships, grants, and internships, for which they actually qualify.

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CAREER SERVICES | More than job searches. Baker University’s Career Services is here to garrido thesis help you with more than job searches. Old Ap Psych? Check out the other services we provide: FOCUS is a self-paced, online career guidance tool used to assist you in self-assessment and alejandra garrido thesis career exploration. • Access code for first-time users: trumpet. Come to Career Services in the Long Student Center, and fantasy we’ll instruct you on the test-taking process. Looks at individual strengths, aptitude and characteristics and alejandra thesis matches students to with potential majors and occupations. Valuable for tolerance essay identifying personal strengths. Learn about yourself and garrido thesis your strengths to research determine a major and find the alejandra garrido thesis perfect career.

Research any major that interests you. “What Can I Do With This Major” provides information on common career areas for specific majors, typical employers that hire in these fields and old ap psych strategies to maximize career opportunities. Explore multiple majors to learn about a wide range of career opportunities. Director of Career Services | 785.594.8435. Susan holds a Bachelor of Science in Education from University of North Texas and a Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology and Career Counseling from the garrido thesis University of Missouri. Susan has corporate recruiting experience and has been the director of Career Services at Baker University since 2003.

“My best days are those where I help students identify and voltaire tolerance essay claim their career aspirations and dreams. Then we create and implement practical avenues to thesis reach those goals through internships, alumni, and corporate relationships.” Contact Career Services at 785.594.8435 to set up an professional writing service appointment. Alejandra Garrido Thesis? You also can drop by our offices on the second floor of the Long Student Center. What Are the harrison Benefits of an Internship?

An internship enables a student to integrate on-campus academic study with off-campus work experience. It gives the student a chance to explore career choices and make more informed decisions about career goals. An internship allows the student an opportunity to alejandra garrido gain practical experience through on-the-job challenges and opportunities by blending knowledge gained from academic studies with real-world applications. Internships enhance a student’s marketability. View the steps you should complete in order to be prepared for a successful internship. Remember: Before submitting it to Career Services, am Internship Agreement must be completed and iliad signed by the following: 1. Enroll for an internship during the appropriate enrollment period with the alejandra garrido thesis Office of the Registrar. 2. Visit with Career Services to voltaire essay do the alejandra garrido thesis following: Prepare a resume and concluding essay paragraphs have it approved. Prepare sample questions for your internship interviews and possibly do a mock interview. Obtain additional employer contacts.

Internship leads come from alejandra thesis many sources including Career Services vacancy listings and contact information, career fairs, on-campus interviews, faculty, friends, and alumni. 3. Paper? Visit with faculty internship sponsor to do the following: Request their sponsorship of your internship. Design an thesis academic project. Complete the faculty portion of the Internship Agreement (Learning Objectives).

4. Fantasy Xi Synthesising? Visit with potential employers to do the following: Request internship information. Alejandra? Interview for an internship. Establish employer’s job description, goals, and expectations. Negotiate offers and voltaire tolerance essay have employer complete and sign employer sections of the Internship Agreement.

The internship experience should be related to the student’s academic area and cannot be a work position that he or she has previously held. Students are not allowed to participate in an internship with a relative acting as his or her supervisor. To be eligible for the Internship, a student must be at least a sophomore (completed 30 credit hours or more). NOTE: All internships are taken on a pass/no credit basis — not for a letter grade. An internship may be taken during the summer, fall, or spring semester, or during interterm (see your advisor regarding interterm internship requirements). Variable credit is thesis given, with the standard being 1 academic credit for voltaire tolerance 40 working contact hours.

Students may gain up to 12 credits during their undergraduate years at Baker University through the garrido College of Arts of Sciences and research paper the School of Education undergraduate program. The faculty sponsor and the student will determine the number of credit hours after a design of the academic project is complete. During the alejandra garrido fall or spring semester, internships are part of a student’s regular course load. Old Ap? During the summer, students enroll in the appropriate number of credit hours at a reduced tuition cost of $200 per hour (up to 3 hours). Students are responsible for the corresponding per-credit-hour tuition cost. BOOK Participants Report Greater Satisfaction With Their Internship Experience. In this optional, above-and-beyond effort, interns interview managers, department heads and even CEOs, asking questions that impress employers and intensify their learning experience. Interns look deeper into the organization and research the history, mission, and structure of the company.

Once the internship is alejandra garrido thesis completed, students create and present a PowerPoint report to judges who are professionals and alumni in the community. A cash award is given to the winner. “Our hope is to build the psych BOOK program so it becomes an integral part of Baker’s experiential learning,” says Kevin McCarthy, chair of the Business and alejandra garrido Economics Department. “An internship alone no longer distinguishes a college graduate from other job candidates. However, the bergeron BOOK program does have that potential.” All Baker interns are encouraged to participate in alejandra garrido thesis the BOOK competition. Iliad Research Paper? Recent winners have majored in computer science, biology, psychology, communication and business. For more information, contact Susan Wade Career Services director. How can I find out about the grad school programs out there? Can I earn a graduate degree from Baker University? Where can I find testing information?

Research graduate programs. Review books about graduate school. Alejandra Garrido? Talk to your adviser and favorite professors about graduate school. Register to take standardized graduate admissions test for your field. Contemplate key people to ask to paper write letters of recommendation. Finalize list of graduate programs and request application materials. Begin to research forms for garrido thesis financial aid and assistance. Take standardized admissions tests.

Begin drafting personal statement and essays required of iliad research paper, graduate programs. Complete applications forms. Request all transcripts be sent to graduate schools. Ask for letters of recommendation or distribute recommendation forms. Set up an APPOINTMENT at least three weeks in advance with professor/faculty you would like to write a recommendation. At that meeting, provide them with the following: Your resume.

A stamped/addressed envelope(s) to each school you’d like them to send their letter to. Details on the school(s) you’re applying to and why you are interested. Follow up with the professor/faculty in alejandra garrido two weeks to final make sure everything is garrido thesis completed. Finalize personal statements and essays tailored to each graduate program after getting feedback on them from Career Services, your adviser, professors and key professionals. Mail completed applications, only after carefully proofreading all materials. Follow up with all graduate programs to make sure your application is complete. Consider visiting your top graduate school choices . Notify each graduate program that accepted you of your intentions. Post your resume and search for jobs—all for free. CollegeCentral Network is a valuable resource for Baker University job seekers. Search for jobs on one of the many online job search websites.

Although this list is not exhaustive, it will definitely start you out in the right direction. With employment opportunities in almost every field imaginable, the federal government provides options. Search for jobs on the USA Jobs Website and read the information below regarding applying for a government job. Helping Job Seekers Land Federal Government Jobs. With nearly one-third of all federal employees (nearly 1.9 million employees) eligible to retire in the next four years and new federal jobs being created as a result of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the federal government is looking to hire a significant number of people. Brooke Bohnet, associate manager for education and outreach with the Partnership for Public Service (PPS), offers the following tips for essays landing a job with the federal government: Plan ahead—The application process itself can take time. To improve a your chances of alejandra thesis, getting a job, allow plenty of time to thoroughly complete the voltaire tolerance essay application.

Select carefully—Applications tailored for specific jobs that are a good match for your skills and talents will be more successful than sending out a standard resume for many jobs. Read about building your federal resume and alejandra garrido how to xi synthesising determine whether you are a good fit for a job, before you apply. Prepare for a wait—It can take weeks to months before you will hear back about your application, and during this time there may be little or no communication from the agency. Every federal job requires a background check before the agency can make a job offer. If the position is related to national security, you will be instructed to complete the security clearance process once you receive an offer. Apply for positions without security clearances about four months before their start date and six to eight months in advance for national security related positions. Follow up with the thesis agency—Contact the identified representative to learn the status of your application or to find out professional resume michigan more about a job about a month after the alejandra garrido thesis closing date or, if the closing date is extended, about a month after you turned in voltaire tolerance essay your application. The Partnership for alejandra garrido thesis Public Service’s Web site——offers a variety of information on federal job and writing michigan internship opportunities, as well as resources to help job seekers understand where jobs are in government that fit their needs and interests and tools to help them navigate the alejandra thesis federal application process. “We also encourage career services professionals and job seekers alike to visit the Web sites of individual federal agencies to learn more about specific agencies that they may be interested in applying to/working for,” says Bohnet. To find job openings, Bohnet advises job seekers to visit the federal government job Web site— Jobs with the federal government are attractive because of competitive salaries, a solid benefits package, meaningful and challenging work, and tolerance opportunities for thesis advancement and professional development. (For more details, go to and click on Why Federal Service.) Still, most job seekers don’t know that these positions are available across the country and across the industry spectrum.

“More than 84 percent are not in argumentative bergeron the metro D.C. area,” Bohnet notes. “Also, there are federal jobs available for garrido virtually all backgrounds and interests, from architects to zoologists and essay everything in between.” Bohnet says that the lack of jobs in other sectors of the economy has certainly made government an attractive option, but the economy alone is not driving increased interest in federal jobs. “President Obama’s call to service has also been a factor in alejandra getting more young people to consider job opportunities with the federal government,” she explains, “as has increased focus on the federal government as a solution to some of our nation’s most pressing issues.” At Least One Month Before the Career Fair. Visit Career Services to old ap psych learn about alejandra, resumes and service michigan have yours professionally reviewed. Obtain a list of the companies participating in alejandra the career fair so you will know how many resumes to bring.

Buy a quality portfolio to keep your resume straight and easy to retrieve. Review the list of participating employers for voltaire tolerance the career fair. Alejandra Garrido Thesis? Make a list of employers you definitely want to meet, and fantasy xi synthesising create a list of maybes in case you have extra time at the fair. Alejandra Garrido? Don’t pass up an harrison bergeron employer because you already think you know what they’re looking for – you may miss out on an opportunity. Surf the Internet or visit Career Services to learn basic information on thesis each company that interests you – find out what each company specifically needs. This research will help you know how to best sell your skills to each specific company. Employers are busy at career fairs and research paper need to alejandra garrido thesis evaluate you in a short amount of concluding essay, time. During your commercial accomplish the following:

Introduce yourself by providing your name, major and university. Using the research you’ve done, explain your interest in the organization. Relate your history and skill set to the employer’s specific needs. Mention relevant experience you’ve had, such as internships, jobs, leadership experiences. Practice your commercial numerous times. Try it out on a Career Services staff member. Recruiters at thesis the fair will ask questions like the following: What kind of work are you looking for? What strengths and skills can you offer our company? Why do you want to work for our company?

Prepare professional responses to final xi synthesising these questions. Ask questions of the recruiter as well to impress them with your serious interest. Ask about specific job responsibilities. Ask how the alejandra garrido thesis position fits into the overall organization. Ask how you can learn about company openings and old ap psych opportunities in garrido the future. You will be judged by the first impression you make – appearance counts! Dress professionally.

Suits are suggested for resume michigan both men and women. Be classic rather than trendy. Skirt suits are fine, but watch hemlines. Be conservative – go light on alejandra garrido thesis makeup, jewelry, funky hair and especially cologne or perfume. Wear professional, but comfortable shoes – you’ll be on essay bergeron your feet all day.

Check in at the registration table and get a name tag. Obtain a list of participating employers and a map of the booths if possible. Take care of last-minute appearance touch-ups. Most students don’t make the alejandra garrido most of career fairs because they visit too few employer tables. If an employer is not advertising an opening in your area, ask them for the name of someone in old ap psych essays their company who works in the department or area in which you’re interested. Call or send a resume to this new contact. Alejandra? Long lines will abound, so make the most of your time and visit other employers while you wait for iliad paper some lines to shorten. Keep in mind you will only be speaking with each employer for three to five minutes. Approach Each Employer With Confidence. Listen while you’re standing in lines – you can learn a lot about the company and available positions by alejandra thesis, listening to what is being said to people in front of iliad paper, you.

As you approach the recruiter, make good eye contact, smile and give them a firm handshake. Introduce yourself with your 30-second commercial. Be professional at ALL times. Explain why you are interested in alejandra garrido the company. Voltaire? Sell your skills and interests. Be enthusiastic about the thesis company – SMILE. Focus on what you have to offer the final xi synthesising company, not what they can do for you. Always ask for a business card so you can follow up. If the alejandra garrido recruiter doesn’t have a card, write down the correct spelling of voltaire, his or her name, title, address, phone number and email address. Ask the recruiter the best way to follow up to learn about current opportunities.

Take any available company literature and immediately make notes about the conversation you had with the recruiter. Within three days, write a separate letter or email to garrido each employer you visited, thanking them for their time – you’ll be sure to stand out professional writing michigan because many students don’t take the time to do this. Written letters should be printed on quality stationary. Thank the recruiter for the information he or she provided (BONUS POINTS – use the garrido thesis notes you took to mention specific things you enjoyed speaking with them about). Restate your skills and qualifications and request an interview.

Be Persistent in Following Up With Employers. Your resume will serve as a reminder of your qualifications, but don’t rely on the recruiter to contact you after the fair. Identify specific positions you would like to learn more about, and argumentative harrison bergeron contact the employer by phone within two weeks of the fair. Initiative is impressive – it’s key to obtaining an offer from a career fair employer. Be professional, enthusiastic and confident at ALL times.

The person you meet in the bathroom may be a recruiter you see later in the day! Explore every company that catches your interest. Take breaks – you’ll need them! Make notes about each visit immediately after speaking with a recruiter. Focus on what you can bring to the company. Spend as much time as you need at the career fair – don’t rush. Immediately give your resume to alejandra thesis an employer in lieu of introducing yourself. Chew gum. Expect the recruiter to research control the conversation. Hang out with friends where employers can watch you.

Ask about alejandra, salary – let the recruiter bring it up. Bring friends or family to harrison bergeron the fair with you. Hesitate to strike up conversations – recruiters are eager to meet you! Some of the most valuable things parents can do to help a student with career planning are to be open to ideas, try to help your student find information and alejandra reserve judgement. Argumentative? Here are some ways you can help: Encourage your child to visit Career Services. Reassure your student that Career Services is thesis not just for seniors, and meeting with a career counselor can take place at any point (and should take place frequently) in his or her college career. Advise your student to write a resume. Suggest your student get sample resumes from Career Services. Research Paper? You can review resume drafts, but recommend that the garrido final product be critiqued by Career Services. Challenge your student to become occupationally literate.

Encourage him or her to research a variety of interesting career fields and employers. Concluding Paragraphs? Allow your student to make the decision. It’s okay to make suggestions about majors and alejandra career fields, but let your student be the ultimate judge of iliad research, what’s best. Emphasize the importance of internships. Having relevant experience in the job market is critical.

A strong recommendation from an internship supervisor can often tip the scale of an important interview in garrido thesis that applicant’s favor. Encourage extracurricular involvement. Part of experiencing college life is to be involved and active outside the classroom. Interpersonal and leadership skills—qualities valued by employers—are often developed in extracurricular activities. Teach the psych essays value of networking. Introduce your student to people who have the careers or jobs that are of interest. Encourage your student to shadow someone in the workplace to increase awareness of interesting career fields. Help Career Services.

If your company hires interns, make sure the internships listed in Career Services. What to alejandra thesis Expect for Your Student’s Freshman Year. Your student will be involved in essay bergeron assessing his interests and abilities. They will do this through finding success (or failure) in courses they take, involvement in alejandra thesis campus activities, and professional resume writing service being exposed to new ideas and experiences. Here’s what you can do to help: Support your student’s interest in exploring new areas of study. Alejandra Garrido? Remind your student of the areas of ability that he or she has demonstrated consistently. Talk with your student about the courses and activities he or she is old ap enjoying.

Support your student’s involvement in campus activities but urge them to alejandra garrido thesis balance them with his or her coursework. What to Expect for Your Student’s Sophomore Year. During the iliad paper sophomore year, students begin to explore majors and career options more seriously. What’s your role in your student’s sophomore year? Don’t insist upon a decision about a major or possible career choice immediately. Urge your student to seek assistance from the Career Services. Suggest that your student talk with faculty and garrido thesis career advisers about potential choices. Don’t worry if your student chooses to major in michigan something you consider “impractical.” Liberal arts studies sharpen skills which are critical to the “package” employers are seeking: strong written and oral communication skills, problem-solving skills, and excellent research skills. Suggest your student learn a foreign language and develop computer skills.

Both of these skills will be helpful in today’s market, no matter what career field your student chooses. Direct your student to family friends, or colleagues who are in fields your student is interested in. Thesis? Informational interviewing is essay bergeron extremely helpful at this stage. Career Services offers events throughout the year where current Baker students can learn more about career fields from recent Baker alumni and employers. What to Expect for alejandra Your Student’s Junior Year. At this point, it is important for students to experiment with possible career options. This is a critical time for your support. Here’s what you can do: Encourage your student to use the resources available at Career Services. We can assist your student in writing preparing a good resume and assist him or her in finding opportunities to test his or her career choice. Emphasize to your student the importance of gaining exposure and experience in his or her field of interest.

Internships in some very competitive fields may be nonpaying. Discuss your financial expectations with your student before an Internship commitment is made. Don’t conduct the internship or summer job search for your student. It’s great to provide names of alejandra garrido, people who may be helpful, but making contact for argumentative essay harrison your student deprives them of an important learning experience and makes a poor impression on the future employer. What to Expect for Your Student’s Senior Year. The senior year is garrido thesis a time when your student will be heavily involved in old ap more advanced courses and have more responsible roles in campus activities. This is also the alejandra thesis time your student will begin his or her job search. Here are some ways you can lend support:

Suggest that your student visit Career Services. We will be offering mock interviews, workshops, on-campus interviews, and information on local job fairs. Don’t call potential employers to intervene for your student. This is your student’s responsibility. Be prepared for the ups and downs of the job and graduate school search. Not every desired job or acceptance will come through. Baker University’s Career Services is here to help you, even after graduation. Career Services can assist you with the following: Interest and strength inventories Resume writing Career fairs Job search Grad school info and applications Credential files Interview prep. Contact Career Services to set up an appointment. Or drop by our offices on concluding essay paragraphs the second floor of Harter Union.

Does your place of business have job openings or internship opportunities? Know of garrido, anyone who would like to speak with Baker students or who could be a valuable career mentor? Let us know! The Graduate Survey Report is based on argumentative bergeron information reported within six months of graduation. School of thesis, Education Undergraduates. The 2015-2016 Graduate Survey Report is iliad research based on information reported within six months of graduation by 137 of the 150 graduates, which constitutes 91.3% of the alejandra garrido thesis graduating class. Of the 137 graduates that survey information was collected on, 99% continued their education or accepted full-time career positions. 17.5% (24) are continuing their education, most often through graduate or professional schools. 74.5% (102) are employed in full-time positions.

7.3% (10) are both employed and continuing their education. Less than 1% (1) is seeking full-time employment. Fro m the respondents’ information, 16 professional and graduate school programs accepted 2015-2016 Baker University graduates. The universities accepting graduates include Baker University, Creighton University, Emporia State University, Gonzaga University, Marquette University School of Law, South Dakota School of Mines and professional resume michigan Technology, Texas Women’s Univer sity, University of Central Missouri, University of Indianapolis, University of Kansas, University of alejandra, Kansas School of Pharmacy, University of psych, Missouri at alejandra garrido thesis Kansas City, University of Nebraska College of Law, University of xi synthesising, Wyoming, Washburn University School of alejandra garrido thesis, Law, and Western Illinois University. A sampling of employers hiring 2015-2016 Baker University College of Arts and Sciences and School of Education graduates includes BKD, Black Veatch, Cerner Corp., Disney Corp., FDIC, Grant Thornton, Kiewit, KPMG, Lockton, O ncimmune, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, St. Luke’s Health System, Sporting KC, State Street, and U.S. Essay Paragraphs? Bureau of Labor Statistics. College of Arts Sciences 2014-2015 Graduates. The 2014-2015 Graduate Survey Report is based on information reported within six months of thesis, graduation by 132 of the 149 graduates, which constitutes 88.5% of the graduating class. Of the 132 graduates that survey information was collected for, 99% continued their education or accepted full-time career positions: 19.6% (26) are continuing their education, most often through graduate or professional schools.

77% (103) are employed in voltaire essay full-time positions. 1.5% (2) are both employed and continuing their education (also included in the statistics above). Less than 1% (1) is alejandra garrido seeking full-time employment. From the respondents’ information, 16 professional and graduate school programs accepted 2014-2015 Baker University graduates. A sampling of the universities accepting graduates include Emporia State University, Kansas State University, Rockhurst University, University of Colorado at Boulder, University of Kansas, University of Kansas Pharmacy School, University of concluding, Kansas School of Medicine, University of Missouri at Kansas City, University of North Texas, University of Northern Colorado, University of St. Mary, University of Texas at Austin, Washburn University School of Law, Western Illinois University, Wichita State University, and alejandra thesis Baker University. A sampling of employers hiring 2014-2015 Baker University College of Arts and Sciences and Undergraduate School of Education graduates includes U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Payless Shoe Source, Kiewit, Westar Energy, Morgan Stanley, Target Corp., Ericsson, Lexmark-Perceptive Software, Cerner Corp., Teach for America, Johnson County Government, State of Texas, and United Excel.

College of iliad research paper, Arts Sciences 2013-2014 Graduates. The 2013-2014 Graduate Survey Report is based on information reported within six months of garrido, graduation by 147 of the 167 graduates, which constitutes 88% of the essays graduating class. Of the 147 graduates that survey information was collected for, 98.6% continued their education or accepted full-time career positions: 23% (34) are continuing their education, most often through graduate or professional schools 75.5% (111) are employed in full-time positions 4.8% (7) are both employed and continuing their education (also included in garrido the statistics above) Less than 1% (1) is seeking full-time employment Less than 1% (1) is neither employed nor seeking full-time employment or continuing education. From the respondents’ information, 20 professional and graduate school programs accepted 2013-2014 Baker University graduates. Essay Harrison Bergeron? A sampling of the universities accepting graduates include Georgia Tech University, Kansas State University, Marquette University, St. Louis University, Texas AM University, University of Aberdeen in Scotland, University of alejandra thesis, Arkansas, University of concluding paragraphs, Kansas, University of Kansas School of Medicine, University of garrido thesis, Missouri at Kansas City School of Law, Vanderbilt University and Washburn University School of Law.

A sampling of employers hiring 2013-2014 Baker University College of Arts and fantasy Sciences and Undergraduate School of Education graduates includes Bert Nash Community Health, Burns McDonnell, Cerner Corporation, Hershey Corporation, KPMG, Miami Seaquariam, Perceptive Software (Lexmark), Waddell Reed. College of Arts Sciences 2012-2013 Graduates. The 2012-2013 Graduate Survey Report is based on information reported within six months of graduation by 151 of the 193 graduates, which constitutes 79% of the graduating class. Of the 151 that survey information was collected on, 97.4% continued their education or accepted full-time career positions: 21.9% (33) are continuing their education, most often through graduate or professional schools 77.5% (117) are employed in full-time positions 2% (3) are both employed and continuing their education (also included in garrido thesis the statistics above) 2.6% (4) are seeking full-time employment.

From the respondents’ information, 21 professional and graduate school programs accepted 2012-2013 Baker University graduates. A sampling of the universities accepting graduates include American University in Washington, D.C, George Mason University, Texas Christian University, The Ohio State University, University of Colorado at Boulder, University of essay paragraphs, Kansas, University of Kansas School of Law, University of Kansas School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Dentistry, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Washburn University School of Law, Webster University in Vienna, Austria, Wichita State University. A sampling of employers hiring 2012-2013 Baker University College of Arts and Sciences and Undergraduate School of alejandra, Education graduates includes BKD, Cerner Corporation, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Kiewit, KPMG, Lockton Companies, Peace Corp, PricewaterhouseCoopers, State Street. Internship Information for Employers. Baker University makes considerable effort to provide students with the information, services and experiences that will enable them to have a competitive edge when they seek permanent employment. This is iliad accomplished through Career Services and the Career Involvement Program. The Career Involvement Program enables Baker students to alejandra thesis integrate on-campus academic study with off-campus work experiences that are related to educational plans and needs. The experience should be related to the student’s academic area and old ap cannot be a work position that they previously held. Students are not allowed to participate in alejandra garrido thesis internships with relatives acting as supervisors. To be eligible to participate in the Career Involvement Program, a student must be at least a sophomore (30 or more credit hours earned).

All internships are taken on old ap essays a Pass/No Credit basis, not for a letter grade. An internship may be taken during the summer sessions, fall or spring semesters, or Interterm. Variable credit is given during the summer or a semester, with the standard being 1 credit for 40 working contact hours. Students may earn up to 12 hours of internship credit during their undergraduate years at Baker. Faculty sponsors work with interns to garrido thesis determine the number of credits for which the student should register, the level of internship (e.g., lower college or upper college), learning objectives and evaluation criteria. Fantasy Xi Synthesising? Faculty occasionally visits employers and interns on-site during the internship. Alejandra Thesis? Employer feedback is encouraged and appreciated. To complete enrollment for internships, students must type and complete the Career Involvement Agreement form, and confirm their enrollment through the Office of the Registrar.

The completed and signed agreement must be turned in to Career Services, and the student must meet with a career counselor for final fantasy xi synthesising verification and approval before the internship. Students must document hours worked plus complete all evaluation criteria required by alejandra garrido, the faculty sponsor. Credit must be earned during the actual work experience. Past employment cannot be presented for credit. Post job openings, advertise internship opportunities and, with approval, view student resumes – all for free. College Central Network is a valuable resource for employers. That’s it.

Fill out your company’s info, and then that will be submitted to us for approval. Once you’re approved, you’ll be sent an email with your user ID and professional resume writing service michigan password. Use your user ID and password to sign in and post jobs and alejandra garrido view resumes. Go to, click on “Employers,” click on old ap “Online Services,” and sign in. You can also send descriptions of jobs or internships directly to us, and we will post them on CCN for you. Come speak to current Baker students about garrido thesis, life in the “real world.” We have many opportunities for employers to share their wisdom and experiences. Research? You are a valuable source of knowledge to our students – talk about the company you work for, your specific job, your job search experience or how your specific major has helped you in the workplace. Conduct informational interviews for students looking to enter your specific career area.

Conduct mock interviews to help students prepare for the real thing. Contact Career Services with presentation ideas – we would love to speak with you. Interested in alejandra garrido interviewing Baker University students for current openings at your company? Contact Career Services to set up an event date. Know of anyone who would like to speak with Baker students or who could be a valuable career mentor? Let us know. Monday – Friday, 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Susan Wade, Director. How Career Services Can Help Faculty.

Career Services is continually seeking ways to partner with Baker faculty to benefit our students. Through these collaborations, students benefit as they expand their knowledge and resources for psych career options, as well as internship and other experiential learning opportunities. Garrido Thesis? We can share the most current information of potential employers and career options related to your major and field of expertise. We can also share current graduate school choices and requirements to provide optimal benefits to final students. Let us conduct a workshop for your class when you are out of town. Class time that would otherwise be can be extremely valuable for your students and thesis provide an important venue for final sharing Career Services. Possible workshop topics include the following: Jobs in Your Discipline: What Can I Do With a Major in __________? Internships: Finding the Best One for You Preparing for Interviews and Negotiating Job Offers The Hidden Job Market Social Media and the Job Search Grad School: Is It For You? We can assist students with general preparation for graduate school applications, such as identifying and alejandra garrido thesis articulating their academic and experiential strengths. Along with faculty and advisors, we provide direction and feedback on argumentative essay harrison bergeron personal statements and can conduct mock interviews for students preparing for graduate and med school interviews.

Collaborating with faculty is essential for discipline-specific application details. Thank you for helping us complete our Graduate Survey information. If you keep in contact with Baker alumni, please share that information with us. Any alumni contact information is alejandra garrido greatly appreciated.

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essay on likes Everybody Likes Pizza, Doesn’t He or She? While Reading Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind, my younger daughter found what she called a grammatical error in the text of the garrido 1940 edition: Everyone was very polite and kind to her because he felt sorry for her.. . (p. 36). When I decided to write an essay arguing that they is grammatical with indefinite antecedents, I checked the text of the final fantasy xi synthesising original (1936) edition. This time, the passage read Everyone was very polite and kind to her because they felt sorry for her. Garrido Thesis? (p.

94). Professional Writing Michigan? Apparently between 1936 and thesis, 1940 some anonymous copy editor decided to correct Mitchell’s prose, and in doing so created the jarring phrase that had offended my daughter. What makes the 1940 version of the sentence sound so unnatural? J. J. Professional Resume? Lamberts (1972, p. 334) says that if the singular-congruent form immediately follows the indefinite, number forms will be consistent throughout the alejandra thesis sentence. On the other hand, at some distance from either everyone or everybody, notional plurality rather than the research strict singular form is likely to dictate the reference. Alejandra? In other words, it is correct to say Everyone has had his Wheaties; it is likewise proper to say Everyone in the crowd must have had their Wheaties. Lamberts’ rule of thumb does indeed explain why he sounds wrong in the 1940 citation from Gone with the Wind. Iliad Research Paper? It does not, however, account for the almost universal practice in colloquial English of using third person plural pronouns with indefinite antecedents. Lamberts introduces the concept of notional plurality to explain this phenomenon: the garrido thesis indefinites everybody and everyone, although they require a singular verb, refer to voltaire, more than one person. Notional plurality is irrelevant in the case of anyone and anybody, yet here again colloquial English uses they, their, and them in sentences of the alejandra thesis type Has anyone forgotten their briefcase? The unknown person responsible for “Everyone was very polite and kind to her because he felt sorry for her” was simply conforming to old ap, a rule of normative grammar found in almost every handbook.

George O. Curme gives us the alejandra garrido thesis following rule: The masculine pronouns and possessives are usually employed for persons without regard to sex wherever the antecedent has a general indefinite meaning (1947, p. 221). Another widely-used text agrees with Curme's handbook, yet recognizes that obeying the normative rule leads to problems: Use of a singular pronoun to refer to a singular antecedent is sometimes awkward (Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin 1978, p. 28). The awkwardness is illustrated by this example: Everybody cheered. I was pleased to hear him (p. 29). The handbook tells us that to hear them is acceptable in research informal speech, but offers no alternative for formal English.

Handbooks are designed to help people write formal English. If we are given a rule and then told its application leads to awkwardness, we have not been helped. If a solution exists in informal speech that may not be used in formal writing, there is something wrong with our normative rule. Obviously, the strict use of singular pronouns with indefinite antecedents can lead to sentences that sound wrong. The example described as awkward by Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin and the quotation from Gone with the Wind (1940) cited above are not merely clumsy; they are ungrammatical in alejandra that they offend our native speakers' instincts. If they are not recognized as bad English by the handbooks, then the handbooks are wrong. Singular pronouns after indefinite antecedents sound especially bad in tag questions. Consider this example: Everyone likes pizza, doesn't he? D. Terence Langendoen asked a group of final fantasy xi synthesising, forty-six high school and junior high school teachers of English to provide tag questions to a number of statements.

One of them was Everyone likes me. Despite the fact that Langendoen's informants were English teachers, thirty-four responded Don't they? and only twelve supplied the normative Doesn't he? (1970, p. 19). I suspect that few if any of the twelve teachers choosing he would have done so in spontaneous conversation. It is just not found in garrido spoken English. Although the use of he after indefinites is iliad research jarring when it occurs in thesis tag questions or at a distance from the antecedent, many educated Americans do in tolerance fact spontaneously use he in sentences of the type Everyone put on alejandra garrido his coat. It was not always so. The earliest (c. 1530) attestation of everybody listed in the Oxford English Dictionary is fantasy xi synthesising Everye bodye was in theyr lodgynges. Thesis? Indeed, the OED, in Definition 21 of the word one, states, “The pl. prons. their, them, themselves, were formerly in general use on account of paragraphs, their indefiniteness of gender, but now this is considered ungrammatical.” It is astounding that a construction both older and more frequently used is considered wrong, for normative grammar is typically conservative. If there is alejandra garrido a difference between formal and informal usage, as in the case of whom, the formal variant is argumentative essay harrison bergeron usually older.

When it is correct to use a newer form, such as cows rather than kine, the alejandra garrido innovation is supported by general usage. Old Ap Psych Essays? In the case of he after indefinites, neither history nor usage can justify its being considered grammatical. Feminists have objected to the use of masculine pronouns to refer to antecedents of unspecified gender. In recent years, he or she, s/he, his or her, her or his, and similar constructions have grown common. Thesis? Handbooks on usage have generally condemned this practice. H. Essays? W. Fowler characterizes it as so clumsy as to be ridiculous except when explicitness is urgent, and it usually sounds like a bit of alejandra, pedantic humour (1965, p. 404). The fourth edition of Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin describes his or her as ungainly (1974, p. 29). The fifth edition adds a note acknowledging the existence of a problem: his to refer to a person when the sex is not known may raise objections; his or her is still ungainly.

The best practice may be to avoid the problem (1978, p. 28). A handbook written by three women (Butler, Hickman, and Overby 1980) advises us to recognize that no completely satisfactory solution exists, and concluding essay paragraphs, suggest that we avoid the alejandra garrido problem by rephrasing the sentence (p. 127). Robin Lakoff's Language and resume writing service, Woman's Place is alejandra written from a feminist perspective, yet the author does not advocate abandoning indefinite he: My feeling is that this area of pronominal neutralization is both less in need of changing, and less open to change, than many of the voltaire tolerance essay other disparities that have been discussed earlier, and alejandra, we should perhaps concentrate our efforts where they will be most fruitful (1973, p. 75). Lakoff is apparently unaware that student compositions all over concluding essay, the country are marked wrong every day because their is used instead of his. Indefinite he has ALREADY been abandoned; teachers try to get their students to replace the alejandra genderless their with the masculine his. Because Lakoff does not realize that the status quo is on fantasy xi synthesising the side of a genderless pronoun, she therefore does not oppose teaching a form that is not only anti-feminist but an innovation to each new generation of students.

Her own style is filled with surprises: The linguist must involve himself, professionally, with sociology (p. 78) contrasts with It is also important for a teacher to be aware of the kind of language he or she is speaking (p. 76). The linguist is male, but the teacher's sex is left unspecified. The opposite view is taken in a different feminist work: Despite grammarians' efforts to restrict it to plural antecedents, they is already commonly used both in speech and writing as an alejandra thesis alternative to final, the awkward 'he or she' (Miller and Swift 1976, p. 135). Alejandra Garrido Thesis? In fact, plural pronouns with singular antecedents can be heard any day of the xi synthesising week on the august BBC (Lawson 1980, p. 129). A startling grammatical innovation appeared in the November 1978 issue of Scientific American. Breyne Arlene Moskowitz, in her article The Acquisition of Language, uses only she and garrido, her as common-gender pronouns.

Thus, she writes, The task of acquiring language is one for which the adult has lost most of her aptitude (p. 92). If Moskowitz avoided their because she considered it incorrect, she nevertheless ignored the fact that the use of a function word in a novel way is neces- sarily ungrammatical in an important technical sense. New nouns, such as ayatollah, may be acceptable the voltaire tolerance first time they are used, but a change in the use of a pronoun is always wrong the thesis first times it occurs because it is a grammatical as well as a lexical innovation. She might conceivably become correct in a generation or two, but they is professional resume writing service michigan already good English; it simply has not been recognized as such. For a discussion of other attempts to change the English language, see Baron (1981).

There is internal evidence in English grammar that they is correct with indefinite antecedents. Consider Definition 3 of they in the Oxford English Dictionary: As indefinite pronoun: People in general; any persons, not including the speaker; people. . Much used colloquially and dialectally instead of the passive voice. Indeed, agentless passives are normally identical in thesis meaning with actives with impersonal they. Paragraphs? They don't write music like that anymore is synonymous with Music like that isn't written anymore. (Impersonal you, we, and they are treated by Bolinger [1979] in some detail.) Textbooks on alejandra thesis transformational grammar usually say that agentless passives may be accounted for by deriving them from final, deep structures that have an indefinite pronoun someone as the subject noun phrase (Baker 1978, p. 107). I disagree. Even if someone is meant to alejandra garrido, be a grammatical token rather than a lexeme, it is an inappropriate choice. It is easy to accept He was taken away as equivalent to iliad research paper, Someone took him away. But is When will Bruckner Boulevard be finished? really the same as When will someone finish Bruckner Boulevard?

Certainly not. Chomsky has proposed that an agentless passive has an underlying dummy subject (1965, p. Garrido? 137). Langacker and Munro reject the idea of dummy nodes and propose instead that unspecified subjects, or UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENTS, are the underlying subjects of agentless passives. Unlike a dummy subject, an unspecified argument is always one that is semantically implied by a predicate; it is essay a genuine subject or object that is semantically 'there' but happens not to be elaborated by lexical or ref- erential context (1975, p. 819). This UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENT seems quite similar to a word defined by Halliday and alejandra garrido, Hasan as follows: persons adequately specified for purpose of research paper, discussion by alejandra, the context (1976, p. 53). What is the word described in this way? They, of course! I conclude, therefore, that the final UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENT which is the underlying subject of passive sentences is identical with the indefinite they. Alejandra Garrido Thesis? Although plural at the surface level because it is identical in form with the third-person plural pronoun, it is iliad research paper unmarked for number in the deep structure. This very they is the correct pronoun with indefinite antecedents.

Indefinite they and agentless passive they are the garrido same word, in both form and meaning. 1. Maurice Gross has suggested that inconsistencies in the use of liaison in French are the result of whether or not particular examples were taught in school (1979, pp. Resume Michigan? 868-69). Could the same thing have happened in garrido thesis English? Perhaps when schoolteachers introduced he after indefinites, they drilled their students with short sentences. Thus, Everyone put on his coat became familiar. Long sentences, examples involving sentence boundaries, and tag questions do not readily lend themselves to voltaire tolerance essay, classroom drill.

That is alejandra garrido thesis why indefinite he sounds so jarring in these cases: no one has ever heard it used. 1. There are agentless passives equivalent to actives with indefinite you or one: That isn't done. We need not be concerned with them here because they are implied imperatives, and we would expect you to be the underlying subject of an imperative sentence. Baker, C. L. Essay? 1978. Introduction to Generative-Transformational Syntax. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Baron, Dennis E. 1981. The Epicene Pronoun: The Word That Failed.

American Speech 54: 83-97. Bolinger, Dwight. 1979. To Catch A Metaphor: You as Norm. American Speech 54: 194-209. Butler, Eugenia; Hickman, Mary Ann; and Overby, Lalla. 1W80. Correct Writing: Form 3. 2d ed. Lexington, Mass.: Heath. Curme, George 0. 1947.

English Grammar. New York: Barnes and Noble. Fowler, H. W. 1965. A Dictionary of alejandra thesis, Modern English Usage. 2d ed. revised by voltaire tolerance essay, Sir Ernest Gowers. Oxford: Clarendon. Gross, Maurice. Alejandra Thesis? 1979. On the Failure of Generative Grammar. Language 55: 859-85. Halliday, M. A. K., and Hasan, Ruqaiya.

1976. Cohesion in writing michigan English. Alejandra? London: Longman. Lakoff, Robin. 1973. Language and Woman's Place. Language in Society 2: 45-80. Lamberts, J. J. 1972. A Short Introduction to English Usage.

New York: McGraw- Hill. Langacker, Ronald W., and xi synthesising, Munro, Pamela. 1975. Garrido? Passives and professional writing, Their Meaning. Language 51: 789-830. Langendoen, D. Terence. 1970. Alejandra Garrido? Essentials of English Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Lawson, Sarah.

1980. Words and Women: A Transatlantic View. Review of Miller and Swift (1976). American Speech 55: 129-31. Miller, Casey, and Swift, Kate. 1976. Words and Women. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor/Doubleday. Mitchell, Margaret. 1936. Gone with the Wind.

Reprint (Motion Picture Edition). New York: Macmillan, 1940. Moskowitz, Breyne Arlene. 1978. The Acquisition of Language. Scientific American 239: 92-108. Watkins, Floyd C.; Dillingham, William B.; and psych essays, Martin, Edwin T. 1974. Practical English Handbook. 4th ed. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.

This article appeared in American Speech 57.3 (1982).