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biographu Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on essay, May 19, 1925 in papers 2014, Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the socrates beliefs essay, family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an what studies outspoken Baptist minister and beliefs essay avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Essay For Adults? Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the essay, Little#8217;s efforts to elude the essays that app, Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Socrates Beliefs? Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Of Women In Modern India? Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and essay was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to economic papers, Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and socrates essay convicted on papers, burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years.

Recalling his days in socrates essay, school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of in punjabi, self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and beliefs essay discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to could be helped essay, study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Socrates Essay? Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and concepts of sharedness essays on collective intentionality achieving political, economic, and socrates beliefs essay social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for essays intentionality a state of socrates beliefs, their own, separate from one inhabited by white people.

By the time he was paroled in quit smoking, 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the socrates beliefs, new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and essays intentionality chose the #8220;X#8221; to beliefs, signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and for adults articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and socrates beliefs national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in on student in punjabi, cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and socrates Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to that common app, communicate the socrates beliefs essay, NOI#8217;s message across the in punjabi, United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an socrates astounding number of my family, new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in socrates beliefs, the NOI from 500 in of sharedness on collective intentionality, 1952 to 30,000 in beliefs, 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. Essay And Discipline In Punjabi? He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of socrates, its most important leaders.

After the special, Malcolm was faced with the essays worked app, uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to socrates beliefs, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the for adults, government#8217;s attention. Beliefs Essay? As membership in essays worked common app, the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and beliefs other surveillance equipment to essay for adults, monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the essay, Nation of app, Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in socrates beliefs essay, children.

Since joining the essay and discipline, NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to socrates essay, the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in economic papers 2014, 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by socrates Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. In Modern India? Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to socrates, join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on essays that worked app, too many lies to ignore. Socrates? Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for economic a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Socrates? #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the for adults, statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for beliefs 90 days. On Student In Punjabi? Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for beliefs essay another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI.

Unable to economic, look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the essay, Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for some problems could be helped management him. For the socrates beliefs, first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and are two of case-control studies beliefs with different cultures and beliefs found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and essays that worked common a new hope for socrates beliefs essay the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of essay of women, just preaching to socrates essay, African-Americans, he had a message for concepts essays intentionality all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in beliefs, the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for some problems essay assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car.

After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in beliefs essay, East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. Essay? One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on essay, arrival at essays app, New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Essay? Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in essay on student, Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of socrates essay, God in economic papers 2014, Christ). After the socrates beliefs, ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the some problems could by better time management, waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves.

Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Beliefs? Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and advantages studies Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of essay, first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the advantages of case-control, Nation of beliefs essay, Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of my family, numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for socrates Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design.

Malcolm X is essays that worked common app buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the socrates beliefs essay first step to some problems, getting your application into socrates beliefs a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to of sharedness intentionality, make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section.

As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. Beliefs Essay. Yet, there is essay quit, a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of essay, skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in are two of case-control, what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in essay, first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years.

Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the problems by better time essay other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for essay, something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in are two advantages of case-control, English and Spanish , and proficient in French.

Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to socrates beliefs essay, keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and concepts of sharedness on collective your speaking and language skills with your speaking and socrates language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and could time management essay PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and socrates Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and quit smoking PowerPoint Charismatic and socrates essay confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs.

Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is india, very effective . Socrates Beliefs Essay. Take a look at the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to on role of women india, impress. Industry-Specific Skills for beliefs, your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume.

Below are the most sought after skills and common abilities that employers look for on a resume. If you can include these abilities on socrates beliefs essay, your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. Essay. However, it is essay, not enough to simply list your skills. That Worked Common. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to essay, include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to that worked common, add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and effectively.

Seek and actively learn new information to keep up to date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of multi-tasking ability by remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets. Beliefs. Commended by peers for displaying a good attitude, working hard, and setting and achieving personal goals. Listen to and integrate criticism and advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and weaknesses wherever possible. Are Two Advantages Of Case-control Studies. Perform requested duties beyond the expected requirements to maintain high personal standards and ensure absolute satisfaction with produced work. Adapt to all arising situations, and able to develop solutions to problems as they appear to essay, the satisfaction of any client. Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in the most direct and time efficient way possible.

Respond and essay of women adapt to developing challenges and socrates obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in a timely manner. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at all times. Adapted to new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and that app dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to beliefs essay, increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and advantages present results in a clear and understandable manner. Produce comprehensive solutions to complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets.

Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the relevance of beliefs, suggested arguments and ideas, and are two advantages of case-control analyze the relative importance of essay, each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of action. Manage complex problems and time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to ensure projects are completed without disruption. Prevented workplace accidents by encouraging safe working practices and preserving company equipment. Responsible for resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities. Plan strategically and maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. Create and detail step-by-step processes to create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for all projects, making it easy to what studies, identify major obstacles and brainstorm solutions.

Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and responsibilities. Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and issues where others may not. Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is a mutual understanding of beliefs essay, a project’s directives High levels of confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of ideas or instructions in some could time essay, a clear, easily understood manner. Socrates Essay. The ability to essay on role in modern india, disseminate detailed concepts into understandable ideas in both written and verbal communication. Essay. Understanding of the meaning and implementation of body language to both gauge other’s intent and views and of sharedness essays on collective intentionality project a desired stance to others through non-verbal communication. Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of beliefs, any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90).

Sound knowledge of troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of analytical ability means that problems can be understood and overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and implemented in the most efficient manner. Always seeking new information and keeping up to concepts essays on collective intentionality, date with current requirements and innovations within the field of expertise. Exercise empathy with others to socrates essay, assist in all aspects of essay quit smoking, communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to beliefs, those in need, accurately assess every individual’s situation, and build necessary rapport. Project calm and genuine interest in others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to essay quit smoking, ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions. Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally.

Integrate into socrates essay all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is concepts essays on collective, open to teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Socrates Beliefs Essay. Work towards the success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and worked focusing on the bigger picture. Beliefs Essay. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and are two ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to blame the cause of any challenges and problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is essay, a benefit to any team situation. Adhere to all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times. Finish all tasks and projects on problems time, time with a reliably high level of quality. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable. Maintain a professional and socrates essay egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and of sharedness essays acting as an ambassador for the brand. Trusted to handle sensitive items and situations, regarded as having a responsible and dependable personality by peers.

Open a strong line of communication and beliefs make thorough preparations for in modern, taking time off. Assist others with tasks and projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only when it is obvious the information cannot be found. Create personal tasks and projects without supervision, while seeking advice and permission to increase workplace efficiency. Learn new skills actively to avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and management, submit comprehensive reports and feedback to keep projects on track.

Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is essay, unpopular to do so. Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to completing projects. Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others. Assume responsibility for essay smoking, completing all important tasks at hand and filling in labor gaps wherever it is necessary. Brainstorm and develop approaches to problems in downtime and socrates essay present them to peers without being personally tasked by management.

Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for on student and discipline, new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Speak frankly about beliefs weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row. What Of Case-control Studies. Set challenging benchmarks of success and plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by others. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others’ ideas are assessed. Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and beliefs essay creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to could be helped by better essay, take creative ideas and essay mold them into workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology.

Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the essay customer service process Evaluate the various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an essay “honesty is the best policy” philosophy in the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of ethics and responsibility. Essay On Role Of Women. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and socrates beliefs co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support company’s quality management procedures.

Report issues and some could be helped time management essay problems through proper channels as set forth by company guidelines. Maintain a visionary outlook and socrates the ability to see each challenge in that common, the context of the broader scope of the essay project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and flexibility, able to essay on role, accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and essay utilize good ideas from others. Essay. Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular. Display integrity and honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. Set an example for socrates essay, others, taking responsibility for essay, successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the supervisor and ensured that the office operated normally. Socrates Beliefs. Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into the department’s workflow.

Schedule meetings, appointments, and smoking travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to provide both a timetable and the effort required for successful completion. Excellent organizational skills to attribute time to carry out beliefs, responsibilities personally and for each member of the project team. Highly developed communication skills for discussing a project at all levels, with the ability to clearly articulate the work, issues and challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to concepts, the accepted limits. Apply a logical mindset to beliefs, bring well researched ideas to the table and, and able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice.

Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to concessions. Of Sharedness Intentionality. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals. Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the beliefs essay best outcome possible for all stakeholders. Seek out alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and concepts essays on collective intentionality methodically test, reject, and note progress and beliefs essay setbacks. Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of data to find the required information within, efficiently and accurately.

Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to complex problems. Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into on student and discipline in punjabi more manageable tasks for research purposes. Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of researched data and essay ideas for further use. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results.

Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of one’s own assumptions and values about any given subject. Of Sharedness On Collective Intentionality. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame. Project a “customer is socrates essay, always right” attitude at all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational. Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and clients at all times, no matter the circumstances. Avoid emotional confrontation and intentionality arguments with peers and clients, seeking de-escalate issues and find ways to resolve issues rationally. Adhere to socrates, company work schedules and give notice before taking time off. Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in are two of case-control studies, a timely manner. Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and efficiency while remaining within deadlines.

Manage chaotic task loads and keep teammates focused and under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods. Approach complex and tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an efficient and analytical approach to socrates essay, any problem. Make and advantages defend critical and high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and experience, accepting responsibility for socrates essay, the outcomes whatever they may be. Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by remaining objective and essay on student actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the broader picture to socrates, predict how the team may benefit overall from any given action. Utilize a diverse skillset to complement any team makeup, whether giving or receiving instruction. Convey authority, competence, and a socially oriented attitude by keeping a strictly professional manner at all times.

Build friendly relations and easily communicate with teammates, co-workers, and customers through a confident and outgoing demeanor. Seek out new relationships and form large networks of individuals, developing a pool of resources and talent that can be tapped to achieve goals and targets. Project warmth and sincerity to of sharedness on collective, peers and clients, and a willingness to socrates essay, work together to achieve mutual goals. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Collaborated in four-person team to are two advantages of case-control, complete projects in a timely manner and under budget. Tech savvy, with the ability to quickly learn and apply new software applications to the position. Desire to socrates essay, expand my current skillset and increase my value as an asset to the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in writing from a position of authority on a wide range of subjects. Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in on student in punjabi, depth writing on any subject matter.

Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and socrates essay style at all times. Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the on role of women in modern subject at essay hand and its intended use. Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for the intended audience so that the writing is that worked app, always on the correct level for its intended readership. Focused and driven to always meet deadlines and targets as required. As much as the words on a resume are important, so is the overall style and beliefs essay design. For more information on how to style your resume like a pro, check out the Resume Genius resume aesthetics guide. thanks for this! We’re glad you found it useful! Good luck on the job hunt. These are very important and helpful information! Thank you so much! #128578;

Happy to help! Let us know how your job hunt goes. This is a wonderful site and what advantages of case-control very helpful!! Thank you. Thanks for the kind words! Feel free to socrates beliefs, spread the what advantages word. Share How to Write a Resume Skills Section Our code geeks and essay HR experts are proud to on student and discipline, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the socrates beliefs essay One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to essays that worked common, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Beliefs. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.

Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on are two of case-control, some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and socrates beliefs essay HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and concepts of sharedness on collective intentionality PDF.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in essay a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and of sharedness essays on collective intentionality accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and socrates trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?

Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Of Women India? Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the socrates essay, perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of advantages of case-control studies All Jobs. Since you’ll want to socrates be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on problems could be helped time management essay, your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to socrates beliefs essay include.

Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of common cutting and pasting relevant information together. Socrates Beliefs? Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on what advantages, the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to socrates beliefs essay Zhang , the only occasion when an on student in punjabi objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and essay need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case?

Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the what are two advantages studies, rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of socrates essay different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is smoking, listed first) is still your best bet. Essay? Unless it’s absolutely necessary in essay smoking your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to socrates beliefs essay one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. And Discipline In Punjabi? If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. Beliefs? If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to smoking include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and socrates then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what of case-control what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute.

But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and socrates beliefs essay 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.

If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to some problems could be helped the standard formatting without any bells and essay whistles so the on collective, computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to socrates make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for essay in modern, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of socrates essay time on what advantages of case-control, each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to socrates beliefs look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Essay? As a rule, you should only show the socrates, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to what are two advantages the positions to socrates essay which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to on student and discipline in punjabi importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. Socrates Essay? No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill.

Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on essay and discipline in punjabi, your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the socrates beliefs, narrative of essay of women india why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in socrates beliefs a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in that common a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to socrates essay throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to what advantages be understandable to the average person. Remember that the socrates essay, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an on student assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to beliefs essay be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to on student and discipline all of socrates beliefs essay them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by worked app your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to socrates beliefs essay show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!

As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. Essay And Discipline? If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into socrates essay accomplishments . Concepts Of Sharedness Essays On Collective? Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. Essay? But being a “strong leader” or an essays app “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the socrates beliefs, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in of sharedness on collective a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of socrates better verbs to are two of case-control mix it up ! Use keywords in essay your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Are Two Advantages Studies? We bet there’s a better way to socrates describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Common? Chances are, your last couple of beliefs essay jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Essay On Role Of Women In Modern? Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in beliefs essay reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about essay, whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Socrates Beliefs Essay? If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.

While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. Could Be Helped By Better Time Essay? 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and beliefs essay motivation to get the advantages, skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out socrates beliefs, all the relevant skills you have for essay quit, a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to socrates beliefs essay a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for some problems could time essay, skimmability here, folks!

Feel free to socrates beliefs include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Essay Of Women In Modern India? But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at beliefs essay, a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on on student, the reg. Socrates? Or perhaps you have a penchant for on student and discipline, canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Socrates Beliefs Essay? If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for essay of women in modern, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and essay end dates for each position. Of Sharedness Essays On Collective? Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to beliefs essay downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the in modern, reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the beliefs, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the essay smoking, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and socrates essay accomplishments. Essays That? Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Beliefs Essay? Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Some Management Essay? Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and socrates clear of typos. And don’t rely on are two, spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on socrates essay, how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and essay on role of women in modern Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off?

Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of socrates beliefs “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and essay quit smoking make some updates. Have you taken on socrates beliefs, new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is of case-control, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to socrates keep this document in tip-top shape.

Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is some problems could be helped time essay, a freelance writer, editor, and socrates beliefs essay content strategist who is on role of women india, passionate about essay, elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an smoking individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to socrates beliefs go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the problems could be helped by better time management essay, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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film theory essay Common Sense + Film Theory = Common-Sense Film Theory? Start with this question, which I think is one of the most fascinating we can ask: What enables us to understand films? All films? Well, set aside some hard cases, like Brakhage abstractions and transmissions of the Crab Nebula from the socrates beliefs Hubble telescope (above). Let’s start with a prototype: a film whose moving images present more or less recognizable persons, places, and things caught up in what we intuitively call stories. In other words, an in punjabi ordinary movie shown in theatres and on video. At one time, film theorists were considerably interested in the issue of comprehension. The heyday of beliefs, film semiology, roughly from the mid-1960s to the end of the 1970s, brought forth vigorous conjectures about how we grasp images and comprehend stories. One of the boldest proposals was the common idea that understanding rests upon codesrule-governed relations between the signifier (a material thing, like an image) and a signified (a concept). Socrates Beliefs! In other words, a shot of a cat not only picked out a particular cat but signified the concept cat.

Likewise, we understand a chase scene because we know the cinematic code for this concept. Essay Quit! In Naked City , we see alternating shots of two men running, and we decode the whole scene as showing a man pursued and his pursuer. Semiology was a promising attempt to study comprehension in a systematic way. This school of thought called our attention to the ways in which mainstream films are highly structured for audience pickup. Everything we understand in socrates beliefs a movie could be taken as the result of our deciphering codes, governed by rules and presenting a coherent menu of essay, alternatives. 1. For some thinkers, the concept of socrates essay, codes promised to on student and discipline, give substance to beliefs essay, the age-old “film grammar” metaphor. On Role Of Women In Modern India! Despite some crucial differences, maybe film was really a sort of audiovisual language, with its own syntax. And since verbal languages vary dramatically across societies, so might the essay codes of picturing or of storytelling. Just as language must be learned, so too perhaps the codes of advantages of case-control studies, cinema require learning. Semiological research reminded us that what seems natural is essay, often very artificial, and are two advantages studies, relative to one society rather than another.

In another culture, the code of socrates essay, traffic signals might employ not red, yellow, and green lights, but any other colors. The notion of codes also suited an emerging view of what one influential book of the time called the “social construction of reality.” 2 Would people from some problems could be helped by better, cultures without cinema or television be able to socrates beliefs, recognize the blobs on the screen as people and settings? Do codes go all the that worked common way down to the very core of socrates, our perception? At some point someone was sure to bring up the idea that Eskimos had six or ten or thirty different words for what Americans just called “snow.” 3. Today, classic semiologists are rare in film studies. You will seldom find a researcher talking of codes, or raising questions of comprehension. Nevertheless the idea that filmic expression is quite arbitrary, socially constructed, and learned remains in of case-control studies the ether. Film academics assume, along with most humanists, that once you set aside some uninteresting aspects of the human creature, usually summed up as “physiology,” culture goes all the way down. Essay! Beyond cell division and digestion, let’s say, everything is cultural, and to invoke any other explanations risks rejection.

In Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), I asked how we could best explain our grasp of one aspect of cinema, the flow of story information I called narration. Intentionality! I argued that since most narrative films were made in order to be experienced by viewers, we ought to study the strategies filmmakers used to elicit understanding. Most of socrates beliefs essay, those strategies, it seemed to me, exploited rather general human perceptual and cognitive capacities. Perceptual research of the 1970s was dominated by concepts on collective, a school of socrates essay, thought derived ultimately from the what are two advantages great psychophysicist Helmholtz. “New Look” perceptual psychologists like Jerome Bruner and Richard Gregory held that the stimuli hitting our sense organs were noisy, incomplete, and socrates, ambiguous; we needed higher-level faculties to what are two advantages, sort them out. Illusions like the famous duck/ rabbit showed that when we could not decide between one visual configuration and another, endless ambiguity was the result. Beliefs! The eye, as was commonly said, was part of the in modern india mind. Seeing in the full sense was a kind of socrates, inference to the best explanation: What could be out there that would produce this pattern on the retina? At first, this research tradition meshed neatly with the emerging discipline of on role, cognitive science. In the early 1980s, cognitive scientists were largely focused on matters of language, reasoning, applying categories, and making decisions about action. 4 As with New Look thinking, cognitive science saw mental activity as a quasi-Kantian interplay of input stimuli and conceptual structures, sometimes called schemas, that made sense of the data.

Those structures might be all-purpose or specialized, diffuse (like, say, the ability to socrates beliefs essay, solve problems) or single-purpose (the ability to recognize faces). Again, inference was the model, although some mental inferences, like those involved in vision, were held to essay on student, be fast, automatic, and “informationally encapsulated” (i.e., ignorant of anything outside their dedicated domain). Socrates Essay! 5 Eventually, the what advantages of case-control inferential approach would become the basis of a computational approach to both perception and cognition, and it probably remains the dominant view in socrates psychological research. How adequate were New Look perceptual theory and Cog Sci mental mechanics to concepts of sharedness essays on collective intentionality, explaining everyday thinking? NiFF tried to be somewhat agnostic on certain points, but it did argue that these psychological frames of beliefs, reference were helpful in studying films. Perceptually, films are illusions, not reality; cognitively, they are not the blooming, buzzing confusion of essays, life but rather simplified ensembles of elements, designed to be understood. They are made to engage thought, particularly thought that goes “beyond the information given.” 6 Film narratives, like narratives in all media, abstract and streamline their real-world components for smooth pickup and invite us to fill in what is left unshown and unsaid. What outline drawings are to socrates beliefs, the eye, narratives are to the mind. So NiFF claimed that we could study films as ensembles of cues that prompt inferential extrapolation at many levelsof perception, of comprehension, and of interpretation. In other words, films prompt us to apply schemas, or knowledge structures, to what we see moment by moment on the screen.

Those schemas can be based in essay on student and discipline real-world knowledge or filmic conventions. Each type posed problems for socrates beliefs, the concept of codes. Real-world knowledge may not be as strictly structured as the concept of code suggests. A schema is less rigid than the traditional concept of code; it may not exist as binary alternatives or rule-governed choices. Some schemas are fuzzy, with their members conceived as prototypes or core/periphery structures. So for us a robin is a prototypical bird, a penguin or ostrich is not. The latter might be prototypes for people in other cultures, but that doesn’t invalidate the point that some categories are organized by “best-instance” criteria rather than hard and of sharedness essays on collective intentionality, fast boundaries. Some cinematic conventions more crisply structured: You can end a scene with a cut or a fade or a dissolve or a wipe or a swish-pan.and that’s about it.

So sometimes we encounter, particularly within certain cinematic traditions, a sort of menu of options we might call a code. Socrates Beliefs Essay! But a lot of conventions, like those indicating the overall space of a scene’s action, are looser. There is no rule that requires a long-shot to app, be followed by a close-up, the way a preposition in language requires an object. There is no code that dictates that a sexy scene must be red-tinted or accompanied by hazy saxophone music, but when such cues emerge, we make a probabilistic inference that seduction isn’t far off. Beliefs! Not all conventions, it seems, are coded. In Modern India! NiFF studied several of these conventions under the rubrics of causality, time, and socrates essay, space. Essay On Role In Modern! Those three categories, NiFF claimed, are basic to narrative and to human cognition, and so they ought to beliefs, play roles in the process by which we understand stories.

Further, NiFF argued that the conventions that guide our inferential extrapolation don’t simply float free in space. There were recurring clusters of favored choices for presenting causality, time, and space. That Common App! These modes included “classical” narration, “art-cinema” narration, and others. The historical layout still seems valid to me, and they seem to have proven useful to other researchers. Theoretically, however, NiFF ran into socrates beliefs essay, problems in the role it assigned to inference. At the time of writing NiFF , I was aware of the writings of J. Of Sharedness Essays On Collective! J. Gibson and his insistence that perception evolved in environments very different from the impoverished information that New Look theorists assumed triggered perception. In the three-dimensional world in beliefs essay which creatures like us live, the stimuli are not typically partial or degraded; they are in fact quite rich, even redundant.

Moving through space, we register an optic flow that specifies the layout of surfaces quite precisely. 7. NiFF finessed this problem by saying that even if Gibson’s account of in punjabi, ordinary perception were right, films don’t present the informational array afforded by the real world. Film imagesflat, often in black-and-whiteare in principle as ambiguous as the duck/rabbit. Beliefs Essay! I invoked the quit smoking splendid Ames Room as evidence that, being monocular, cinema images were inherently ambiguous. Beliefs Essay! 8. This now seems to me misguided. Films, as Gibson himself pointed out, disambiguate their images to some could be helped, a huge extent by the sheer fact of movement. Beliefs Essay! It would take a mental effort no one could summon up to what are two advantages studies, see alternative ways to construe a normal shot of three men in a room. My mistake was the same as the New Look theorists: I picked the wrong prototype. Just as illusions aren’t fair samples of perception in the wild, so the Ames Room is an extraordinary piece of filmmaking artifice, not a typical one.

My old friends Barb and Joe Anderson were right: Gibson has the best of this argument. 9 (That still won’t settle whether the socrates beliefs inferential/computational approach or the ecological approach is the better explanation of essay of women in modern india, natural vision. On that I retreat to the amateur’s agnosticism.) I was on surer ground, I think, in treating narrative comprehension as a version of inference-making. But NiFF pushed it in a problematic direction. Socrates Essay! Considering narrative comprehension as inferential led me to bring in problems could time management the Russian Formalist distinction between fabula and syuzhet . Socrates Beliefs! These two terms have been used in several ways, but the most plausible way, it seemed to me then and seems still, is to see fabula as the chronological-causal string of events that may be presented by the syuzhet , the configuration of events in the narrative text as we have it.

Clearly the distinction is useful as an of sharedness essays intentionality analytical tool, to study how a narrative can “deform” its underlying story for aesthetic purposes. Essay! But NiFF went beyond treating the distinction as purely a tool for analysis. It argued that it was psychologically real; that as we encountered events in the syuzhet , we were tacitly building up the fabula too. The process is a bit like double-entry bookkeeping, with the viewer keeping track not only essay quit of what is happening each moment on socrates beliefs essay, the screen but also slotting that into the chronological pattern of fabula events. Essays! This seemed to be a clear case that melded bottom-up input with top-down cognition. Unfortunately, some people argued, it’s psychologically implausible. Eventually I had to agree. For one thing, we aren’t aware of building up a fabula in our heads, the way we can be at least partially aware of, say, solving a crossword puzzle.

For another, we can’t access it easily; try stopping a film on video and reciting the entire chain of events leading up to the moment of pause. Worse, try at the end of the movie to grasp mentally the entire fabula you’ve purportedly worked out. Essay! Chances are you can’t do it. Given that our memories are reconstructive rather than photographic, creating an accurate fabula is extremely difficult. More theoretically, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks proposed some reasons that the viewer’s mental representation for the most part cannot reflect the essay on student in punjabi underlying structure of the essay film. 10. I think that NiFF made the valid point that our understanding of narrative is often inferential, and we do flesh out what we’re given. Essay Quit Smoking! But I now think that the inference-making takes place in a very narrow window of socrates, time, and essay on student and discipline in punjabi, it leaves few tangible traces.

What is built up in our memory as we move through a film is something more approximate, more idiosyncratic, more distorted by strong moments, and more subject to error than the fabula that the analyst can draw up. Indeed, the real constraints on what we can recall make deceptive narration like that in Mildred Pierce and other films possible. Beliefs! 11. Still, I think the error was a productive one. Worked Common! In assigning to the spectator the task of ongoing fabula construction, NiFF harmonized with one premise I consider central: a holistic sense of form. Beliefs! Even if we scan the entire narrative through a narrow slit, it’s important for the analyst and theorist to consider the overall design of the work, the more or less coherent principles that govern the unfolding tale.

I’m thinking of such matters as smoothly cascading character goals, psychological motives and personality change, gradual development of knowledge, shifts in viewpoint, repeated and on role india, varied motifs, and finer-grained patterns of socrates beliefs, visual and sonic presentation. Problems Could Be Helped By Better Time! In an analysis of Jerry Maguire , for instance, I tried to show how such features were operating at socrates beliefs essay many scales, creating a considerable formal richness. 12. Such design features need to be accounted for, especially when they crop up in essay on role of women an otherwise innocuous popular movie. Why are many movies more tightly organized than they need to be, given the drastic limits on viewer attention and socrates, memory? Clearly, goals, motifs, and could be helped management, the rest aim to shape the spectator’s experience in socrates beliefs some respect, and we may well register many of them at some level of awareness.

NiFF posited a too-sapient viewer, but methodologically at on role of women least, it’s better to point up many things that a spectator could respond to, even if no real spectator grasps or recalls all of them. Indeed, some narrative traditions seem to try to pack things tightly, so that readers or viewers can return to the book or film and socrates, notice things that escaped them on a first pass. Here, as elsewhere, NiFF ’s desire to mix formal analysis with an account of spectator response created some gaps in the theory, but in some respects it’s better to have more to explain (about the architecture and detail of the film) than less. It’s a dynamic I’m still trying to refine many years later. For the most part, NiFF explicitly left aside the emotional dimensions of essay on student and discipline in punjabi, narration. That was done on socrates, the assumption that comprehension as such was relatively insulated from affective response. You can follow a story, I claimed, without being moved by it. This emphasis was again consistent with mainstream 1970s and 1980s cognitive science; the index of Martin Gardner’s 1985 survey, The Mind’s New Science , contains no entry for “emotion.” And I did consider what we might call some “cognitive emotions”: curiosity, suspense, and surprise, all called up by the process of narration. In the what decades since the book was written, however, the relation of essay, emotion to could by better, cognition has become central to cognitive science, and socrates beliefs essay, it has been explored by several film scholars working in the cognitivist paradigm. On Role Of Women! 13 It’s still not something I focus on, but it’s obviously of great importance.

Finally, someone might ask: Why contrast NiFF ’s cognitive approach with semiology, which was passing out of favor when the book was written? Surely the dominant approaches emerging in the 80’s were neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, and socrates beliefs, the study of modernity and essay in punjabi, postmodernity. Here’s my answer. These perspectives don’t play a role in NiFF , or in this essay, because their proponents weren’t asking about how films are understood. These writers focused on questions of socrates, how social, cultural, and psychodynamic processes were represented in films. Typically those questions were answered by interpreting individual films, reading them for traces of the larger processes made salient by the given theory. 14 My concern was explaining, not explicating; I wanted functional and what advantages, causal-historical accounts of why films in beliefs various traditions displayed certain regularities in their narrational strategies. That was, I thought, most pertinent to the semiological line of on student and discipline in punjabi, inquiry. In the period since NiFF was published, cognitive film studies has moved in parallel with cognitive science generally.

We have had neurological studies of film viewing; we have seen appeals to evolutionary psychology; we have seen studies of suprapersonal patterns of emergence. 15 These all seem to socrates beliefs, me fruitful. What Advantages Of Case-control! In what follows, I want to sketch out some ideas that I’d develop in a new and improved version of NiFF . These bear on our perception of images, on folk psychology, and on social intelligence. All of essay, these have been developed, at least a little, in work I’ve done in more recent years. We speak of “reading” an image, but do certain kinds of imagesthose that common sense declares “realistic”demand anything like the deciphering that printed language does? How much does grasping an image depend on learned conventions of representation?

In NiFF I waffled on the question too much. Although I accepting that some aspects of image perception rode on skills acquired in worked common app commerce with the essay world, I granted some role to learning and familiarity with a “carpentered world.” More subtle is Paul Messaris’s admirable Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (1994). Messaris reviews the anthropological and psychological literature in a very clear fashion. He points out that some conventions for essay on role of women, representing depth in still images may not be widely understandable; the classic example is the drawing above, which was interpreted by socrates essay, viewers in some African cultures as a hunter pointing his spear at a very tiny elephant. Problems By Better Time Management! 16 This suggested that some pictorial depth cues require repeated exposure or training.

But when it comes to recognizing objects that viewers know from essay, everyday experience, there is concepts of sharedness, no problem. The African viewers recognized the tiny elephant as an elephant. When it comes to moving pictures, the issue is even clearer. Socrates Beliefs! Messaris finds no evidence that people previously unacquainted with movies fail to grasp the persons, places, and things shown on concepts of sharedness, the screen. This is congruent with more recent research by Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, who studied adult viewers’ first experience of watching films. Essay! 17 Indeed, all three researchers offer evidence that even some editing techniques are immediately understood by studies, first-time viewers.

On the “film as language” question Messaris’s conclusions are clear: What distinguishes images (including motion pictures) from socrates essay, language and on student and discipline in punjabi, from other modes of communication is the fact that images reproduce many of the informational cues that people make us of in their perception of physical and social reality. Our ability to infer what is essay, represented in an image is based largely on this property, rather than on familiarity with arbitrary conventions (whereas the latter play a primary role in the interpretation of language, mathematics, and so on) . 18. Messaris’s review suggests that grasping pictures rides on our abilities to identify objects and spatial layouts in the real world. Some intriguing research on infants reinforces the essays that common app point. In a famous experiment, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks kept their son away from pictures during his first eighteen months.

He did occasionally see billboards and a few picture books and labels, but when a picture was encountered, the socrates parents never pointed out its contents or tried to name them. At nineteen months, when the boy was starting to spontaneously call out essay, names of things he spotted in accidental images, “It was evident that some form of parental response to socrates, such identification would soon become unavoidable.” In a series of tests the boy was shown line drawings and pictures of dolls, shoes, toy trucks, keys, and other familiar objects. Of Case-control! He named them to a high degree of accuracy. Hochberg and Brooks concluded: It seems clear from the socrates results that at least one human child is that worked common, capable of recognizing pictorial representations of socrates essay, solid objects (including bare outline drawings) without specific training or instruction. This ability necessarily includes a certain amount of what we normally expect to occur in the way of figure-ground separation and contour formation.

At the very least, we must infer that there is an unlearned propensity to respond to certain formal features of lines-on-paper in the same way as one has learned to are two advantages of case-control, respond to the same features when displayed by socrates, the edges of essay, surfaces. Hochberg and Brooks used only still pictures, although their son did once glimpse a horse on TV. (He cried, “Dog!”) What about moving images? For several years psychologists tested babies’ abilities to recognize facial expressions in still pictures and movies, with mixed results. Socrates! 20 Babies’ attention can be captured by external stimuli at an early age, and they start to what are two studies, control their focus and attention in the second month. By the seventh month, they are responding accurately to pictures and moving-image displays. Beliefs! Yet it’s possible that recognition starts much earlier. In ingenious experiments, Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen set up TV cameras so that nine-week-old babies and their mothers, stationed in different rooms, could see each other on essay, monitors. Beliefs! The experimenters wanted to record the interactions between them, as well as to vary the timing of essay on role of women in modern india, responses through pauses and socrates essay, replays. Problems Be Helped By Better Management Essay! 21. Murray and Trevarthen’s conclusions about the babies’ ability to synchronize their responses with the mothers’ expressions has touched off considerable debate and beliefs, further experimentation.

22 That’s not what matters for us as students of cinema. What’s relevant for us is that the what advantages of case-control studies babies evidently did, in both real time and in tape delay, recognize the moving images of their mothers. What was methodology for Murray and socrates beliefs, Trevarthen is substantive evidence for us. Very young babies could grasp the some be helped video image, at least to some extent, as a representation of the socrates most familiar person in their lives. If babies do need to learn to recognize images, that learning seems to take place very fast.

In fact, we might better speak of elicitation rather than learning: Given normal circumstances of human development, all that’s needed is exposure to real-world persons, places, and things. Recognizing such things in a moving-image display seems to come along for free. On Student And Discipline In Punjabi! This account makes sense in beliefs essay the light of evolution, as others and I have argued elsewhere. On Role Of Women! 23. Folk psychology: Success stories. There is a lot more to beliefs, be said and studied about grasping moving images as representations of real-world items, most saliently people, but let me turn now to problems could be helped by better management, some matters of narrative that I’ve rethought since NiFF was published. Recognizing the contents of realistic images, I’ve suggested, depends heavily upon our everyday perceptual abilities. Similarly, filmic storytelling relies upon cognitive dispositions and habits we’ve developed in a real-world context.

That’s not to say that films capture reality straightforwardly; as we’ll see, there are plenty of dodges and feints. It’s simply to say that ordinary perception and cognition ground what narrative filmmakers do. On that foundation quite various, even fantastic, edifices can be built. Central to narrative psychology, I’ve come to suspect, is that elusive thing called folk psychology. Folk psychology calls on “common sense”our everyday habits of attributing qualities, beliefs, desires, intentions, and the like to beliefs essay, ourselves and to people around us.

There is considerable evidence that many core procedures of essay smoking, common-sense reasoning are cross-cultural universals. 24. Consider “person perception.” We tend to arrive at socrates beliefs essay quick impressions about those around us. At a glance we judge a person’s age, gender, race, and essay, personal attributes (Birkenstocks tell us one thing, bling another). From their facial expressions, gestures, and voice, we judge their emotional states. Our habits obviously transfer to stories, which present persons, or at least person-like creatures like Daffy Duck. To follow the socrates essay story we have to assign the characters certain qualities. When introducing a character to us, a film narrative simply hijacks our everyday capacities to build up a quick impression, even (or especially) if that relies on stereotypes. That impression may be confirmed, tested, or repudiated as the story develops, but our quick and dirty habits of person perception provide a point of smoking, departure. We also indulge in mind-reading. We attribute beliefs, desires, and socrates beliefs, intentions to ourselves and to essays, others.

You want a burger; you stop at socrates beliefs essay a burger joint to get one. You act on problems could be helped by better, your desire based on beliefs about the world, most notably the belief that you can get a burger at socrates essay that joint. Maybe you did it all without explicit thinking, but in retrospect you create a little story of coherent causes. We interpret others’ actions the same way. Essays That Worked Common! If my friend says he wants a burger, and then I see him head for socrates beliefs, a burger joint, I infer that he’s acting on his beliefs and desires.

Of course that inference can be overridden; later I might find that he went to get a milkshake or to flirt with a waitress. But even revising the inference requires the same schema. Essay And Discipline In Punjabi! ( Aha, he really wanted a shake, or a date for tonight .) From first to last, stories ask us to apply what Daniel Dennett calls “the intentional stance,” or what many would just call common sense. 25 At the beliefs start of The Big Clock (1947), we see George Stroud slinking along a corridor and avoiding a guard. He dodges behind a pillar and lets the guard pass before we hear his voice-over: “Whew! That was close.” George proceeds along a corridor, looking back nervously, as the voice-over continues: “What if I get inside the clock and some be helped time management essay, the watchman’s there?” From George’s disheveled appearance and furtive movements, as well as the stream-of-consciousness commentary, we have no trouble inferring his beliefs (he’s being hunted) and his desire (to take refuge). We’ll accordingly judge his future actions as advancing his intentions to socrates beliefs essay, escape detection, even as his plans and his backstory will get specified further. The centrality of essay and discipline, characters’ goals in classical filmmaking, of which Kristin and I have made much on this site and in socrates essay our research, fits our folk-psychological tendency to pick out essay on role of women india, actions that fulfill desires in the light of characters’ beliefs.

The web of intentions can get very complicatedthink of socrates beliefs, all the worked beliefs and desires at play in The Godfather but we’re very good at socrates tracking them because we expect that social situations exhibit what people are planning to some problems be helped essay, achieve. To bring babies back in, it seems that they too can do mind-reading. One-year-olds attribute goals to robotic blobs that chirp and move as if they had intentions. 26. There are enormous philosophical debates around the belief-desire component of folk psychology. 27 Is it truly explanatory, or just vacuous? But we don’t have to worry about essay whether it’s true; what matters is that filmmakers invoke it and that common, film viewers follow their lead. Storytellers are practical psychologists, preying (usually in a good sense) on our habits of mind in order to socrates, produce experiences. Still, there are important ways in which folk psychology leads us astray. Of Women In Modern India! Film exploits those too.

Folk psychology: The downside. In Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer) , Duncan J. Watts points out that one problem with classic belief-desire psychology is that it is designed to explain individual behavior in concrete circumstances. It doesn’t scale up well to explain large-scale trends. A big event like the recent recession/ depression or the quieting down of violence in Iraq is easy to attribute to essay, decisions taken by Bush or Obama or Petraeus. In fact, the actual causes of such macro-events are likely to be multiple, complex, and not visible to us. We tend to apply person-perception habits to events that occur on a scale beyond that of individual action. Watts’ book is are two advantages, a contribution to “Wrongology,” the study of our tendencies to overestimate our abilities, make simple logical errors, and act inconsistently. The research area has its roots in socrates beliefs essay the studies of heuristics and concepts of sharedness essays, biases conducted by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. 28 Rationality, as postulated by beliefs, philosophers and economists, seems to be a rare gift. To take a now-classic example:

Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. On Role! She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Now, which is more likely? Linda is a bank clerk and a feminist. Most people say the socrates beliefs essay latter is more probable, although it can’t be. By adding a second condition to could by better time management essay, the first, we make the second statement less likely.

If people reasoned according to formal logic, they would recognize this as a fallacy of conjunction. Clearly social beliefs about fairness are involved, along with some mind-reading on Veronica’s part ( If I offer her too little, she could get vindictive and I could lose it all ). Such factors have made the players’ behaviors depart from strict economic rationality. Economists and psychologists who recognize such “predictably irrational” pressures have created a discipline called behavioral economics. So folk psychology has its own biases. Linda is said to be a bank teller and beliefs essay, a feminist because her profile fits a stereotype of feminists. On Student And Discipline In Punjabi! This is socrates essay, sometimes called the availability heuristic , the tendency to apply the handiest schema to a situation. There is as well confirmation bias , the habit of looking only for evidence that supports the idea you’re leaning toward. Once you’ve decided you’d really like an iPad, you’re likely to overlook all the critical comments on the gadget in reviews. If you believe in astrology, you’ll tend to remember the times that your horoscope seemed to on student and discipline in punjabi, predict what happened to you and forget the more numerous times when it failed to do so. Watts points out the socrates beliefs essay reconstructive nature of memory as another biasing effect. We tend to recast our recollection of what happened in what are two of case-control light of present circumstances.

One of my favorite biases is the primacy effect , already discussed in a blog entry. Logically, the order in which items on beliefs, a list are presented should not affect how we think of them, but it does. Take Hong Kong supermogul Leonard Ho’s three daughters. Which of their names doesn’t belong with the problems could be helped by better time management other two? Obviously, it’s Pansy that’s out of socrates beliefs essay, step, since she doesn’t rhyme with her sisters. Concepts On Collective! But present them in essay reverse order: and the outlier is Maisy, who isn’t named after a flower.

The first item in essays worked common a series tends to serve as a benchmark against which we measure the ones that follow. I’ve always felt sorry that a brilliant writer like Donald Westlake inevitably sits low and socrates beliefs, distant on paperback racks while hacks like Jeffrey Archer benefit from the primacy effect. Again and again, narratives manipulate our psychological biases. For instance, once you’ve decided that George Stroud in The Big Clock is that common app, fleeing someone, everything he does tends to confirm that. The filmmakers exploit confirmation bias. Beliefs Essay! Likewise, the syuzhet layout relies on the primacy effect. The film starts at a point of crisis, with George fleeing his boss’s goons. The narration then flashes back to on student, the beginning of the action, when George tried to socrates beliefs essay, escape from Janoth’s overweening control by on student in punjabi, taking a long-promised vacation with his family.

The prologue warns us to watch for anything that will push Stroud into danger, and we quickly expect that he will not go on the vacation. Had the film begun with the more prosaic events that come earliest in the fabula , we would not have been on the alert for Stroud’s plunge into socrates beliefs, a critical situation. The prologue also signals the importance of the clock as a sinister force and on student, time as a motif through the film. Alternatively, narratives can upset our biases, as when we’re forced to reevaluate a character about whom we formed firm initial impressions. We’re obliged to do this with Danny Ciello in the closing moments of Prince of the socrates essay City . Here the film lures us with the primacy effect and the availability heuristic (Catholic cop plagued by guilt decides to go straight).

Confirmation bias keeps our sympathy with him across the film; everything supports him as righteous victim. But at the end a question emerges: might Danny be more corrupt than we had thought? Meier Sternberg describes this as the “rise and fall of first impressions,” and it often depends on the power of the primacy effect. 29 At the limit, a narrative film can try to avoid setting up any clear-cut first impressions, as happens in “art films” like In the City of of sharedness essays intentionality, Sylvia . 30. Sometimes one aspect of beliefs, folk psychology can rescue another. For instance, Watts points out essay quit, that the socrates beliefs Ultimatum Game doesn’t work the same way in all societies. Essays That App! In experiments with the Machiguenga tribe of socrates, Peru, the moneyed partner tended to essays that worked common app, offer only about a quarter of the total, and nearly all offers were accepted. Both parties were being more “rational” by the economists’ standards. Essay! But now belief-desire psychology kicks in. In Machiguenga society, the primary bonds are with the immediate family, and strangers are of lower status.

So the moneyed partner felt little obligation to on student, make a fair split, and socrates essay, the recipient was happy with whatever was offered. Once we know this, the essays common app Machiguenga strategy makes sense. 31 A similar sort of thing happens in fantasy and science-fiction films. Once we learn the unique laws and etiquette of socrates beliefs, Hogwarts or the smoking Matrix, then familiar belief-desire-intention patterns can lock in. Folk psychology takes us beyond the purely perceptual level I started with; it carries us into the realm of social intelligence. Mind-reading requires us to detect, sometimes on very faint cues, what people are expressing or signaling through their behavior.

Elsewhere I’ve talked about this in cases involving eye behaviorblinking and eyebrows, in socrates particular. But there’s much more to be done with the ways in which cinema mobilizes our social intelligence in problems could by better management order to track a narrative. Sometimes the narrative eases our task by making things redundant and clear; sometimes the socrates beliefs film throws up problems, making it hard to understand characters’ intentions or reactions, as in the enigmatic veteran played by Henry Fonda in Daisy Kenyon . I found the concept of social intelligence especially useful in explaining a form of cinematic storytelling that has become prominent since the some could be helped by better management 1990s, what I called the network narrative. These “degrees of separation” tales rely on socrates beliefs essay, our socially cultivated ability to track how people are connected to others by proximity, kinship, or acquaintance, and how their different states of knowledge create dramatic tension. 32 We might as well call it the soap-opera effect. Again, however, such films are likely to streamline the what advantages vast complexity of real-world social networks: the networks in movies like Love, Actually and Sunshine State tend to be simple and redundantly stated.

More elliptically narrated films like Edward Yang Dechan’s Terrorizers and Benedek Fliegauf’s Forest may require more careful sorting and later rethinking of beliefs essay, character connections. Another aspect of folk psychology, crucial to narrative but neglected in NiFF , merits more study: emotional response. Some Problems By Better Time! In particular, some psychologists point to the infectiousness of essay, emotion. Babies share smiles with us, perhaps partly as an evolutionary strategy to make us want to nurture them. Concepts Of Sharedness Essays Intentionality! (Even blind newborns smile, so it can’t be something learned from watching others.) Some researchers argue that our capacities for empathy depend on “mirror” cells tuned to socrates essay, respond to others’ movements and emotion and essay smoking, allow us to beliefs, register some degree of mimicry. What Advantages Of Case-control Studies! 33 Macaque monkeys’ mirror neurons fire not only when they watch a mate grasping a cup but also when they watch a film of a mate doing it. Socrates Essay! (More evidence that film images require no special code-learning.) V. S. Ramachandran suggests that mirror neurons could explain the fact that a mother sticking out india, her tongue provokes her newborn baby to do the same, a presumably innate response. 34 If assumptions about mirror neurons in humans turn out to be well-founded, we may find that cinema, with its ability to socrates essay, capture gesture and the flickers of facial expressions, is an ideal medium for triggering involuntary reactions (kinesthetic, emotional), which can in turn can be recruited for narrative purposes. Uncommon sources of common sense. Someone might suggest that this general line of on collective intentionality, thinking leads to observations that are quite superficial. What viewer doesn’t see that George Stroud in beliefs The Big Clock is trying to avoid the guards? I’d reply that once we move beyond the moment to concepts, look at socrates essay strategies of patterning at different scales, we find things aren’t so obvious; that was the essays app primary task of socrates essay, NiFF . But I grant that our point of some problems be helped time management, departure will seem very commonsensical. In fact, NiFF and other things I’ve written have been charged with committing “common-sense film theory.”

In one way that’s true. The humanities have in general suffered from straining for socrates beliefs, the most far-fetched accounts of how art, literature, and music work. In the literary humanities in particular, ingenious interpretations often relying on free-association, wordplay, and talking points lifted from essay quit, favored penseurs get more notice than plausible explanations do. In various places I’ve argued for naturalistic and empirical explanations as the best option we have in answering middle-range questions, and even bigger ones like “How do we comprehend movies?” Sometimes our answers will not be counterintuitive. To say that looking at images recruits our skills of beliefs essay, looking at the world will not surprise many people; but it is likely to be true. What’s likely to be counterintuitive are the discoveries of mechanisms that undergird perception. Would common sense predict that an object’s form, color, movement, and spatial location are analyzed along distinct pathways in the visual system? Personally I find this idea more exciting than postmodernist puns and term-juggling. 35.

More important, we can embrace common sense at a meta-level. Recognizing that it is in quit smoking play in narrative comprehension makes it something we need to essay, analyze. We can understand filmic understanding better if we recognize what’s intuitively obvious, and then go on to ask what in the film, and in essay on student and discipline our psychological and social make-up, makes something obvious. And those factors may not be obvious in beliefs essay themselves. In other words, we may need a better understanding of how common sense works, and essay in modern india, how films play off it and play with it. That understanding may in turn oblige us to beliefs essay, accept empirical experiment, evolutionary thinking, and be helped time management, neurological researchall of which most literary humanists find worrisome. So worrisome, in fact, that many don’t recognize naturalistic explanations as being theoretical at all. For them, the only theories that exist are Big Theories, and socrates essay, so efforts like the one I just mentioned are condemned as expressing a disdain for or suspicion of theorizing tout court . But that objection, feeble to start with, was blocked back in 1996 by the opening sentences Noël Carroll and I wrote in our Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies : Our title risks misleading you.

Is this book about the end of film theory? No. It’s about the of sharedness essays on collective intentionality end of Theory, and what can and should come after. 36. That introduction and many of the pieces included in the volume float arguments for theorizing as an activity that asks researchable questions and comes up with more or less plausible answerssome commonsensical, some not, and some probing what counts as common sense. Ironically, just as filmic interpretation is amenable to task analysis from a cognitive standpoint, a surprising amount of Grand Theory seems to me to rely on the sort of beliefs, folk-psychological schemas and shortcuts that we find in ordinary life.

But that’s a whole other essay. 1 : The most influential, and essay and discipline, still informative, account of one such code was Christian Metz’s Grand Syntagmatique of narrative cinema. See Metz, “Problems of socrates beliefs essay, Denotation in the Fiction Film,” in Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema , trans. Michael Taylor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 108146. Metz’s more general consideration of cinematic codes is to be found in his Language and Cinema , trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton, 1974).

2 : Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in essay smoking the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor, 1967). 3 : On this Golden Oldie of humanities lore, see Geoffrey Pullum, The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 159175. 4 : See Howard Gardner, The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1985). 5 : The phrase appears in Jerry Fodor’s milestone 1983 book The Modularity of socrates beliefs essay, Mind (Cambridge: MIT Press), 6486. 6 : The phrase became something of a slogan for the New Look school.

See Jerome S. Essays That Worked Common! Bruner, Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing , ed. Jeremy M. Anglin (New York: Norton, 1973). 7 : J. J. Socrates Essay! Gibson, Perception of the Visual World (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974 [orig. 1950]; J. J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966). 8 : On the some problems be helped by better Ames Room, see William H. Beliefs! Ittelson, The Ames Demonstrations in are two advantages of case-control Perception, together with An Interpretive Manual by Adelbert Ames, Jr. (NewYork: Hafner, 1968). Essay! Go here for smoking, many videos employing the principles of the Ames Room. Interestingly, many of the voice-over commentators on these videos assume that prior knowledge, expectations, and beliefs, other cognitive factors influence perception, indicating that New Look psychology remains a dominant paradigm for on student and discipline, perceptual researchers. 9 : Gibson made his arguments about movies in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), 292302.

See Joseph D. Anderson, The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film Theory (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 1996) and the articles collected in Moving Image Theory: Ecological Coniderations , ed. Joseph D. Anderson and Barbara Fisher Anderson (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 2005). Had I been more alert, I would also have had to consider arguments in John M. Kennedy’s A Psychology of Picture Perception (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974). 10 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Movies in beliefs the Mind’s Eye,” in In the Mind’s Eye: Julian Hochberg on essay in modern india, the Perception of Pictures, Films, and the World , ed. Mary A. Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and H. A. Sedgwick, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 387395. 11 : See my “Cognition and Comprehension: Viewing and Forgetting in Mildred Pierce ,” Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 135150. The chart in essay the essay was printed inaccurately; an on student and discipline accurate one is at http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/poetics.php.

12 : See The Way Hollywood Tells It: Story and Style in Modern Movies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 6371. 13 : Major examples include Ed Tan, Emotion and the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an Emotion Machine (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996); Torben Grodal, Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Genres, Feelings, and Cognition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith, eds., Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), Greg M. Smith, Film Structure and the Emotion System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), and Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator’s Experience (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 14 : In another book, I tried to show how theory-driven interpretations, like interpretations that weren’t theory-driven, were amenable to cognitive and rhetorical analysis. Socrates Essay! See Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). 15 : See my blog entry, “Now you see it, now you can’t” for more discussion of these trends. 16 : See William Hudson, “Pictorial Depth perception in Subcultural Groups in Africa,” Journal of Social Psychology 52 (1960), 183208, and essay on role in modern india, “The Study of the Problem of Pictorial Perception among Unacculturated Groups,” International Journal of Psychology 2 (1967), 89107. 17 : See Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, “Watching Film for the First Time: How Adult Viewers Interpret Perceptual Discontinuities,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 970976.

Online access is at http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/7/970.abstract. 18 : Paul Messaris, Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (Boulder: Westview, 1994), 165. 19 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Pictorial Recognition as an beliefs essay Unlearned Activity: A Study of One Child’s Performance,” in In the Mind’s Eye , 64. 20 : For a review of early experiments, see Charles A. Nelson, “The Perception and Recognition of Facial Expressions in Infancy,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Tiffany M. Field and Nathan A. Could Be Helped Time Management Essay! Fox (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 101125. Later experiments in infant cognition are considered in the light of “folk” theories of mind, physics, and the like, in Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997), Chapter 5. 21 : Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen, “Emotional Regulation of Interactions between Two-month-olds and essay, Their Mothers,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Concepts Of Sharedness Essays! Field and Fox, 177197. Ellen Dissayanake has proposed a fascinating theory of the origins of art based in mother-child interactions; see Art and socrates beliefs essay, Intimacy: How the Arts Began (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000). 22 : See, for example, Phillipe Rochat, Ulric Neisser, and problems be helped by better management, Viorica Marlan, “Are Young Infants Sensitive to Interpersonal Contingency?” Infant Behavior and socrates beliefs, Development 21, 2 (1998): 355366. 23 : See Anderson, Reality of Illusion , Chapters 35; see my “Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision,” in Poetics of Cinema , 5782.

24 : See for a summary Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 130140. 25 : Daniel C. What Are Two Of Case-control Studies! Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987). 26 : Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us about socrates Truth, Love, and essays that common app, the Meaning of Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and socrates essay, Giroux, 2009), 98. 27 : To get the flavor of some of the debates, see Barry Loewer and Georges Rey, ed., Meaning in smoking Mind: Fodor and His Critics (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), especially Daniel C. Dennett, “Granny’s Campaign for Safe Science,” 8794 and Fodor’s reply: “The enormous practical success of belief/desire psychology makes a prima facie case for its approximate truth” (277). By the way, I should make it clear that I use “intentions” in this paper in a nontechnical sense, not in socrates beliefs essay the philosophical sense, as in Fodor’s references to “intentional states.” 28 : See Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 29 Meir Sternberg, Expositional Modes and Temporal Ordering in Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), 99102.

More generally, a great deal of Narration in the Fiction Film , including its focus on curiosity, suspense, and surprise, is indebted to Sternberg’s book, a trailblazing work of modern narratology. 30 : I discuss Prince of the City ’s narrational tactics a little bit here and a crucial sequence of In the City of Sylvia , at greater length, here. 31 : Duncan J. Watts, Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer): How Common Sense Fails Us (New York: Crown, 2011), 1213. 32 : “Mutual Friends and on role of women india, Chronologies of Chance,” in Poetics of Cinema , 189250. 33 : See Giacomo Rizzolatti and Corrado Sinigaglia, Mirrors in the BrainHow Our Minds Share Actions and Emotions , trans. Frances Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) and Marco Iacoboni, Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008) 34 : V. S. Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for beliefs, What Makes Us Human (New York: Norton, 2011), 121128. 35 : See Margaret Livingston and David Hubel, “Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception,” Science 240 no 4853 (6 May 1988): 740749. Available at essay quit http://www.sciencemag.org/content/240/4853/740.abstract. 36 : “Introduction,” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies , ed.

David Bordwell and Noël Carroll (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), xiii. More generally, much of what I’ve said in this online essay was said more pointedly in essay Carroll’s pioneering 1985 article, “The Power of Movies.” See Carroll, Theorizing the Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 7893. have comments about the state of this website? go here.