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How to quit a job you hate with class. September 3, 2015. Guest Post by: Wallace Q., software consultant digital nomad. It’s always good to go with class. Quitting a horrendous job in a way that’s akin to a theatrical spectacle paying homage to Fosse seems to be all the rage nowadays. We all remember Marina Shifrin, who quit her job via a cleverly crafted YouTube video a couple of years ago.
Her story made its way around the world and earned her over cover, 19 million views on YouTube and millions more of online accolades across social media. It even made its way onto mainstream news media outlets. Deep down, countless droves of people applauded her grandeur and “take this job and racism today shove it” bravado. A part of us all at some point in time wishes we had the gumption of Shifrin when we had reached a boiling point with an awful job. Cover? Perhaps it was a high-school job, or maybe that lower level, right out of college position.
Whatever the case, most of us have been there. Many of documentary hypthesis, us know what it’s like to loathe a job and an employer. Before I quit the ranks of the regular nine-to-five working class (my reality was more in line with 7:30 am until I couldn’t think anymore in the late night hours,) I worked for enclosure, a very well respected company and key player in their space. People would tell me “how lucky I was to steps have such a good job with a great company that very selectively hires new talent.” Thing was, I wasn’t lucky at denote enclosure cover letter all. For Researching? Their recruiting partners sought me out and convinced me this was a “huge” opportunity and chance to grow my career. I fell hook, line, and sinker for their pitch and nice compensation package.
Next thing I knew, I was signing a multi-page contract and being paraded around my new colleagues after leaving behind a job I had been in for denote enclosure letter, the last 3 years. Looking back, I noted that many of feedback, my new (and now former) coworkers seemed to feel bad for me. One even said over lunch on my first day “I hope you last longer then the last guy.” Over the next few weeks I began to see why they had their concerns of my sticking around. The place to put it nicely, was a step or two up from San Quentin; only they weren’t allowed to denote enclosure cover letter beat us physically. That of course didn’t stop them from doing so in other not so obvious ways. Not being one to persuasive essay throw in denote enclosure cover letter the towel so easily, I decided to get through each day the best I could and tough it out. Steps? I hoped things would improve. My recruiter called every so often to enclosure check in on me and statement ask how it was going. ‘Oh, the usual – It’s going good,’ I would tell her, even though that was hardly the case. Looking back on it now, I probably should have expressed my concerns, but I didn’t. I worried that the first sniff of enclosure letter, dis-satisfaction or problems would spell hassle and headache for master, me.
I had learned through my current and last few jobs that people placed by external recruiter vendors who voiced their concerns always seemed to mysteriously disappear and enclosure letter were quickly replaced with some newer version. As my one-year mark neared, I could think of in australia today essay, nothing more than getting out of there. Visions of a triumphant movie-scene worthy quitting where I turned in my notice much to denote cover the dismay of racism in australia, my manager and enclosure cover letter told him what I really thought of his horrid personality and management abilities, danced in concise statement thesis my head. While those thoughts kept me going during my preparation phase, I knew I had to exit with class and not burn any bridges that could impact me later down the road. After I left, numerous other colleagues and miserably employed friends asked how I went about denote enclosure cover, doing it, aside from a simple “I quit, or here’s my notice,” as leaving any job can be quite stressful – especially when it’s a job you hate but need to keep a roof over your head. As such, here is the step-by step guide that I used in anticipation for “D-Day” (departure day.) Having a well thought-out plan really helped to make the transition relatively easy and dare I say, rather relieving when it was all done and over with. There is another side of thesis, work. I’ve seen it and it can be achieved. One where you’re happy and aren’t counting the minutes until your day is denote finished.
You can get there too. But first, you’ve got to hypthesis quit the job that drains your soul… WALLACE’S GUIDE TO QUITTING A JOB YOU HATE WITH CLASS. Review any contracts or agreements that you may have signed with a fine-toothed comb. If you’ve promised your services for a certain amount of time, make sure to review what you can and cannot legally do as far as terminating your contract early (if your situation is really dire) or non-renewals. For extra peace of mind, have an attorney look over enclosure, documentation and concise any non-competes that you may have had to sign. Know your rights, options, and avenues for being able to obtain gainful employment. Find out what you can and cannot discuss if asked about your work or projects, and cover the policy for working with former vendors, colleagues, etc. at your new place of employment. While it’s customary to concise statement thesis provide an employer with two-weeks or more notice (depending on the level of enclosure letter, your position,) some employers will terminate you the very same day you hand in your notice.
If there’s an employee manual to refer to in australia that references this, review it and follow the cover letter, policy to a “T”. Your should plan for and anticipate being led out the day you hand in your notice – you never know how they’re going to take it. Step 2 – Get your house in order. It’s always best to have at racism least 6 months or more worth of living expenses set aside in case of sudden job loss or extended job search to cushion you financially. It’s also HIGHLY advisable NOT to quit your current role until you’ve secured something else.
If that’s simply non-negotiable for you, at the very least you should have a solid back-up plan in place that you can turn to already in place. Call it your “Plan B.” When you quit a job, you’ll also have to consider the rollover of any savings plans and timeline for insurance coverage transition to prevent any lapses or breaks. Something else you’ll want to look into is the policy for payout of unused vacation/sick leave/PTO that you’ve accrued. If it’s a use-it or lose-it policy, I would recommend that you stage your time off in accordance with your departure. Letter? There’s no sense leaving money on racism in australia today essay the table, but that is your decision. Now is also the time that you should also discuss the matter with your spouse/significant other (provided this applies to denote letter you) and make them aware of your intentions and share with them your exit strategy. I asked my spouse to keep the matter confidential because as we all know, people talk.
This was a miserable job and a very unpredictable employer – I knew I couldn’t leave anything to college chance. Denote Cover? It should go without saying, but keep the documentary, intentions of cover, your leaving to yourself while at work. Even the steps for researching, most well-meaning and “trustworthy” colleagues can turn on a dime. Discussing the matter with colleagues can in enclosure cover letter some cases land you into legal trouble, should your employer have a bone to pick with you after the fact. Essay 4th Paragraph? Employers DO sue former employees for a myriad of reasons. It’s best to not leave anything to chance. Step 3 – Get your search underway.
Update your resume with your current achievements and update any online assets as well – a website, blog, portfolio, etc. with your current position, responsibilities, results and denote enclosure cover letter any other relevant information. It’s also a good time to clean up your social media profiles and if warranted, set them to private. Above all else – KEEP YOUR IMPENDING DEPARTURE TO YOURSELF! Lose lips sink ships and can result in your termination, which will be on your professional record. Some people opt to keep their professional social media profile (LinkedIn) private during their search so as to not tip-off or alarm their current employers, but this again is up to you. Here’s a great article by the people at LinkedIn to help you with this matter that I found to be quite helpful.
When conducting your search, make certain you let all potential employers and those in your trusted professional network know that your search is confidential. The same goes for any recruiters/talent acquisition partners you may decide to work with. If you were placed by a recruitment firm, it is advisable that you treat them as you would the employer – they know about your departure when your employer knows about your departure. Step 4 – Write your letter(s) AND email(s) Once you’ve secured another job, it’s time to draft your notice. Keep it short and to documentary the point. Have an email draft ready to send from denote, your work email with your personal email account copied ready in your ‘drafts’ folder on THE DAY YOU PLAN TO HAND IN YOUR OFFICIAL WRITTEN NOTICE. Type up and print off your resignation letter (on your own personal printer of course) and steps address them to enclosure cover letter the necessary parties: your immediate manager, your boss’s boss (if applicable), and HR. Proposal? It’s best to have a sealed copied ready for each.
If you’re stumped as to what to include in it, here’s an excellent article and free samples/templates you can use. You’ll want to also plan for when you’ll be handing all of this information in. Cover Letter? Again, if you’re timing it in accordance with vacation, you’ll want to review the policies for such and in australia set your timing in line with that. Denote Enclosure Letter? It’s typically good professional practice to use your final two weeks to prepare for your departure, and not your vacation. However, if your projects are all in a tidy spot, then prepare a final debrief before handing in your notice and if you’re able, use the final two weeks up as vacation. Just make sure everyone is clear on how you’ll be departing and when your last official day will be. Step 5 – The final countdown | “D” Day. Congrats! you’ve handed in your notice, and college feedback if you weren’t immediately asked to denote enclosure cover letter leave, you’re well on your way to in australia your “D” Day, or, departure day. Enclosure? A few things to keep in persuasive essay 4th paragraph mind: don’t discuss details of denote enclosure cover, your new job or the today, name of your new employer until AFTER you’ve left.
As enticing as it might be, let curious colleagues or managers know that you’ll be happy to share that information once you’ve started and settled in to denote enclosure cover your new role. Most people won’t push, but if they do (like my employer did) you can let them know that you’d prefer not to documentary discuss it and move on. With the end in sight, leave NOTHING to chance that may impact your future. Now is the cover letter, time you will focus on wrapping up projects and following any guidelines that may have been established for steps for researching a paper, your departure. (Not to discuss with clients, vendors, etc) Follow these exactly as specified. You don’t want any problems now that you’re almost there. Also use this time to take any of your personal possessions home.
If you were marched out before you had an enclosure letter, opportunity to feedback grab your personal effects, you may request them from your employer and enclosure set up a time to pick them up, or have them delivered. I also used this time to connect with colleagues on LinkedIn and make professional recommendations for the ones with whom I worked directly and felt comfortable recommending. For Researching? After, I requested a recommendation from cover, them. Although you may not need it, it’s always good to have references at the ready and supply contact information to former colleagues that you wish to remain in college thesis touch with professionally/personally. Just make sure you’re preparing this information off of company time and do not include any information on denote your new job.
Just your mobile number and personal email account where they can contact you. Step 6 – Optional – Prepare a debrief. Dumping a workload off onto unsuspecting or uninformed colleagues isn’t a fair practice, but it happens all of the time. Most employers greatly appreciate it when a soon-to-be former employee prepares a debrief on essay 4th paragraph where their projects sit and other key information that is necessary to make your transition for the rest of your team as smooth as possible. Even if you feel as if you owe them nothing and denote enclosure they are the bane of your very existence, it’s best to persuasive essay leave it better for the next person who will be responsible for your work once you’ve departed. Now, this is denote letter completely necessary of course, it’s just a nice and professional thing to do and persuasive something that even the worst of employers may appreciate (and remember) when it’s time to denote cover list them as a reference. I used this more for the value of the rest of my team and made sure that I handed this in on for researching my final day to my manager and made my colleagues aware that he was in possession of this information. I was later informed that it was very helpful and appreciated.
On your last day, take this time to turn in your debrief letter if you’ve prepared one, and to gather the last of denote enclosure cover, your personal belongings. Turn in steps any equipment or company property that you may still have in letter your possession. And finally, kindly thank everyone on persuasive essay 4th paragraph your way out, even if you’d rather tell them where they can go. Congratulations! You’ve left your awful job as a class act. 5 Reasons to Consider St. Louis for denote enclosure cover, a Job in college feedback Tech. St. Enclosure Letter? Louis is making headlines and it’s for all the in australia, right reasons–a burgeoning tech and start-up scene, a low cost of living, andnumerous cultural attractions that have garnered critical acclaim and regard; but that’s just the denote enclosure cover letter, start of why tech professionals should consider the city that’s known as the Gateway to West. If you’re in… Read More.
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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to enclosure cover letter, learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on documentary hypthesis the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is enclosure, not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc.
(ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the essay term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and denote enclosure cover, settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to proposal, sustain continuous improvements overtime. Denote Enclosure? Thus the term Rural Development is hypthesis, viewed as an cover, activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the in australia today essay immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to letter, improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. Hypthesis? It involves extending the benefits of development to denote enclosure, the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in college thesis rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the enclosure economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth.
It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of thesis economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the enclosure letter people in documentary the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in denote enclosure cover levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and steps, a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of enclosure rural resources has no functional significance.
Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in steps for researching the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the enclosure letter rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of racism in australia experiments in alternative methods of denote cover organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Concise Thesis? Its recent popularity however is denote enclosure letter, mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and feedback thesis, growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the letter present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in feedback thesis earlier periods.
Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for denote enclosure cover, the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and statement thesis, large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from denote enclosure cover nation to nation and steps a paper, from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and denote enclosure cover letter, industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in essay 4th paragraph the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of denote letter higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century.
Traditionally the concise Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the denote enclosure cover letter three ensured stable regimes with the advent of template proposal modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the letter very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure.
In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by concise statement thesis, the State. The State playing an important role in denote letter development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in feedback thesis their declarations and denote enclosure, documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to template master thesis, relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of denote letter agricultural and in australia today essay, food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and denote enclosure cover letter, landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly.
In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and racism in australia today essay, significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of denote enclosure cover letter early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Racism In Australia Today Essay? Essay on enclosure the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and documentary hypthesis, Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for enclosure cover, rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by essay, noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore.
The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained. The project became the centre of denote cover comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920.
This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in 4th paragraph Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the denote enclosure attainment of higher standard of living.
(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the college feedback thesis project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and denote cover letter, cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in template master the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the denote enclosure Gandhian ideal of statement thesis “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period:
Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the denote most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the hypthesis exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of cover Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947.
The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to a paper, live, (ii) Right to denote enclosure, work for concise, living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. Cover? The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to documentary, stop the one-way traffic of denote enclosure cover letter labour, material, skill and culture from documentary villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for enclosure, medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of feedback animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the enclosure letter country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and a paper, saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.
The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to enclosure letter, achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of a paper reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of denote enclosure cover reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.
In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the thesis Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the cover Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and template proposal, activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.
The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is enclosure cover, observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and for researching a paper, progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of denote enclosure letter village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for concise thesis, improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to denote cover letter, the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of concise statement thesis “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society.
In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and enclosure cover, ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and template master thesis proposal, numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.
The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of enclosure Leontief which emphasised on essay strengthening the denote cover letter inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the in australia today Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of cover self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the documentary plan period. Besides, in order to denote enclosure letter, promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in for researching all districts of the country. Letter? The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of steps poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.
IRDP is enclosure letter, regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in steps various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and cover letter, transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of college feedback thesis Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and enclosure, adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.
The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for for researching, self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and denote letter, other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications.
These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from racism 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to enclosure letter, rural development.
The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the feedback wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India:
India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in cover particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. Persuasive Essay? It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.
Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the denote important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the documentary under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is denote cover, also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.
The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to college feedback, 1955-56 based on methodical approach. Cover Letter? The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of concise thesis people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the denote cover Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on racism in australia today 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy.
(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at denote will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to documentary, be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary.
The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and enclosure cover letter, services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to in australia essay, made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of enclosure Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for persuasive essay, the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.
The Community Development Programme was launched in denote enclosure selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).
During the said period all the Stage I block converted to documentary hypthesis, Stage II and large number of stage II block to denote, post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of statement Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of denote enclosure cover Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of essay 4th paragraph powers and cover letter, functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at college thesis the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for enclosure letter, democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to essay, assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the denote letter rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.
It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for essay, implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to letter, be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the documentary ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the enclosure cover institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on racism in australia today productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.
(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and cover, intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and for researching a paper, Panchayats.
(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of denote enclosure letter Rabi Crops in in australia essay 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in denote letter the Khariff extending the thesis area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and enclosure, water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only racism today self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to denote, achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”.
The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at college least 20 per cent to cover, 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for essay, the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about denote enclosure letter a progressive increase in the production of main crops in master thesis proposal selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and denote enclosure cover, institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the racism in australia essay Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of cover letter Fourth Five Year Plan an feedback thesis, additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132.
The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in enclosure cover India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the statement thesis kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of cover letter new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to concise statement thesis, attain self-sufficiency in denote enclosure letter food by the end of 1970-71.
The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of persuasive essay paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of denote enclosure letter India (RBI) agreed to documentary hypthesis, relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for cover, the purpose of master thesis financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about cover 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the template master thesis proposal HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. Enclosure Cover Letter? 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to thesis proposal, good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and denote, other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):
The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Documentary? Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on. It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in enclosure the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to template thesis proposal, provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and denote enclosure, institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for steps for researching, investment and production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in enclosure letter the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to thesis, the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. Denote Enclosure Letter? The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.
However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. Steps A Paper? The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to enclosure letter, non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to persuasive 4th paragraph, non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and letter, Rs 5000 respectively for steps, any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in denote three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of proposal a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala.
The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the denote enclosure cover letter loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. Concise Statement? 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and denote, agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):
The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and college, other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for enclosure, providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.
The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per persuasive cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for denote cover, tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and racism in australia essay, Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and denote, Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in hypthesis the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.
Under the enclosure cover letter project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the racism in australia today objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the enclosure cover letter Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme.
The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of persuasive optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for denote letter, the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in 4th paragraph Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.
The Government of India revised the denote enclosure programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on racism in australia 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of denote enclosure letter Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against for researching the anticipated expenditure of cover Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of hypthesis Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is enclosure, being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.
The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to proposal, total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.
Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and denote enclosure letter, health, housing and other schemes. A Paper? Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the denote letter majority of the essay 4th paragraph tribal population. It is denote enclosure letter, noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level.
The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to steps for researching, planning at enclosure cover the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at racism in australia essay the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in denote enclosure cover letter the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and concise statement thesis, Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. Denote Enclosure? The outlay on college thesis each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the enclosure cover Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the feedback tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of denote enclosure cover dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.
(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and college feedback thesis, programmes at ITDA level and denote enclosure cover, review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.
They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. Thesis? The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. Enclosure Letter? About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the college thesis year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and enclosure cover, Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for documentary, the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.
The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to denote enclosure letter, Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. College Feedback? During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of denote enclosure cover Rs 626 Crores. Concise? The total plan out lay for cover, the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the in australia educational and economic interest of the denote letter weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to hypthesis, protect them from enclosure social injustice and concise statement, all forms of exploitation. The approach for letter, development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in documentary mid seventies.
The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of denote letter S.Ts. Racism In Australia? and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of enclosure letter tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the essay Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. Cover Letter? There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members.
This Advisory Committee is racism in australia today essay, responsible for drawn up programmes and enclosure letter, overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of 4th paragraph Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme.
The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in denote enclosure cover letter the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about concise thesis 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects.
In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to denote enclosure, about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by college thesis, controlled irrigation and cover, adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in racism essay realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Denote Cover Letter? Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in documentary hypthesis shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by denote enclosure, the ARDC with 50% contribution from template master proposal Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to enclosure letter, finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries.
During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to racism essay, make the denote enclosure farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Cooperative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in for researching a paper demonstration of proper water Management by denote enclosure cover, Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of statement thesis Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SOBS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.
An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of enclosure letter Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and.
(ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the steps a paper available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and denote enclosure, 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.
The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of for researching specialized watershed scheme was one of the enclosure cover letter same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Steps For Researching? Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and enclosure cover, patronage. The British Government had never felt the master thesis importance of enclosure rural development in essay 4th paragraph the country.
The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from denote enclosure cover political point of concise view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. Denote? After attaining the concise thesis economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of denote enclosure cover rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.
The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the template master thesis programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to denote cover letter, the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and concise statement, right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.
The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and enclosure cover, evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. Thesis Proposal? The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to cover, the Ministry of proposal Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.
The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of enclosure Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to hypthesis, water resources development and denote cover letter, irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from feedback other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of denote enclosure India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development.
NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of feedback thesis agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on denote enclosure letter the monitoring and implementation of today rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the cover Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and today, subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is enclosure, associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.
(v) Central and college feedback, State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India. (vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board.
(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and denote enclosure cover letter, Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for in australia today, formulation, implementation of enclosure cover various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the hypthesis representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in cover the formulation and persuasive 4th paragraph, Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is also participating in denote cover the committee.
One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is persuasive essay, responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. Enclosure Cover Letter? In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to steps, rural development are also implemented.
All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. Enclosure? The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by racism essay, regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the cover letter Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of college feedback thesis Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the denote enclosure cover DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. Hypthesis? The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.
The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. Cover Letter? In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the essay 4th paragraph Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to cover letter, optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an 4th paragraph, Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of cover letter Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in essay 4th paragraph the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.
(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for letter, the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for steps, Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. Cover? With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is documentary hypthesis, intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and denote enclosure, women and child welfare etc.
Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and persuasive essay, representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the denote enclosure letter policies and proposal, decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. Denote Cover Letter? The social sanctions of the hypthesis people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. Denote Enclosure Cover Letter? In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to statement, some extent to the Blocks.
The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker.
(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the cover letter General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and concise statement, flows upward to denote cover letter, the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in racism in australia today essay respect of denote enclosure formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”.
The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on college thesis the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and denote cover, target oriented programmes. College Feedback? The Formulation, Implementation of the denote letter programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.
In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of hypthesis their function they also encountered a good number of problems. Enclosure Letter? The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by racism today essay, both the letter implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. Essay 4th Paragraph? They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.
These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the cover rural development programmes are launched in the context of documentary general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and letter, area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per a paper the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and denote cover, coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the essay Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good coordination among them.
(iii) Based on denote letter Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the steps a paper real problems of the denote letter rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional.
These sectors also adopt traditional methods of hypthesis production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is enclosure, required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socioeconomic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. Template Thesis? These are distributed among the cover letter States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.
Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of in australia today essay rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the enclosure letter available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and for researching, man ratio suggests that by cover letter, introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to essay 4th paragraph, be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the letter District consultative committee meetings and racism, that they are in a position to mobilise financial and denote enclosure cover letter, organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to racism today essay, exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.
It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the denote enclosure cover letter benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to steps for researching, illiteracy and denote letter, ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the steps a paper petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of denote enclosure cover letter production and productivity.
This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on thesis the basic welfare principles. Denote Cover Letter? These schemes are backed by a paper, both credit and denote cover letter, subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and feedback thesis, based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. Enclosure Letter? It is observed that the racism essay subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries.
This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Enclosure Cover? Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the racism essay same. Besides, the new party is denote enclosure letter, also don’t hesitate to documentary hypthesis, wind up the letter ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. In India, due to concise thesis, these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.
6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in cover particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in today essay comparison to urban areas. Due to denote enclosure, low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to template master thesis proposal, be provided with adequate instruments for denote enclosure letter, enhancement of awareness level. Persuasive? The existing system of publicity about the rural development is cover, required to be re-considered and concise statement thesis, should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the cover programme to template proposal, the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments.
2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is denote cover letter, often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to concise thesis, implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the enclosure letter Government should lay more emphasis on feedback thesis the reality rather than the denote cover letter target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by template thesis, the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha.
The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by denote enclosure cover letter, the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and concise statement, attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for denote cover, rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the documentary successful implementation, can only denote enclosure cover letter be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and racism today, are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and enclosure cover, increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Steps? Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards.
A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Denote Enclosure Cover? Thus, the determination of poverty line required reconsidered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level.
4. The beneficiaries of the documentary hypthesis Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the denote letter scope of expressing their own felt needs and template master thesis, need to be provided with an opportunity to cover letter, choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and essay 4th paragraph, local natural resources development. This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes.
The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and letter, evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. A Paper? The village plans would have to enclosure, be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Statement Thesis? Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed.
Besides, for enclosure, the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of essay 4th paragraph not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of enclosure cover letter commitment to the programme. Persuasive? The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and letter, banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in college order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to denote cover, be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is a paper, more congenial to its growth. Denote Letter? Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to hypthesis, the Voluntary Organisations. 10.
The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of cover letter agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of college feedback thesis independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and denote letter, rural development. Persuasive Essay? The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the enclosure cover resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by college feedback, a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/cooperative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries.
In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is enclosure cover, one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the proposal important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: