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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A thinker with wide-ranging interests, Robert Nozick was one of the most important and of the american revolution, influential political philosophers, along with John Rawls, in the Anglo-American analytic tradition. Canadian Essay Writing Competition! His first and most celebrated book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), produced, along with his Harvard colleague John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice (1971), the revival of the daughters of the american revolution, discipline of to do essay social and political philosophy within the analytic school. Rawls’ influential book is a systematic defense of egalitarian liberalism, but Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia is a compelling defense of free-market libertarianism. Unlike Rawls, Nozick neglected political philosophy for the rest of his philosophical career. Of The American Revolution Essay! He moved on to address other philosophical questions and made significant contributions to prompts essay, other areas of philosophical inquiry. In epistemology, Nozick developed an externalist analysis of knowledge in terms of daughters counterfactual conditions that provides a response to help me essays, radical skepticism. Essay! In metaphysics, he proposed a “closest continuer” theory of personal identity.
His final work, Invariances (2001), offers a theory of objective reality. His other significant contributions to want to do research essay, analytic philosophy notwithstanding, Nozick’s defense of libertarianism remains his most notable intellectual mark on philosophical inquiry. Robert Nozick was born in Brooklyn, New York in daughters of the revolution, 1938, and help me essays, he taught at daughters Harvard University until his death in January 2002. He was a thinker of the prodigious sort who gains a reputation for brilliance within his chosen field while still in graduate school, in help with, his case at the Princeton of the early 1960's, where he wrote his dissertation on decision theory under the supervision of american essay Carl Hempel. He was also, like so many young intellectuals of that period, drawn initially to the politics of the prompts for sat, New Left and to daughters, the socialism that was its philosophical inspiration. But encountering the works of such defenders of capitalism as F.A. Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Murray Rothbard, and Ayn Rand eventually led him to renounce those views, and to shift his philosophical focus away from the technical issues then dominating analytic philosophy and by chris fumari, toward political theory.
The result was his first and most famous book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), an ingenious defense of libertarianism that immediately took on canonical status as the revolution, major right-wing philosophical counterpoint to his Harvard colleague John Rawls's influential defense of social-democratic liberalism, A Theory of satirical thesis statement Justice (1971). Like Rawls's book, Nozick's generated lively debate and american, an enormous secondary literature. But where Rawls made the development of his theory of justice and its defense against critics his life's work, Nozick took little interest either in responding to critics of prompts for sat Anarchy, State, and Utopia in particular or in continuing to of the american essay, do systematic work in political philosophy in general. Instead, he moved on to produce groundbreaking work in several other areas of philosophical inquiry, particularly in epistemology and metaphysics. His development of an externalist theory of knowledge and his closest continuer account of canadian essay writing personal identity have been particularly influential. It remains to be seen what impact on philosophy will be made by the general theory of objective truth developed in his last book, Invariances (2001), published shortly before his untimely death from stomach cancer. Of The American Revolution Essay! In any case, it seems clear, judging from the disproportionate amount of attention that it has received relative to the rest of his writings, that it is the essay fumari his early work in political theory that will stand as his most significant and lasting contribution. 2. Daughters American Revolution Essay! Anarchy, State, and Utopia and Libertarianism. Anarchy, State, and Utopia is, together with Rawls's A Theory of prompts Justice , generally regarded as one of the daughters of the american, two great classics of twentieth-century analytic political philosophy. Indeed, these two works essentially revived the discipline of by chris political philosophy within the analytic school, whose practitioners had, until Rawls and Nozick came along, largely neglected it. Nozick's book also revived interest in the notion of rights as being central to political theory, and it did so in the service of another idea that had been long neglected within academic political thought, namely libertarianism.
Libertarianism is a political philosophy holding that the role of the daughters of the american essay, state in society ought to be severely limited, confined essentially to police protection, national defense, and the administration of courts of law, with all other tasks commonly performed by modern governments - education, social insurance, welfare, and so forth - taken over by writing religious bodies, charities, and other private institutions operating in a free market. Many libertarians appeal, in defending their position, to economic and sociological considerations - the benefits of market competition, the inherent mechanisms inclining state bureaucracies toward incompetence and inefficiency, the poor record of governmental attempts to deal with specific problems like poverty and pollution, and so forth. Daughters Of The American! Nozick endorses such arguments, but his main defense of libertarianism is a moral one, his view being that whatever its practical benefits, the strongest reason to advocate a libertarian society is simply that such advocacy follows from a serious respect for individual rights. a. Self-Ownership, Individual Rights, and the Minimal State. Nozick takes his position to follow from help me essays, a basic moral principle associated with Immanuel Kant and enshrined in Kant's second formulation of his famous Categorical Imperative: Act so that you treat humanity, whether in daughters american revolution essay, your own person or in that of another, always as an the essay by chris fumari end and never as a means only. The idea here is that a human being, as a rational agent endowed with self-awareness, free will, and the possibility of formulating a plan of life, has an inherent dignity and cannot properly be treated as a mere thing , or used against his will as an instrument or resource in revolution essay, the way an writing prompts for sat inanimate object might be. In line with this, Nozick also describes individual human beings as self-owners (though it isn't clear whether he regards this as a restatement of Kant’s principle, a consequence of daughters of the american revolution essay it, or an entirely independent idea). Canadian Writing! The thesis of self-ownership, a notion that goes back in daughters of the essay, political philosophy at least to John Locke, is just the claim that individuals own themselves - their bodies, talents and abilities, labor, and by extension the fruits or products of their exercise of their talents, abilities and labor. They have all the prerogatives with respect to essay competition, themselves that a slaveholder claims with respect to his slaves. But the of the revolution, thesis of self-ownership would in fact rule out slavery as illegitimate, since each individual, as a self-owner, cannot properly be owned by anyone else. (Indeed, many libertarians would argue that unless one accepts the thesis of self-ownership, one has no way of explaining why slavery is evil. After all, it cannot be merely because slaveholders often treat their slaves badly, since a kind-hearted slaveholder would still be a slaveholder, and thus morally blameworthy, for that.
The reason slavery is immoral must be because it involves a kind of stealing - the stealing of a person from himself.) But if individuals are inviolable ends-in-themselves (as Kant describes them) and self-owners, it follows, Nozick says, that they have certain rights , in particular (and here again following Locke) rights to help me essays, their lives, liberty, and the fruits of their labor. To own something, after all, just is to have a right to daughters, it, or, more accurately, to statement, possess the bundle of rights - rights to possess something, to dispose of it, to determine what may be done with it, etc. Of The American Revolution Essay! - that constitute ownership; and thus to writing competition, own oneself is to have such rights to the various elements that make up one's self. These rights function, Nozick says, as side-constraints on the actions of others; they set limits on how others may, morally speaking, treat a person. So, for example, since you own yourself, and thus have a right to yourself, others are constrained morally not to kill or maim you (since this would involve destroying or damaging your property), or to kidnap you or forcibly remove one of your bodily organs for transplantation in someone else (since this would involve stealing your property). They are also constrained not to force you against your will to daughters of the american revolution, work for another's purposes, even if those purposes are good ones. For if you own yourself, it follows that you have a right to determine whether and help me essays, how you will use your self-owned body and its powers, e.g. either to work or to refrain from daughters revolution, working. So far this all might seem fairly uncontroversial.
But what follows from it, in want essay, Nozick's view, is the surprising and radical conclusion that taxation , of the redistributive sort in which modern states engage in order to fund the daughters essay, various programs of the bureaucratic welfare state, is writing morally illegitimate. It amounts to a kind of forced labor , for revolution essay, the state so structures the tax system that any time you labor at all, a certain amount of your labor time - the statement, amount that produces the wealth taken away from you forcibly via taxation - is time you involuntarily work, in effect, for of the, the state. Indeed, such taxation amounts to partial slavery , for in giving every citizen an entitlement to certain benefits (welfare, social security, or whatever), the state in effect gives them an entitlement, a right , to a part of the proceeds of your labor, which produces the taxes that fund the benefits; every citizen, that is, becomes in by chris, such a system a partial owner of you (since they have a partial property right in american revolution essay, part of you, i.e. in the essay by chris fumari, your labor). But this is of the american revolution flatly inconsistent with the principle of self-ownership. The various programs of the modern liberal welfare state are thus immoral, not only because they are inefficient and incompetently administered, but because they make slaves of the citizens of such a state. The Essay! Indeed, the only sort of state that can be morally justified is what Nozick calls a minimal state or night-watchman state, a government which protects individuals, via police and military forces, from force, fraud, and daughters american essay, theft, and administers courts of law, but does nothing else.
In particular, such a state cannot regulate what citizens eat, drink, or smoke (since this would interfere with their right to use their self-owned bodies as they see fit), cannot control what they publish or read (since this would interfere with their right to use the property they've acquired with their self-owned labor - e.g. printing presses and satirical, paper - as they wish), cannot administer mandatory social insurance schemes or public education (since this would interfere with citizens' rights to use the fruits of their labor as they desire, in that some citizens might decide that they would rather put their money into private education and private retirement plans), and cannot regulate economic life in general via minimum wage and rent control laws and the like (since such actions are not only economically suspect - tending to produce bad unintended consequences like unemployment and daughters american, housing shortages - but violate citizens' rights to help me essays, charge whatever they want to for the use of their own property). It might be thought that given Nozick's premises, no state at of the all , minimal or otherwise, could be justified, that full-blown anarchism is what really follows from the notion of self-ownership. For the activities of even a minimal state would need to to do research, be funded via taxation. Wouldn't this taxation also amount to forced labor and partial slavery? Nozick thinks not.
Indeed, in daughters american essay, his view it turns out that even if an anarchistic society existed, not only could a minimal state nevertheless arise out of it in a way that violates no one's self-ownership rights, in fact such a state would, morally speaking, have to writing essay, come into existence. Suppose there is a certain geographical area in which no state exists, and everyone must protect his own rights to of the essay, life, liberty, and property, without relying on by chris fumari, a government and its police and military to do so. Given that doing so would be costly, difficult, and time-consuming, people would, Nozick says, inevitably band together to daughters of the essay, form voluntary protection associations, agreeing to take turns standing watch over each others' property, to decide collectively how to punish rights-violators, and so forth. Eventually some members of this anarchistic community would decide to satirical thesis statement, go into the protection business full-time, instituting a private firm that would offer protection services to members of the community in exchange for a fee. Daughters Of The American Revolution! Other members of the community might start competing firms, and a free market would develop in protection services. Inevitably, Nozick argues, this process will (via a kind of invisible hand mechanism of the sort discussed by economists) give rise to either a single dominant firm or a dominant confederation of firms. For most people will surely judge that where protection of their lives and why i research, property is daughters of the revolution concerned, nothing short of the parents homework, biggest and most powerful provider of such protection will do, so that they will flock to of the revolution essay, whatever firm is perceived as such; and the snowball effect this will create will ensure that that firm ends up with an overwhelming share of the market. Even if multiple large firms come into being, however, they are likely to to do research essay, form a kind of single dominant association of firms. For there will be occasions when the clients of different firms come into conflict with one another, one client accusing the other of violating his rights, the other insisting on his innocence.
Firms could go to war over the claims of their respective clients, but this would be costly, especially if (as is likely) such conflicts between clients became frequent. More feasible would be an agreement between firms to abide by certain common rules for adjudicating disputes between clients and to american essay, go along with the decisions of arbitrators retained by by chris fumari the firms to interpret these rules - to daughters of the essay, institute, that is, a common quasi-legal system of sorts. With the advent of such a dominant protection agency (or confederation of agencies) - an satirical statement organization comprised essentially of analogues of police and military forces and courts of law - our anarchistic society will obviously have gone a long way toward evolving a state, though strictly speaking, this agency is still a private firm rather than a government. How will the daughters american, dominant protection agency deal with independents - those (relatively few) individuals who retain no protection firm and insist on defending their rights themselves - who attempt to mete out justice to writing for sat essay, those of its clients they accuse of rights violations? Will it allow them to american essay, try and punish its clients as they see fit? Nozick argues that the dominant agency will not allow this and, morally speaking, must not.
For the agency was hired to help me essays, protect its clients' rights, and that includes a right not to be arrested, tried, or punished unjustly or, where one really is guilty of a rights violation, to be punished more harshly than one deserves. Of course, its clients might really be guilty; but the point is, so long as the dominant agency doesn't itself know that they are, it cannot allow them to be punished. The dominant agency must, accordingly, generally prohibit independents from defending their own rights against its clients; it must take upon itself the exclusive right to daughters revolution essay, decide which of its clients is help me essays worthy of punishment, and what sort of punishment that ought to of the essay, be. In doing so, however, it has taken on one of the essay, defining features of a state, namely, a monopoly on the legitimate use of force. It has become what Nozick calls an ultra-minimal state.
In doing so, however, the dominant agency seems to have jeopardized the rights of independents - for though it has (rightly) prohibited those independents from exacting justice on its own clients, lest they inflict unjust punishments, it has thereby also left them unable to defend their own rights. Daughters Of The! To avoid committing an by chris fumari injustice against revolution essay independents, then, the dominant agency or ultra-minimal state must compensate them for the essay by chris fumari, this - it must, that is, defend their rights for them by providing them the very protection services it affords its own clients. It can, Nozick says, legitimately charge them for this protection, but only the amount that they would have spent anyway in defending themselves. The end result of this process, though, is that the daughters of the essay, ultra-minimal state has taken on satirical statement, another feature of a state, namely the provision of of the american revolution protection to everyone within its borders. Moreover, in charging everyone for this protection it engages, in canadian writing competition, effect, in a kind of taxation (though this taxation - and only this taxation – does not violate self-ownership rights, because the original clients of the agency pay voluntarily , while the later, formerly independent, clients are charged only an amount they would have spent anyway for protection). The ultra-minimal state has thus become a full-fledged minimal state. A minimal state would thus inevitably arise out of an originally anarchic society, given both practical circumstances and the moral requirements - concerning the prohibition of potentially rights-violating self-defense and compensation for this prohibition - binding on any agency acting to enforce the daughters american essay, rights of others.
And it would do so in writing essay, a way that violates no one's rights of self-ownership. Daughters American Essay! So the anarchist can have no principled objection to it. Nozick's conception of the origins of the state is reminiscent of the social contract tradition in political thought represented by Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and, in contemporary thought, Rawls. For insofar as the state arises out of a process that begins with the voluntary retention by individuals of the services of an agency that will inevitably take on the features of a state, it can be seen to be the result of a kind of contract. The details of the state-originating process in to do research, Nozick's account are very different from of the revolution, those of other social contract accounts, however; and, most importantly, for the essay by chris fumari, Nozick, unlike other social contract theorists, individual rights do not result from, but exist prior to , any social contract, and put severe constraints on the shape such a contract can take. Furthermore, the parties to the contract in Nozick's conception are to be imagined very much on the model of human beings as we know them in real life, rather than along the lines of the american revolution essay, highly abstractly conceived rational agents deliberating behind a veil of ignorance in Rawls's original position thought experiment. Most critics of the libertarian minimal state don't complain that it allows for too much government; they say that it allows for far too little. In particular, they claim that a more-than-minimal state is necessary in order to fulfill the help me essays, requirements of distributive justice. The state, it is held (by, for instance, Rawls and his followers), simply must engage in redistributive taxation in daughters of the revolution essay, order to ensure that a fair distribution of satirical thesis wealth and income obtains in the society it governs.
Nozick's answer to daughters essay, this objection constitutes his entitlement theory of justice. Talk about distributive justice is inherently misleading, Nozick argues, in that it seems to imply that there is some central authority who distributes to individuals shares of wealth and income that pre-exist the distribution, as if they had appeared like manna from heaven. Of course this is not really the way such shares come into existence, or come to be distributed, at all; in fact they come to be, and the essay by chris fumari, come to be held by the individuals who hold them, only through the scattered efforts and transactions of essay these innumerable individuals themselves, and canadian essay writing competition, these individuals' efforts and american revolution essay, transactions give them a moral claim over these shares. Talk about the canadian competition, distribution of wealth covers this up, and unjustifiably biases most discussions of daughters american distributive justice in a socialist or egalitarian liberal direction. A more adequate theory of justice would in canadian essay writing, Nozick's view enumerate three principles of justice in holdings. The first would be a principle of justice in revolution essay, acquisition , that is, the appropriation of natural resources that no one has ever owned before.
The best-known such principle, some version of why i want research which Nozick seems to endorse, is the one enshrined in Locke's theory of property, according to daughters american essay, which a person (being a self-owner) owns his labor, and by parents help mixing his labor with a previously unowned part of the natural world (e.g. by whittling a stick found in a forest into of the a spear) thereby comes to own it. The second principle would be a principle of justice in satirical, transfer , governing the american revolution essay, manner in which one might justly come to own something previously owned by another. Here Nozick endorses the principle that a transfer of holdings is help me essays just if and only if it is voluntary, a principle that would seem to follow from respect for daughters of the revolution essay, a person's right to use the fruits of the exercise of his self-owned talents, abilities, and labor as he sees fit. The final principle would be a principle of justice in rectification , governing the proper means of setting right past injustices in acquisition and canadian essay writing competition, transfer. Anyone who got what he has in a manner consistent with these three principles would, Nozick says, accordingly be entitled to daughters of the american, it - for, his having abided by these principles, no one has any grounds for canadian essay writing competition, complaint against him. Daughters Of The American Essay! This gives us Nozick's entitlement theory of distributive justice: a distribution of wealth obtaining in help me essays, a society as a whole is a just distribution if everyone in that society is entitled to what he has, i.e. has gotten his holdings in accordance with the principles of acquisition, transfer, and rectification. And it is therefore just however equal or unequal it happens to be, and american revolution essay, indeed however fair or unfair it might seem intuitively to be. Standard theories of distributive justice, Nozick says, are either ahistorical end-state or “end-result” theories, requiring that the why i want to do research essay, distribution of wealth in a society have a certain structure, e.g. an egalitarian structure (regardless of how the distribution came about or how people got what they have); or they are historical theories requiring that the distribution fit a certain pattern reflecting such historical circumstances as who worked the hardest or who deserves the most. The entitlement theory of justice is historical yet unpatterned: The justice of a distribution is indeed determined by certain historical circumstances (contrary to end-state theories), but it has nothing to do with fitting any pattern guaranteeing that those who worked the hardest or are most deserving have the most shares.
What matters is only that people get what they have in a manner consistent with the three principles of justice in holdings, and this is of the fully compatible with some people having much more than others, unlucky hard workers having less than lazier but luckier ones, morally repulsive individuals having higher incomes than saints, and so forth. Nozick illustrates and defends the entitlement theory in a famous thought-experiment involving the basketball player Wilt Chamberlain. Imagine a society in writing prompts essay, which the daughters american, distribution of should homework scholastic wealth fits a particular structure or pattern favored by a non-entitlement conception of justice - suppose, to keep things simple, that it is an equal distribution, and daughters essay, call it D1. By Chris! Nozick's opponent must of course grant that this distribution is of the revolution just, since Nozick has allowed the opponent himself to determine it. Now suppose that among the members of this society is Wilt Chamberlain, and satirical thesis statement, that he has as a condition of his contract with his team that he will play only if each person coming to see the game puts twenty-five cents into a special box at the gate of the sports arena, the contents of which will go to him. Suppose further that over american essay the course of the season, one million fans decide to pay the twenty-five cents to watch him play. The result will be a new distribution, D2, in which Chamberlain now has $250,000, much more than anyone else - a distribution which thereby breaks the original pattern established in D1. Now, is D2 just? Is Chamberlain entitled to his money? The answer to these questions, Nozick says, is clearly Yes. For everyone in D1 was, by hypothesis, entitled to what he had; there is no injustice in the starting point that led up to D2.
Moreover, everyone who gave up twenty-five cents in the transition from D1 to D2 did so voluntarily , and thus has no grounds for complaint; and those who did not want to pay to see Chamberlain play still have their twenty-five cents, so they have no grounds for complaint either. Why I Research Essay! But then no one has any grounds for a complaint of injustice; and thus there is no injustice. What this shows, in Nozick's view, is daughters american revolution essay that all non-entitlement theories of justice are false. For all such theories claim that it is parents help a necessary condition for a distribution's being just that it have a certain structure or fit a certain pattern; but the Wilt Chamberlain example (which can be reformulated so that D1 is, instead of an egalitarian distribution, a distribution according to hard work, desert, or whatever) shows that a distribution (such as D2) can be just even if it doesn't have a particular structure or pattern. Moreover, the example shows that liberty upsets patterns, that allowing individuals freely to use their holdings as they choose will inevitably destroy any distribution advocated by non-entitlement theories, whether they be socialist, egalitarian liberal, or some other theory of distribution. And the corollary of this is that patterns destroy liberty , that attempts to enforce a particular distributional pattern or structure over time will necessarily involve intolerable levels of coercion, forbidding individuals from using the of the revolution essay, fruits of parents help scholastic their talents, abilities, and labor as they see fit. Daughters Of The American Essay! As Nozick puts it, the socialist society would have to forbid capitalist acts between consenting adults. Canadian Writing Competition! This is not merely a regrettable side-effect of the quest to attain a just distribution of wealth; it is a positive injustice, for it violates the principle of self-ownership. Distributive justice, properly understood, thus does not require a redistribution of wealth; indeed, it forbids such a redistribution. Accordingly, the minimal state, far from being inconsistent with the demands of distributive justice, is in daughters american revolution, fact the should parents with scholastic, only sure means of securing those demands.
The minimal state might seem, even to those sympathetic to the arguments for it, to make for a rather austere vision of political life. But Nozick insists that we ought to of the american revolution essay, see it as inspiring, as well as right. Indeed, the minimal state constitutes in his view a kind of want to do research utopia . For, among all models of political order, it alone makes possible the attempt to realize every person's and group’s vision of the of the american essay, good society. It is canadian often thought that libertarianism entails that everyone must live according to a laissez faire capitalist ethos, but this is not so; it requires only that, whatever ethos one is committed to, one not impose it by force on anyone else without his consent. If some individuals or groups want to live according to daughters american essay, socialist or egalitarian principles, they are free to do so as far as Nozick is concerned; indeed, they may even establish a community, of whatever size, within the boundaries of the minimal state, and require that everyone who comes to live within it must agree to want essay, have a portion of his wealth redistributed. American Essay! All they are forbidden from doing is forcing people to join or contribute to the establishment of such a community who do not want to do so.
The minimal state thus constitutes a framework for utopia - an overarching system within the boundaries of which any number of social, moral, and writing, religious utopian visions may be realized. It thereby provides a way for american essay, people even of radically opposed points of writing competition view - socialists and of the american revolution, capitalists, liberals and conservatives, atheists and religious believers, whether Jews, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus - to make a go of implementing their conceptions of help me essays how life ought to be lived, within their own communities, while living side by side in peace. This gives us, in Nozick's view, a further reason to endorse it. Nozick's most influential contributions to philosophy outside of daughters american revolution essay political theory have been in epistemology and the metaphysics of personal identity. Satirical Statement! In the case of the former, he is best known for his version of an daughters of the american revolution essay externalist theory of knowledge, developed in his second book, Philosophical Explanations (1981). Traditional theories of knowledge hold that a knower S knows a proposition p if and only if S believes p, p is true, and S is justified in believing p. The third condition has always been the most problematic: the logical possibility of skeptical scenarios in which the would-be knower is the hapless victim of an omnipotent, omniscient, and deceiving Cartesian demon, or a brain in help me essays, a vat hooked up by mad scientists to a virtual reality supercomputer feeding it non-stop hallucinations, threaten to make the justification of almost any belief impossible. Examples of the sort made famous by daughters of the american essay Edmund Gettier - wherein S has a justified true belief (say, a belief that it is now 5:00, based on S's glance at a nearby clock) that nevertheless does not plausibly amount to knowledge (say, because the should help, clock is broken, and just by chance happens to daughters of the american essay, be displaying the correct time) - also cast doubt on to do essay, the adequacy of the traditional analysis of knowledge, whatever one says about the threat of skepticism. These supposed inadequacies in the traditional view of knowledge are often said by its critics to stem from its internalism - the assumption that the american revolution essay, factors that warrant S's claim to knowledge must be factors of thesis which S is daughters essay aware: factors internal to satirical thesis, the set of his consciously held beliefs. But these inadequacies can, it is daughters of the argued, be remedied by adopting an externalist perspective instead, on which the factors that warrant S's belief, and make it genuine knowledge rather than mere belief, may well be factors of essay competition which S is american entirely unaware, and which are external to satirical thesis, his conscious cognitive processes. One such factor (emphasized by reliabilist versions of externalism) might be a belief's having been produced by a reliable belief-producing mechanism: a mechanism of the of the revolution essay, existence and canadian essay, operations of of the revolution which S might be utterly ignorant.
Nozick's unique contribution to the externalist approach is to suggest that the conditions that make S's true belief that p count as knowledge are the counterfactuals: (a) that were p not true S would not believe it (the variation condition), and (b) that were p still true in somewhat different circumstances, S would still believe it and would not believe that not-p (the adherence condition). A belief that fulfills these conditions is one that, in Nozick's expression, tracks the truth. Essay! (S’s belief that it is 5:00 in daughters, the example above would fail to meet these conditions, and thus fails to track the truth: had it in fact been 4:55 when S looked at why i want to do research the broken clock, he would still have believed that it is 5:00; and daughters of the revolution essay, had the clock been stopped at 4:55 instead, S would not believe that it is 5:00, and canadian writing, indeed would believe that it is not 5:00.) Nozick applies this analysis to answering skepticism as follows. We ought to concede to the skeptic that S cannot know that he is of the american revolution essay not in fact a brain in a vat, for his belief that he isn't is not one that tracks the help me essays, truth (since the variation condition can't be met - if it were not true that S is not a brain in a vat, S would still believe he isn't). But though this might appear to give away the store to skepticism, in fact it does not. For what the skeptic claims to threaten are everyday beliefs such as, e.g., S's belief that he is driving in his car - for obviously, if S is actually a brain in a vat, he isn't really driving in daughters american revolution essay, his car. Nozick argues that S can indeed know that he is driving and know that if he is driving then he isn't a brain in a vat, even though he cannot know that he isn't a brain in a vat. Canadian Essay Competition! For it may well be that S's belief that he is of the american revolution driving tracks the truth (it might, for help scholastic, instance, be produced by of the revolution essay a reliable belief-forming process) even if his belief that he isn't a brain in a vat doesn't; and if so, then it is at least possible, contra the skeptic, to know, for example, that one is driving in one's car. In taking this position, Nozick famously, and controversially, denies what is known among epistemologists as the help me essays, closure principle, the principle that if S knows that p and that p entails q, then S knows that q. Nozick's contribution to the debate over personal identity is his closest continuer theory, also presented in daughters revolution, Philosophical Explanations . Philosophical puzzles over personal identity arise from help me essays, various bizarre thought experiments that seem to present genuine logical possibilities. For instance, there is Locke's famous example of the prince and the cobbler, wherein the man who wakes up in the cobbler's body one morning appears to have all the revolution, memories of the prince, and should parents help with homework, none of the memories of the cobbler.
So who is the man actually in the cobbler's body, the prince or the cobbler himself? Or we can imagine a person A stepping into a teleportation machine of the sort described in science-fiction stories, and, due to some glitch in the machine's operation, not one but two persons similar to A, call them B and C, appearing in the spot where the machine was supposed to send A. Which, if either, is the real A? Nozick's answer to such questions is that it is the later person who most closely continues the earlier one who is the one who is truly identical to the latter. What counts as closeness in this context is not susceptible of a simple, cut and daughters of the american, dried answer. Satirical Thesis! If we take psychological properties to be of greater importance to personhood than bodily ones, the closest continuer of the prince in daughters of the american revolution, Locke's example would be the statement, man who wakes up in the cobbler’s body, even though he has none of the prince's bodily traits (and indeed, even though the prince's body may still exist, and especially if someone else - the of the american essay, cobbler, say -seems to be in the prince's body now). If instead we take bodily properties to be of thesis statement greatest importance, then the closest continuer of the prince would be the person in the prince's body, whatever memories, if any, that person has. In any case, part of what counts as contributing to closeness is, in Nozick's view, going to be determined by a person’s own self-conception, by what a person himself takes to be most important to his identity. What about the case where two or more individuals seem equally close continuers of an earlier person, as in the transporter example? Here Nozick's view is that, in the latter case, neither B nor C is identical to daughters revolution essay, A - since there is no single closest continuer - and research essay, thus A no longer exists; though had only one person arrived in daughters of the american revolution, the spot to which the machine was supposed to send A, A would have continued to exist. Personal identity thus depends in part on factors extrinsic to the person himself.
Nozick made contributions to help me essays, other areas of philosophy as well, developing a complex theory of daughters revolution essay rationality in The Nature of Rationality (1993) and meditating on the meaning of life in The Examined Life (1989), though these works received nothing like the attention garnered by Anarchy, State, and Utopia. But his work in epistemology and by chris, metaphysics has been nearly as controversial as his work in revolution, political philosophy, and has generated as large a literature. Time will tell whether similar controversy will be generated by his final work, Invariances , wherein he developed a theory of objective reality on which the mark of the objectively real or true, whether in science, metaphysics, or ethics, is help me essays invariance under transformations, a property of the sort exhibited by the relationships between the numbers we use to measure the temperature, relationships which remain constant or invariant whether we use the Fahrenheit or centigrade scales, despite the various differences these scales exhibit in other respects. In any event, it is almost certain that it is Nozick's defense of libertarianism that will stand as his most significant contribution to american revolution, philosophy.
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8 Business Analyst Resume Secrets You Need to Know (Especially If Don#8217;t Have the BA Job Title) Are you looking to get your business analyst resume into the #8220;yes#8221; pile when you apply to a business analyst job? Are you wondering how you can showcase your business analysis experience and qualifications when you#8217;ve never held the daughters revolution essay, job title of business analyst? Would you like to know some honest ways to construct an effective business analyst resume that do not involve gimmicks and trickery? In this article, we#8217;ll cover the 8 secrets you need to know so that you hear back from the essay by chris, more business analyst job applications. Daughters American Revolution! They#8217;ll help you showcase your business analyst qualifications, even if you#8217;ve never held the job title of #8220;business analyst.#8221; Before I forget, I want to why i want research, be sure you know about my step-by-step BA career planning course (it’s free) that’s designed to help you, the mid-career professional, kick-start your business analysis career. Now, onto the 8 secrets. 1 Your Business Analyst Resume Does Not Need to american revolution, Catalog Your Work History.
Many professionals fall into help me essays the trap of thinking they need to include a complete catalog of their work experiences and skills in their resume. The first secret you need to be #8220;in#8221; on when putting together your resume is that your resume is not a catalog, it#8217;s a sales document. This means you can be selectively honest about the skills and experience you include and emphasize in your resume, and you should organize your resume so that it presents your qualifications in the best possible way. Provided you are applying to business analyst jobs you are reasonably well qualified for, something we talk about in our business analyst job search process, the next 7 secrets will help you create a resume that sells your qualifications in a way that doesn#8217;t make you uncomfortable. Daughters Revolution Essay! 2. Create a Specific Summary So Your Resume Isn#8217;t Quickly Sent to help me essays, the #8220;No#8221; Pile. Because most recruiters scan your resume instead of read it, there are a few elements of your resume that will get you the of the american essay, most attention. The first one of these is your objective or summary statement.
While it may seem that being vague or general will open up more possibilities, the reality is just the opposite . Highlight your business analysis accomplishments and make it crystal clear that you are qualified for the types of BA jobs to which you are applying. Help Homework Scholastic! Because many recruiters skip right past the daughters revolution essay, objective on your resume, you need to make sure that other parts of your resume draw them in too. Statement! Let#8217;s move on of the american revolution, to those other parts. 3. Tweak Your Job Titles to Get Your Resume Read. Canadian Writing Competition! If the daughters of the revolution, recruiter skims right past your objective and accomplishments section, their eyes are going to rest on the most recent job titles you’ve held . These are typically in bold (if not, they probably should be) and stand out. Satirical Thesis Statement! Do your job titles present you as a candidate that is qualified for the types of jobs to which you are applying? If your most recent job title is listed as “Network Engineer,” “Software Developer” or “Customer Support,” you are most likely to get calls for daughters of the american jobs with similar titles. Instead, consider tweaking your job titles to present your recent job roles honestly and accurately. For more on being honestly creative , check out our post, How to prompts essay, Handle Job Titles on a Business Analyst Resume. 4. Revolution! Highlight Your Most Relevant Skills and want essay, Still Be Honest. Remember how we said that your resume is a sales document?
That means that you have the license to daughters of the american revolution essay, selectively highlight your most relevant skills. One way to the essay by chris, do this is to focus on the projects where you held the most BA responsibilities this enables you to get beyond being a #8220;jack of of the american revolution essay, all trades#8221; and focus on your business analysis career experiences. And it does not mean #8220;overselling#8221; yourself it#8217;s just a matter of selectively telling the help me essays, truth . Out of all the business analyst resumes I review, by and large this is where most professionals need to invest the most time. Daughters Of The! (By the way, you#8217;ll learn how to get your resume noticed for business analyst jobs in Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews a virtual, self-study course that helps you highlight your relevant business analysis experience even if you#8217;ve never held a #8220;business analyst#8221; job.) Here are some of the mistakes I see. A software developer talks about the coding language they used, not the business problem they analyzed and solved. A customer support person details their primary responsibilities and the “special project” they participated in should parents help with homework scholastic as an SME/BA is daughters of the essay relegated to the essay, a single bullet point that goes unnoticed.
A prior manager is daughters of the revolution so “accomplishments focused” that they overshadow their abilities to for sat essay, roll up their sleeves and do business analysis work such as role definition, business process analysis, managing change, and obtaining buy-in across multiple departments. 5. Use Business Analysis Terminology to Demonstrate Your Capabilities. Of The! Let me let you in on another secret. As a qualified business analyst job candidate, you know more about business analysis than the average recruiter. To Do Research! While you know that #8220;process flows#8221; and of the american, #8220;workflow diagrams#8221; mean the writing for sat, same thing, the person doing the first-pass review of essay, your resume might not. This means that you#8217;ll hear back from the essay, most opportunities if you use the daughters of the american revolution essay, right terminology to talk about your experiences in your resume. Should Scholastic! These are called transferable business analysis skills. Here#8217;s an example from my own resume: As a QA Engineer I coordinated multiple business groups to review a particular application before it went live to our customers.
At the time, we called this activity #8220;data testing.#8221; Later I learned the formal term was #8220;user acceptance testing.#8221; I now use #8220;user acceptance testing#8221; on my resume. Daughters Of The American! It#8217;s accurate and honest and writing for sat essay, presents me as more qualified for certain business analysis positions. Once you have selected your most relevant skills and of the american, the right terminology for them, you#8217;ll want to craft bullet points that clearly communicate those skills and build instant credibility. And that leads us to secret #6. 6. Get Instant Credibility by why i essay Blending Accomplishments and Responsibilities in of the american essay Your Bullet Points. I#8217;m often asked whether to satirical, highlight your accomplishments (what you achieved for your project or organization) or your responsibilities (what you did for your organization) in your work history section. In the your resume#8217;s bullet points, you want to show how you used a business analysis skill and achieved something significant by applying that skill. So you essentially back-up an daughters of the american essay, accomplishment with a qualification, using the right terms you#8217;ve selected above. You can add to your credibility by essay writing competition using a variety of daughters american, concrete details to talk about competition, your contributions. Even if you don#8217;t have access to precise project results, you can include a variety of numbers and of the american revolution, details that help give shape to your experiences, thereby helping your reader see what kinds of things you might be able to do for their organization. 7. Address Any Employment Gaps Clearly.
Some of the resume gurus will tell you to hide an employment gap in your resume by reorganizing it in a functional resume format. In all the work I#8217;ve done with new business analysts and transitioning professionals, I#8217;ve never seen this approach work. Assume the person reading your resume is a relatively intelligent human being who is not going to miss a gap because you#8217;ve reorganized your work history in why i a confusing way. Assume instead they will doubt your transparency (which just happens to be a key business analyst trait). Giving others the of the revolution, opportunity to make false assumptions about you and your work, will only get your resume into the #8220;no#8221; pile. Proactively address your employment gap on your resume. Tell an honest story that shows you are ready, able, and willing to do the work of a business analyst. 8. Why I Research! Someone Else Cannot Write Your Resume For You. Daughters Of The! Creating a resume that clearly showcases your best business analysis qualifications is not easy work. Why I Want Research Essay! If your written language skills are lacking, hiring a resume writer could help you craft bullet points that honestly communicate your qualifications.
But keep in mind that as a business analyst you will be writing a lot of american revolution, documentation, so your resume is an artifact that demonstrates your ability to fulfill a key business analysis competency, just like the business analyst job interview is a time to demonstrate you can ask insightful questions. Help Me Essays! A resume writer may or may not have a deep understanding of the business analysis profession. They can hone and tweak your resume, but you need to of the american, own your business analysis qualifications and give them a significant amount of writing prompts essay, content to work with. Revolution! Yes, I know it’s painful to, yet again, update your resume. But if you aren’t getting calls for the right type of jobs, then this is fumari exactly where your job search time will be best spent. (Getting your resume right will also help you prepare for of the revolution essay the job interviews that come for it, so that#8217;s an added bonus.) And if you’d like my help creating a resume to showcase your business analyst qualifications, check out Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews. In this virtual, self-study course, you#8217;ll learn my step-by-step process to writing competition, creating a resume that gets beyond tricks and gimmicks by applying tested patterns to draw out your business analyst qualifications and catch the daughters revolution, attention of the essay by chris, potential interviewers. Stay informed about new articles and course offerings. (You'll get a free step-by-step BA career planning course too). Essay! your details are safe with us. Step-By-Step BA Career Planning Course New Articles to Help You Succeed as a Business Analyst Information on New Course Sessions, Books, and Work Aids. For Sat Essay! ***Business Analyst Webinars (Complimentary)*** What Experience #8220;Counts#8221; as Business Analyst Experience? (5 Examples) Being a BA is Not for the Faint of Heart. How Do I Convince My Team to Adopt Better Requirements Practices? Why This Might Be Taking Longer Than You Expect. Daughters Of The American! Use Cases: A Personal History (and a bit of a love affair) What To Do When a Developer Says #8220;That#8217;s Impossible#8221;
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Religion/ Witchcraft term paper 16651. What is of the, Witchcraft? This question is the essay fumari, gaining importance to people as we approach the daughters of the american, 20th century. To catch up with a constantly changing environment, people should be more aware and statement open-minded to things, especially to those that are rejected by our old traditional sets of values. We should get to know why does the Old World reject some beliefs by studying the original meanings behind those myths. The more we keep ourselves open to ideas, the more chances we have to explore ourselves and to advance our lives and our society. Each of daughters american us is a different individual. Not everybody feels right about the existing socially-accepted sets of values.
Getting to prompts know more about other alternatives simply gives us more possibilities to choose. Due to centuries of bad press, general impression of Witchcraft is of the american revolution essay, all about evils, Magick, and thesis spells. In fact, it may just be a religion that believes in Gods and the harmonic relationship between humans and the natural environment. This research paper is to redefine, in more accurate words, the truth of one of the oldest religion in the world. In this research paper, I have used information from the Internet such as some homepages built by some Coven and believers. I also used books that are mainly about the daughters, general structure of the Craft and writing prompts its religion Wicca. I have also had an interview with one of the Witch, Robb Boyle, on the 14th of November 1998.
I asked him general ideas and of the american some specific details about the Craft and the religion. 3.1 Brief historical background of the Witchcraft in the world. Scholars like anthropologists, archaeologists and historians believe that the practice of Witchcraft has been existed for prompts for sat, the around 20,000 to 40,000 years (Johnson). Daughters American Revolution. In every society, practitioners' vocations vary, like midwives or herbalists (DiLorenzo). However, fine distinctions of Witches were not made. People who believe in nature deities, and possessed fortune-telling or supernatural powers have all been considered as Witches. Witchcraft can be found in different kind of culture all over the world, like the Celtic, Greek, African, Egyptian and Asian (Moorey 18-20). The most well known one is the Celtic tradition of the craft. It is because during the classical time, the Witches' religion and the Celtic religion have inter-influenced each other greatly (Johnson).
The ancient history of the essay, craft mainly consists of a large part of persecution and daughters discrimination against the pagans by the public. Homework Scholastic. This was due to the fact when Christianity grew stronger and daughters expanded its political power; it set laws to suppress its rival. To Do Research Essay. One of its opposition was Witchcraft. The old Gods now becomes the evil of the new religion (Johnson and Our History). In 1755 . Daughters American Revolution Essay. . . in a 'Dictionary of the English Language,' defined a witch as 'a woman given to unlawful arts.' . . . The book 'Errores', written in 1450, declared, 'Witches . . . often make verbal pacts and promises with the Devil . . . '. Satirical. During the 'Burning Times' (circa 1400-1700), those accused of witchcraft were hung, drowned or burnt whether they confessed or not . . .by 1700, at least 200,000 women and girls had been killed (DiLorenzo). Other similar cases of persecution were Pope Innocent VIII who produced the daughters american, Bulls against the Witches in 1484 and two infamous German monks created their anti-Witchery plan, the Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches Hammer), two years later. The Archbishop of Treves was convinced that the local Witches had caused a severe winter and therefore 120 men and women who were thought to be the troublemakers were burned to death in 1586. Witches were the most convenient scapegoats for every aspect of satirical statement life. Besides religious reasons, Witches studied a lot and had a broad knowledge of botany, meteorology, anatomy, veterinary science, psychology, astronomy, and american primitive physics. What we called science now was considered as magic in the superstitious population of that time (DiLorenzo).
Thus, many Witches were persecuted throughout history. Lists of Witchcraft craze happenings in help me essays, England, Scotland, and France in the medieval time are attached with the paper (see appendix 1). Daughters American Revolution. In the late 19th century, as the society was getting more open to ideas, Witches had started to come forward to speak of the truth of their religion. The religion was legalized in the 50's. Finally, Witches began to enjoy the freedom of religion, which had been existed for quite a long time, as others (Johnson). It was around this very moment, in the 40s, when the Craft was revived and the term Wicca has officially become the parents help homework scholastic, name of the daughters of the revolution, religion of Witches (Moorey 17). 3.2 Background of the thesis, craft in United States. The old religion was slowly pushed back by daughters american revolution Christian churches in Europe. Christianity claims Witches were evil and for sat the Satan worshipped. The concepts of Satan and evil were actually constructed under the Christians' point of view (Vogel and Our History). The most well known event in the American history of Witchcraft persecution was the Salem Trial.
In the town of american essay Salem, Massachusetts, 19 people were executed in 1962. Around twenty people in the town who had suffered from hallucinations, spasm or whose cattle had died blamed those Witches for cursing them and putting them in trouble (DiLorenzo). At that time, claiming others as Witches was the easiest way to get rid of an undesired enemy. Those accused were typically vulnerable members of the Puritan community- quarrelsome, gossipy old women or some non-puritan. The Massachusetts legislature resolved that those hang due to the accusation of Witchcraft may have been illegally tried, convicted and sentenced in 1957 (Glover). That recognition has come 300 years late. Only after that trial, witch-hunting ended in America. Although large-scale hunting stopped, but discrimination and misconception persists. Recent examples are when KGUN-TV and a local church devastate the Desert Henge Coven and accused coven's members were performing Satanic Rituals in to do essay, 1990 and Geoffrey Dickins ask the Parliament to . Of The Revolution. . .wipe Witches off the satirical statement, face of the daughters american essay, earth in 1988 (Johnson).
3.3 Definition and Terminology. Witchcraft means Craft of the Wise Ones(Vogel). It is a Pagan Magickal-religious belief based on the natural deities and rituals (Wiccan Definiton). While Witch is a term derived from an Anglo-Saxon word Wicca (masculine) or Wicce (feminine), these two words mean twister. It was pronounced as wee-cha. It refers to canadian essay writing competition someone who possesses super-natural power to perform Magick or physic powers. It also applied to those members and followers of the daughters revolution essay, Witches' religion. Canadian Essay. Modern Witches claim themselves either as a follower of the Old Religion Witchcraft or Wicca (pronounced as wik-ka); further distinction between the two will be discussed in later section. Male Witch is sometimes mistakenly called as warlock.
This is actually a Scottish word means traitor and it is an insult to Witches. A male witch is still called as a Witch (Johnson). Wicca is a much more positive vocabulary rose in the 40s, which stands for the revive version of the Old Religion, Witchcraft. The word Wicca is originated from Indo-European of the Wic and Weik which means to blend or turn. In addition, a Wiccan is a follower of the Wicca religion (Wiccan Definiton).
The Book of daughters american essay Shadows is why i want to do research, a Witches' book of Rituals, spells, and Magickal lore. It is a journal that allows Witches to american essay note down all his/her rituals and spells (Thompson 67-68). A Coven is an why i want research essay, organization of Witches, like the churches in Christianity while referring to revolution a Solitary, means a Witch that worships on his/her own without joining any Coven. Further details about coven will be mentioned in later section. Charge is a Magickal act, which saturates a certain object with personal power (Wiccan Definiton).
The method that Witches would use to worship the Goddess and the Horned God is called Ritual. They request and wish through Magick while they perform Rituals. Although each tradition works on various Rituals differently, the Circle (or Sacred Space) and a Ritual meal afterwards are the basics. Writing. They use Rituals to celebrate the of the revolution essay, close relationship between themselves, the Gods, and help me essays the nature (Johnson). The word Maigick is used to distinguish between those magic which is performed for entertainment purposes and the soul power of Witches (Alaya). Initiation is the ceremonial recognition of daughters of the american prospects that becomes Witches. It is the most important Ritual for a Witch. While a Novice is an officially accepted student in the Coven, the help me essays, prospect is the one who wants to join the fellowship but has not initiated as yet. Binding is a pre-initiation stage when a Novice promises to be loyal to the Coven for the coming year.
Novices often wear green cords (Johnson). 3.4 The facts about the Craft. 3.4.1 Their ideas and the Nature of the Belief. Witchcraft is a natural religion (Vogel). It believes in the harmonic relationship between human beings, the natural environment, and Gods. In fact, Witches believe in the co-existence of daughters of the american revolution essay a God and why i to do a Goddess (Alaya). The Goddess is the of the american revolution essay, Mother of Earth and Nature and rivers are her blood (Boyle). She is the source of the essay by chris fumari everything that exists according to the religion. The moon represents her (The Grimoire). She embodies the of the, fertility of the plant, animal, and human kingdoms.
She has the greatest power from May to October, a period that is being called as the fertile half of the year (Vogel). Help Me Essays. She symbolizes changeless and eternity (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 12) The God represented by woodlands, the of the essay, Sun, grain, and the hunt. It was because most prehistoric prey had horns, the God is; therefore, often being called as the Horned One. On the contrary, his power is at peak in the dark half of the year, from October to May (Vogel). As the religion believes that fertility and balance on both body and soul, they think that the help me essays, perfect blend of two genders is important for the whole system to work (Johnson). In the daughters american revolution essay, eyes of Witches, Gods and Goddess are equally important, although some emphasized on worshipping the Goddess (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 11). The common myth that Witches believe in evil is not true.
Instead, they believe in the Wiccan Rede (see appendix 2). Help Me Essays. It is a basic moral code of the religion (Vogel). It states that: An it harms none, do what thou wilt (If it harms nobody, do whatever you want). Witches are left to choose what they would do. There is no such thing like forgiveness in Christianity.
The Threefold law states that either good or evil, it comes back to them three times over daughters revolution essay (Johnson). Through this law, Witches learn to be responsible for their own action. They do not worship Satan either, which is a relatively new concept from Christianity. Satirical. In addition, they do not do any kind of human or animal sacrifice at all (Vogel and Friedberg). According to american essay my interviewee, the whole purpose of practicing the craft is to reach out to the innermost of believers and to achieve a perfectly harmonious relationship with the environment. Writing Competition. The Old Religion carries few aspects that are very different from other religions; one of these is Reincarnation. Witches think that everything will be reborn into the physical world after its' death. Their life follows a cycle of birth, death and american revolution essay reborn just like the endless the cycle of the moon. Why I Want To Do Essay. This is a very important and interesting concept in the Witches' faith (Reincarnation: The Cycle of revolution essay Rebirth). There is no exact method of how this cycle works; therefore, Witches are given freedom to explore how things work for them.
Generally, Witches believe that if they are faithful enough, they will be reborn among people whom they love and get a chance to learn about and love those person again. Some believe that they can choose their parents, to learn from them and then to achieve the goal to be a better person in through different lives (Johnson). Thesis Statement. They also believe that their Gods are reborn in every cycle (Boyle). The symbol of the of the american essay, religion, the pentagram, fully illustrates this idea. It is satirical statement, a five-pointed star in an upright, one-point-up position. Of The Revolution. The top point symbolizes the spirit and the Creator being the should parents with homework scholastic, almighty above. Other elements of life- air, fire, water, and earth, are the four power points around the star. This never-ending circle symbolizes the cyclically reborn deity.
The circle has also encompassed a star within it, and that is actually a symbol of an out-stretched human body, reaching all connection (Vogel). As Satanic use the revolution, upside downed pentagram to illustrate their philosophies on willpower, passion, prosperity and earthly-good; it is very often mistaken that Witchcraft's pentagram symbolizes the Satan evil spirit (Friedberg) or Witchcraft is the same as Satanic. Another special belief is for sat essay, Karma. It is a reaction to a prior situation. In each reaction, Witches observe their instinct and responses. Gaining knowledge about themselves and their relations to the universe through each Karma, Witches learn to be a better person (Johnson). Witches see psychic as an daughters essay, ability that is born in everybody. The force, which we usually call as Magick can be easily obtained through practicing psychics with Rituals. Under such practices, people's hidden ability will be explored, thus, be able to perform Magick. Some Witches think that the Magickal power is competition, a gift from the Goddess to her children in daughters of the revolution essay, order to make better lives. Should With Scholastic. After all, it is an effort to assist people but not to daughters of the revolution replace material strength (Johnson).
3.4.2 Some Practices and Ceremonies. Unlike some major religions, the Witches' religion does not have luxurious or gigantic temples. It is due to covens never collect money from believers. In fact, they do not need one. To Witches, all nature is their temple. They usually lay out a nine-foot circle wherever they wish and delineate the place as a sacred temple (Johnson).
This circle is either used for satirical thesis statement, celebration or to practice magic (General Practices). Built by imagination and power from within, it encompasses the energy of the surrounding area. (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 57). After Ritual is over, the Circle is either wiped away or saved for next occasions. Witches have some special practices, like the Skyclad. People go naked when they worship the moon for example. It is because they think that a physical object like clothes will keep them from growing in Magickal power and essay getting closer to the Creator (Thompson 27).
They also meditated in order to get into a trance stage. They think they can communicate with their Gods best in this psychological condition (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 81). Trance is a state of being semi-conscious that lead to a personal revelation and a visionary journey (Moorey 51-52). Believers worship through daily life, simple things that all modern people do nowadays, like, being environmentally friendly. It is because they think that if the satirical statement, nature suffer, the suffering will be cycled back to human being soon or later (Boyle, Alaya and Friedberg). This concept makes Witches oppose animal experimentation and any destruction of the nature. Of The. They started behaving so centuries ago while to the mass, being environmental friendly is rather a new trend.
They cast spell when they worship. It is a Magickal ritual but there is nothing mysterious about it (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 203). It is just the equivalent of prayer in Christianity (Alaya). According to statement the religion, spells concentrate energy from the nature and daughters of the revolution essay combined it with the psychic power from within (Magick). Homework. Witches convert this kind of power into a message back to the exterior. Through these kind of of the essay self-designated Rituals, Witches purify themselves and the environment in order to dedicate themselves to the Deity. Practicing Rituals make Witches powerful enough to ask or wish for something from the why i want, nature (Boyle and Friedberg).
However, they are supposed to daughters revolution essay use it according to the Rede, not to harm anybody including him or herself (Alaya). Want To Do Essay. As it is such a self-involved religion, different people may have different experiences. Normally, Witches keep a record of daughters of the revolution essay their personal experiences, feelings and some spells that they have composed in a journal called The Book of Shadows (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 196). This book usually passes from generation to generation. Witches use different kinds of tools when they worship, like the writing prompts essay, athame is a dagger used to direct energy from the nature. It usually has a black handle, as black is believed to be able to absorb power. Daughters American Essay. It probably will not be for statement, any physical cutting. The athame symbolizes masculinity, air, or fire.
The wand is an instrument for invocation; it can be made of any material. If it is daughters of the american revolution essay, cut from a tree, Witches will explained to the tree why they are doing so and may give the tree something like, a stone as offerings. This action illustrate the environmental friendly nature and the cycle belief of the religion. Research Essay. The wand symbolizes air or fire. Broom is a tool used to sweep negative power out of the sacred Circle used for worshipping. It symbolizes intellect, cleansing, and air. The chalice is for holding wine or water on the altar. Daughters American Revolution Essay. It symbolizes femininity and water while the pentacle is a pentagram inscribed in statement, metal plate used for evoking and of the american essay protection purposes and it symbolizes the five elements and earth (The Grimoire). 3.4.3 Rituals and Festivals. As mentioned above, Witches believe in nature, never ending cycle of life and the Deity (both God Goddess). Their festive celebrations are based on the changes of the environment and to do the rebirth of their god.
The Esbats, the Lunar Rites, are dedicated to the Goddess. Daughters American Revolution Essay. These are Rituals when Witches do complex training on Magick. The Sabbats, Solar Rites, are dedicated to the Horned God and the Cycle of the year, which celebrate their relationship with nature and the Gods. Then come the Passage Rites, these festivals celebrate Wiccanings (birth). There are also Puberty Rites, Handfasting Rites (weddings), and Passing Rites (funerals) (Johnson).
As mentioned that Christianity and Witchcraft had so much influence over each other, many Sabbats listed below are now celebrated as different festivals in Christianity; like Samhain is celebrated as Halloween and Yule is celebrated as Christmas. Yule is the Winter Solstice (December 21st). It is the shortest day of the year and it is a solar festival that is celebrated by why i to do the element fire and the use of daughters american revolution Yule log. Prompts For Sat. Colors of the season are red and green. Daughters Of The. Traditions of decorating Yule trees and exchanging gifts are inherited from pagans. Food is specially prepared for Yule celebration. Trees will be lightened up and logs are burned.
A piece of the log will be saved to light up the tree in next year. That leftover piece is kept all year long in the house as a sign of protection to the house. Candles are also burnt as a sign of ensuring wealth and canadian competition happiness. Then it comes the daughters american revolution, Candlemas (February 2nd). This is the first one of the three spring festivals. Lavender and white candles are burned. It celebrates the coming of the spring, fertility, and new life.
On March 5th is the Ostatra which is also called the spring equinox. Night and day are of equal length on that day. By Chris Fumari. This is a celebration of the balance between winter and spring. People bless seeds for future planting on that day and daughters american revolution painted eggs are placed on the altar as magickal protection. Easter how Christianity call this festival. Holiday colors are light green, lemon, and pale pink. Beltane (May 5th) is the last one of the satirical thesis, trinity spring festivals. All living things will prepare themselves for the coming of daughters revolution warmth on that day. People will decorate trees with colorful ribbons. The summer solstice has the should parents help, longest daytime of the year. It represents the glorious Sun King and celebrate passion and success.
Sunflowers and flowers in red and maize yellow color are used to decorate the altar. In this, Midsummer Night's Eve, it is a great chance to commune with the fields and forest faeries. Lammas in on the August 2nd. It is the first of the three harvest festivals in the fall. Bread is traditionally baked for american, celebration. In addition, herbs for Magickal used should be harvested on this day, as it is the beginning of the harvest cycle.
Fall Equinox is on September 23rd. It also has equal length of daytime and nighttime same as the spring equinox. The Essay By Chris. It starts winter. Moreover, the male and the female force stand in daughters of the, balance on that day. Blackberry-blue colored candles is used during celebration (Sabbats). Writing Prompts For Sat. Samhain (October 31st) is known by Christianity to be Halloween. The day is dedicated to the eternal life. People will have connection to loved ones who have died. It is because the daughters of the american revolution essay, veil that separates the world of forms and thesis the invisible world gets to its thinnest on that night. Samhain is pronounced as sow-wen.
To Witches, this is the most important day of the year as it is as well as the of the american revolution essay, New Year's Eve (Sabbats of the year and Watanabe). As the belief has been existed for such a long time, there are many traditions passed from the past. Each tradition has its own emphasis. It is because communication nowadays are so advanced and the religion is so open for choices, modern Witches usually follow whatever practice they wish to (like the Eclectic). That may be a combination of different tradition from various origins and even some family traditions passed down from writing for sat, generations (Boyle). These make it impossible to tell a specific kind of tradition that all Witches are following nowadays. Witches are allowed to have their own ways of practice as soon as they think it suits them. There are few traditions that are particularly popular though. For example, the Celtic tradition is a down-to-earth tradition which focuses on the nature, elements, faeries, plants, etc. American Revolution. Green Witches tend to follow this path. The Ceremonial Witchcraft uses ceremonial Magick to enhance their connection with the mighty, explore their abilities, and recognize their higher purposes.
Rituals of this tradition are often derived from Egyptian magick. Dianic is another tradition which feminist oriented. Some followers therefore only focus on worshipping the Goddess. Writing Prompts Essay. According to my interviewee, many feminists Witches choose to follow this path to obtain a balance from the traditional portray of the Divine as a male, like Jesus in Christianity. The hereditary Witches are those who learn through family member and/or have traces of the Craft in their family history.
The British tradition is essay, a strictly structured tradition comparing to others. Its Rituals consist of both Celtic and Gardnerian traditions. Eclectic Witches are the free-runner in the Craft. They blend the ideas of many different traditions. Essay. It is rather flexible, so generally, Rituals are free-style and covens are loosely structured (The Grimoire). Kitchen is a practical down-to-earth tradition according to american revolution my interviewee.
Eclectic Witches whose Magick focus on hearth and home are classified under this category (The Grimoire). There is help me essays, also an Italian tradition name Stratic (Boyle). American Essay. There are no accurate statistics about help me essays, how many traditions actually exist because the religion is keep on evolving. There are some contemporarily set up traditions that will be introduced in the section Significant Personality and Cliques in Modern Witchcraft though. 3.5 Organizations and cliques.
Covens are the equivalent of revolution churches in help me essays, Christianity in the Craft. According to Johnson, it consisted from daughters of the american essay, 3 unrelated members to help me essays 13 people. Members of of the american fellowship meet regularly for Rituals or other important matters. It is runs by the High Priest and High Priestess. Want. In the traditional religion, the Coven is divided into the Inner court and the Outer court.
The Outer court is mainly a training group. Those who wish to join the Coven like Prospects and Novices were taught how to behave in the coven. The Inner court is the actual place where Witches worship and learn. Daughters American Revolution Essay. High Priest and High Priestess run both courts (Johnson). The most common system works in coven is the Three Degree System. The first degree is the student/Witch. The second degree is the practitioner/Priest/ess and the third degree is the teacher/ High Priest/ess.
Other traditions may have somewhat up to thirteen degrees. That depends on essay competition, how they separate their coven, but almost all traditions will have initiation ceremony which Witches are formally accepted into the coven. As Gods exist in a male-female balance, Witches attempt a balance in their lives. Daughters Essay. Thus, Witches try to be sexually equality. Rules may be set in should help homework scholastic, certain covens that some Rituals must be performed by a High Priestess though most have a High Priest as well. Some find that they can worship better with only a female leader (Johnson and Hugli). 3.5.2 Significant Personality and Cliques in Modern Witchcraft. Gerald Gardner . . .was (once) the single voice speaking for the Craft (Our History). He is the first one to admit that he is fascinated by the Craft to the public. He wrote about the truth about of daughters of the revolution essay religion through books like High Magic's Aid and Witchcraft Today.
His publicity helps to satirical thesis statement revitalize the daughters of the american revolution essay, religion. He also founded the satirical, Gardnerian Tradition based on his lifetime studies and a Celtic tradition which he originally belonged in the 1950's in England. This tradition means a lot to modern Witches. Many ways of working Rituals and Magick nowadays are evolved from this tradition. His follower Doreen Valiente rewrote some fragments of daughters of the revolution his Rituals. Raymond Buckland was the first recognized Witch in contemporary America.
He had brought and popularized the Craft into this society. Initiated in Scotland, Buckland came all the way to America, a place where there were no covens at all, to promote the truths about the belief. Almost every Witch's traditions in to do, America nowadays are Buckland's interpretation of the Gardnerian (Our History and Johnson). Alexander Sanders is another important personality. He combines the daughters of the essay, Gardnerian Witchcraft with the help me essays, Ceremonial tradition and forms a popular tradition, the Alexandrian, around 1960 in England. He drew much attention from the media and is being called as The King of Witches (Johnson and The Grimoire). Silver Ravenwolf and Scott Cunningham is both American who had achieved a lot in daughters of the, promoting the Craft in the American society through writing books and promoting it through the media (Boyle).
3.6 Definition of Wicca. It is said to be the religion of Witches. Satirical Thesis. According to my interviewee, it is a term rose in the 40s when the Craft was revived. Asking some Witches through the Internet, some found that there are no differences between Witchcraft and daughters of the essay Wicca at all (like my interviewee) while some Witches react strongly claiming that they are Witches but not Wiccan. According to Alaya, Wicca is a tradition under Witchcraft.
Just like Catholic is under Christianity. People who follow the religion of Witchcraft are witches. The people who follow Wicca are Wiccans. All Wiccans are witches but not all witches are Wiccan. There are many tradition witches can follow. Wicca is only one of them . To Do Essay. . . Daughters Revolution Essay. there . Satirical Thesis Statement. . . are Wiccan that do not consider themselves as witches. But usually all Wiccans are witches. Generally, through the Internet sources I have researched through, Wicca is interpreted, as the religion of Witches and daughters revolution Wiccan is its believer. Few people can really tell the differences between the two. Some sources simply mix up the two with Witches has the exact same meanings as Wiccan. 3.7 Evolutions of the parents help homework scholastic, Craft.
Throughout all these years, the Craft have many evolutions. Some of daughters of the american essay it substances have grew to get even more attention than the craft itself. These are like herbalism and aromatherapy. According to the book Magical Herbalism by Scott Cunningham, herbalism is a knowledge that passes from generation to writing prompts for sat generation along with Witchcraft (xii). Its main practical purposes are to protect and heal while in Witchcraft, it is part of the Magick used for daughters of the american, evoking and soothing purposes. Aromatherapy is a rather new theory comparatively to the essay by chris herbalism. It uses scents to achieve certain practical human healing or soothing purposes. Scents may be from the natural environment or from essence oil. 3.8 Future Trend. Witches are getting more actively involved in telling the truth about daughters american revolution essay, their religion publicly nowadays. Should With Homework. There are also more positive and daughters american true portrays of the Craft in Hollywood, like TV show Charmed and movie The Practical Magic (Watanabe).
Although there are still many religious superstitious accusations against the craft in this scientific era, the religion is likely to get attention that is more positive in the future and may there be more believers of parents help it. Boyle, Robb. Personal interview. I4 November 1998. Cunningham, Scott. Magickal Herbalism. Of The American Essay. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1986.
-----. Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner. The Essay By Chris Fumari. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1988. Moorey, Teresa. Witchcraft: a beginner's guide. London: Hooder Stoughton, 1996. Thompson, Janet. Of Witches: celebrating the Goddess as a solitary pagan. Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1993.
DiLorenzo, Kris. That old black magic keeps witches in of the essay, popular culture. Star Tribune. 29 October 1995. Online. Internet. Available WWW: http:// www.elibrary.com/id/120/203/getdoc. . . [email protected]_gdtype=0 0dinst= Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is thesis, written from scratch based on of the, your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the daughters revolution essay, introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. Help Me Essays. The entire paper should be written in daughters of the american essay the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and essay writing, should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word.
On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is daughters of the american revolution essay a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and the essay fumari, spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the of the revolution, words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the the essay by chris fumari, actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Daughters Revolution. Flush right, on same line: page number.
Use the toolbox to help me essays, insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. Of The American. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the parents homework, most difficult to revolution, write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and satirical thesis statement, why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the daughters of the american revolution essay, end. Here are some guidelines for parents help scholastic constructing a good introduction:
Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. Daughters Of The American Revolution. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the writing prompts essay, authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. Daughters. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by canadian essay writing, stating your purpose briefly, to daughters of the american, give your reader a schema for all the with scholastic, information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.
Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in daughters american 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the satirical thesis statement, ideas you think are necessary to include in daughters of the essay your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and satirical statement, think about of the american revolution essay, how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to the essay by chris, use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader.
The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. American Revolution Essay. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the thesis, reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in of the revolution essay complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Why I Want. Don’t make one mistake typical of of the, a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to help me essays, my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about daughters of the revolution essay, citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section.
Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Canadian Essay Writing Competition. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the of the, details of canadian writing competition, your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for revolution example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Canadian Competition. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to american revolution, present the Procedure section prior to canadian essay, the. Materials section rather than after it.
(labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the daughters of the essay, participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for canadian writing competition their time in of the american essay any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and to do essay, research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. American Essay. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and why i, so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and revolution essay, pencil used to should help with homework, record the daughters of the american, responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and help me essays, so forth.
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For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). Satirical Thesis Statement. For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the essay, df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is help me essays shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of revolution essay, all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and parents help with scholastic, SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in american revolution your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”).
Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and fumari, standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by of the american essay, examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Why I Want. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.
(labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and of the american, place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. Help With. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in daughters of the revolution that you begin with the specifics and work toward the why i to do essay, more general (funnel out) . Some points to essay, consider: Begin with a brief restatement of writing, your main findings (using words, not numbers). Revolution. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think?
Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the why i want to do research essay, results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in daughters american revolution (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.
What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Satirical Thesis Statement. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the daughters of the american revolution, study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings?
How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold)
Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by canadian essay writing, last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and daughters of the revolution essay, is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on help me essays, p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. Of The Revolution. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009).
Ecological momentary assessment of for sat, mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. Daughters American Essay. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol.
2, pp. Research Essay. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for revolution tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual.
Be sure to satirical thesis statement, provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Of The American Revolution. Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the help me essays, units of measurement of the DV.
Underneath the figure provide a label and daughters of the american revolution essay, brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the statement, bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp.
174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the daughters revolution, authors’ names and should parents help with scholastic, publication date. Daughters American Revolution Essay. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the parents homework, sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in of the revolution essay parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to writing prompts for sat, include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. Daughters. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. Prompts. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and of the american revolution essay, “et al.” are used every time the source is statement cited (including the first time).
“Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. Of The American Essay. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:
Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for essay competition the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .