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Guidelines for a Literature Survey and an Annotated Bibliography. One of the options as a summative exercise for the MTS degree is to do a survey of introduction, literature of about 40 pages in essay, length. Here you will choose a specific topic in the area of theological studies and essay, identify, discuss, evaluate, and relate significant books, articles, and other resources. A survey evaluates what scholars and researchers have written on a topic, organized according to a guiding concept such as your research objective, thesis, or the problem/issue you have identified. You may need to include studies contrary to your own perspective. Writing A Cover Letter 2014. The final result should be that your literature review be relevant, appropriate, and useful. An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources, each of persuasive essay, which is followed by a brief note or annotation. These annotations describe the content and focus of the book or article; suggest the source's usefulness to your research; evaluate its method, conclusions, or reliability; and canadian, record your assessments of the to a, sources. This guide provides you with guidelines on how to evaluate the essay, resources you are using, whether the result is included in to a persuasive, the body of your survey of letter 2014, literature, or as an appendix in the form of an annotated bibliography, or both. Either way the purpose is evaluative: i.e. to assess the strengths and introduction, weaknesses of a select or comprehensive array of works (in book, article, essay, or electronic format) on a given topic.
This guide provides you with guidelines on what areas to address and canadian essay writing, questions to ask, the answers to which will provide you with the material from which your survey of literature can be composed; and, as a derivative, how to construct annotations. Key questions are listed, sample annotations (print and electronic) are appended, and guidelines on style provided. The most important part of your literature survey is the Introduction. Good To A Persuasive. In it you will set the scene for the rest of your work in the compilation of research apa format, materials. It should be written before you choose literature to include in your survey. Refer back to your Introduction as you choose materials and write evaluations or annotations. The Introduction is to a essay best written after you have done some general reading on the topic. The Introduction should define your topic and should include the following:
One sentence summarizing the topic Statement of how the topic fits into brill miss the larger context of the subject area Definitions of any terms used Statement as to introduction persuasive essay, how selective or comprehensive your survey and accompanying bibliography is. Do you want to include everything published on your topic or do you want to impose certain limitations? If you choose to be selective, you must outline the sample research apa format, criteria by introduction essay, which you include materials while excluding others. Limitations may consist of: Years of publication: e.g. deal with literature published between 1960 and 2000. Geographical: e.g. research done in North America only Language(s) of materials, e.g. only works in English Aspects of a topic: e.g. Letter 2014. historical; particular schools or traditions of scholarship etc Type(s) of materials, e.g. books, articles, essays, theses, online resources. Make a statement in the Introduction as to what limitations you are placing on the literature you are surveying. What is the good, scope of the literature review? What types of publications are you using? See further below under VIII Structure . The objectives in doing a review of literature and research using apa format, its accompanying annotated bibliography include the following: To choose and evaluate current literature, print and electronic, relevant to your topic.
To synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept you have determined. To demonstrate the quality of to a essay, your own research. To provide additional information or background material for essay writing your reader. To A. To explore the topic as the basis for further reading or preparation for research. To give your research historical perspective or context. To place your project into the context of established work in the field.
The purpose of the independence, review of literature is not merely to know what literature exists, but to provide an informed evaluation of that literature. To achieve both purposes, two methodological skills are required: Information Literacy : the ability to introduction persuasive, locate relevant literature (books, articles, essays, theses, or electronic resources) using efficient information seeking skills. How good are your information seeking skills? Has your search been wide enough to ensure you have found all the relevant material? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material?
Is the number of sources you have used appropriate for the length of essays on government policy and pharmaceutical innovation, your summative exercise? Is there a specific relationship between the literature you have chosen to good, review and the topic you have chosen? If you need assistance in this area make an appointment to talk to a reference librarian (Tom Power or Elsie Del Bianco) at the Graham Library (416-978-2653). Critical Evaluation : the ability to apply evaluative criteria in canada essay, order to identify those works which are central to good introduction, your topic. The rest of this guide addresses this area. IV Evaluation of Books/Articles/Essays. A number of key questions need to be asked the answers to which will provide you with the material upon which your survey and/or annotations can be constructed. Checkpoints indicate the walmart research paper, potential answers to the questions. Why was the book/article written?
To: inform? For example: sequence of historical events, results of lengthy study persuade? For example: to to a persuasive essay, change or refute an established point of view give an overview? For example: textbooks, encyclopaedias. The purpose is usually presented in the introduction. Who published the book? A university press? (University theses and dissertations are considered published by the university that granted the degree to paper using, the student who wrote it.) Commercial publisher?
Professional Association, Institution, or Research Centre? What can you tell about the book from the publisher? What theological tradition is the publisher in? Catholic, liberal, evangelical, reformed, or broad academic? Some journals have an inherent bias that will impact articles printed in them. Is the journal: liberal or conservative, centrist, feminist in to a persuasive essay, stance? Can you determine what its orientation is?
Examine the table of contents and/or headings to determine if the book is writing a cover letter organized in a logical and understandable manner. Do the contents indicate that the book contains the information you need? How thoroughly does the material cover the topic? Is there added material such as appendices? Is the material organized, focused, and clearly presented? Is the argument or presentation understandable? Is this original research, a review of previous research, or an informative piece? Table of contents Index Introduction/Preface Book reviews Reviews of the literature. Some topics require current information, while other subjects, value older material as well as current. Good To A. If the topic is controversial and/or rapidly changing, it is paper important to choose recent materials.
Older materials may be used for topics explored from a historical perspective. Examine the currency of the book/article; is it: up-to-date, out-of-date, or timeless? Is the author an expert in this field? Is the good introduction persuasive essay, author reliable? Where is the paper outline, author employed?
What else has he/she written? Preface of book Biographical sources in library (e.g. P. W. Good To A Persuasive Essay. Carey J.T. Lienhard, Biographical dictionary of Christian theologians , 2000). Essays Policy Innovation. Type of publisher. Sources of Information/Perspective/Bias.
Where is the author getting information? What types of research methods are used? What are the author's assumptions? From what perspective or school of thought is the to a persuasive, author writing? How does the book/article fit into essay writing competition the big picture? In what context is the book/article written? In what time period? Are there outside influences that are reflected in the book/article such as a particular theoretical framework or model (e.g. Good To A Essay. a feminist interpretation, post-liberal, denominational)? Has the author clearly and unambiguously formulated a problem/issue and established its significance? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the way the author has done so?
Could the problem have been approached from another perspective? Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to the topic? Does the author include literature taking positions s/he does not agree with? Is the analysis accurate and relevant to the research question? Are the sample of a research using apa format, conclusions validly based upon the evidence and good introduction to a, analysis? Is the author objective, or is s/he merely 'proving' what s/he already believes? Have similar materials been published? How do they compare?
How important is essay competition this publication for the subject? Scholarly works always contain a bibliography of the good introduction to a, resources that were consulted. Bibliographical references should be in sufficient quantity and canada independence, be appropriate for the content. Determine: if a bibliography exists if the bibliography is short or long if the bibliography is selective or comprehensive, if the references are primary sources (e.g. Introduction Persuasive. journal articles) or only secondary sources (e.g. encyclopedias) if the references are contemporary to the book or much older, and if the citation style is clear and consistent. A well researched, well-written book/article is not going to research paper using, be helpful if it does not address the topic at hand.
Is the introduction persuasive essay, book/article relevant to the current research project? Ask, is canadian essay writing competition this book/article useful to good introduction to a persuasive, me? If it is useful, does it: support an argument refute an argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is it an overview? How does the sample of a using, author structure his or her argument? Can you 'deconstruct' the flow of the argument to analyze if/where it breaks down? Is this a book/article that contributes to our understanding of the problem under study, and in good, what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and limitations? How does this book/article fit into the thesis or question you are developing? For what type of reader is the author writing? Is the level of the book/article appropriate for your needs? Is the book/article intended for a scholarly or general audience?
Introduction Level of language used Type of writing a cover letter 2014, publication/publisher the material is found in. Are charts, graphs, maps, photographs, etc. used to illustrate concepts? Are the illustrations relevant? Are they clear and professional looking? Do they enhance the text? To evaluate a web page (and determine if you want to use it for your research) look for: Why was the page created? Is the page organized and focused?
Is it well designed? Is the text well written? Are the links relevant and appropriate? Are the persuasive, links evaluated? Is the essay miss, scope or purpose of the persuasive essay, web page clearly stated? Is the document written for an academic audience?
Are the sources for any factual information clearly listed? Is a bibliography or list of works cited provided? Can you verify citations from walmart research paper your own academic resources? Is the information free of spelling and introduction to a persuasive, grammatical errors? Distinguish between fact and opinion. Since web resources are rarely reviewed, the information provided should not be accepted at face value. Some web pages have an inherent bias that will impact everything that appears on them. What is the theological orientation of the a cover, author or sponsor? Is there objective analysis as opposed to mere expression of opinion?
Is the information presented with a minimum of bias? Is there use of introduction to a persuasive essay, bibliographical references to other credible sources? The value of a web page is closely related to currency and essay, timeliness. When was it last revised? Are the links still viable?
Is the date of creation of the persuasive essay, page provided? Are the links in the document current (i.e. Essays Policy And Pharmaceutical Innovation. have not expired or moved)? Is the web page relevant to the current research project? A well-researched, well-written, page is not going to be helpful if it does not address the topic at hand. Ask, is persuasive this useful to me? If it is sample paper apa format useful, does it: support an argument refute an good introduction, argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with productively What is the relative value of the website compared to the range of information resource (print and non-print) available on the topic? What is the provenance of the website? Does the page have an identifiable, respectable author? If not, the page must be used with caution. What is the institutional affiliation of the on government and pharmaceutical innovation, author?
Does this imply a particular theological perspective? Who is responsible for good introduction to a the page? Is the author an expert in this field? What else has he/she written or produced? How accurate is the provided information? Is the author of the essay, document clearly stated? Are the credentials of the author(s) provided (i.e. Introduction To A. position, education, occupation)? Is contact information (email address, phone number and mailing address) for essay the author provided? Do you believe this person is qualified to write on the given topic? (look at credentials, other publications he/she has written) Is there an editorial board or someone who verifies or checks the information? Often a web page is not signed or a specific author is not attributed to good introduction to a essay, the document. If this is the case you should try to determine the credibility of the host or sponsoring organization of the web document.
If you can, answer the writing a cover 2014, following: Is the sponsoring organization reputable? To what type of reader is the web page directed? Is the level appropriate for your needs? Is the page for: general readers, students, specialists or professionals, researchers or scholars? Does the page cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is it an essay, overview?
Are the links relevant and appropriate for this site? What do the links offer that is not easily available in other sources? Are the links evaluated in any way? Are annotations included? Are the sample research apa format, graphics clear in intent, relevant and professional looking? Do the graphics add to or enhance the content? Use the Chicago A style for good to a essay your annotations. Be careful with the order of elements within a citation: punctuation, spacing, indenting (each line except the first within citations, etc). Use the format outlined in essay writing, K.L.
Turabian, A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and good persuasive, dissertations 7th ed. (Chicago, 2007). Annotations can vary in length depending on what you have to say but they should be concise (see examples below, X Examples of on government policy, Annotations ). Just like print sources, information derived from the web as part of your survey must be acknowledged. Although different style manuals may require different citation formats, most will include the following: Author's last name, first name Title of document Title of introduction persuasive essay, complete work (if different from title of document) Document date (if known and if different from date accessed) Protocol and full address Date of access. The Chicago A style for electronic resources is as follows: using the Chicago Manual of Style to include Internet sources produces the research apa format, following model: author's name (in normal order), document title, date of Internet publication, or other retrieval information (date of access), text division (if applicable). To document a file available for viewing and downloading, provide the to a essay, following information: author's name (if known); title of document (in quotation marks); title of complete work (if applicable), in italics or underlined; date of publication or last revision (if known; otherwise use n.d.); URL in angle brackets; date of access (in parentheses).
Example: Leslie R. Shade, Gender Issues in Computer Networking, 1993, http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/sorokin/women/lrs.html(28 May 1996). Provide the following information: author's name (if known); author's email address (in angle brackets); subject line from posting (in quotation marks); date of publication; for emails: type of communication (personal, distribution list), or for listserv, address of the listserv (in angle brackets); date of access (in parentheses). To document a file that can be retrieved from a list serve or web address, provide the following information after the publication date: address of listserv (in angle brackets); address or URL for essay miss list's archive (preceded by via and enclosed ion angle brackets); date of introduction persuasive, access (in parentheses). Example (Email): Danny Robinette, [email protected] Project, 30 April 2000, personal email (29 May 2000). Example (Listserv): Victor Parette, [email protected] On Expectations of Class Participation, 27 May 2000 (29 May, 2000).
Example (Listserv Archive): Nick Carbone, [email protected] 960126: Follow-up to writing letter, Don's Comments about Citing URLs, 26 January 1996, [email protected] http://www.ttu.edu/lists/acw-l(17 February 1996). Bibliography entries differ from introduction to a essay footnote/endnote references in the following ways: authors' names are inverted; elements of entries are separated by canadian writing, periods; the first line of each entry is aligned with the good introduction, left margin, and subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces. If your paper is double-spaced, double-space the bibliography as well. Example: Hoemann, George H. Electronic Style-Elements of Citation. Electronic Style Page. Sample Research Using Apa Format. 3 November 1995. http://funnelweb.utcc.utk.edu/ hoemann/style.html (29 May 1996). You will already have established a preliminary structure resulting from your introductory considerations (see above I Introduction ). When composing and writing your literature review and annotated bibliographies certain structural considerations are worth noting: Your review should be organized into practical sections that present themes or identify trends. Your review must be a conceptually organized synthesis of the results of your search.
It must organize information and persuasive, relate it to the thesis or research question you are developing synthesize results into canadian essay a summary of what is and isn't known identify controversy when it appears in persuasive essay, the literature develop questions for and pharmaceutical further research. IX Examples of Surveys of good introduction to a, Literature. Waldman, Nahum M. The recent study of Hebrew: a survey of the literature with selected bibliography . Cincinnati: Eisenbrauns, 1989. Oesterley, W. O. E. A short survey of the literature of brill essay, rabbinical and mediæval Judaism . London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920. Introduction Essay. Hahn, Herbert Ferdinand. The Old Testament in modern research. With a survey of recent literature . Letter. Philadelphia: Fortress Press . Survey of current literature on the Christian mission and Christianity in the non-Western world [microform].No.
1 (1982)- Aberdeen: Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, 1982-. Runia, David T. Philo in early Christian literature : a survey . Minneapolis: Fortress Press,1993. The content of the annotations can be varied from summative to evaluative or a mixture of both, however, at this level they will normally be evaluative. Introduction Essay. An annotation that is purely a summary is merely a summary of the source. A descriptive annotation defines the scope of the source, lists the significant topics included, and tells what the source is about. In the essay, evaluative annotation you assess the source's strengths and weaknesses. You assess why the source is interesting or helpful, or why it is not.
In doing this you should list what kind of and how much information is given; in short, evaluate the source's usefulness, critically stating its place in the field in relation the topic you have chosen. Most annotations are a combination of introduction to a, these approaches with one or two sentences summarizing or describing content and canada essay, one or two sentences providing an evaluation. In terms of persuasive, writing style used in the annotations the key factor is brevity, whether you are writing in phrases, paragraphs, or complete sentences. Outline. Omit anything that is apparent in the title, background materials and references to previous work by persuasive, the same author. You are recommended to use full sentences in your annotations. Although the writing a cover 2014, length of sentences may vary, avoid long and complex sentences. Introduction To A Persuasive. Paragraph length is expected, and they should be full and coherent. Sample annotations on the topic of New Testament theology follow below: Goppelt, L. Writing. A Theology of the New Testament . 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981, 1982. The first volume includes a great deal of good to a persuasive, material on the history of and walmart outline, methods of the discipline of biblical theology.
Goppelt is especially insightful when he treats salvation history. Not as conservative as Ladd or Guthrie, Goppelt nevertheless is a thoughtful and careful student of Scripture, and his work deserves wide circulation, even if many will find his approach to to a persuasive, history unduly cautious and skeptical. Guthrie, D. New Testament Theology . Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1981. More than twice as long as its closest rival (Ladd, above), this major study is distinctive for writing a cover 2014 another reason: it is the to a essay, only recent NT theology to organize its material in this way. On Government Policy. Guthrie selects a wide variety of themes and topics and examines how each is treated in each corpus of the NT, and then concludes with summary syntheses. Kummel, W. G. The Theology of the New Testament according to its Major Witnesses: Jesus-Paul-John . Nashville: Abingdon, 1973.
This book hews its own line and interacts very little with secondary literature. Introduction To A Persuasive Essay. Kummel is far more conservative than the two volume standard by Rudolf Bultmann, and very suggestive. The material is organized as in Ladd. Ladd, G. E. A Theology of the New Testament . Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974. This theology is organized by presenting the major themes of each Biblical author/work. There is no attempt to synthesize the on government innovation, material for the NT as a whole, and no comparison of themes from corpus to corpus. Nevertheless, although some coverage is patchy (e.g. on the theology of the cross), some is outstanding, especially Ladd's treatment kingdom and of salvation history. XI Examples of Published Annotated Bibliographies. You may find it useful to persuasive essay, consult some published annotated bibliographies of which the following are a sample: Joseph A. Fitzmyer, An Introductory Bibliography for paper outline the Study of Scripture , 3rd ed. (Rome, 1990).
Douglas Moo (ed.), An Annotated Bibliography on the Bible and the Church (Deerfield, Ill., 1986). Mark A Powell, The Bible and Modern Literary Criticism: a Critical Assessment and Annotated Bibliography (New York, 1992). Good. Mark Minor, Literary-Critical Approaches to the Bible: an Annotated Bibliography (West Cornwall, CT, 1992). Robert J. Kepple John R. Muether, Reference Works for Theological Research: an Annotated Selective Guide for Bibliographical Research (Lanham, MD, 1992). Henry O. Thompson, The Book of Amos: an Annotated Bibliography (Lanham, MD, 1997). Frank E. Sugeno, Episcopal and Anglican History: 1973-1975, an annotated bibliography. Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 46 (Mar., 1977), 115-148. XII Examples of Online Annotated Bibliographies.
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9 Resume Tips For Young Professionals: Using Resume Examples. When writing a resume, those with little experience are often tempted to include everything about every role that they’ve ever had. But the trick is that the relevance of the information you include on your resume is what matters most. A good resume is about quality, not quantity. Particularly in to a persuasive, today’s job market, where many potential employers rely on applicant tracking systems to competition do the initial scans of resumes for them, your focus should be on to a persuasive essay tailoring your resume to be relevant to your desired job. 6 things to include. Summary statement. A summary statement is outline not the same thing as a generic line stating your objective. Instead, a summary statement is the written equivalent of your “elevator speech.” That is, it’s a quick summary highlighting what makes you a great candidate—in a few sentences, explain your skills, accomplishments, and the ways in which you could benefit a potential employer.
Link to online profile. This may be a link to your LinkedIn profile, or it could be a link to an online portfolio showcasing your writing, art, design, or other work you have created. Good Introduction To A Persuasive? Whatever you choose, make sure that you have a professional presence online. This does not mean that you need to delete all traces of policy and pharmaceutical your social media profiles. In fact, having a social media presence where you demonstrate involvement in your desired field—talking about a conference you attended, posting a link to good to a persuasive essay an article you read—can be a huge benefit during a job search.
Further, Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, states that 86% of of a using recruiters will look up an applicant’s online profile. By including the good essay, link yourself, you can be sure that a recruiter will get to the correct profile, and not risk being mixed up with someone else. Suitable contact information. Still using that email address that you created in high school? You may need to create a new email address. Essay Miss? Choose one that is to a persuasive essay based on your name rather than on hobbies, jokes, nicknames, etc. For your phone number, make sure that the on government innovation, message callers hear when leaving a voicemail is clear, brief and sounds professional. Relevant activities. Good? Young professionals who have limited paid experience might still have gained relevant, applicable experience by sample of a paper doing something other than paid work.
For example, college coursework, volunteering, or membership in introduction persuasive essay, clubs or associations can all provide hands-on experience. Including these types of experiences could also increase the chances that your resume contains the relevant keywords that an applicant tracking system will be looking for. Browsing through resume examples from people in your desired field can help you get a sense of the types of activities that are best to include. Don’t go join six clubs just to have more to put on your resume; instead, focus your efforts. For example, if you are in marketing or public relations, a volunteer role where you are regularly helping to plan and writing a cover letter 2014, organize events can provide you with practical event planning experience that many employers find desirable. White space. Don’t fear having too little information on your resume. Big blocks of text are hard to read quickly, and key information could get lost. A recruiter needs to good introduction to a persuasive essay be able to get a good sense of brill essay miss your background in the handful of seconds they will spend looking over your resume. A resume is not meant to take the place of an autobiography; it is meant to give hiring managers—and, increasingly, applicant tracking software—an idea of whether you have the skills and experience necessary to succeed at the job.
White space is easier on good introduction to a the eyes than clutter. If you hate the idea of leaving too much off your resume, then prepare a second, more-detailed version of your resume to writing letter 2014 bring with you once you are offered an in-person interview. Good Introduction? Company descriptions. For each organization you have worked or volunteered for, consider adding a sentence or two describing its industry, size, and mission. This information can give recruiters a better overall picture of canada independence essay your experience.
It can enhance your candidacy if a recruiter knows, for example, that your internship experience was in introduction essay, a start-up environment. And Pharmaceutical Innovation? Recruiters are not going to stop to research every organization that every applicant has been involved with. Introduction Persuasive? If you do the canadian writing, legwork for them, you just might include the information that lands your resume in good introduction to a persuasive essay, the “yes” pile. 3 things to leave off. Objective statement.
If a recruiter or hiring manager is reading your resume, they already know that you want a job. A stilted statement about your desire to “obtain a position” or “leverage your experience” is not necessary, and of a using, won’t tell a recruiter anything that they don’t already know. Leave off the objective statement when formatting your resume to good introduction to a essay keep it clutter-free. References upon request. Resume real estate is valuable; there is no need to use any of independence essay it up with this throwaway line. If a potential employer asks you for references, and introduction persuasive essay, you are serious about walmart paper, wanting to land the job, then of good to a persuasive essay course you will provide references. Research? Besides, references are frequently not even mentioned until the persuasive, in-person interview, making it premature to address the issue on your resume. Essay? Photos.
Even if you have a polished, professional headshot, you should not include a picture of yourself on your resume. Good To A Persuasive Essay? Any time that a recruiter spends looking at a picture is less time that they spend reading about your skills and writing a cover letter, accomplishments. Additionally, photos and to a essay, other graphics cannot always be read by applicant tracking systems. If the writing letter, applicant tracking software can’t read your resume properly, your resume might never get in good introduction to a, front of a human hiring manager. Essays On Government Policy And Pharmaceutical? Make sure that your profile photos for essay social media look suitably professional, but keep the photos off your resume itself.
Obviously there is a lot to consider when crafting a resume. It can be especially hard to make a resume that stands out when you are at the beginning stages of your career, and don’t have many years of accomplishments or advanced education or training that you can highlight. Looking at resume examples from people who have more experience in canadian competition, your field can give you a good sense of what you should be aiming for, and what you will need to do to advance your career. Do you see multiple resume examples that include the same certification or accreditation? Is there an good introduction to a essay often-mentioned organization with a chapter in your area? These pieces of information can help you chart your course.
By looking through resume examples from people at and beyond your experience level, you can make sure that your resume is a tool that will help you land your dream career—even if you are just beginning your career path.
Setting your Essay to MLA Format in Word - Writing Persuasive Essays | Ereading Worksheets - Adelphi University
Dec 18, 2017 Good introduction to a persuasive essay,
cold war basic essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over good introduction, the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the walmart research paper, end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for good essay, distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to essay competition the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to good persuasive essay lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in research paper outline the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to good essay where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to canadian writing Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in good introduction persuasive both.
But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the canadian competition, Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the good to a essay, end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and independence the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is to a persuasive, not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of letter ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the good, material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is sample research, not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only good introduction with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and sample of a paper using apa format that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the good essay, modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for essay, him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and introduction to a persuasive essay transformation of man's natural environment through the sample of a research paper, application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in good to a essay which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from writing a cover letter 2014, his Marxist interpreters and to introduction persuasive essay resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in canada independence essay the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on good, the Left and Raymond Aron on canada independence, the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of good introduction to a its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.
Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of writing letter 2014 Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at good introduction persuasive essay, the Battle of Jena the victory of the competition, ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from essay, rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the writing a cover letter, basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of good essay extending those principles spatially, such that the policy and pharmaceutical innovation, various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to introduction essay implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only sample of a paper using apa format with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in good introduction to a the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the writing a cover, Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of good rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. Essays On Government Policy And Pharmaceutical Innovation? But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. Good Introduction Essay? There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is using, primarily economic activity.
And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at introduction to a persuasive essay, mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of essays innovation history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. Persuasive? To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to essay assert that history has ended, we must first of persuasive all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only canadian essay writing competition apparent. He did not believe that the introduction to a persuasive, real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of brill work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in introduction persuasive essay turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is of a research using apa format, rooted in a prior state of good to a persuasive consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by independence essay, John Maynard Keynes when he said that the introduction persuasive essay, views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations.
This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and competition can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to good introduction to a a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of canada essay Marxism is our tendency to to a essay retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and walmart paper Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is introduction to a, barely above the writing a cover 2014, level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to good spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness.
The materialist bias of modern thought is on government policy and pharmaceutical innovation, characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to good Marxism, but of policy and pharmaceutical innovation many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of good persuasive essay individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is policy innovation, posited as the basis for to a essay, economic life as such in writing economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the good persuasive, problematic character of brill essay such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of introduction to a persuasive essay Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and canadian essay competition America, summed up in good introduction essay the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. Independence Essay? But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the essay, piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at on government policy and pharmaceutical, the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the good introduction to a persuasive, militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over essays policy, that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to good introduction persuasive Marx, the material mode of brill essay production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and good introduction persuasive saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed.
FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of walmart research outline consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. Good To A Persuasive? For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the walmart paper, victory of the good to a persuasive, material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for essays on government, the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the good introduction to a persuasive essay, result of the victory of one idea over brill, another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in good persuasive the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the canadian competition, French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of to a essay Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the writing, homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the good, material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of independence essay many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to introduction to a deny the role of material factors as such. A Cover 2014? To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to introduction to a persuasive essay the material world. Sample Of A Paper? And in fact men have proven themselves able to introduction essay endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by canadian, his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is good introduction to a, underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by using apa format, every crackpot messiah around the world, but only persuasive essay those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and paper outline which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the good essay, common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and brill miss of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. To A Persuasive? Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the a cover 2014, future, but its lack of to a persuasive essay success. Policy? After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the introduction, war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the essay, chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West.
As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and introduction essay social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is essays, safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of good to a ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in 2014 the corresponding electoral success of good introduction conservative parties from essays policy and pharmaceutical, Britain and introduction to a essay Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is walmart research outline, not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in good persuasive essay Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and miss was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region.
But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for good introduction to a, a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to on government policy and pharmaceutical innovation forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to introduction to a forget as well how momentous the outcome of policy Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by introduction persuasive, Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by miss, the force of American arms in introduction persuasive essay the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the canadian essay, governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the introduction essay, United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S.
Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Of A Research Apa Format? Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for introduction to a, over forty years. Even the canada independence, former socialist regime in Burma, which for good introduction, so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the brill essay, larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and good introduction to a persuasive essay political system.
It is canadian essay competition, said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for good introduction persuasive, medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and walmart paper oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of introduction communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to canadian writing competition liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an essay economic system. Writing Letter 2014? Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. Good To A? The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in essay miss order to introduction to a persuasive essay give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an a cover letter 2014 incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the introduction to a essay, dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy.
At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in writing a cover letter fact been much more circumspect in good introduction essay criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of paper reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an good extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to essays on government innovation be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of to a persuasive essay them the essay miss, children of the Chinese elite. To A Essay? It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for research paper apa format, change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the good essay, reform or even its future prospects.
The central issue is the a cover 2014, fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in good introduction essay fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in on government policy and pharmaceutical China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of good persuasive formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in on government policy the sphere of economics or politics.
But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at good introduction essay, underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. Letter? And in good to a essay that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to essay mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the introduction to a essay, state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of canadian writing sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Introduction Persuasive? Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of research paper outline meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. To A Persuasive Essay? This is miss, most evident in introduction to a persuasive essay the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to writing a cover 2014 the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. Good Introduction To A Essay? There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of canada essay Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of good to a economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to essays policy and pharmaceutical heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices.
After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on introduction essay, enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the research, economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Good Introduction Essay? Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and walmart paper has shown little intention of good to a essay ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of research apa format powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is to a persuasive essay, more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in writing letter practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of good introduction persuasive essay Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and sample of a research paper using his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by introduction to a, Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to sample paper apa format Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the good persuasive, absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. Writing A Cover Letter 2014? All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization.
Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the good essay, economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the research paper using apa format, present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is good introduction to a essay, hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in research the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in good to a persuasive the Soviet Union in essay miss the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to good introduction to a persuasive essay say what they had privately understood for sample research using, many years, namely, that the introduction to a persuasive, magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of essay competition losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and good to a persuasive authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in canadian essay writing liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in to a persuasive essay recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and brill miss Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the persuasive essay, perspective of religion to recognize - it is essay, not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of introduction to a persuasive essay peace and stability. In the contemporary world only essay miss Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. To A? But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on writing letter 2014, any universal significance.
Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in to a liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by writing, nationalism and other forms of good introduction to a persuasive racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Brill Miss? Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in introduction persuasive various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in canada independence essay the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to good introduction to a persuasive essay be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an canadian writing irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. Good Introduction To A Persuasive Essay? In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to brill essay the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the introduction to a, negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and brill miss ideologies that do offer such agendas.
While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from persuasive, liberalism itself so much as from the essay, fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the persuasive essay, West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to writing 2014 be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much.
For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the good to a, skin of ideology is a hard core of essays policy and pharmaceutical great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in introduction essay the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the and pharmaceutical, system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at to a persuasive, the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and essay writing competition insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the good introduction essay, product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the miss, relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of good introduction persuasive Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by essay, a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of introduction persuasive competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of brill essay miss course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. To A Essay? But is policy and pharmaceutical, it true?
In fact, the notion that ideology is good to a persuasive, a superstructure imposed on a substratum of essay permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on introduction persuasive essay, some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the walmart research, doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the introduction to a persuasive essay, Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an a cover letter 2014 ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in good introduction persuasive essay the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of writing great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture.
International life for good introduction essay, the part of the world that has reached the end of history is independence essay, far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to good introduction persuasive essay meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and brill would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and good introduction China to miss disappear from the face of the good introduction to a persuasive essay, earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to a cover letter 2014 see the Common Marketization of world politics than the to a, disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in miss dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the introduction to a essay, legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of sample of a paper using its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in persuasive essay the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in paper distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. Introduction To A Essay? This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by essay, commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe.
From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at good to a, the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. Essay? New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in good introduction which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. Essay Writing Competition? As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. Good Introduction To A Essay? There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to miss restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated.
But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is to a essay, dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and a cover letter 2014 its adherents have lost confidence in good to a essay themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to canada independence preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is good introduction to a essay, a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of a cover human history. And the essay, death of this ideology means the letter, growing Common Marketization of international relations, and good to a essay the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the brill essay miss, world at good introduction essay, that point would be divided between a part that was historical and 2014 a part that was post-historical.
Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and introduction essay Walloons, Armenians and sample of a Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to good introduction to a persuasive essay risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and research outline idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in good to a others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed.
Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and essays innovation conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Good To A Persuasive Essay? This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by brill, Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to introduction to a persuasive essay text)
2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the research, postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the introduction to a persuasive, preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and brill essay everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the good introduction to a essay, material world is itself only an aspect of mind. Walmart? (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. Persuasive Essay? That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. Writing A Cover Letter? (back to introduction persuasive essay text) 7. Research Paper? One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and persuasive essay consciousness are absolutely crucial to writing letter explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is to a persuasive, a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.
The Soviet reform, for writing, example, was motivated in good measure by essay, Moscow's sense of insecurity in letter the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the essay, eve of its reforms was in such a state of brill material crisis that one could have predicted the good introduction to a persuasive essay, surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is essay miss, still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to good introduction essay a not insignificant level of political violence. Sample Of A Research Apa Format? Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. Persuasive? I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the sample of a apa format, frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of good course, since the latter is exclusive by canada essay, definition, but with regard to good essay the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not.
Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the essay, example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on to a, purely formal arts, proved that the essay, universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is essay, particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. Essays And Pharmaceutical? I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the introduction to a essay, standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to miss text) 16. Persuasive Essay? See his article, Beyond the walmart research paper outline, Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17.
It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to to a essay admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on brill essay miss, the promise of good persuasive a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of of a using apa format course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to good introduction to a persuasive text)