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Play-write Poetry in narrative essay Nicholson Baker’s The Anthologist. L’article suivant propose d’explorer les fonctions du jeu litteraire dans le huitieme roman de Nicholson Baker, The Anthologist , recit de metafiction mettant en scene un narrateur ecrivain et poete qui, tentant de rediger l’introduction d’une anthologie de poesie, est confronte a la page blanche. Alors que c’est la nature competitive ( agon ) de la creation litteraire qui dans un premier temps coupe court au plaisir de la creation, comme le montrera la premiere partie de l’analyse, c’est grace aux vertus du jeu educatif ( paideia ) et la creation d’un monde alternatif que la creativite du narrateur se libere et produit les pages qui constituent ce livre. Se penchant sur le role de la liberte comme concept fondamental de la creation de cet Ars Poetica contemporain, un troisieme moment de l’etude met au jour la carnavalisation du langage et des formes comme manifestation riche et feconde du jeu litteraire. The following article focuses on essay on diffusion of responsibility the function of literary play in Nicholson Baker’s The Anthologist , a meta-fictional novel whose narrator Paul Chowder is a writer and greed poet who struggles to the expository, write the introduction of a forthcoming anthology of rhymed poetry.

Whereas it is the essay greed, competitive nature ( agon ) of literary creation that initially suspends the pleasure of essays-about farmers creation, as will be reviewed in the first part of the analysis, it is narrative essay greed through the winning farmer, virtues of educational play ( paideia ) and narrative greed the creation of an essay, alternative world that narrative creativity is greed released and produces the pages that constitute this book. Focusing on of responsibility freedom as a pivotal concept in the creation of essay this contemporary Ars Poetica , the analysis then reviews the carnivalization of language and forms as a resourceful manifestation of essay john hersey literary play. 1 Crossword puzzles, badminton, ping-pong, chin-ups, guessing games: all these play activities are part of the greed, world of Paul Chowder, the for critical intellectual, narrator of Nicholson Baker’s eighth novel, The Anthologist . But the narrative greed, diegetic impulse of the narrative is a creative stasis. Nuclear Paper. A published poet and belletrist, Paul has been unable to pen a good poem for essay greed months and dissertation question hypothesis struggles to write the essay greed, introduction to his forthcoming poetry anthology. It should come as no surprise to Baker’s readers that a case of writer’s block generates two-hundred-and-forty pages of richly textured prose, including graphs, poetry quotes, musical scores, singing, onomatopoeic sounds, and many puns, all of dissertation question hypothesis those delivered by a first-person narrator eager to share his rhyme fetishism and essay groundbreaking theory on iambic pentameter. 1 As this article was being submitted for essay john hersey publication, Baker published The Traveling Sprinkler , a nov (. ) 2 Baker’s prose works, although all topically distinct, can be divided into three sets: sex fantasies ( Vox ; The Fermata ; House of narrative Holes, a Book of Raunch ), polemical nonfiction ( Double Fold , Human Smoke ) and highly self-conscious first-person narrated novels ( The Mezzanine; Room Temperature; A Box of Matches ). The Anthologist ranks in the latter category.1 Its exploration of winning essays-about farmers literary culture and narrative intense reflexivity brings it close in tone to U and I , the author’s self-conscious narrative on essay on diffusion his obsession with the narrative essay, works of John Updike. But The Anthologist is intellectual standards pure fiction. Like Nabokov’s Pale Fire , it sets a critical discourse on narrative greed poetry within a novelistic framework. Essays-about. In both novels, self-conscious narrators transgress the narrative greed, rules of critical discourse to dissertation hypothesis, offer a personal view on essay greed poetry. Power Plant Research. But Paul Chowder’s creation involves a reflection on its own genesis and exposes itself as fictional. Indeed, the essay, writer overcomes the essay, block only after he has turned the narrative essay, task into a game of pretense: “What I thought was that I could practice talking through the essay about my roommate, introduction as if I were teaching a class” (28).

This narrative posture, which relies on the creation of an alternative reality, is typical of the way metafiction foregrounds the narrative essay, potential for winning essays-about farmers make-believe in greed fiction. As Patricia Waugh argues, “the metacommentary provided by winning farmer farmers self-conscious fiction carries the more or less explicit message: ‘this is make-believe’ or ‘this is play’.” (35) Chowder’s manuscript uses the essay greed, resources of fiction to create an alternative world in which the essay on diffusion, deadening rules of narrative poetry analysis are questioned while others are given birth to. At the same time, the established genre of the introduction is given a new impulse. 2 The notion, already part of Huizinga’s analysis in essay my roommate 1930, was made famous by R. Caillois’ typology o (. Essay. ) 3 Literary play, and the creative freedom it generates, is therefore the concept that makes Paul’s shift from writing, creative stasis to creative discourse possible. Essay. Play is a constellating concept that covers many aspects of this novel. Descriptive Hometown. Whereas it is the competitive nature ( agon 2 ) of greed literary creation which first suspends the pleasure of creation, as will be reviewed in the first part of the essay, analysis, it is narrative essay greed through the your, virtues of educational play ( paideia ) and narrative greed the creation of an alternative world that narrative creativity can be released and essay produce the narrative essay, pages that constitute this book. Focusing on freedom as a pivotal concept in relation to the creation of descriptive about your this contemporary ars poetica, the narrative essay greed, third part of the analysis will try to show how the carnavalization of winning farmer essays-about forms and essay greed language brings together the most salient features of this playful treatise on poetry. 4 The two-hundred-and-forty-page narrative that forms Paul Chowder’s journal originates from writer’s block. Aloft on question hypothesis the second floor of his barn, Paul Chowder is left without Roz—his girlfriend of essay eight years who left him after growing weary of his procrastination—and with the descriptive your hometown, seventy-five bulky anthologies of narrative greed English poetry he possesses, their prefaces as well as many poems in mind. For months, he has been unable to write a line of poetry or one word of the essay john hersey, preface to his anthology. 5 One of the themes explored in this novel is the unfruitful association of agon and artistic creation.

A lover of books, of words, of narrative essay verse and rhymes, the narrator belongs to a community of writers all deeply engrossed in their desire to hiroshima essay john hersey, create beauty while playing the narrative, great game of language. The Expository. In his case, however, rather than stimulate the desire to play, the narrative essay, competitive nature of the game obfuscates the descriptive essay about, pleasure. Essay Greed. This is a common situation when competition is coupled with artistic performance, Johan Huizinga has argued: “Not infrequently an activity which is self-contained […] may incidentally pass into for critical thinking intellectual the agonistic category by becoming the essay, occasion of competition for prizes […] as was the case with Greek drama” (47). Winning Essays-about. The notion of literary prizes, inherited from narrative, Greek mythology, indeed survives in the literary circles of our modern times, and the business of reaping awards—or failing to essay, reap them—is an integral part of Paul Chowder’s life as a published poet. It has turned writing into an antithetic play, if not into sheer agony. Greed. Huizinga has shown that “the passion to win sometimes threatens to obliterate the levity proper to game” (47). Essay About. Baker’s character, who twice came close to winning the Pulitzer Prize, has reached this critical stage. Almost winning is worse than not being listed at all as it puts the essay greed, poet on john the race track, without awarding him the essay greed, only desirable spot of the essay my roommate, competition. Essay Greed. All it does is writing question identify and publicize him as the loser of the game: “You want to know what somebody who was rumored on narrative the short list for hiroshima poet laureate of the United States would write after it turned out narrative, he wasn’t in the expository essay fact chosen […].

He fails. Greed. That’s me” (205). Writing The Expository Essay. 6 The conflicted association of creation and agon is narrative a pervasive motif in writing the expository Nicholson Baker’s work. Narrative. In U and writing the expository essay I , the essay greed, genius of literary ancestors and the expository contemporaries is always on essay the verge of silencing the writer’s voice. In The Anthologist , such fears are thematized through the motif of winning essays-about a tall ladder, each rung of which represents a rank in a competitive world of poetry: And now it’s like I’m on some infinitely tall ladder. […] The world is somewhere far below. Narrative. I don’t know how I got here. It’s a mystery. When I look up, I see people, climbing, rung by essay rung. I see Jorie Graham, I see Billy Collins, I see Ted Kooser. They’re all clinging to the ladder, too. Essay. […] The wind comes over, whsssew , and foundation thinking intellectual standards it’s cold, and the ladder vibrates, and essay I feel very exposed and high up. […] It’s freezing, and it’s lonely, and there’s nobody to talk to. And what if I just let go?

What if I just loosened my grip, and fell to question, one side, and just— fffshhhoooooow . Essay. Let go (197). 7 The etymological meaning of agon (“gathering”) is symbolized here by the assembly of fellow poets. But such a vertical representation of the game of essay poetry shows poets as antagonistic players rather than playmates, a notion acknowledged by narrative essay the narrator, who reports he has inscribed the “People [he’s] jealous of” on winning farmer farmers the back of narrative essay greed a poetry book, quoting then the names of contemporary and just recently awarded poets (“James Fenton, Sinead O’Connor, Lorenz Hart, Jon Stewart and essay on diffusion Billy Collins” [177]). Earlier in greed the narrative, an informative digression on dissertation writing the history of the narrative essay, new honorary title of “poet laureate” in writing the expository essay the United States hints at the bitterness that consumes the narrative, narrator: “What does ‘poet laureate’ mean? Nothing. Essay. It means a person with laurel branches twined around his head. Narrative. Which is not something people do much now. Essay. A little headdress of leaves, a little fancy, leafy hat” (136).

3 Johan Huizinga defines play as “a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary life’ (. ) 8 Just as the strict requirements of greed high competition may cut an on diffusion, athlete from the narrative essay greed, pleasures of social interaction and amusement, Paul’s position on the poets’ ladder alienates him from farmer essays-about, reality: “The world is narrative essay somewhere far below.” It is a major function of farmer essays-about play to estrange the player from narrative essay, “the ordinary life,” to quote from Huizinga’s definition of play (13),3 but the estrangement, which is supposed to be pleasurable and shared with a community of fellow players, has been turned into my roommate utter pain and isolation: “it’s freezing, and it’s lonely, and essay greed there’s nobody to talk to.” The pain is acute enough for Paul to indulge in hiroshima thoughts of renouncement: “What if I just loosened my grip, and fell to essay greed, one side, and essay on diffusion just— fffshhhoooow . Let go” (197). 9 It is narrative essay no wonder that Paul is essay hometown unable to pen a single word of his introduction. An anthology is another kind of narrative essay competition that puts him in the difficult position of the jury. Assessing the value of “individual talents,” of “minds who create” and “men who suffer,” to hiroshima john hersey, use an Eliotian intonation, is a distressing task. Essay Greed. Hesitations, second thoughts, afterthoughts (“Yep, you’ll do as a semifinalist. Descriptive Essay About. Nope, nope, nope. Maybe. No” [46]) confuse the essay greed, anthologist, who, a poet himself, is far too aware of what is at stake in the game to my roommate, take it lightly. Karl Shapiro, the greed, narrator reports in essay another chapter, never recovered from essay, being de-anthologized from nuclear research, The Oxford Book of English Verse : “he said it was like dying” (134). 10 To assuage the discomfort of essay writer’s block, the writing question hypothesis, narrator resorts to essay, various types of distractions. Solitary time-passing activities are tried out in a denial of the impending assignment and essays-about farmers are enjoyed inasmuch as they distance the player from essay greed, his writing.

A chin-up bar that Chowder has set up in essay hersey his barn during that stagnant stage of his life gives him an illusion of narrative daily progress (“I can do five chin-ups now” [198]). Writing. But any body part may generate one of narrative essay greed those solitary games: “I can even do eyelid wars. Do you do that? Where you try as hard as you can to winning, look up with your eyeballs, rolling them back in narrative essay greed your head, but with your eyes closed [. Essays-about Farmers. ]. Narrative Greed. It’s a good way of farmer essays-about passing the time” (3). The fleeting solace derived from those recreations does not delude the narrator as to their escapist nature. He is narrative aware that their main point is to keep the descriptive about, pain at bay: “The addicts of crossword puzzles are also distracting themselves. Narrative. They also don’t want to face the world’s grief head-on. Question. They want the transient pleasure endlessly repeated, of solving the Rubik’s Cube of verbal intersection” (56). Poetry and rhyme can themselves be associated with those transient life-saving activities: “Rhyming is the essay greed, avoidance of mental pain by addicting yourself to nuclear power, what will happen next. […] You propose a plong . Narrative Greed. You’re in suspense. You are solving a puzzle” (56).

Yet, the difference is that poetry involves an aesthetic dimension whereas crossword puzzles or computer games are pure waste: “why have I just spent an hour watching squares drop down a computer screen?” For if poetry “is better than crossword puzzles,” the power plant research paper, narrator claims, the reason lies in narrative essay its beauty and essay of responsibility emotional potential: “has anyone ever wept at the beauty of narrative essay greed a crossword puzzle?” (56). The waste is essay about my roommate also social, for narrative the pleasure players derive from games is usually connected to essay my roommate, their social function, a truth that is at the core of narrative greed all theories on play. Playing by oneself or with a machine is about your bound to turn the game into essay greed despair. As Roger Caillois demonstrates in a chapter entitled “The Social Function of Games,” these types of hersey play are usually not individual pastimes. “There is an element of narrative essay rivalry in these varied activities and everyone tries to vanquish his rivals, perhaps invisible or absent, by accomplishing unpublicized feats, triumphing over obstacles, establishing precarious records for endurance, speed, precision and altitude” (37). Descriptive About Your. 4 If Chowder fails to essay greed, entertain his neighbors with his embarrassing ukulele solo and social self-cons (. ) 11 To put off the painful writing of the winning essays-about, introduction, the narrative essay, narrator has also contemplated turning to the solace of farmers human interaction. This is yet another area where he proves incompetent. His failure is the narrative greed, implicit theme of the badminton scene in the novel. Farmer Essays-about. Ogling the essay greed, joyful party of his neighbors playing outdoors, Paul Chowder first seeks a chance to connect with the farmer essays-about, group. Calling out narrative, “That sounds like fun” (43), he is for critical thinking soon invited to join the game: “You want to play?” (43).

But the episode further exacerbates his loneliness and marginalization. As Paul is greed handed a racket, his first impulse is to put on hiroshima essay an act and turn it into a ukulele: “I plucked at it a few times like a ukulele and I sang ‘I walk a lonely road’” (43). Essay. The act turns the means of social play and foundation standards exchange—the racket—into the narrative, instrument of a sinister solo and fails to generate laughter on the part of on diffusion of responsibility his neighbors. In the midst of the party, Paul, a weak player (“I was a little rusty in my badmintonage”), grows increasingly self-conscious (“I had to apologize when I swung and narrative essay greed missed”), which prevents him from enjoying the game and the company.4 Paul’s injured nose and his barking dog add to dissertation writing hypothesis, the embarrassment. Feeling he has become a spoil-sport in every possible way, he excuses himself and retreats to his solitary den. A few days later, as Paul resolves to essay greed, refine his “badmintonage” so as to interact with his neighbors more easily, he realizes the project is foundation for critical thinking intellectual doomed: “But how can you really practice badminton on your own? You can bounce a tennis ball against the barn door […] but you can’t bounce a birdie against the barn and get anything useful from narrative, it” (60). About. 12 The only thing that Chowder can ever master in narrative greed badminton at this stage is essay hersey its poetic rhythm: “What’s the meter of essay badminton? There’s a hard one friends. Poink, poink, poink […]” (60). The Expository Essay. There ensues from the narrative of this social failure a fanciful analysis of the rhythm of greed ball-games including badminton, but also tennis and ping-pong.

The failure at social interaction is successfully turned into another game: play-write. 5 Referring to essay hersey, Kinbote’s role in Nabokov’s Pale Fire , Tony Tanner observed that “On lexical playfield (. ) 13 Only by essay greed substituting creative writing for about the trial of agonistic play can the narrator modify his unsatisfying relation to essay, the ordinary life. The idea of essay replacing a frustrating world with a more acceptable one thanks to essay greed, the potentialities of fiction is not new. One is foundation for critical thinking intellectual reminded of Nabokov’s Kinbote, who, according to the poet John Shade, is essay not a “lunatic,” as his colleagues would like to think, but “ a person who deliberately peels off a drab and unhappy past and replaces it with a brilliant invention” (238). Essay Hersey. Just as Kinbote decreed within his own text that Zembla was his kingdom and “Pale Fire” a poem about essay greed his adventures as an essay john, exiled king,5 the narrator of The Anthologist relies on narrative the creation of a self-contained literary space to your, exist as a writer. The actualizing power conveyed by creativity is essay greed part of the ontological virtues of on diffusion of responsibility play. Essay. As Eugene Fink pointed out the expository essay, “ play can be experienced as a pinnacle of greed human sovereignty” and as such, play is hometown therefore intricately connected with the notion of freedom: Man enjoys here an narrative essay, almost limitless creativity, he is productive and uninhibited because he is essay about your not creating within the narrative essay greed, sphere of reality. Essay. The player experiences himself as the lord of the products of narrative essay greed his imagination—because it is virtually unlimited, play is an eminent manifestation of freedom” (24-25). Essay. 14 Contrary to the types of play reviewed earlier in narrative this demonstration, writing is winning farmer farmers not associated with escapism, nor is essay greed it conceived in agonistic terms. It is the very notion of play and the freedom it involves that liberates the foundation standards, creativity of the essay, narrator.

The character stops being played by external events (prizes, rivalry, pressure from the editor) only writing question when he starts designing his own play world, setting his own rules to essay, the game. 15 All games need a playground. My Roommate. Whether they are board-games, ball-games or card-games, games imply the notion of a self-enclosed space. Greed. In the essays-about, words of narrative greed Johan Huizinga: “The arena, the card table, the magic circle, the about, temple, the essay, stage, the screen, the tennis court, the farmer essays-about, court of narrative greed justice, etc., are all in form and function play-grounds, i.e. Foundation For Critical Thinking Standards. forbidden spots, isolated, hedged round, hallowed, within which special rules obtain” (10). The place from essay, which Paul conducts his writing game conforms to that description: it is about a secluded and isolated place, the second floor of the essay greed, writer’s barn. Its emptiness is winning farmer farmers “its greatest quality,” the narrator claims (98). Toying with the narrative, usual cliches concerning the mythology of the writer, the narrator creates a parodistic imagery of the writer’s den. The throne wherefrom he governs his realm (poetry and rhyme) and his subjects (words and plant research paper letters) is a “white plastic chair” (28) that crops up in narrative essay greed every chapter of the nuclear plant research, book. The whole setting parodies the solemn and dignified “ivory tower” of the solitary and haughty writer. Essay Greed. The situation is eminently metafictional.

Writing tools are to essay my roommate, Paul’s game what pawns are to a chess player. Essay Greed. Throughout the writing essay, novel, Paul is engaged in the act of essay inscribing words and graphs and nuclear power plant research paper musical scores on narrative essay greed his presentation pad, constantly reporting the use of pens, in his case “Sharpies,” as essential to foundation for critical intellectual standards, the game: “Woops—dropped my Sharpie.” (10). “Hell, let’s get into it. Where’s my Sharpie again? Okay” (12); “Let me write out that date for essay greed you with my Sharpie, 1883” (116). 16 The anthologist does not only call attention to the physical gesture of inscribing words but also to their spelling: “Monobloc. No K” (5); “Paul: what is writing the expository this crazy U doing here?” (2). The narrator’s manifest concern with the construction of greed words enhances the foundation for critical intellectual standards, artifice and narrative arbitrariness of language. About Your. His reflexive writing foregrounds language to narrative greed, show that language plays us, that we are played by nuclear research paper words and that it might prove fruitful to narrative greed, gain authority over the expository essay, its arbitrary rules.

Therefore Chowder takes the greed, liberty of altering the English lexicon, overtly distancing himself from the essay about my roommate, use of words or expressions that he deems inadequate or untrue. Narrative Essay Greed. His self-conscious deconstruction of existing idioms may in some cases generate comical digressions: “You’re supposed to foundation for critical, ‘meet people’s eyes.’ Meet them how? They have two eyes. You have to choose one. Essay. I start by looking at the person’s right eye, intently, and foundation thinking standards then I begin to feel I’m hurting the feelings of the person’s left eye” (26). But Chowder also invents words when an adequate one is essay greed missing. “ Rupasnil ” is his personal term for a supremely beautiful poem, the kind of poem that fits into his anthology: “That is so good, and so twisty, and so shadowy and dissertation writing so boomerangy, that it requires the forging of a new word for ‘beauty.’ Rupasnil . Greed. Beauty. Rupasnil ” (45). Power Plant Paper. A “plum” is Paul’s word for narrative essay a poem that doesn’t rhyme (69) while a capitalized “BOOM!” is his replacement for the blank space indicating a rest at the end of a line of poetry (14).

17 Just like Lewis Carroll’s Humpty Dumpty who uses words that “mean just what [he] chooses them to mean—neither more nor less” (Carroll, 163), Baker’s narrator will only play if he can deviate from the nuclear paper, rules of narrative greed language, creating his own instead. This narrator stands in hiroshima essay john hersey some transitional realm where the essay greed, old rules of the game are wearing out and need a replacement. Foundation Intellectual Standards. The situation is greed similar to what Michel Beaujour describes in about hometown a study on the games of poetics, regarding the freedom that characterizes postmodern art as an exploration of essay new rules: “the rules of the nuclear power research paper, game, which although arbitrary, had somehow become ‘natural’ to narrative essay greed, the players, now seem artificial, tyrannical and dead: the system does not allow for sufficient player freedom within it and it must be discarded. Although only a system can replace a system, the interregnum may be experienced as total freedom” (Beaujour, 69). The notion of essays-about “interregnum” aptly defines the narrative essay, narrator’s posture in this novel: rather than ignoring the traditional rules, the text comments upon thinking intellectual standards them and questions them while bringing the possibility of narrative essay greed new rules to the fore. This transitional discourse is typical of the role of metafiction and its relation to forms. Of Responsibility. Metafiction is greed what allows writers to examine “the old rules in order to discover new possibilities of the winning farmers, game” (Waugh, 42). The shift from essay, established rules to newer forms concerns two aspects of the dissertation question hypothesis, narrative.

It is first characteristic of the narrator’s discourse on poetical rhythm and greed notably on his theory that the rhythm of writing question iambic pentameter is narrative essay actually a ternary rhythm. But on a more reflexive level, it also depicts the narrator’s stance regarding the composition of his anthology. There are rules and your hometown a certain number of constraints to this game that the narrator is aware of: “My anthology has to have the right thickness. I do know that. Narrative. It has to have that I’m-not-really-a-textbook textbookishness” (223). But the about your hometown, writer’s block is narrative essay greed overcome only when the essay john hersey, narrator starts dismissing the rules and replacing them with his own, one of the most essential being to speak his preface rather than write it: “what I thought was that I could practice talking through the introduction as if I were teaching a class” (28). Narrative Essay Greed. 18 Part of the fictitious world of Paul therefore relies on the existence of fellow players, his imaginary students, and nuclear research paper simultaneously, in narrative essay this writing game, his readers.

The collaborative participation of the reader is an of responsibility, integral part of the matrix of Paul’s game. Narrative Greed. The reader, “you” in foundation for critical intellectual the very first sentence of the novel, is called in to play his or her role as a responsive student throughout the book (32). The pages the narrator writes form a spatial playground where readers and narrative greed writer meet in dissertation question hypothesis a poststructuralist notion that the narrative essay, creation of hiroshima essay hersey a text depends on both author and reader, a fact that the narrator admits: “You may not want me. I don’t care. Narrative. I want you to foundation for critical thinking intellectual, have me. That’s the way it works.

I’m here giving and you’re here taking. If you are there. I can’t know and you are probably falling asleep” (205). The interaction takes many forms. The narrator sometimes shares his admiration with them (“pretty good eh?” [182]), checks on their progress with poetry (“How are those poetry exercises coming?” [26]), coaches them on verse-scanning (“with me now: One—two—three” [214]), or simply verifies that his point is understood: “Hear it?” (163). Narrative. Narrative theory and notably the works of Norman Holland, Michael Riffaterre and Wolfgang Iser have shown the many ways texts require the writing the expository, dynamic participation of the reader. Metafiction exacerbates readers’ participation by essay making them aware of their role as players. The Anthologist literalizes the john, effects generated by the elaborate construction of a reader persona.

In this novel, readers are not mere abstracted elements of the narrative process but elements of the essay, diegetic framework. In a Shandean tradition, the narrator may anticipate or voice the hiroshima john hersey, readers’ response (“So now, you’re waiting. I’ve promised something. You’re thinking okay, he’s said he’s going to divulge” [8]). Narrative Greed. He may also play guessing games that imply their illusory physical presence in essay the room with him: “I’ll block off the title so you have to narrative essay, guess what it is. Familiar design, I daresay. For Critical Thinking Intellectual. The little dude at the chalkboard?

Yes, it’s Poetry for dummies ” (180). Narrative Essay Greed. Concretizing the reader’s voice and plant paper bodily presence, the narrative essay, narration relies on a ludic use of the farmer essays-about, implied reader to enhance the potential of make-believe in writing. 19 The relationship of the writer with his fellow-players is devoid of the antithesis that characterizes the agonistic relationship between Paul and his fellow poets. Narrative. It is instead a fecund relationship that relies on another crucial function of playing, the educative one, that is paideia . At the the expository essay, outset of the novel, Paul offers to essay greed, teach his readers “everything [he] know[s] about research paper poetry” (1), pretending to narrative essay greed, be a school teacher, the dissertation writing hypothesis, magister ludi , to greed, use the nuclear plant research paper, Latin idiom, and in his case, the master of games of narrative essay poetry. Essay. There again, the gap between an actual frustrating world and its replacement is essay greed easily discerned.

In real life, Paul “can’t teach” for teaching implies lying to descriptive essay, students about the quality of essay greed their poems (31, 141-43). Essay My Roommate. The function of this mock-teaching is purely creative. Narrative. The concept of the implied reader enables the narrator to dramatize his or her ignorance (“How much do you know about essay Swinburne? Probably not that much” [180]) and therefore to generate and to narrative, justify his teaching-writing. Nuclear Power Plant Paper. Throughout the novel, Baker makes extensive use of this technique, which Bakhtin has termed the narrative greed, “hidden dialogicality”: “The second speaker is present invisibly. Plant Paper. His words are not there, but the essay greed, deep traces left by these words have a determining influence on descriptive essay your hometown all the present and narrative essay greed visible world of the first speaker” (Bakhtin, 1984, 197). This internalized dialogization of about fellow players is narrative essay generative of this logorrhea and therefore acts as one of the about my roommate, narrator’s most powerful weapons against writer’s block. 20 Role-playing and narrative greed internal dialogization go a step further on the path to nuclear power plant research, fantasy as Paul Chowder gives voice to a range of imaginary situations and dialogues.

His writing game generates for essay greed instance a fictitious correspondence with the writing essay, powerful and narrative greed influential literary editor of The New Yorker , Paul Muldoon, who also happens to farmer essays-about farmers, be a successful poet. In the narrative greed, first letter, the hiroshima essay john, narrator offers his first tentative compliments: “Dear Paul Muldoon, we met briefly at that wingding at essay, the 92 nd Street Y a few tulip bubbles ago. Here are some fresh squibs. I hope you like them […]” (22). But after the narrator has ventriloquized several fictitious replies from Muldoon and the fantasized relationship has become tighter, he starts penning more casual notes. About. In other words, the narrator uses the actualizing power of literature to rewrite the world as he wishes. Other examples of essay this fantasy-writing abound in the novel, as when, for essay my roommate instance, Chowder pictures himself as the radio presenter of his own show: “Hello, this is narrative essay greed Paul Chowder welcoming you to on diffusion, Chowder’s Bowl of Poetry and this is narrative greed Chowder’s Plumfest of poems” (115). 21 Exploiting the resources of role-playing, this type of play stems from the essay, narrator’s desire to transcend the constraints and limitations of essay greed his ordinary life. The way it is exploited and the context in which it exists is intellectual standards therefore very close to essay, Fridriech Schiller’s notion of “play drive” (Spiel Trieb), an aesthetic impulse that drives the writing question, individual to transcend inner and essay outer constraints (Schiller, 1967, fifteenth letter).

In Schiller’s terminology, the play drive lies between a drive towards the material or sensual and power plant paper a drive towards the essay greed, formal or abstract. My Roommate. The play drive therefore mediates those two urges. This philosophical understanding of the narrative greed, function of play sheds light on Baker’s representation of play in essay about my roommate this novel, for the author creates a character torn between the aspiration to narrative, the highest ideals of poetic creation and his attraction to a more sensuous life. But as the essay of responsibility, mediator of those two, play represents the essay, zenith of human potential. Thinking Intellectual. To Schiller, “man only greed plays when he is in the fullest sense of the word, a human being, and about my roommate he is narrative essay greed only fully a human being when he plays” (67). The narrator’s creation of an essay, alternative reality and the ensuing role-playing activities illustrate how the greed, experience of creative freedom can absorb the tension between abstract aestheticism and essay my roommate sensual life. 6 See Linda Hutcheon’s analysis of narrative essay what she has labelled “historiographic metafiction” (5). Hiroshima John. 22 The fantasy-play can take even more surreal forms. There are several instances in narrative the narrative when the dissertation question hypothesis, self-reflexive narration becomes overtly parodic intertextuality i.e, fiction that is at once metafictional and essay historical.6 Indeed, several times in writing the expository the book, the verisimilar context is undermined by the appearance of a literary figure dead and buried in greed our world but freely standing within the descriptive about hometown, narrator’s otherwise realistic 20 th century environment.

Those appearances generate what I will call playlets, short dialogues staging both the narrative greed, narrator and a canonic American poet. Foundation. The first of greed them stages Chowder coming across Edgar Allan Poe in writing hypothesis a Laundromat, in Marseilles, France: I was there doing my laundry, and I look over, and there’s this little guy. He was kind of pale, pasty looking. But moving with a methodical grace. And I said Ed.?

And he looked up slowly. Narrative Greed. He nodded, cavernously. I said, Ed Poe? And he said, Mm-hm. Essay. And then he peered closely at narrative greed, me. Power Paper. He said Paul, Paul Chowder? And I said, Yes, Ed! How are you doing? Been a long time.

He nodded. I said, I see you’re folding some underpants here. He said, Yes, I am. Essay Greed. Doing my laundry. You? (24) 23 There ensues from essay my roommate, this encounter a brief and lighthearted dialogue on essay the genesis of power paper “The Raven.” In her study of self-conscious fiction, Patricia Waugh identifies such shifts of contexts as typical of the essay greed, game involved in metafiction, “because the descriptive essay about, main concern of metafiction is precisely the implications of the shift from the context of ‘reality’ to that of ‘fiction’ and the complicated interpenetration of the two” (36).

The effect generated by this comical interlude staging Paul with Poe is essay that of farmer essays-about farmers “a schizophrenic construction of narrative essay reality,” where “the historical world and alternative or fantasy world merge” (38). Such episodes, which foreground the shift from reality to fiction enhance the playful use of language. Further in the novel, another playlet sees the narrator encounter a one-shoed Ted Roethke walking down the street and looking as if he had been struck “with a couple hundred million volts of electricity” (88). “‘No, it’s hydrotherapy,’ he said. The Expository. ‘I do not laugh, I do not cry;/ I’m sweating out the will to narrative essay, die.’” (88). The situation and the words allude to Roethke’s “Meditation in Hydrotherapy.” In both cases, the play with the reader is overtly parodic and dissertation hypothesis intertextual. It is also enveloped in a larger framework of play, relying on the blending of historical facts and a fantasized alternative reality. A metacommentary usually makes the essay, shift of contexts explicit, Waugh argues, “although some contemporary novels are constructed with extreme shifts of winning essays-about context of frame […] but without any explanatory metalingual commentary to facilitate the transition from one to another” (37). Narrative Greed. In the nuclear, two cases quoted above, no commentary is provided. “The reader is deliberately disoriented” (Waugh, 36). Narrative Essay. Constantly called on to participate throughout the novel, Chowder’s readers are for once ignored. Given no explanation for paper such a shift, they realize they are being played by the narrator.

7 For a detailed analysis of the intricate relationship between Bakhtin’s concept of greed carnivalization (. Dissertation Hypothesis. ) 24 The Anthologist reads like a cheerful conversational piece on poetry where Renaissance poets, pop rock singers, literary critics and readers live on equal footing and freely exchange with the narrative essay greed, narrator on the topic of prosody, regardless of their positions on the high ladder to question hypothesis, Mount Parnassus. Narrative Greed. Relying on a frank and farcical tone, Paul Chowder never underrates the beauty of writing the expository essay stellar poems and narrative greed yet does not bother with the writing hypothesis, codes of etiquette and essay decorum. His approach is highly eclectic as well as subversive of traditional forms. The Expository. In many aspects, the essay, text is dissertation question hypothesis carnivalesque. Essay. This last part of our analysis aims to the expository, show how the concept of carnival as literary play brings together the greed, most salient stylistic features of this unconventional treatise on poetry.7. 25 Bakhtin has pointed out the writing, “free and essay familiar contact” that characterizes social communication during carnival time and how it suspends the concept of deference and honorific positions (1994, 199). Although painfully self-conscious in his interaction with his neighbors, Paul dances a jig of winning farmer social ease within the greed, literary text.

Anthologized men are extracted from writing, their pantheons of literary glory and narrative greed apostrophized in descriptive essay about hometown familiar terms: “Oh, Rudyard, you were good in the 1890s. You were a nineties man” (13). Edgar Allan Poe is greeted as “Ed” while Alexander Pope is essay “Alex!” (102) and essay about your James Fenton “good Old Jamesie” (224). Other deities of poetry are invited to play metaphorical ball-games and narrative essay greed treated with the cheerful tone used by partners in collective games: “Hurl it at me, Alfred Lord, baby. Smack me with that fastball of a ‘low large moon’ ” (41). 26 Such freedom of communication is essay on diffusion matched by an unusually eclectic view of narrative greed culture. Foundation For Critical Thinking Standards. What Bakhtin termed the essay greed, “misalliances” of carnival, that is the indiscriminate mixing of all social classes, ranks and descriptive about positions, is another pervasive feature of greed Paul’s manuscript which aligns the foundation for critical thinking standards, names of narrative essay John Keats and foundation thinking intellectual the American rapper Ludacris and narrative greed praises both and Elizabethan versification. To prove his iambic pentameter theory true, Chowder may indiscriminately quote from court poet Samuel Daniel and power plant research from a 21 st century remix of trance music by narrative essay iiO (82). The narrator wishes to your hometown, establish that the narrative essay, concepts of low and writing question high culture as well as the precedence of narrative greed ancient art over essay about, newer forms no longer apply: “Of course, yes, Tolstoy and narrative Keats and blah blah and yes indeed of course yes.

But we’re living in an age that has a tremendous richness of invention” (77). The narrator’s deliberate blurring of such distinctions (low art vs. Foundation Standards. high art) is what gives this treatise its playfully transgressive tone and helps activate the dynamics of carnivalization. 27 Such deliberately provocative eclecticism goes hand in hand with a rejection of greed scholastic terminology. Essay Your. The accent marks of scanning “look too pedagogical” (15) and essay greed are replaced with bold and larger letters sometimes combined with circled numbers: 31 The official terms of about metrics are also set aside for more expressive avatars. For instance, the essay, words “dactyls or anapests in the official lingo […] are bits of twisted dead scholarship, and you should forget them immediately” (152). They are replaced with the winning farmer farmers, generic term “triplet,” which is narrative essay all we need to about my roommate, understand the rhythm of narrative greed four-beat lines (152). The “paeonic foot after Artistotle” is another “useless term” that the your hometown, narrator turns down to essay, redirect the essay on diffusion of responsibility, reader’s attention to a less scholarly and more sensual approach of poetry: “But listen to the way it can sound” (162). The point is not to advocate anarchy but to greed, play down the my roommate, importance of rules that might obfuscate the narrative greed, beauty of john hersey poetry. Essay. Chowder’s transformation and the expository essay transgression of essay critical language aims to facilitate the my roommate, reader’s access to narrative essay, poetic rhythm.

As R. Writing Question. Rawdon Wilson remarks in greed a study on literary play, transgression has come to appear in a positive light in the 20 th century as it approaches the concept of play. The treatment of scholasticism in Baker’s novel illustrates the descriptive essay, notion that our contemporary era has turned transgression into a constructive concept and narrative greed a “way to writing hypothesis, upend, even (paradoxically) to kill, what is narrative essay greed dead in on diffusion literature” (Rawdon Wilson, 30). “After all, we don’t want some mere convention of spelling to block our connection with the narrative essay greed, oldies,” the plant paper, narrator proclaims about other scholastic norms (218). The problem is not only that these words are elitist, but they can even mislead our understanding of rhythm, as the following remarks on “The Raven” exemplify: [This critic] says that Poe’s “Raven” is written in—ready?—“trochaic octameter with lines two and narrative four catalectic.” And how far does that get you? It actually disables any understanding of the paper, poem to greed, say that what he’s doing is trochaic octameter. Because it’s still really a basic four-beat stanza. Descriptive About Hometown. Poe chose to narrative essay, set it in a different way because the lines came out long, but it’s just a ballad. Poe is just taking a certain kind of beautiful stroll (165). 32 The demonstration focuses intensely on the sensual nature of poetry rather than on an abstracted form of descriptive essay about your hometown aestheticism. Poetry is a game and rules matter very much to the narrator, as his preference of rhyme over free verse and his obsession with rhythm show, but rhymes should not be considered as artificial exercises in narrative style.

They are deeply connected with the essay, way human beings apprehend language, the narrator argues in Chapter Seven, proving their natural origins. His recurrent injunctions to “listen” or to narrative essay, “look” testify to his desire to breathe life into descriptive your hometown poetry and revitalize the narrative greed, abstracting forms of on diffusion criticism, or, as his editor puts it in the catalog copy of narrative greed his unfinished anthology, “Chowder […] reawakens our sense of the fructifying limitlessness of traditional forms” (44). 33 The rejection of normative and deadening rules is matched by a loose but extremely dynamic handling of structure and style. Chowder’s theories on winning farmer iambic pentameter rely on the use of oralized form and structure rather than the essay greed, rigorous framework of Artes Poeticae . Commenting on writing canonical opuses of written poetry, the narrator scatters his discourse with spontaneous and narrative essay greed loose connections such as “anyway,” “basically,” “Oki dokey?” The basic rules of on diffusion of responsibility rhetoric and syntax that recommend avoiding repetition are ignored: “I am basically willing to do anything. I am basically willing to essay greed, do anything to dissertation writing hypothesis, come up with a really good poem” (3). Narrative. This looks like thought progressing on the page, as “truth opening its petals” to borrow a Chowderian image (3). An abnormally frequent use of dissertation dashes marking a break or hesitation inscribes Paul’s thoughts within the essay, framework of perceptible time, namely the time it takes to nuclear power, think and to essay greed, write, or what Genette calls the “narrative time” (228-34).

Purely self-conscious in style, this novel overtly shows how it was written. Farmer. Writing takes the narrative greed, tangible form of an ongoing activity. The abundance of figures of self-correction, such as epanorthosis, shows that truth is winning farmers being constantly tested and that nothing is fixed immutably. Corrections may stem from a quest for narrative essay greed exactness: “For instance: here’s a recent New Yorker . The Expository. Actually, no—it was published almost six years ago” (20); or they may concern the very issue at greed, stake, that is, a definition of poetry: “Poetry is prose in slow motion. Essay. Now, that isn’t true of narrative greed rhymed poems” (1). Immediacy of dissertation writing transmission is brought to the fore at the expense of the narrative essay, rigidity of immutable knowledge.

34 This emphasis on essay immediacy and oralization cannot be dissociated from the vocal and narrative greed sonorous quality of language the narrative displays. On a thematic level first, the narrator confides his obsession about the descriptive essay about your, spoken word when it comes to greed, poetry. Foundation Intellectual. Poetry should not be internalized but proclaimed or sung. Essay. This notion also accounts for the expository essay all the musical scores scattered throughout the narrative, which represent the narrator’s own humming and personal interpretation of the narrative essay greed, lines, as in the example below where the narrator has composed a tune for a poem by Walter Scott: 36 In the following example, two lines taken from a poem by 19 th -century poet Alice Carey have been set to music so that the reader slows down and foundation for critical thinking standards “begin[s] to essay greed, hear the wisdom in dissertation writing what she’s saying” (154): 8 Another allusion to narrative greed, Nabokov’s Pale Fire. Essays-about Farmers. Kinbote’s Foreword to essay, his edition of Shade’s poem is inter (. About. ) 38 On a stylistic level, it is the narrative essay, oralization of printed words, as noted above, and dissertation hypothesis their vocalization that help dynamize the narrator’s theories on rhyme and narrative greed rhythm. To maintain the about, illusion of narrative speech and sound, the foundation intellectual, narration relies on essay an exuberant use of onomatopoeia.

The parasites of an old BBC radio record of nuclear plant paper Tennyson are transcribed onto narrative essay greed, the page through multiple series of consonants: “pkkkfffffffrrrfffff-fff”! pkkkffffffrrrffff-fff […]” (151). Essay John. Another series of letters serves to transcribe the muffled sound made by essay page-turning: “He turns the page, and writing question hypothesis you hear the narrative essay, schwoooeeeet , and question you want to narrative greed, cry” (30). On Diffusion Of Responsibility. Humming (“dum deem, deedledeel, deedledeem” [155]) and sonorous exclamations (“Haaaaahhhh! [196]) also find their way onto essay greed, the page, while murmurs materialize in smaller characters: “Then sometimes you want to nuclear power plant, whisper it, like this: “give me my scallop-shell of greed quiet.” (62). The narrator also makes extensive use of vocative expressions (“But at farmer essays-about farmers, least she [Alice Quinn] actually accepted some of essay greed my own poems. Thank you, Alice!” 21). Additionally, the thinking intellectual, narrator transforms mute typographical marks into narrative essay audible words, for example the hiroshima essay john hersey, words “quote” and essay greed “unquote” are sometimes copied out, and therefore read as if issued from an actual voice (14). Farmer Essays-about Farmers. These devices enhance the auditory quality of narrative Paul’s logorrhea. But as noted earlier, Paul’s journal is hiroshima john not playing solo, for it is narrative interlaced with many other voices. Dialogues and exchanges, real or imaginary, abound. The voice of the farmer farmers, departed Roz resonates throughout the narrative essay, chapters in mnemonic interludes (“Roz said but Sweetie, you’re spending all this money and on diffusion we don’t have it” [30]). Chirping birds keep interrupting the demonstration’s progress (62-63)8 while here and narrative essay greed there a noisy little mouse pops into Paul’s kitchen and his manuscript (62-63).

Interactions with neighbors, friends, dates and overheard conversations at the store are most of the time reported as direct speech in essays-about the narrative. Sound and “the proclaimed word,” the festive marketplace and the “cries of narrative essay greed Paris” are prominent features of carnival culture, Bakhtin showed in his analysis of Rabelais’ world (218). From his solitary plastic chair up in the barn, the anthologist voices boisterous addresses to essay, a variety of individuals—editors, living or dead poets, carpenters, neighbors and passers-by, which generates a lively atmosphere that is part of the carnivalizing spirit of this novel. 9 A feature that “Baker” shares with him. 39 Another carnivalesque feature that distances the narrator’s critical discourse from the established genre is the extravagant number of references to eating. Narrative Greed. Hardly a page goes by my roommate without an narrative greed, allusion to food, if only as metaphors, similes and puns. Essay. This aspect may be linked to the sensuous drive that also governs Paul’s life. Narrative Essay. For Chowder, as his name would have it,9 is hiroshima john hersey a bon vivant. The use of food imagery, which takes various forms, gives concrete and narrative physical substance to on diffusion, Paul’s discourse and reminds the narrative greed, readers that artistic creation is dependent on bodily function. The answer to the question “Why is rhyme so important to speech?” is dissertation hypothesis considerably delayed by a detailed description of the chicken plate Chowder’s neighbor brings him as he sits pondering the issue (105).

Food whimsically worms its way into every bit of his narrative, as for example in greed this passage on essay the overrated importance of iambic pentameter: “People are going to narrative essay, feed you all kinds of oyster crackers about about hometown iambic pentameter. They’re going to essay greed, say, Oh ho ho, iambic pentameter! The centrality of the five-stress line! Because ‘pent’ is five in Babylonian, and five […] is the writing hypothesis, number of slices of American cheese you can eat in essay one sitting” (10). As Bakhtin argues, “the encounter of essay my roommate man with the essay greed, world, which takes place inside the descriptive essay your hometown, open, biting, rending, chewing mouth, is narrative essay greed one of the most ancient and most important objects of essay on diffusion human thought and narrative imagery. Here man tastes the my roommate, world, introduces it in narrative its body, makes it part of itself” (229).

Baker’s over-emphasis on food imagery in this poetry anthology testifies to essay, his overpowering desire to celebrate life. Sounds and eating references all point to a joyful feast of communication and essay exchange with the world. Research. 41 “How do you achieve the narrative essay greed, presence of mind to initiate the essay, writing of a poem?” (236). Narrative Essay Greed. The final twist to this story of writer’s block comes as the anthologist is asked by a “real” person at writing essay, a conference on essay greed “the meters of foundation for critical intellectual love” to explain the very origins of essay greed poetry-making. The poet suddenly forgets all about the rules of scansion, his own new rules included, and delivers a “secret” that shows poetry and life as intricately connected: “I’ll tell you how. I ask a simple question. Power Research. What was the very best moment of your day?” What follows is an uninterrupted writing marathon in essay greed which the writing the expository, narrator composes twenty-three poems and completes a “clean draft” of the introduction (241). This outpouring does not happen on narrative essay the second floor of essay on diffusion of responsibility a remote and isolated barn or ivory tower but “on the kitchen table” (241). As the writing proceeds, the poet swaps his mental representation of essay a competitive poetry ladder to writing the expository, Parnassus for “an aluminum ladder for real” with which he will help his neighbor build a house (242). The last pages see the greed, narrator return to Roz, to about, social life, and to narrative greed, “ badmintonage ” (243). This return to “real life” was only made possible by the creative resources of writing play, and in essay greed this case, by essay my roommate the game of narrative fiction played by Chowder, itself mirroring the winning essays-about farmers, elaborate game played by narrative greed Nicholson Baker. “You need the dissertation question hypothesis, art in order to love the narrative, life,” the power plant research, narrator had declared earlier (190), which aptly illustrates the process Nicholson Baker describes in this metafictional novel.

Baker’s novel, Linda Hutcheon would argue, “is not a copy of the empirical world, nor does it stand in greed opposition to it. It is rather a continuation of that ordering, fiction-making process that is part of essay about my roommate our normal coming to narrative essay, terms with experience” (Hutcheon, 89). In that respect, The Anthologist provides a good response to essay of responsibility, Jean-Marie Schaeffer’s question in Pourquoi la fiction? The Anthologist can even be considered as a fictional counterpart to greed, Shaeffer’s critical theories: reflecting as it does on the mechanics of dissertation writing while playing a game of make-believe, Baker’s novel provides a dynamic illustration of the essay, creative possibilities offered by writing hypothesis that human impulse towards fiction or “ludic feint” as Schaeffer calls it (11, passim ). Indeed, what the essay, narrator claims he has achieved at the end of the essay, novel—“a two-hundred and thirty page” introduction, “a clean draft” that “explains things but clumsily”—strangely resembles the two-hundred-and-forty page book the reader is narrative essay holding. Through the freedom generated by play and the make-believe dynamics of his discourse, Chowder’s writings have become a speculative metaphor for the preface that could not be written.

42 “Another story about a writer writing a story! Another regressus in infinitum!” a character famously complained in “Life-Story,” one of writing John Barth’s short stories (117). “Who doesn’t prefer art that at least overtly imitates something other than its own processes?” he pursued (117). Narrative. Baker shows that he does not, since it is essay on diffusion of responsibility this overt meditation on narrative essay greed the mechanics of writing that gives birth to The Anthologist . “There is much freedom-inducing potential in metafiction generally, not when seen as a degenerate version of a moribund genre, but when recognized as a significant ‘vital’ mimetic form of literature” (161-62), Linda Hutcheon concludes at the end of Narcissistic Narrative: The Metafictional Paradox . This a view that applies not only to the narrator’s endeavours to reinvent the writing essay, rules of narrative essay preface-writing but also to essay, Baker’s own endeavours with metafiction. More than three decades after Hutcheon offered a typology of the genre, writing metafiction has become quite a challenge, even for narrative greed the author of descriptive essay your The Mezzanine. While representing Chowder’s frantic quest for narrative a new voice that would refresh our perception of john poetry, Baker seems to narrative, be himself commenting on the challenges implied in writing novels in writing the expository the 21 st century. But turning the essay greed, preface that the narrator was unable to write into a novel that in its turn offers a playful meditation on foundation for critical standards the mechanics of writing, Baker has given birth to a form of ludic meta-metafiction, and narrative proved that in nuclear power plant paper the early 21 st century, it is essay still possible to foundation intellectual standards, give a new twist to greed, that now well-established literary genre. Bakhtin , Mikhail, The Bakhtin Reader , selected writings of dissertation writing question hypothesis Bakhtin, Medvedev and narrative greed Volohinov, London, E. Arnold, 1994. ---, Problems of descriptive essay your Dostoievski’s poetics , University of Minnesota Press, 1984. Narrative Greed. Baker , Nicholson, The Anthologist , New York, Simon Schuster, 2009. ---, U and foundation for critical intellectual standards I , New York, Random House, Vintage Books, 1991. Narrative Greed. Barth , John, Lost in the Funhouse , New York, Doubleday, 1968. Descriptive About Hometown. Beaujour , Michel, “The Games of essay greed Poetics,” Yale French Studies , 41, 1968, 58-67.

Caillois , Roger, Man, Play and games [1958], Translated from the French by Meyer Barash, New York, Free Press, 1961. Of Responsibility. Carroll, Lewis, Alice in Wonderland [1865], New York, Norton Critical Edition, 1992. Fink , Eugene, “The Oasis of Happiness: Toward an narrative greed, Ontology of Play,” transl. Ute Saine and essay on diffusion of responsibility Thomas Saine, Yale French Studies 41,1968, 19-30. Genette , Gerard, Figures III , Paris, Gallimard, 1972. Huizinga , Johan, Homo Ludens , a Study of the Play Element in essay greed Culture , Boston, Beacon Press, 1950. Hutcheon , Linda, Narcissistic Narrative, The Metafictional Paradox , New York, Routledge, 1984. Nabokov , Vladimir, Pale Fire, New York, Vintage International, 1989. Schaeffer , Jean-Marie, Pourquoi la Fiction ? , Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1999. Essay Hometown. Schiller , Friedrich , On The Aesthetic Education of Man in a Series of Letters . Essay. Trans. E.M.

Wilkinson and foundation thinking L.A. Narrative. Willoughby. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967. On Diffusion Of Responsibility. Waugh, Patricia, The Theory and essay greed Practice of nuclear power plant Self-Conscious Fiction, London, Routledge, 1984. Rawdon Wilson R., Explorations in narrative greed Play, Game and writing the expository essay Narrative Theory . Northeastern University Press, Boston, 1990. Narrative Essay. 1 As this article was being submitted for publication, Baker published The Traveling Sprinkler , a novel that works as a sort of sequel to The Anthologist (Blue Rider Press, 2013).

In this novel, Paul Chowder returns, focusing this time on songs and dissertation music. Narrative Essay Greed. 2 The notion, already part of writing hypothesis Huizinga’s analysis in 1930, was made famous by R. Caillois’ typology of plays in Man, Play and Games (translated from the French Des Jeux et des Hommes , 1958). 3 Johan Huizinga defines play as “a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary life’ as being ‘not serious’, but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly” (13). Essay Greed. 4 If Chowder fails to entertain his neighbors with his embarrassing ukulele solo and social self-consciousness, on paper the other hand, it is essay greed precisely his self-consciousness as a narrator that turns the episode into a humorous novelistic scene. 5 Referring to Kinbote’s role in essay my roommate Nabokov’s Pale Fire , Tony Tanner observed that “On lexical playfields, a man can be a king, even if he is a king in hiding,” while Gradus, who represents in narrative essay the novel everything that is hostile to art and imagination is doomed forever to get lost as he approaches the foundation for critical thinking intellectual standards, city of Lex (Tanner, 38). Narrative Essay. 6 See Linda Hutcheon’s analysis of what she has labelled “historiographic metafiction” (5). Essay On Diffusion. 7 For a detailed analysis of the intricate relationship between Bakhtin’s concept of carnivalization and essay literary play, see R. Hiroshima. Rawdon Wilson’s analysis on narrative “The Play of essay Carnival and the Carnival of Play”, in essay In Palamedes’ Shadow, Explorations in winning essays-about farmers Play, Game Narrative Theory (25-73). 8 Another allusion to narrative greed, Nabokov’s Pale Fire. Kinbote’s Foreword to his edition of Shade’s poem is plant paper interrupted from the essay greed, start by narratorial intrusions, as for example a passage on “those amusing birds,” or another one on the “very loud” noise coming from winning farmer essays-about farmers, “the amusement park in front of greed [his] present lodgings” (9). Writing Hypothesis. 9 A feature that “Baker” shares with him. Yannicke Chupin , « Play-write Poetry in narrative essay Nicholson Baker’s The Anthologist », Transatlantica [En ligne], 2 | 2013, mis en ligne le 30 avril 2014, consulte le 03 octobre 2017.

URL : Chronicles of the winning farmer farmers, End of the narrative essay greed, World: The End is research paper not the End 1 | 2016. Modernist Revolutions: American Poetry and narrative greed the Paradigm of the power, New 2 | 2015. Narrative Essay. The Poetics and Politics of Antiquity in the Long Nineteenth-Century / Exploiting Exploitation Cinema 1 | 2015. The Voting Rights Act at essay about my roommate, 50 / Hidden in Plain Sight: Deep Time and American Literature 2 | 2014. Aesthetics of narrative greed Theory in the Modern Era and Beyond / Photographie documentaire 1 | 2014. Exile and Expatriation 2 | 2013.

Jeux et enjeux du texte 1 | 2013. Revisiting the nuclear power plant paper, Gilded Age / Litterature et philosophie 2 | 2012. Cartographies de l'Amerique / Histoires d'esclaves 1 | 2012. Le roman policier, litterature transatlantique / Maisons Hantees 2 | 2011. Greed. Sport et societe / Animals and dissertation writing question hypothesis the American Imagination 1 | 2011. Narrative Greed. Senses of the South / Referendums populaires 2 | 2010. The Businessman as Artist / New American Voices 1 | 2010. American Shakespeare / Comic Books 2 | 2009. Writing Essay. Benjamin Franklin / Richard Powers 1 | 2009. Homage to Michel Fabre 1 | 2008. Amerique militante 2 | 2007.

Plotting (Against) America 1 | 2007. Democratic Aesthetics 2 | 2006. Revolution 1 | 2006. Narrative. Beyond the New Deal 1 | 2005. Couleurs d'Amerique 1 | 2003. State of the Union 1 | 2002. Jeune Republique 1 | 2001. Autour du 11 septembre.

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My Lai Massacre – History Essay Sample. The My Lai massacre was a mass murder of greed, innocent Vietnamese civilians. It is known as the worst atrocity of the Vietnam War. Lieutenant William Calley led the first platoon of Charlie Company during its service in the Quang Ngai province in Vietnam. The massacre took place in the hamlets of for critical thinking, My Lai and essay greed My Khe of Son My village in South Vietnam (e.g. ‘Pinkville’). Before the nuclear power My Lai massacre, the narrative greed United States tactic was to essay on diffusion of responsibility kill ‘Viet Cong members’ until they gave up. Entire villages were destroyed to narrative essay greed abolish Viet Cong sanctuaries and support.

Civilian casualties in descriptive about hometown Quang Ngai reached 50,000 each year. 70% of villages in the province were already ruined by American air attacks. The Americans fought an narrative, industrialized war. They used B52 bombers, artillery, helicopters, Agent Orange and napalm. The Expository Essay. The Americans forced civilians to leave Viet Cong controlled areas to create ‘free fire zones’. Narrative Essay Greed. The idea of ‘free fire zones’ was that it was an area where civilians had been removed. The people left behind were thought to be part of the essay Viet Cong. The tactic of the Americans is to essay have ‘search and destroy’ missions in these areas. The Viet Cong took advantage of the jungle, hiding behind trees and hedges. The 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the power research paper 23rd Infantry Division and Charlie Company suffered 30 attacks from the Viet Cong (booby-traps and land mines) causing many injuries and five deaths. The American army’s comeback was to attack the villages suspected of containing to Viet Cong.

They were to burn houses, kill off livestock, spoil crops, and pollute wells so it would deny essentials to the Viet Cong and their supporters. The purpose of the massacre was to kill the people that were part of the Viet Cong. They believed everyone in the My Lai was either Viet Cong or Viet Cong supporters and that actual civilians would be away at the markets. The villagers hadn’t gone to narrative essay greed the markets that day because they heard the shelling and helicopters, instead they were hiding in their homes. On the morning of March 16th Calley commanded the first group of men to the expository essay land at My Lai after they had created a landing zone (firing 120 shells into rice paddies). Narrative Essay Greed. His orders were to start killing villagers when they arrived at 7:30am.

Calley ordered his men to foundation thinking intellectual enter the narrative village firing, even though there was no report of opposing fire. It was a ‘search and destroy’ mission. The American troops killed between 347 and 504 un-armed civilians. The majority of civilians killed were women, children, infants and the elderly. My Roommate. Some of the narrative essay women were gang raped, their bodies left mutilated on the ground. Many of the women were raped before they were killed.

Some of the soldiers treated the killings like a game, brutalizing the for critical thinking intellectual murders. They had carved ‘C Company’ or the shape of the ace of greed, spades into the victim’s chests. As the murders continued, men started getting more comfortable with the idea, boasting about the number of Vietnamese they shot. Charlie Company assumed that all of the Vietnamese people were involved with the Viet Cong, even babies. Hugh Thomson stated that when he created flares to mark the foundation locations of wounded civilians, soldiers came and killed the wounded. The American soldiers also fired machine guns into huts.

The U.S. army tried to cover up and suppress information about the raping and murdering at My Lai. They downplayed the event saying that the majority of the people they killed were the Viet Cong. Journalist Seymour Hersh released information on what really happened in essay greed November 1969. The army was under intense pressure from newspapers so they put William Calley on trial. On June 5th 1969 William Calley was called back to the U.S, as a suspect in an authorised army investigation. Eyewitnesses at on diffusion the event later confessed that Calley had rounded villagers into a ditch and narrative essay greed shot them all with a machine gun.

Calley was at first charged with the murder of 109 civilians. There were many cases trialled with a jury of nuclear power research paper, army officers; in the end they dropped all charges against all the defendants (26 others were originally charged with criminal offences) except for Lieutenant William Laws Calley. He was charged with killing ‘at least 20 civilians’, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. Calley ended up serving only three years, largely under house arrest, after his original life sentence was reduced by narrative essay, the Army. The significance of My Lai massacre is that it is essay about, a reminder to armed forces around the world of greed, what can happen when soldiers refer to their enemy as less than human. The Americans also realised that their military is flawed, that Americans are capable of for critical thinking intellectual standards, committing atrocities. They realized that they are not always the hero’s, horrifying the general public. Greed. The My Lai massacre turned more citizens against the war, they now truly realised the cruelty and brutality of it. A mother of one of the for critical intellectual soldiers accused of killing civilians stated that “I sent them a good boy, and they made him a murder”.

Support for essay, the Vietnam War never recovered, eventually leading onto the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. It had a huge affect on the Vietnamese, their despair turned into a strong hate towards the Americans. The American soldiers took away their brothers and sisters, the civilians had to live with the memories and essay of responsibility depression from the event. Troung Thi Le lost nine members of her family in the My Lai massacre. She spoke to the authors of ‘Four hours in My Lai’ saying “I won’t forgive.

I hate them very much. I won’t forgive them as long as I live. Think of those children… still at their mother’s breast being killed… I hate them very much.” It is narrative greed, also significance because it enlightened the American public of the United States government’s policy of concealment – how well they had covered the essay about hometown event up for 18 months. It also shows the lack of truthfulness of the narrative armed forces. The My Lai massacre is significant today because it educates the army to essay about my roommate carry out missions within the essay greed expectations and standards of our society. Lieutenant William Laws Calley. William Laws Calley is a convicted American war criminal and former U.S. army officer found guilty of murder for on diffusion of responsibility, his role in narrative the My Lai massacre on March 16th 1968. Calley led the first platoon of nuclear power plant paper, Charlie Company during its service in the Quang Ngai province in Vietnam. Calley commanded the first group of men to narrative greed land at My Lai, ordering them to about kill villagers. Narrative Greed. William believed that there was a massacre, but he was only following orders.

After the memorial service on descriptive your hometown March 15th for the dead soldiers involved in narrative Charlie Company (killed by mines, booby traps or snipers), Medina apparently briefed them on a three day ‘search and writing question hypothesis destroy’ mission to be put in place on March 16th. “The men were hurt real bad, real bad,” said a member of the Company. Captain Ernest Medina was the commanding officer of Charlie Company, 1st battalion, 20th infantry of the 11th brigade and the Americal Division – the group accountable for the My Lai massacre. Numerous men claimed that Medina, in that briefing, ordered the killing of ‘every living thing in My Lai’. Also the burning of homes, killing of livestock, destruction of crops/other foodstuffs, closing of wells and killing of narrative essay, people found at My Lai. Writing The Expository. Calley believed that the people there would be a member of the Viet Cong (or Viet Cong supporters) and that actual civilians would be away at narrative essay the markets. When Captain Medina was court martialled in the expository essay 1971, he denied that was his instruction, stating that his men killed civilians under their own commands.

In captain Medina’s testimony he stated that Colonel Barker had received permission from the Army public of narrative essay greed, Vietnam that My Lai could be destroyed as it was a Viet Cong stronghold. Plant. Lieutenant Colonel Barker was the task force commander. He was in control of A Company, B Company and C Company, and many other divisions. Medina also said that he was not aware of his men’s atrocities until it was too late. He stated that he informed his men that the residents might be Viet Cong or sympathizers. Narrative Essay. The prosecutor thought it was ‘incredible’ that Captain Medina had constant radio communication with Charlie Company, but yet had no idea of the crimes the soldiers were committing. Calley had testified at his trial that he was ordered by Captain Ernest Medina to kill everyone in the village. The trial over William Calley ran for 77 days, it occurred in essay late 1970 to early 1971. Over 20 Charlie Company soldiers declared to the court that Medina sent out instructions to slaughter everybody in the village.

William Calley referred to himself as a dutiful soldier – “I was ordered to go in there and destroy the narrative enemy. Essay. That was my job on that day….I carried out the orders that I was given, and I do not feel wrong in doing so, sir.” Psychiatrists inspected Calley testifying that ‘he did not feel as if he were killing human beings but rather that they were animals with whom one could not speak of reason.’ Calley and his platoon overlooked the humanity of the villagers because they believed that all Vietnamese people were the ‘enemy’. They were thought as less than human because the American military policy secured the stereotypes/beliefs. All ranks of the essay greed US forces called them ‘gooks’, racism was very common. ‘The mere gook rule’ developed in Vietnam. Vivienne Sanders believed that dead bodies meant ‘promotions’ for American soldiers. Foundation Thinking Intellectual Standards. ‘If it is narrative greed, dead and nuclear power plant Vietnamese, it’s Viet Cong”. Calley believed that he was a scape goat of the United States policies. The army had been pressured by the American media, so they had put him on narrative greed trial to cover up everybody else’s crimes. Dissertation Hypothesis. Even though his charges are justified, more people needed to essay greed be sentenced that were involved in the My Lai massacre. Power Plant. He believed this because he had watched many others commit atrocities. The soldiers took their own initiative; the essay greed majority of the men apparently did not need Lieutenant Calley’s encouragement or directions to dissertation writing question commit murders.

Lieutenant Calley recalled seeing one of the members of his platoon raping a woman. He told the soldier to “get his pants back up and get over to where he was supposed to be”. Every soldier had been trained according to the Geneva conventions, so they certainly knew them. Calley defended himself at the trial stating that the narrative greed army trained him to hate the Vietnamese. He was told that the Vietnamese children were very good at foundation for critical intellectual planting mines.

Fred Widmer (radio operator with Charlie Company) defended William Calley’s decision by stating “When we first started losing members of the Company, it was mostly through booby traps and greed snipers… We had heard a lot about essay about, women and children being used as booby traps and being members of the Vietcong… There was no question they were working for the Vietcong… you didn’t trust them anymore. You didn’t trust anybody… And I would say that in essay the end, anybody that was still in that country was the enemy.” Before William Laws Calley was assigned into about my roommate, the army he had dropped out of school and was unemployed. The general public wondered why Calley had been assigned his position in the army, due to his bad emotional and intellectual stature. Narrative Essay Greed. Despite his high rank, the men in the expository his platoon felt resentful towards him. Some of them reported to army officials that Calley lacked common sense and could not read a map and compass properly. Many members of greed, Charlie Company witnessed Captain Ernest Medina treat Calley with disrespect. As Lieutenant Calley was an officer that was not respected, some soldiers had a history of essay hometown, antagonizing him about instructions they had found foolish. Lieutenant Calley’s plans would have been abandoned if the other soldiers did not agree, so it was unfair to give him the entire blame. Calley wanted to earn respect from Medina so he followed all orders accordingly.

Lieutenant Calley believed that he was as innocent as the soldiers; he was only narrative greed, following orders like they were. Calley stated “When my troops were getting massacred and mauled by on diffusion of responsibility, an enemy I couldn’t see, I couldn’t feel, I couldn’t touch… nobody in the military system ever described them anything other than communists”. Calley’s comments gained sympathy from the American public. Essay Greed. Calley was “as much as a victim as the people he shot” according to Seymour Hersh. Jerry Cramm (a student from Oklahoma City) sent a letter to essay on diffusion life magazine during December 1969 stating “Under no circumstances do I think a person placed in the situation of being required to kill should be punished for killing the wrong people”. The ‘Ledger-Enquirer ‘published that William Calley publicly apologized for his actions at My Lai during the week of the 21st August 2009 in Columbus. “There is not a day that goes by that I do not feel remorse for what happened that day in My Lai,” Calley told members of the Kiwanis Club of Greater Columbus on Wednesday. His voice started to break when he added, “I feel remorse for the Vietnamese who were killed, for their families, for the American soldiers involved and their families.

I am very sorry.” He admitted to thinking the essay people in thinking intellectual standards My Lai were part of the Viet Cong but now had realised they were civilians. Ronald Lee Ridenhour. Ronald Lee Ridenhour was a helicopter door gunner who served in the 11th infantry brigade during the Vietnam War; he flew over My Lai a few days after the massacre noticing the destruction. He played an essay, immense role in the investigation of the My Lai massacre. On March 18th 1969, after he was discharged from the army (December 1968), he wrote a letter with all of the evidence he had found concerning ‘Pinkville’. In early April 1969 he sent letters to 30 government leaders, including President Richard Nixon, Secretary of Defence Melvin Laird and other members of congress. The letters prompted an official investigation against the accused, leading to for critical thinking intellectual the conviction of Lieutenant William Laws Calley. If Ron Ridenhour hadn’t made an effort on exposing the My Lai event, it may have stayed a secret.

Ronald’s perspective on the event is that a massacre did occur and that the people involved should be punished. Ronald stated that “I wanted to get those people. I wanted to reveal what they did”. ( Greed. Ronald Lee Ridenhour first heard of the massacre from his friends when they were serving in Vietnam. He believed, according to his letter, that ‘something rather dark and foundation bloody did indeed occur’ ( Narrative. While Ron served in the army, he collected eyewitness and essay participant accounts from narrative greed people involved in question the My Lai massacre. Narrative Greed. When Ron returned to the United States he was determined to do something, the situation made him miserable “My God, when I first came home, I would tell my friends about standards, this and cry—literally cry”. ( Ronald stated in his letter that it was hard to greed believe that ‘not only had so many young American men participated in about your hometown such an act of barbarism, but that their officers had ordered it’. His perspective on the event is that people do anything authority tells them to. Ron Ridenhour talked about the greed cover up and peoples responses to authority to the Los Angeles times (on March 16th 1993) stating that “Some people—most it seems—will, under some circumstances, do anything someone in authority tells them to… Government institutions, like most humans, have a reflexive reaction to the exposure of essay about my roommate, internal corruption and wrong doing: No matter how transparent the effort, their first response is to narrative essay lie, conceal and cover up.

Also like human beings, once an institution has embraced a particular lie in support of a particular cover up, it will forever proclaim its innocence.” ( One of descriptive your, Ron Ridenhour’s closest friends in the army was called Mike Terry. He had spent four months away from Ronald in Lieutenant Calley’s platoon before they were both assigned to the LRRP (long-range reconnaissance patrol unit). He told an account of narrative greed, My Lai, how his company massacred forty women and kids from about your a small hamlet one night. After being questioned of how he could do it, he said that “I just closed my eyes and followed orders’”. Ronald Ridenhour’s other perspective on the event was that all of the soldiers were trained to be racially prejudiced towards the narrative essay Vietnamese. The Vietnamese were called ‘gooks’. Ron stated in thinking standards ‘Nobody gets off the bus: The Vietnam generation big book’ that one of his first drill sergeants had said to him “When you get to Vietnam, you’ll have one job. Essay Greed. Killing gooks” ( When Ron was situated in Vietnam late 1967, all of the soldiers were speaking about killing gooks.

Ron did not understand how soldiers could tell the difference between the descriptive essay about hometown Viet Cong and the good Vietnamese, as time passed he realised that they didn’t, ‘all gooks were VC when they were dead’. All of the essay ranks in writing the United States army reflected racism. The word ‘gook’ is traced far back to 1912 with Americans involvement in Nicaragua. Not all of the soldiers thought with that scheme though. Ronald Ridenhour’s letter contained evidence that one man in the company shot himself in the foot so he didn’t have to take part in the My Lai massacre. The common way for narrative essay, the soldiers was to just follow orders. My Roommate. Ron Ridenhour’s introduction to the dreadfulness of Vietnam was when a pilot called to the officers in the ground company. He asked frantically for them to help a Vietnamese man, the infantry officer got more frustrated as he ran to him. When the officer found him after twenty minutes, he took a look and shot him in the head.

The officer then said to the pilot “This man no longer needs any help” ( Ronald Ridenhour also recalled flying over civilians that were bleeding to essay death. Ronald believed that the Congress of the United States should be taking action. In Ronald’s letter he wrote that the for critical intellectual reason he sent it to the congress instead of the media was because he didn’t want to damage the image of essay greed, American servicemen. In the letter he stated “I remain irrevocably persuaded that if you and I do truly believe in the principles, of justice and the equality of every man, however humble, before the law, that form the very backbone that this country is founded on, then we must press forward a widespread and descriptive hometown public investigation of this matter with all our combined efforts.”. Ronald wanted to work with the government to narrative catch whoever was to blame for the My Lai massacre. Even though their response was slow, Ronald Ridenhour’s letter pressured the government into launching an investigation. The army inspector general’s office and its criminal investigative division examined the essay on diffusion event eventually, leading to the conviction of Lieutenant William Laws Calley. Members of the army tried very hard to cover up the event. Oran Henderson found out about Viet Cong leaflets and stated in essay greed a report ‘At no time were any civilians gathered together and killed by U.S. Dissertation Writing Question. soldiers….The allegation that U.S. Forces shot and killed 450–500 civilians is obviously a Viet Cong propaganda move to discredit the narrative essay greed United States in the eyes of the Vietnamese people’. (

Ron Ridenhour wanted to dissertation writing question hypothesis expose the individuals that tried to deceive the public. In November 1969, Ron Haeberle’s photos were released in the Cleveland Plain Dealer newspaper (published November 20th) and Life magazine backing up what Ronald Ridenhour had stated in his letter. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and essay greed order My Lai Massacre – History. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for My Lai Massacre – History. The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chi?n tranh Vi?t Nam, although in Vietnam this period of American involvement is dissertation writing question hypothesis, known as the American War, Vietnamese: Chi?n tranh M?), also known as the…

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Free Essays on The Maryland Toleration Act. Burgeses the lower house of the colonial Virginia legislature Lord Baltimore was the narrative essay greed first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of for critical intellectual, Maryland , and ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and the colony of Avalon Proprietary colony A colony owned by an individual Royal. Americans, chased Berkley out of Jamestown, and narrative greed torched the capital -In the end, Berkley was recalled back to England 15. Maryland Toleration Act (1649) -It was also called the Act Concerning Religion -It was the second law requiring religious tolerance -I created the first legal limitations on. Religious Toleration and Tolerance Help. the need to tolerance.

In Maryland in 1649, the Text of Maryland Act of Tolerance was founded on the belief that Protestants and Catholics could live together in peace and equality despite their differences (Text of dissertation writing question, Maryland Act of Toleration , April 21, 1649 1)”. The Maryland Act reaffirmed the principles. New Colonies of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and greed Georgia: A Comparison. 5. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences among the southern colonies of Virginia, Maryland , North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The new colonies had a lot in common, but at the same time most of them had a lot of difference. Power Plant Research Paper? Most Colonies started off from Virginia and some. The Concept of Freedom in Americas during 1600-1750. dealt with freedom of religion. Settlers from powerful and prosperous empires immigrated to the New World seeking spiritual freedom and religious toleration , they could not possess in essay greed their own countries.

Usually once a new colony formed, a new church was built and sponsored by the government. That church. Review. This established the nuclear power plant ability of the Judiciary Branch to declare a law unconstitutional. Read more More Supreme Court Decisions McCulloch v. Maryland Gibbons v. Ogden Brown v. Board of Education Martin's American History Blog Add to: iGoogleMy Yahoo!RSS Andrew Johnson was Impeached Tuesday. Yet, James I, ever fearful of representative government in any form dismissed the narrative essay greed Burgesses and made Virginia a royal colony in 1624. Writing Question? 2. Maryland For reasons we shall discuss at a later date, persecution of Catholics continued in England George Calvert, Lord Baltimore will be granted a charter. established a naval blockade that crippled the southern economy. The Eastern Theater was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaign into Maryland ended with Confederate retreat at the Battle of Antietam, dissuading British intervention.

To the west, by essay greed summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate. establishing settlements in essay of responsibility search of goods to be sold back to the mother country. The Chesapeake area was borne out essay of the Jamestown settlement and Maryland . Essay On Diffusion? New England on the other hand developed out of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Company. Even though the majority of the settlers came from England. when the motel was sued because blacks who were interstate traveling could not stay there. Congress in 1964 pass Title II of the 1964 Civil Rights Act , under the Commerce Clause Congress had the authority to step in and intervene in business when commerce was affected.

The Constitutional question was. there. I do think a Hindu, especially one of a lower caste system, could tolerate the suffering better than others at first, but that level of toleration can last only so long. I suppose a Hindu could explain his or her own suffering as a test to the atman and perhaps one step closer to moksha. A. McCulloch v. Narrative Greed? Maryland 4 Wheat.

316 (1819) FACTS: The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816, amid much opposition from the states. However, following many financial disasters throughout the nation, eight states, including Maryland , passed statutes restricting the essay “activities of the. Importance of Religion to the Human Population. always has been very important to the human population as a whole. It is the groundwork of society in that it controls the way that people think and act . This idea of the narrative essay greed impact of religion on society can be displayed through the English colonial developments of the New England and Middle Colony regions.

? McCulloch v. Hypothesis? Maryland McCulloch v. Maryland , (1819), was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to take over the operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered. anyone between Washington and Philadelphia suspected of subversive acts or speech, and his order specifically authorized suspension of the writ of habeas corpus. Scott passed the order down the line, and Southern sympathizers in Maryland were rounded up in batches. This was during the crucial first weeks. Liberal Democracy’s Dilemma: Individualism, Pluralism, and Toleration. Individualism, Pluralism, and Toleration “Liberal democracy’s dilemma is how to essay greed reconcile individual autonomy with group membership in a pluralistic society” (PLSC 420). For Michael Walzer the the expository dilemma of liberal democracy is solved by tolerance. Walzer defines toleration as “…the peaceful coexistence. clarify the meaning of the narrative greed Supremacy Clause.

In 1920, for example, Missouri sought to prevent a US game warden from enforcing the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, which prohibited the killing or capturing of many species of birds as they made their annual migration across the international border from. Upton Sinclair was born September 20, 1878 in Baltimore Maryland . Writing The Expository? His Father was a traveling salesman. He was married several times. His last marriage ended in 1967 when his wife passed away. He had one child from his first marriage. He went to City College in narrative essay New York. He did his graduate studies at.

across the Atlantic Ocean. By 1800 those same colonies were in the process of becoming independent states with a government of their own that would act in the interest of foundation for critical thinking, all. This change could not have come without a catalyst. The American Revolution was a transition from colonial life to what would. Compare and Contrast the Religious, Economic and Political Development of Two of the narrative greed Regions of the essay on diffusion 13 British Colonies. survival of the narrative English colonies. Then there were the for critical thinking standards Southern colonies, which were made up of essay, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland , here, the large plantations is what made the on diffusion of responsibility south so successful. Although there were numerous differences that divided the New England colonies. Catholic. They were more relaxed on the rules and regulations of being “saved” than the Puritans. Maryland was the first to make steps toward total Religious Freedom when they issued the Religious Toleration Act of 1649.

Not surprisingly the Southern colonies treated the Native Americans with more hostility. Colonial Differences from North to South. 1700’s, Maryland was considered to be a Catholic Haven in the Chesapeake region. Narrative? Founded by Lord Baltimore in your 1634, Maryland quickly became the rescue place for Catholic-English men and women whom faced execution from Protestant England. Faced with death, the greed Catholics of Maryland stood behind the Act of. a nation and a Church that would guide people according to descriptive essay God’s holy laws. Early in 1634, a strange thing happened. A boat docked in essay what is now Maryland , bringing 2 Jesuit priests and 16 Catholic families, along with some 200 other people. Soon word spread through. Of Responsibility? neighboring colonies: Roman Catholics. ?Ken Pulmones Topic Essay 3 02/27/14 The family in charge for the establishment of Maryland was the Calverts.

Primarily Roman Catholic, the Calvert’s at the onset did not establish the essay Maryland colony as an asylum or refuge for Catholics. Rather fist and research paper foremost the colony was established. trades” a. LOT, replaced lose committees, and narrative reformed them to deal with colonial structure. b. Did 2 things i. Enforced Legistlations “Navigation Acts ” 1. These are passed beginning of 1650 2. They deal with trade ii. Set up the essay of responsibility structure to essay greed administer the colonies. And began running them.

There. Racist Attitudes and Segregation in Housing. School desegregation in about my roommate Prince George's County, Maryland , should have been easy. After all, the county did not have to cope with overt racism in both its citizens and its elected officials or about this racism turning into organized violence directed at narrative essay greed, the teenage would-be school integrators, as did. the aspect of religion played an enormous role in foundation for critical standards the British colonies. Religious freedom and toleration was an issue in all the colonies for quite some time. From the narrative essay greed northern colonies where religious toleration was very strict, to the southern colonies where it was more lenient, religious freedom varied. shallow. Essay? | Burton Parish Church in Virginia. Burton Parish Church in Virginia. | | 5a. Maryland — The Catholic Experiment James Barry, 1793 In this engraving, Cecil Calvert presents his 1649 Act Concerning Religion to the ancient Spartan lawgiver, Lycurgus, while libertarians throughout history. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND CENTER FOR ADVANCED STUDY OF LANGUAGE What makes listening difficult?

Factors affecting second language listening comprehension Amber Bloomfield, PhD Sarah C. Wayland, PhD Elizabeth Rhoades, MA Allison Blodgett, PhD Jared Linck, PhD Steven Ross, PhD PurPose—To establish what. New England and Chesapeake: Factors Influencing Development. figures. The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to greed have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and dissertation question hypothesis Middlesex Counties of the British colony of narrative greed, Massachusetts in 1692 and 1693. The trials shaped New England since. Death Penalty or Capital Punishment. death penalty in writing essay their statutes. In Maryland , a first degree murder is regarded as a capital offense. Despite this form of narrative greed, punishment is legal in essay about hometown Maryland , the number of State executions have decreased significantly in narrative greed the recent past. As such, the State of Maryland retains death penalty as a punishment. Introduction At the beginning of the darkest period in American History, Lt.

John Merryman of the Baltimore County Horse Guards and a resident of Maryland , not only found himself imprisoned in Baltimore's Fort McHenry, but also the writing question hypothesis object of the struggle between the newly inaugurated Lincoln Administration. BMGT 365 ENTIRE COURSE MARYLAND To purchase this visit following link: maryland / Contact us at: [email protected] BMGT 365 ENTIRE COURSE MARYLAND BMGT365 Week 1 Maryland Learning Activity #1: Using your reading material and experience. colonies had accomplished a virtual revolution for religious toleration and separation of church and essay greed state. Religious toleration was out of the question in England and its church was considered the only way of nuclear, worishiping. Greed? There was a different toleration of religion in every colony. Rhode Island was the first. populate the nuclear plant research paper country. These economically motivated colonies were New Jersey, New York, Carolinas, and Pennsylvania after it changed it religious toleration . Anthony Johnson arrived in greed Virginia in nuclear plant research 1621 and worked on a tobacco plantation.

He was considered to be a lucky man when he was one of the four. Medicaid Expension in Affordable Care Act and It's Coersion. Instructor: David Silverman Seminar in Healthcare Administration April 18, 2013 In 1965, Medicaid was created under Title XIX of the Social Security Act which is funded by both the state and federal government. It was established to assist low-income or below poverty level families in providing health. the University of narrative greed, Maryland Center for essay Environmental Science which showed that the reduction of pollution emissions from power plants in the mid-Atlantic is greed, making an impact on the quality of the water that ends up in the Chesapeake Bay.

The study “began slightly before the nuclear power research Clean Air Act of 1990 imposed. influential people of this time, John Winthrop, Roger Williams, and the Puritans stand out. Another major reason for the increase of toleration is the Maryland Toleration Act . Essay? People came to the colonies in search of religious freedom and the right to express themselves freely. Eventually, over descriptive your hometown, time they. putting the central government over narrative essay, the states is dissertation writing question hypothesis, a corrupt and damaging idea that will lead to future events, such as Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland , Cohens v. Virginia, and essay greed Gibbons v. Ogden.

The power of the essay on diffusion of responsibility federal government should be left in the hands of the states. Marbury v. Madison (1803). PA 584 Final Exam Intergovernmental Management Keller. period. During the first… (TCO B) Explain the basics of the theory of dual federalism and the importance of the Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Narrative Essay Greed? Maryland to essay that theory. (Points : 15) Dual federalism is a political theory where two governments share sovereign power over a particular group of people. British Colonization of North America. he should express his beliefs. Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses, complaints about the Catholic Church, to the doors of a church in greed Germany.

This act of essay, rebellion led to his excommunication. Martin Luther even after his excommunication, still believed that you had to become a saint and had to adopt. Religious tolerance in narrative essay greed the 17th and 18th centuries. ?Isabella Noble-Hartzler Mr. Young SOCS 51A 23 January 2015 Lesson 2 During the seventeenth and writing eighteenth century in essay North America, toleration for religious differences did increase. North America was an area of the world that was considered much more tolerating of different religious groups than. the State Police. In Maryland the Department of essay, State Police is broken into narrative essay greed, three main bureaus: Field Operations; Homeland Security and Investigation; and Support Services. The department is additionally responsible for the operations of the State Fire Marshal. The Maryland Department of State Police. Setteled Colonies of English Origin.

colonies in this region were Boston, Salem, and Concord.. The states that were included in the Chesapeake region were Virginia (founded by John Smith), Maryland (founded by descriptive essay your hometown George Calvert), North Carolina (founded by Virginia colonists), South Carolina (founded by English colonists), and Georgia (founded by. with Indians. Other Southern Colonies Main Idea: During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, England established the Southern Colonies of Maryland , North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. • John Cabot: 1497; Italian who sailed near Newfoundland; never returned from his second voyage. evidence necessary to make some conclusions.

The first known conviction for the intention to abort was handed down in Maryland in the year 1652. Four years later, also in essay greed Maryland , a woman was arrested for nuclear plant paper murder after procuring an abortion, but the essay greed case was thrown out essay on diffusion when she married the only witness. to legend, Smith was once kidnapped by narrative essay local Chief Powhatan and then his life spared at the last moment thanks to his daughter Pocahontas. 2. This act may well have been staged, but was intended by Powhatan to show good intentions between Indian and the whites. 3. John Smith’s main contribution was. (the Union). The Republican President Abraham Lincoln campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. This act and several others created a tension between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy), resulting in about a civil war.

The civil war lasted from. enrolled so many patients that officials are offering to sell their expertise to states like Maryland , which is struggling to sign people up for narrative essay greed coverage. The disparities reveal a stark truth about the essay about Affordable Care Act : With the first open enrollment period set to narrative essay end Monday, six months after its troubled. Freedom of dissertation writing question hypothesis, Speech, Dissent and Truth. refused a license for publication. In Areopagitica, published without a license,[20] Milton made an narrative impassioned plea for freedom of expression and toleration of falsehood,[19] stating: Give me the liberty to know, to research utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties.[19] . pastor of the separatist Plymouth colony (163233). Banned from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his beliefs, including his support for religious toleration and the rights of Indians and his opposition to civil authority, he founded the colony of Rhode Island and the town of essay greed, Providence (1636) on land. Reason. Then in 1906, The Jungle was published by Doubleday, Page Company and overnight became a best seller.

Sinclair was born in Baltimore, Maryland on September 20, 1878. When he was about ten years old, his family moved to New York City. At the age of 15, Sinclair began writing dime novels. Chapter 4 the Protestant Reformation and the Puritan Background. (1686) 1. Purpose: ¦ Royal attempt to bolster the region's defense and to enforce NAVIGATION ACTS ? included all of New England, and later NY and essay New Jersey 2. Highly unpopular in New. Why Religious Tolerance Increased in narrative essay the American Colonies. To what extent and why did religious toleration increase in the American colonies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Answer with reference to three individuals, events, or movements in American religion during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Descriptive About? People went to narrative essay America to search. Counter-Reformation. In England, More was a tireless persecutor of Protestants, though, paradoxically, one of the tenets of his Utopian society was religious toleration . Essay About My Roommate? In 1532, the political and religious landscape of England changed dramatically.

Henry VIII, like More, had long been a staunch defender of Catholicism. The Safe Prisons Communications Act Fails to Address Prison Communications. THE SAFE PRISONS COMMUNICATIONS ACT FAILS TO ADDRESS PRISON COMMUNICATIONS Cell phones smuggled into federal and state prisons are considered a top security threat to public safety. Contraband cell phones, often smuggled in by corrupt prison guards and essay greed family visitors, are used by power plant research paper criminals for activities. created to keep Britain’s Native American Allies. 3. Quebec Act of 1774- one of the final Factors that pushed the colonist to declare independence.

The Quebec Act was a series of laws passed to gain the Favor of the French Canadians. The Act made Roman Catholicism Quebec’s official religion. Narrative Greed? This sparked. The Colonies by 1763-a New Society? revolution for religious toleration and separation of Church and State. In England religious toleration was out of the question and the Church of England was the only acceptable way of worshiping.

All of the colonies in the Americas had differing amounts of religious toleration ranging from each end of. University of Maryland • Inaugural Edition University of Maryland • Inaugural Edition 237 A Conceptual Paper on Factors That Affect Public Perceptions of dissertation, Welfare Connie Yarborough Mentors: Dr. Wallace Southerland III, Associate Director McNair Scholars Program, University of Maryland , College Park. Baltimore Maryland Industry Analysis. world.

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