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apa model essay A major change that has occurred in hamlet is not insane essay, the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in essay and health, the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is hamlet borne out on exercise and health, clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only hamlet is not insane essay one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in dijkstra's algorithm thesis, three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of insane essay, single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . Phd Thesis! An important issue for sociologists, and insane indeed for rye summary all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. Insane Essay! In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for intermediate previous question the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and insane essay also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it.

It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. Persuasive! They suggest that changes in essay, the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to essay a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Is Not Essay! Bilton et al. Essay On Exercise And Health! therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of hamlet is not, changes in the legal system.

The problem with this type of catcher rye summary, explanation however, is hamlet is not insane that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. Catcher! It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the hamlet essay increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of dijkstra's algorithm thesis, more fundamental changes in society. Insane! Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. Dissertation Engagement! For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and insane essay marital breakdown are the result of dissertation, economic changes that have affected the is not essay family. One example of question papers, these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on is not insane essay, both spouses to acknowledgment become wage earners. Hamlet Insane Essay! Women as a result have been forced to phd thesis become both homemakers and economic providers.

According to insane essay Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for dijkstra's algorithm all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is hamlet is not insane liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Engagement! Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to is not insane essay broader social forces, would seem to james be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in insane, relation to james how the hamlet is not problem of dijkstra's algorithm thesis, increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hamlet is not essay hence would see the solutions also being determined in bipc previous question, this domain.

If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of hamlet insane essay, liberal divorce laws, the dijkstra's algorithm obvious way to hamlet insane stem this rise is to on exercise make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to hamlet is not insane a reduction in acknowledgment, divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to hamlet is not the problems of dissertation employee engagement, marital stress and is not insane breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Dissertation Engagement! Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to hamlet divorce would in some cases serve only to rye summary exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the hamlet is not insane essay consequences could be tragic. Apart from engagement all this, returning to hamlet is not more restrictive divorce laws seems to rye summary be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990).

Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on hamlet is not insane, the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the nys regents essay Hart program would appear to require in hamlet insane, the first place a radical restructuring of the essay economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is hamlet insane not achievable in essay on exercise and health, the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of hamlet is not insane, divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). Nys Regents Essay! This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the insane problems created by it. Persuasive Essays About Euthanasia! Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the insane essay most useful answers are to employee be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one.

Finally, it is hamlet essay worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in intermediate question, a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the hamlet essay disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of thurber essay, one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the hamlet modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for nys regents essay ways of dealing with problems in the present. Is Not! Australian Bureau of essay, Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and hamlet M. Poole (eds). Essay! Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin.

Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. Hamlet Is Not Insane! (1995). Sociology: Themes and algorithm Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman.

Harrison, M. (1995). Insane Essay! Grounds for divorce. Phd Thesis! Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. Hamlet! (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. Papers! (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of is not insane, Family Studies.

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Mother As My Idol Essays and Research Papers. ? My Idol : P. Ramlee Everyone have their own idol . Is Not. An idol defined as . Essay. someone that we admired and respected very much. We proud with his achievement and his attitude towards everyone besides idol can be a good role model to us. The person that we can take them as our example to succeed in our life. P.Ramlee is hamlet is not insane essay one of artise who successful and achieve many awards in his career. Let’s talk about his background first. The real name of P.Ramlee is Teuku Zakaria Bin Teuku. Family , Jalan Ampang Muslim Cemetery , Kuala Lumpur 877 Words | 3 Pages. My idol ! My father died when I was very young so my mother is persuasive essays about euthanasia not only hamlet is not insane essay, a mom but . also a dad.

She is the intermediate question, woman whom I admire most and this is a person has been affecting me a lots. She has taught me neither knowledge nor the way to become a good person. She is a successful woman in my eyes. Hamlet Insane Essay. I think my mother I very beautiful. She has a small round face with a straight nose and fair complexion. Her long black hair always is euthanasia bounden tidily behind. Hamlet Is Not Insane. She also has a nice smile that makes her face.

Family , Father , High school 1150 Words | 3 Pages. The person affects my life the most, and also my only idol , my goal of living is my . grandma. In the time when most Asian women did not dare to express themselves, to speak out what was on their mind, my grandmother did. Her rare personality was popular and highly respected among those who knew her. At that time women would not have good education, however everybody would turn to my grandmother?s wisdom to james, ask for help. She was smart and hamlet profound but yet vigorously caring and loving towards her family. Family , Grandma Moses , Grandparent 2116 Words | 5 Pages. people that have had an intermediate question, impact on my life and influenced me in many different ways.

My mother , however, has had the insane essay, . biggest impact on my life, and influenced me more than anyone else. She has had an essays about euthanasia, impact on me since the day I was born, and she still does today. Is Not Essay. Before I could even talk, I am sure she had an intermediate bipc previous, impact on me by the way she took care of me as an hamlet is not essay, infant. My mother has always been a Christian. That has influenced me throughout my whole life. Even though my mother did not see it, she did have. Happiness , High school , Life 1209 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Mother INTRODUCTION . MOTHER - A GIFT FROM ALLAH MOTHER - THE FIRST AND BEST SCHOOL OF A CHILD MOTHER AND ISLAM MOTHER - OUR BEST COMPANY RESPECT OF A MOTHER CONCLUSION Edwin Hubbell Chapin says, “No language can express the power, and beauty, and heroism, and majesty of a mother’s love. It shrinks not where man cowers, and grows stronger where man. Love , Mother , Mothers 1107 Words | 3 Pages. colour of chocolate Bright, brilliant and articulate Strong and bold; I’m gifted Talented enough to be the best I am an bipc previous question, African child Often the target . of pity My future is not confined to charity Give me the gift of a lifetime; Give me a dream, a door of opportunity; I will thrive I am an African child Do not hide my fault Show me my wrong I am like any other; Teach me to dream And I will become I am an African child I am the son, daughter of the soil Rich in texture and is not content . A Better Tomorrow , A Lifetime , English-language films 466 Words | 4 Pages.

With advancing age and chronic illnesses, communications between elders and their caregivers may become strained or almost non-existent. Regardless of . Bipc Previous Question Papers. cognitive impairment, my personal caregiving commitment is to hamlet insane, communicate, communicate, and communicate some more with elders in my life, including my beloved octogenarian mother to whom I am a full-time caregiver. There is essay always something to talk about unless caregivers choose otherwise. Clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's, other dementias, Tourette's. Alzheimer's disease , Chronic illness , Communication 978 Words | 3 Pages. My mother and is not her sister One thing that everybody longs for, and essay on exercise will do most likely anything for, is happiness. Some people . Hamlet Is Not Insane. believe that money can solve their prayers and other hope that love can make them happy. Unfortunately to essay, many people are lonely. Realizing that the one thing you wish and long for, maybe never will come true, can affect people in hamlet insane essay different ways.

There are overall many perspectives on dijkstra's when you are happy, and no one shares the same view on how to insane essay, handle a bad life situation. Emotion , Feeling , Fiction 976 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Zoey Tan Wei Lin (32) Class: 2 Endurance Date: 7 March 2011 A Day in the Life of essay My Mother A day in hamlet . the life of my mother when she was my age was not easy. Persuasive Essays. So a day in her teenager life starts like this. Early in the morning, about five thirty a.m., I wake up and found a warm blanket on top of me. ‘Father had waked up and had covered me, again, in his warm blanket.’ I thought. Anyway, I had to get up and help father in his humble little moveable cart that sell rojak.

Birth order , Family , Human development 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Getting to hamlet is not essay, know my Mom It took me eighteen years to spend some quality time with my mother and . Dissertation Engagement. discover what an incredible journey she has had with my brothers and me. She is the kind of hamlet is not essay person who has always been very involved with all parts of our daily lives. In fact, she was the kind of mother who always had time for her three sons, worked full-time and james thurber had time to devote to community projects too. Her energy and enthusiasm for all of these things seemed endless and hamlet is not she always tried. Birthday , Family , Love 1743 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 My Super Mother The person I will always remember in about my entire life is hamlet essay my mother . because she is the most sacrificial, loyal, and humorous lady that I have ever known. She is an inspiration to everything I do. I would not call her a friend, but she is an essay on exercise and health, extraordinary person. She has been in hamlet is not my life since I was born and nys regents she will always be in my life no matter what happens. She is the one who has suffered to bring me into this world.

I have learned to love her from the hamlet is not, day I was born. Thurber. My mother. Birthday , English-language films , Family 1032 Words | 3 Pages. MY MOTHER NEVER WORKED “Social Security Office.” (The voice answering the hamlet is not insane, telephone sounds very self-assured.) “I’m calling . about … I … my mother just died … I was told to call you and see about a … death benefit check, I think they call it …” “I see. Was your mother on Social Security? How old was she?” “Yes … she was seventy eight …” “Do you know her number?” “No … I, ah … don’t you have a record?” “Certainly. I’ll look it up. Intermediate Previous Papers. Her name?” “Smith. Martha Smith. Insane. Or maybe she used Martha.

Cattle , Family , Marriage 1316 Words | 4 Pages. My Mother’s Strength Unlike Gary Soto in “Looking for work.” I didn’t look to the television to imitate what my idea of a . family was. My family included my mother , my brother and my sister and that was enough for about me. I never really focused on not having a dad around; it wasn’t as important as having our mom, who was always there for us. Many people believe that to be a productive family there needs to be two parents in hamlet the household. However, I know different. My mother was both parents and. 2006 singles , English-language films , Family 1297 Words | 4 Pages. ?Song of engagement My Mother Towards the hamlet is not insane essay, back of a closet, in intermediate papers the corner where the dust tends to linger and the light shies away, . hangs a brown suede leather jacket right next to a pair of hamlet is not insane essay old jeans.

A jacket that--in its newer days, when the zipper still worked and thesis both pockets were hole-less--a young woman wore on occasion. But, both the jeans and jacket are a bit faded now, the threads have turned awry, and the zippers have lost their shine. The woman has now passed it down to her daughter, but. Carpe diem , Denim , Incandescent light bulb 2239 Words | 7 Pages. A Gift for My Mother The story “A Gift for My Mother ” is a short story written by Viv McDade which . deals with a family of three; a set of parents and their daughter.

The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and moulded skirting boards on the other side of the hamlet essay, railway, and she usually gets angry about the differences between her own family and bipc previous papers their property compared to the house on insane other side of the dijkstra's algorithm, railway. The mother is a housewife, and the narrator lets the is not, reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages. My Mother at Sixty­Six / KAMALA DAS / Page 1 My Mother at Sixty­Six Kamala Das – as a poet of the . Intermediate Previous Papers. first water Kamala Das is a tale weaver – weaving the rhythm of hamlet is not insane life into a tale of soul – a poet who loves to be loved in silence. She says, I wanted to dissertation employee, fill my life with as many experiences as I can manage to essay, garner because I do not believe that one can get born again.

This poem is an example of such experience with oozing agony and melancholy – beleaguered with modern economic system. Essay On Exercise And Health. Summary. Child , Filial piety , Linguistics 1214 Words | 3 Pages. ?Tribute to is not insane, my Mother Claribel Brizuela Rivera “I believe in love at james thurber essay, first sight, because I love my . mother since I opened my eyes.” I admire this woman with all my soul. Is Not Insane Essay. We have been together through thick and thin. She has giving me the reasons to consider her a strong, supportive, determined and loving woman. Who has showed me values, respect and how to previous, face situations without giving-up. My family was raised in Cuba; we were a poor family, but a hard working family who never went to bed.

Cuba , Family , Father 1346 Words | 5 Pages. of great admiration for hamlet is not essay and love of employee his mother are evident throughout the poem. The opening line with its succession of superlatives, 'most . near', 'most dear' and 'most loved', and straight way attests strongly to these feelings. His exuberant exclamation near the insane, end of the james, poem, 'and so I send O all my faith and all my love to her. 'confirms the strength of these feelings. Is Not. The warm, humorous, delightfully frank way Baker describes his 'irresistible' mother in the intervening lines also convinces.

Bismuth-209 , Comedy , Humour 1152 Words | 3 Pages. My Mother and her Sister Happiness is a key factor in on exercise and health life. Weather happiness is hamlet is not found in love, in career, in essay family - . everybody deserves to experience true happiness sometime in life. Life is not complete without this key factor. This is true in is not essay the case of the mother in employee the short story “ My Mother and her Sister” who does not seem to find true happiness in hamlet is not life before her days are over. This assignment will begin with an analysis and interpretation of the short story “ My Mother and her Sister”.

Family , Fiction , Gustav Klimt 1352 Words | 4 Pages. ”A Gift for My Mother ” is a short story written by Viv McDade. . About Euthanasia. It’s chronicling the course of a young girl’s best intentions. . The main character in the story is is not a little, juvenile girl called Lucy. “..a bunch of wild flowers in the bushveld..” (p. Essay. 8, l. 1) The story takes place in hamlet insane essay South Africa, because a bushveld is a well-grassed plain area in South Africa. Throughout the entire story Lucy wants to nys regents essay, give her mother a gift. She decides to collect bunches of hamlet flowers, sell them and earn some cash. A Good Thing , Family , Father 1122 Words | 3 Pages. My Mother and dijkstra's thesis her Sister The short story “ My Mother and her Sister” by Jane Rogers, is about . Dorothy, her daughter who is our narrator and her sister, Lucy who is is not now 75 years old.

We never hear that the narrator is a woman, but I assume she is because she is feeling guilty and gratitude in connection with aunt Lucy, her view on happiness with a happy marriage, seems to intermediate bipc previous papers, be feminine. Normally a man wouldn’t care that much about serving a good dinner, but she gets sad because she can’t make a. Family , Happiness , Marriage 991 Words | 3 Pages. ? ”A Gift for insane essay My Mother ” Poverty is a subject that is very relevant all over dijkstra's algorithm the world today. It is an issue, which affects many . Hamlet. people and families. Many people have to struggle everyday just to survive. Essay. They starve and struggle while other people live happy lives without having to worry about if there are enough food or money to survive another day. This is an example of the big distinction between the rich and the poor all over the world. In Africa for instance poverty is very common, because. Africa , Family , Father 995 Words | 2 Pages.

remember very clearly the hamlet is not insane, moment I received a phone call from my cousin, Michelle telling me that my mom was in the hospital and . things weren’t looking good. She said, “Hannah, your mom is in the hospital, and she’s not doing very well. I don’t know many details, but you should come down right away.” It took me a few minutes - maybe longer for that to set in. I never had a relationship with my mom other than her being my biological mother . I stopped everything I was doing and sat there debating whether. Debut albums , English-language films , Mother 1350 Words | 3 Pages. Mother Teresa: A Biography Mother Teresa was born as Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Skopje, Macedonia, on August 26, 1910. Agnes’s . mother raised her as a Roman Catholic. At the age of twelve, Agnes had a strong calling towards God. She knew that she wanted to spread the love of Christ and become a missionary.

When she was eighteen, she left the home of her parents and joined the Sisters of Loreto, an dissertation, Irish community of hamlet nuns, who had missions in India. Agnes was trained in Dublin until May, 24, 1931. Canonization , Heart , Missionaries of Charity 944 Words | 3 Pages. Sir Francis Bacon's, The Four Idols , and persuasive euthanasia Steven Jay Gould's, Nonmoral Nature, are quite compatible as comparisons. I would say more so than . comparing Gould's work with Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, from a literary standpoint.

I think Bacon and Gould would have shared some similar ideas and agreed with one another on is not essay several issues. James Essay. When describing Bacon's Idols of the Tribe, Bacon states,have their foundation in human nature itself, and in the tribe or race of hamlet men. For it is essay and health a false assertion. Aesthetics , Charles Darwin , Human 935 Words | 3 Pages. experience to hear my director said “Cut! Scene 1 Take 5, good take.” I don’t know if it will be a disadvantage to say that I considered . myself as Jane-of-all-trades but master of none. Hamlet Is Not Insane Essay. I have this habit of james essay doing my extreme best to any task that I find so interesting. Well, be it interesting or not, I still tried to perform anything to the best of hamlet insane my abilities. On Exercise. Sometimes, I gave up and sometimes I got bored with it. But the is not, experience that I have always stays with me as long as my memory bank can.

Colonialism , Filipino people , Han Chinese 863 Words | 3 Pages. MOTHER.THE PAIN OF LOSS.Now I can say with certainty that I had never understood others suffering from unbearable loss of essay a dear person. For . Hamlet Is Not. my part it used to be pity, compassion. When this happened to me, when my dear mother died, I started to persuasive essays about euthanasia, understand all those people who lost someone they loved. There are perhaps no proper words to describe this pain, at insane essay, least none used on this planet. This intolerable pain which tears you apart, which is like a stone on your heart, and which make tears run. Debut albums , Feeling , First-person narrative 1279 Words | 3 Pages. my idol is my mother In our lives , we came across many people . We see new faces everyday. Essay. Many of . them remain anonymous , some may be acquitances, some will become our friends but from hamlet insane, that , only one person will become our idol . What makes an idol ? In the words of james thurber Oxford Learner's Dictionary, idol is person or thing that is loved and essay admired very much. I supposed that everyone of us have their own idol either a pop, singer , Prime Minister , or football players. For me, my mother , or 'mak' as.

669 Words | 2 Pages. inspired me, my mother is the first person that comes to mind. My mother has been the biggest . inspiration in my life. Everything that I am today is a result of the influence and the life lessons that she has taught me. She has made so many opportunities available for essay me, without her I do not know where I would be. My mother is a very inspiring person; the reasons for this are countless. For example, when I decided to hamlet is not insane, run for Student Council and I didn't think I could make it, but my mother was my biggest. English-language films , Family , Father 1084 Words | 2 Pages.

The Difference Between My Grandmother and Mother. Difference between my Grandmother and Mother During my child hood, I had to intermediate bipc previous question, go live with my . grandmother who I consider as my mom. I use to wonder what it will be like if I go stay with my mother . Is Not Insane Essay. My grandma always told me her rules are not the same as my mom and I am going to wish I had stayed home with her. I thought to persuasive, myself what will be the essay, difference between them is. Nys Regents Essay. Until one day, I decided to is not insane essay, go live with my mother to experience the differences. I found out that my grandmother is totally. Coming out , Family , Grandma Moses 966 Words | 3 Pages. English 1301 15 October 2012 Mothers It is no question that mothers are utterly important in every child’s life. As far as I . could remember my mother has always been there for employee engagement me.

For example one of the many times she has been there for me was when she taught me the difference between healthy food and hamlet is not junk food. Making sure that her children are always healthy has been my mommy’s top priority. When I was six, or seven I can recall going to the corner store with my parents and intermediate bipc previous papers like most kids I. August Strindberg , Family , Father 1139 Words | 3 Pages. worst plagues that could devastate humankind with dirty mutation caused by these extreme imbalances in nature. Are we going to let this special planet . die?

Are we not going to try to save mother Earth from absolute destruction and preserve mankind? I love this wonderful planet so much and I will start my campaign in saving this world at this very moment. May those who are concerned about our world would start caring by doing simple things like taking care of hamlet is not insane essay household garbage, by minimizing the. Air pollution , Earth , Industrial Revolution 844 Words | 3 Pages. Idols of the intermediate previous question papers, Tribe The idol of the Tribe is a look into hamlet insane essay nature of persuasive about euthanasia humanity in is not essay general: common sense tendencies to essay, rely upon . little assumptions without confirming them as established truths and beliefs in is not insane essay which humans have a tendency to intermediate bipc, support their personal beliefs.

In some cases wishful thinking leads people to believe what one wishes to believe, a tendency that is difficult to understand. Human beings have over is not insane essay generalized and to dijkstra's algorithm, jump to hamlet essay, conclusions on the basis of first impressions. These. Conclusion , Human , Perception 925 Words | 3 Pages. Agatha Christie says, “A mother’s love for her child is essay on exercise and health like nothing else in the world. It knows no law, no pity.

It dares all things and crushes down . remorselessly all that stands in its path. “. Mother being the is not, supreme lover, loves her child like nothing. A mother dissipates the clouds of darkness, and essay cause peace to return to our hearts when we are helpless in the wilderness life with her kind precepts and counsels. From the moment we are born till we are cradled in the chariot of insane essay death, we. Islam , Love , Mother 1224 Words | 3 Pages. Who is your idol ? Almost everyone has their idols , including me, I also have my own favourite idol . Essay. . That person whose qualifies I particular admire is my father. He is forty-eight years old now.

For me, I think my father is the most industrious man in insane the world. About Euthanasia. He is very fair and tall. He is still very healthy because he always takes balanced diet. He dislikes to consume alcoholic drinks and does not smoke at all. He is is not insane really a great husband and a great father too. Dijkstra's Algorithm Thesis. He was not born with a silver. Debut albums , Family , Father 563 Words | 2 Pages.

? MY IDOL Who has an idol ? I have one. I idol is someone who gave you inspiration based on insane his/her . About. personalities and contribution. Everyone has his/her own idol . It can be your mom, your dad, your senior, artist or anyone that inspires you. My idol is an artist. He is a member of a Korean band named SHINee.

His name is hamlet is not essay Choi Min Ho or generally known as Minho. He and his band is well-known in the whole Asia. In my eyes, he is very unique in his own way. First of all, I want to dissertation employee engagement, talk about is not his appearance. Human height , Incheon , Member of Parliament 476 Words | 1 Pages. ? Idols and engagement Francis Bacon By: Bailey Gray Soc 101-099 TR 11:10 To Francis Bacon the four . idols , tribe, cave, market place, and hamlet essay theater, beset the minds of men (Bacon).

To him, the dijkstra's algorithm thesis, human race has four prejudices that haze our scientific thoughts: 1) Our perceptions are true and insane essay trust worthy,2) Experience make us wise, 3) Language provides us to be superior beings, and 4) We believe previous scientific theories and philosophical assertions (Bacon). Because. Francis Bacon , Human , Middle East 1295 Words | 6 Pages. My idol would be Beck Weathers. Nys Regents Essay. He was the hamlet insane, incredible person that managed to survive the 1996 Everest disaster. Beck went . snow-blind in employee engagement the Death-Zone of is not essay Everest and spent a night there out in the open during a blizzard that took away the dijkstra's thesis, lives of hamlet is not essay his nine colleagues. He had frostbites so extreme that it seems impossible for him to ever have survived, but with sheer will power he staggered his way back to camp. I belief Beck Weathers courage and tenacity deserves to be applaud. Under those.

1996 Everest disaster , Beck Weathers , Debut albums 367 Words | 2 Pages. The Exploration of thurber Womanhood in essay All About My Mother. Adi Radia The Exploration of Womanhood in algorithm thesis All About My Mother In his critically acclaimed 1999 character-driven drama film . All About My Mother (1999); writer-director Pedro Almodovar cements his reputation as an expert on the complexities and intricacies of womanhood. Insane. The film features several complex and multi-layered female characters that are portrayed with great emotional depth. Throughout the course of the film, these characters are forced to intermediate question papers, struggle with impediments such as loss, betrayal. All About My Mother , Bette Davis , Gender 1807 Words | 5 Pages. Why I Select Kobe Bryant As My Idols. ? CONTENT PAGES NUMBER Table of content 1 Why I Select Kobe Bryant As My Idol 2 Player Profile 3 Kobe Bryant 4 . International Career 5 Kobe Bryant In My Life 6 References 7 Why I Select Kobe Bryant As My Idols All my jokes about loving Kobe aside, I really admire the man. To me Kobe is more than a basketball player. Kobe Bryant is the first person I ever looked up to and probably the person who has had the greatest impact on hamlet insane me who i haven’t met in real life. Algorithm. When I first watch.

Basketball , Dirk Nowitzki , International Basketball Federation 1771 Words | 8 Pages. The Importance of My Language. Insane. Amy Tan's Mother Tongue. Based on james essay Amy Tan’s “ Mother Tongue” it is evident that language has an affect on hamlet our lives. Thesis. Language defines the type of person I am generally . and it has had an affect on my choices as well as my lifestyle. Depending on my friends, family, and others I talk to my choice on language tends to vary. My decisions in life, sometimes, are influenced by the language I use and my surroundings. Hamlet Is Not Insane Essay. Language has become my way of seeing life in a different perspective.

In Amy Tan’s “ Mother Tongue” she discusses. Affect , Debut albums , Dysfunctional family 898 Words | 3 Pages. ? MY MOTHER Of all the persons in the world, my mother loves me most, and I also love her from the . About. core of my heart. To me, she is like a living goddess who takes all kinds of pain and care for my sake. When I am sick, she spends sleepless nights by hamlet is not essay, my sick-bed.

When I come first in my class exami­nation, she becomes perhaps the happiest person on earth. From my childhood, I have been greatly influenced by dissertation, my mother . She has always guided me in the right path in hamlet is not insane every step of my life. She has taught. 2006 singles , Child , English-language films 544 Words | 1 Pages. aspect of thurber my life -- be it business, education, beliefs, tennis, values, attitudes, and is not essay mindset. My mother is the . most inspiring person in my life.

I have learned so much from essay, her, just from hamlet essay, seeing her care for my siblings and myself. My mother has taught me that strength and independence are important in life and that I can never stop at what I want to do. I am very thankful for the love and life I receive from my mother . I have always thought of my mom as strong and independent. My mom is the. 2006 albums , 2007 albums , 2007 singles 412 Words | 2 Pages.

1 MY MOTHER Of all the dissertation, persons in the world, my mother loves me most, and I also love her from the . core of my heart. To me, she is like a living goddess who takes all kinds of pain and care for my sake. When I am sick, she spends sleepless nights by my sick-bed. When I come first in my class exami-nation, she becomes perhaps the is not, happiest person on earth. Nys Regents Essay. From my childhood, I have been greatly influenced by my mother . She has always guided me in the right path in every step of my life. She has.

Affection , Anxiety , English-language films 429 Words | 2 Pages. ? MY MOTHER My mother is the best person that I know. She is a very special person who has always . been with me to support me. She is hardworking, cheerful and simple woman; she is a woman that despite all the complications she always has a big smile. Hamlet Is Not Insane. She is a very mature person but she knows how to be a girl and intermediate bipc question share great moments with her family, rather a monument of woman. I know at times she yells at hamlet is not insane, me and corrects me, but I know she does not do because she is evil, but because she loves me;. English-language films , Family , Father 471 Words | 2 Pages. My Mother Marilyn Many of people have been a great influence in my life, but, most importantly, . my mother is the nys regents, person who has had the greatest impact. I admire my mother because of is not insane essay how she faces her struggles, how she respects herself, how she has accomplished so much, and for everything she’s done for me in my life.

My mother is the most helpful, smartest, and most generous woman I know, who has accomplished so much. My mother , Marilyn, is so generous. She definitely goes out. Example , Life , Rubber Soul 516 Words | 2 Pages. My Experience with Mother Hens and Their Families. were foraging. With her wings outspread and curved menacingly toward the dog, she rushed at him over and over, cackling loudly, all the intermediate question, while continuing to . push her chicks behind herself with her wings. The dog stood stock still before the excited mother hen, and soon ambled away, but Eva maintained her aggressive posture of self-defense, her sharp, repetitive cackle and attentive lookout for several minutes after he was gone. Eva’s behavior toward the dog differed radically from her behavior. A Hen in the Wind , Bird , Buffalo wings 1357 Words | 4 Pages. My Mother A mother is the is not insane, person that brings you into essay this world.

When you are an infant, she is the one that . makes certain you are always fed, dry, and happy. After a few years, she teaches you how to hamlet is not insane essay, walk, how to dress yourself, and how to sing your ABC’s. She is the one that pays attention to thurber, your favorite snacks and surprises you with them in your lunch box. She is the hamlet is not insane essay, one waiting at your bus stop with open arms ready to hug you and thesis take you home. She teaches you how to share and most importantly. Certified teacher , Christina Aguilera , Education 815 Words | 2 Pages.

An Explication on is not essay I Ask My Mother How to Sing An explication of “I ask My Mother to Sing” In Li-Young Lee’s, “I Ask My Mother to Sing,” four . main stanzas are found; they are elaborated with memory, joyfulness, grief, and pleasant remembrances. The speaker implies tones of nostalgia as he remembers his father. The title “I Ask My Mother to Sing” is clearly a song that the speaker begs for his mother to sing and the happiness of that songs also make the intermediate question, speaker’s grandmother to sing along. The most important part is what. Family , Line , Mother 379 Words | 3 Pages. of people assume that one’s daughter is a lot like their mother , and a lot of times that is true, in some aspects. I can tell you that . my wisdom and common sense came from my mom. My sense of humor, my laugh, my eyes, and my strength also came from my mom. My mom is the reason I have chosen the insane, career path I have chosen.

So, I have a lot of traits in resemblance of my mom, the only trait I lack is her addiction. Growing up I imagined my life to be perfect, as I guess all children usually do. Dissertation. But. Family , Friends , Grandparent 1567 Words | 4 Pages. My mother is an affectionate and pious lady. Hamlet Is Not Insane Essay. She loves me very much. I love her, too. She takes care of all of persuasive us. She gets up . early in the morning, makes our breakfast, lunch and dinner with her own hands. She looks after the cleanliness of the house and furniture, and hamlet insane essay also our clothes and previous question health. When I fall sick, my mother passes sleepless nights by hamlet is not, the side of my sick bed.

Her anxiety and her fear disappear after my recovery from illness. In my eyes, she is really an ideal mother . My mother. English-language films , Friendship , In My Eyes 422 Words | 2 Pages. only guess my mother by previous question, this point, because I mean who else would feed me before birth? She has and always will be . my role model. My mother is a wonderful woman because she is strong, kind, and would do anything for me.

Without my mom I do not know where I would be today. She has taught me so much and is not insane has helped shape me into the young lady I am. She has proven her strength through everything she has been through she puts me and employee engagement my sibling’s well-being before her own. Hamlet Is Not. She had to drive my siblings. 2002 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 831 Words | 2 Pages. has had the most significant influence on me, I began to think about nys regents essay all the people that were part of my academic career. Then I realized that . Insane. I was looking at the wrong part of james thurber my life. Is Not Insane Essay. I should not have focused on dijkstra's algorithm the people that have influenced me in the academic aspect, but the hamlet insane, one person who has influenced me the persuasive, most every day. My mother has the greatest impact on my life as a whole. My mother’s loving, caring, thoughtful, gentle, and insane essay persistent nature has shaped me as the person I am today. Cancer , Family , Father 543 Words | 2 Pages.

MY MOTHER “One should never be satisfied with oneself because the moment of satisfaction marks a halt in progress”. Question. This is hamlet insane one . of my mother’s sayings that has been staying in my mind for years, and maybe forever. My mother , who has had a significant influence in persuasive essays about my life, is my greatest love and the one that I am always proud of. My mother is a very good looking woman even though she dresses very simple. Is Not Essay. She has a long, black hair with the same hair-style for previous papers forty years.

She owns a very warm and. Family , Gloria Jones 915 Words | 2 Pages. My Teacher, My Mentor, My Best Friend – My Mother Each one of us had had that one . person in insane our lives who changed our lives; that person without whom we could never have achieved all the things we have achieved. This is the person in our life who teaches us, how to tell the nys regents essay, difference between right and wrong, make better life decisions, and get on the path of righteousness. Is Not. Some might find that person in the form of their friends, parents, life partners and some might put God in nys regents place of hamlet that person. 2005 singles , Debut albums , English-language films 550 Words | 2 Pages. ?I had the nys regents, meanest mother in the whole world. Hamlet Is Not. While other kids ate Candy for breakfast, I had to have cereal, eggs or toast. When others Had . cokes and candy for lunch, I had to eat a sandwich. As you can Guess, my supper was different than the other kids' also. But at least, I wasn't alone in my sufferings.

My sister and dissertation two Brothers had the insane, same mean mother as I did. My mother insisted upon knowing where we were at employee engagement, all times. You'd Think we were on a chain gang. She had to. High school , Shame , Suffering 780 Words | 2 Pages.

My Mother Jennifer LaMorte ENG 121 Dwight Paulsen July 6, 2013 This essay is about how a perfect . mother looks like to me. People say that the perfect mother does not exist, I actually don’t know if that is true, but what I do know is insane that my mother is perfect for me. Everything in bipc papers my mother is insane special; the way she dresses, the nys regents essay, way she speaks, the way she behaves etc. Somehow they are a part of you, a part of your world, your heart. Is Not. For me that is my mother . Her. 2006 singles , 2007 singles , Emotion 691 Words | 2 Pages. My mother's optimism and pure heart has enlightened and enriched me throughout the thurber essay, entirety of my life.

Even in my . darkest of times my mother has guided me. Were it not for my mother I could not even dream of the person I have become. At two years old, my family divided itself. My brother and I were forced to live out of our duffle bags and hamlet is not insane essay travel back and forth from our mom and dad’s house. This division created confusion for intermediate previous papers my brother and me.

Both my father and mother were always. Debut albums , English-language films , Family 477 Words | 2 Pages. My Mother and Her Sister - by hamlet essay, Jane Roger. A. My Mother and dijkstra's her Sister It is heartbreaking when you lose a person who meant a lot to hamlet is not essay, you, and it can be very difficult to . Euthanasia. move on in life and be happy. Hamlet Is Not Essay. Since happiness is a very important factor in papers life for the individually person everybody deserves to insane essay, find happiness, weather whether you find it in love, friends or family. Essay. But happiness is not something everybody can achieve, and that is the case in is not essay this short story, “ My mother and her Sister”. But who can really define happiness, because. Family , Fiction , First-person narrative 1135 Words | 3 Pages. The Black Lace Fan My Mother Gave Me.

Practice Commentary: The Black Lace Fan My Mother Gave Me Eavan Bolland’s “The Black Lace Fan my . Mother Gave me” from her book, “Outside History” (1990) gives readers the first impression that the poem is about the intermediate bipc previous, value of hamlet is not essay a fan that has been passed down to her. Persuasive About. However, based on the title, the term “black lace” raises a sense of mystery and is not darkness as black lace is not completely see-through, there are spots that need to thesis, be filled in. To illustrate the value of the black lace fan, the speaker. Emotion , Grammatical mood , Poetry 1520 Words | 4 Pages.

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5 Problems with The Ladders' 6 Second Resume Study. By Mark Slack / November 14, 2014. The Ladders’ ‘6 second resume’ study is insane essay, frequently cited around the nys regents, web. But is it methodologically sound? I know you’ve heard this one before — hiring managers only hamlet take an average of six seconds to glance over your resume before deciding to keep or trash it. If you’re in the resume business, you see this statistic from The Ladders’ famous resume study cited everywhere. You’ve probably even cited it a few times yourself.

I know I have. Then it struck me. Has anyone even taken a close look at the study’s methodology to see if it has scientific merit? I decided to examine their methodology in detail to see if the persuasive euthanasia, study could be improved, and hamlet is not insane essay, if their conclusions were correct. The result? There are major problems with The Ladders’ famous study that may have led to hazy or incorrect results.

Allow me to preface this post by saying that it’s admirable that The Ladders went through the effort to do bring a scientific lens to the hiring process, and attempt to bring some objectivity to the table. I think that is to be applauded and appreciated. However, it is also important not to accept the results of any study at face value. Conclusions should be peer-reviewed and tested to persuasive essays about euthanasia, determine accuracy, and insane, constructive criticism should be given to improve any studies performed in previous question, the future. With that in mind, here are five problems with The Ladders’ six-second resume study. 1. Hamlet Is Not Essay? The study provides too few important methodological details. This is a major issue throughout the study. Dijkstra's? Statistics should never be taken at face value, and it’s impossible to praise or criticize the methodology of is not insane essay a study that does not make its methods transparent and open. Here’s the biggest missing detail from this study: Were the recruiters told in advance whether they were viewing professionally re-written or original resumes? If they were told in advance, it would bias the results in favor of the professional re-written samples.

This would be like judging brownies, and being told in advance which ones were baked by Martha Stewart, and essay on exercise, which ones were baked by a twelve-year old. The Ladders should address this missing piece of critical information. 2. The study uses scales and statistics incorrectly, generating questionable results. The Ladders’ study used something called a Likert scale to hamlet is not, help recruiters gauge the employee, “usability” and hamlet insane, “organization” of any given resume. Before I continue, here’s what a Likert scale looks like: I’m sure you’ve filled one in several times in your life. Using the Likert scale was a good choice for this study. Used correctly, it could act a strong indicator of the comparative strength of professionally written resumes.

Unfortunately, The Ladders’ study only gets it half right. Recruiters were asked to rate the “usability” and james, “organization” of resumes on numerical rating scale from is not insane, 1-7 (instead of Agree-Disagree as shown in the Likert scale above). 1 represented a resume that was the bipc, least usable/organized, with 7 being the most usable/organized. Because the scale is numerical, The Ladders calls it a “Likert-like” scale, not just a Likert scale. Here’s where the study gets a bit sloppy.

The Ladders claims that professionally re-written resumes were given an essay, average rating of 6.2 for employee engagement ‘usability’ versus 3.9 before the rewrite. Is Not Insane Essay? They then calculate this as a 60% increase in usability. You can’t do that with a Likert scale, (or a Likert-like scale). Consider it this way – make a list of three movies, assigned values 1-3. Your favorite movie (1) A movie that you like (2) A movie that you sort of like (3) What’s the percentage difference between the essay and health, movie that you sort of like, and the movie that you like? How about between the movie you like, and your favorite movie? Are the intervals between them even? I know for me, they aren’t.

It’s difficult to even choose between my favorite movies most of the time. If it doesn’t work with movies, how could it work with the resumes in insane, this study? Just because you assign your opinion to bipc previous papers, a numerical value does not mean you can also assign a percentage interval. Again, let me be clear – the results stemming from the Likert-like scale probably reveal that professionally written resumes were better organized and more usable than the originals, but that cannot be calculated into percentages. (At least with this kind of is not insane statistical test.) 3. The study uses unclear language and thurber, words that are not defined. Let’s take a look at the study’s claims piece by is not insane essay, piece: “Professionally prepared resumes also scored better in terms of organization and visual hierarchy, as measured by eye-tracking technology. The “gaze trace” of recruiters was erratic when they reviewed a poorly organized resume, and essay, recruiters experienced high levels of cognitive load (total mental activity) , which increased the insane essay, level of effort to essay on exercise and health, make a decision.” First of all, it’s unclear what the study means by hamlet is not essay, “cognitive load”/ “total mental activity”.

Moreover, how did they measure these vague terms with eye gaze technology? Again, the lack of transparent methodology and essay on exercise and health, clear definitions renders these terms impossible to make any comments about, and insane essay, determine if the study is dijkstra's algorithm, truly accurate. Secondly, how does one measure whether a “gaze trace” is erratic? The fact is that though there may be ways to is not insane, measure this kind of algorithm thing statistically, it’s hard to know if their conclusion has any merit when they just summarize the math in their own words without showing us any of the hamlet essay, computations. Thirdly, the Likert scale is intermediate bipc previous papers, misused once again in this section to create the illusion of a hard statistic:

“[Professional resumes] achieved a mean score of 5.6 on a seven-point Likert-like scale, compared with a 4.0 rating for resumes before the re-write – a 40% increase.” We’ve already gone over why that is hamlet, not a legitimate way to represent Likert scale data. We interviewed seasoned human resources experts about resume screening, about how long they spend on a resume on nys regents average, and what they think of the “6-second” rule. Here are a few of the responses: “I always go back and hamlet is not insane essay, forth on the whole “6 seconds” theory. Intermediate Bipc Previous Papers? I can’t really put an hamlet insane essay, average time for how long I look at each one; for me, it really depends on how a resume is constructed. Thurber? When I open up a nice, neat resume (clear headers, line separations, clearly in chronological order, etc.) I am more likely to essay, go through each section of the dijkstra's thesis, resume. Even if the experience is not that great, having a resume that looks professional and reads well will cause me to spend more time examining it. “…Once I narrow down candidates from the cover letter filter I will spend 10-15 minutes reviewing individual resumes.” “The 6 second rule? It varies company to company.

Here’s what I’ll say. Recruiters will spend less time reading a resume for hamlet insane essay an entry or junior level role. Positions that are more senior will be reviewed quite carefully by HR before they pass them on to the hiring manager.” “Initially, an average resume takes 2-3 minutes for me to scan.” “…the average time spent on the initial resume review is 15 seconds. If she sees a good skill match, she will spend two to three minutes further reading it.” “We spend, on average, 2:36 per application.

That includes looking through someone’s portfolio, website, Github, LinkedIn, and anything else we can find online.” Michelle Burke , Marketing Supervisor, WyckWyre. “Our hiring managers honestly spend time looking through resumes. They value every application that comes in james, and want to hire as many people as needed rather than screen through applications and end up with no one.” 5. The study makes conjectures without data to back it up. The study needs to be more careful about hamlet insane, making conjecture and speculation, or give better reasoning to support its claims. For example, the study says: “In some cases, irrelevant data such as candidates’ age, gender or race may have biased reviewers’ judgments.” While the above is not necessarily an essay and health, incorrect hypothesis, it’s pointless to insane, include in this study unless The Ladders can prove it with actual data.

If they are speculating, they need to be clear about that, or else be clear about the engagement, bits of data that substantiate their claims. Due to hamlet is not, the opaqueness of the study, it’s impossible to know how they made that determination. Here are two other areas where critical information is missing: We don’t know why The Ladders chose a sample of 30 people. Here’s why this is important: In general, ordinal data (IE. the persuasive essays euthanasia, likert-scale data used in this study) requires a larger sample size to detect a given effect than does interval/ratio/cardinal data. So, is 30 people enough for this study? If The Ladders did not set a clear rule for how large a sample they were going to recruit, they could theoretically continue to is not insane essay, choose as many or as few people as necessary to come up with a result that that they wanted.

Again, I’m not accusing The Ladders of doing this, but just giving another example for essay why study methodology should be transparent and open – results carry less meaning unless they can be examined. We don’t know if the differences were statistically different from insane essay, zero. This is a bit more difficult to understand, but essentially this means we can’t tell if their results were just from sheer randomness or a real underlying difference. To determine whether the results were sheer randomness or actually reveal differences, the study needs to report z scores or t scores, Pearson’s r’s or Kendall’s tau’s, etc. These values are the statistician’s tools for persuasive about euthanasia making an inference about hamlet insane, whether observed differences reflect some real, underlying difference, or whether they’re likely to have resulted from ‘just random noise. The study reveals no such information. 6. Study doesn’t answer The Big Question: Does any of this even matter? Here’s The Big Question – do these professionally rewritten resumes actually help people find jobs, or land more interviews?

While it’s interesting to find out if professionally written resume get better ratings for usability and “more orderly eye gaze”, the important question is whether people are getting interviews and employee engagement, jobs because of these resume qualities. The most meaningful statistic would be to hamlet, figure out how large an improvement in orderliness of gaze and resume ratings is required to move a resume from “no interview/not hired” to “interview/hired”. (Granted, this question would be a complex problem to figure out, and impacted by a large number of variables.) But without knowing if there was a meaningful difference in hiring/interview trends, it’s hard to know if the increases reported by intermediate, the study are large, small, unimportant, or important. Again, I think it’s great that The Ladders went through the effort to come up with a resume and recruiting study. However, we should be careful to remember that bulletproof studies can be hard to design, and statistics can be unintentionally misleading, and insane, frequently tricky to essays about, interpret. Hopefully, this analysis can serve a jumping-off point for a new and improved study that may reveal some surprising information about how recruiters tend to behave, and hamlet is not, how to help people find jobs more efficiently. We reached out to The Ladders for dissertation employee a comment on this article and insane essay, a request for their in essays about euthanasia, depth methodology for is not further review, and have not yet received a response. Your analysis of thesis The Ladders’ Eye Tracking Study is great. You’ve. clearly identified a number of is not insane essay obvious scientific flaws in their.

methodology. My own point of criticism was simply that since The. Ladders is a for-profit Job-Seeker Service which commissioned and paid. for this study, it’s not surprising that their conclusions supported. using their own professional resume-writing services.

To use your. analogy, it would be like the algorithm thesis, Martha Stewart company commissioning and. paying for a study comparing brownies baked by Martha Stewart with ones. were baked by a twelve-year old. Guess which brownies would come out. being more popular in that study?! I also love your final conclusion — that the real test should be to find out if improving someone’s resume. by using a professional resume-writing service would actually increase.

their chances of getting interviewed and/or hired. Now THAT would be a. Definitely not surprising that The Ladders’ study’s conclusion would support their bottom line. Essay? However, I would bet that a methodologically bulletproof study would track along the same lines as their own, anyway — but it would be nice to prove it! Indeed, a truly scientific study done on how to improve people’s chances of getting interviews/hired would be fantastic to nys regents essay, see. Thanks for reading my article and commenting! Hi Mark, this was a very helpful! Do you know of any good resume eye tracking studies out there? Thanks for the comment.

Sorry it took me a while to respond. Actually, I’m not aware of any out is not, there, which is a shame because it’s an essay on exercise, interesting concept that deserves more testing. If you’re interested, you can try our new game based on this study: The 6 Second Resume Challenge. Hamlet Is Not Insane Essay? Unfortunately it seems to intermediate bipc previous question papers, be the same old story when it comes to poor hiring practices. Some companies are growing more aware of hamlet these problems and james, try to sort candidates in fairer ways, but doing so requires time and is not insane, energy (something many businesses are unwilling to exert when they’re faced with a pile of resumes). Share 5 Problems with The Ladders’ 6 Second Resume Study Our code geeks and intermediate, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Is Not Essay? We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to james thurber essay, choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to hamlet is not essay, the Resume Genius Terms of essay on exercise and health Use and hamlet insane, Privacy Policy.

Play the persuasive, One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to hamlet, the test, and persuasive essays about euthanasia, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Hamlet Insane? See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to thurber essay, download one, but be sure to is not, make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for dijkstra's a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for hamlet is not a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and dissertation engagement, offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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?Advantages of working mother/housewife Essay. • More disposable income. • Freedom to make independent financial choices with own money. • Meet more people. • Have a life outside of home. Disadvantages of working mother. • Discrimination in the workplace when colleagues find you have a child. • Risk being critisized for not being home to care for child. • Less time for yourself. • Problems with finding good child care. • Juggling work with sick kids. • Spending almost half income on child care. • Being passed over for promotions because you have child. Advantages of being a stay at home mother/housewife. • More time for domestic duties. • Easier to plan 100% time around family. • Able to be there for family. • Spend quality time with child. • Other parent confident when they go to work child is safe and hamlet is not essay well cared for. Disadvantages of being stay at home mother/housewife. *Less disposable income. *Having to ask the bread winner for money to buy things. *Being more financially accountable – it is engagement his money. *Less money for spontaneous purchases. * Less opportunities for making friends. *Being stigmatised as a brainless stay at home mother. * Risk being undervalued by partner and friends etc. The advantages of working women generally revolve around personal opportunities, both to develop in one#8217;s career and provide additional financial resources, while the cons generally have to do with missed memories and fatigue. No matter whether one chooses to stay at home with one#8217;s children or work outside the home, there are definite trade-offs to hamlet insane essay consider.

Mothers who leave home each day and head to work have the intermediate previous question papers possibility of conversations with adults throughout the insane essay day beside their husbands. This gives them a higher degree of intellectual stimulation. They also tend to dress a little better, putting on a professional outfit instead of donning workout clothes or jeans to face the day with their kids. Knowing that they have a busy work schedule also means that they treasure the persuasive about euthanasia time with their kids more, and they also have more money to help them enjoy that time. On the other hand, being a working mother means constant fatigue. People who face a long commute with small children waiting on hamlet is not insane, both sides of it feel like they never get enough sleep. Working also means missing out on some memories, such as playdates, first words or steps and even school assemblies. Also, dealing with colleagues who do not understand how hard all the juggling is also a frustration.

Gone are the days when mother devoted her full life for dissertation employee development of her children. Today, women are becoming more active, independent and prefer progress in hamlet, their career rather than been recognized as just housemakers. Career oriented women continue their work soon after completion of their maternity leave. Many working women start the job early due to financial needs of their family. There can be different reasons for essay women to hamlet is not essay go to work instead of thurber staying at home. Sometimes it is very difficult for women to go for work after delivery. In the initial period she may feel insecure for her child.she needs to join work soon after few months of child birth. Is Not Essay? If she has someone in her family like in-laws or grand parents to look after her child, then she may feel secured for her child. Some working women need to sacrifice career if they don’t have any option for taking care of their child. Many women prefer to leave their career whiles some women prefer to work from home. Some women choose to continue their job, in on exercise, such case theymake some arrangement to look after their children.

Women with financial problem also continue their job due to hamlet is not needs of family. Thurber? There are many advantages and disadvantages of working mother for their children. Advantage for Children of is not essay Working Mother. Children of working mother start doing their own work themselves from childhood as compared to children of non-working mother. Children of non-working mother depend on their mother evens for small needs. Nys Regents Essay? For example, if a child of hamlet is not non-working woman needs any toy to play, he asks his mother to algorithm give him that toy. They become fully dependant on their mother as she is easily available to them for hamlet is not essay the whole day. Children of working mother have no option and thus, they learn to do many things themselves.

They become more independent and responsible in their work. Many husbands help their working spouse in employee, household work. So when the children observe their father doing work at home and helping their mother, thus they also learn to help their parents. In this way, they can learn self awareness and is not insane essay discipline from early age. Employee Engagement? In addition, the children become co-operative from insane essay childhood. It is not possible for on exercise and health non working woman because she is expected to keep everything ready for her husband and children.

Therefore, children of non-working mother become more lazier and dependant on parents as compared to children of working mother. Highly educated, working parents can give better education to their children. They know to provide all necessary facilities for the ideal development of their children omitting the unnecessary ones. They also motivate their children to participate in essay, different activities as they can afford such expenses due to papers higher family income. On the hamlet is not insane essay other side it might not possible to afford such expense for many parents, if only father is working in family. Working mother might find more affection towards her children when she comes back from her work as she missed her children for whole the day. She might feel find more attached to james her kids and vice versa. Thus, mother and is not children become more attached to persuasive euthanasia one other. Non-working mother stays with her children for whole the is not essay day, therefore she doesn’t find such feeling of missing her kids and children also takes her for granted.

Children of working mothers become practical and more intellectual. They can take wise decision themselves and become independent, confident and and health more active in their work. Disadvantage for Children of Working Mother. Some working mothers have to take their child to childcare center as there is hamlet insane no one in her family tocare for child. In such case she needs to compromise in development of her kids and feels guilty for not sparing good time to nys regents raise her kids. If a child doesn’t have any siblings, sometimes he feels lonely as he has no one to express his feelings or thoughts or finds nobody to play with them. Is Not Insane Essay? Some Working parents cannot spare good time with their children and don’t have time to listen to problems of their children. Therefore, children get frustrated or depressed as they don’t have anyone to share their feelings.

Working mother needs to handle home and office work together. Therefore, she may get tired at the end of the day. Dijkstra's? In such case she may not be able to understand her children’s problem and may get angry with their children if they don’t listen or obey her instructions. Working mother may not be able to attend children’s school program due to hamlet insane essay hectic schedule at work or leave problems. Sometimes they cannot attend parent meeting or some cultural festival evens when their kids are participating. At that time children may feel badly as they find their friend’s parent during such functions. Algorithm? It creates insecurity and guilty feeling in their child mind. Hamlet Insane? Nowadays, due to economical problems and infllation, it is persuasive essays euthanasia essential for everyone to hamlet make more efforts for good earning. In such case it is papers necessary for a woman to understand her responsibilities and start working to hamlet insane help her husband to reduce their financial crisis. Working mother should understand her children’s problem and try to about euthanasia solve it.

You should also take help from your partner in your daily household work. Today, it is not disgraceful for man to help his wife in household work. Take active participation in your children’s development evens if you are working parents. You should listen to your kids carefully and try to hamlet is not understand their needs. Tackle your kids with love and dijkstra's algorithm patience. Do not get angry with your kids due to your work pressure. Hamlet? Keep your home and work stress separates to on exercise live happy life.

Good time management helps you to essay spare quality time with your kids. Keep updated with your kid’s school reports and meet their school teacher regularly to know the progress of your child. It is for sure that working mother can become the best mother if she follows precise time management and behave intellectually rather than emotionally. She should feel proud that as a working mother she has the power to provide the best education and facilities to essays about her children but at the same time she should not forget that healthy upbringing of her child is her responsibility. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 14 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on ?Advantages of hamlet insane essay working mother/housewife. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for hamlet is not insane cooperatives in the United States. Employee. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and insane essay, immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of dijkstra's algorithm, cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of hamlet is not, Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the thesis, United.

Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and is not insane, draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and essay on exercise, countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. Hamlet Insane. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for nys regents all of the editing and hamlet is not, most of the revised text. Bipc Question Papers. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of is not insane, Research, Planning and nys regents, Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of is not insane essay, Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from essay on exercise, The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to hamlet is not, the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over james 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. Hamlet Insane. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to about, reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the is not, antithesis of essay, cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. Hamlet Is Not. True cooperation with others arises from employee engagement, a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and is not insane essay, North dictated.

In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the nys regents essay, 17th and voluntarily and essay, have the freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at essay on exercise and health any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is hamlet, modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the james, one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is is not, a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. Nys Regents. movement.

The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of hamlet insane, early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. Intermediate. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to hamlet, (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. What is engagement, a cooperative?

Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is is not, literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the business directly by algorithm thesis voting on significant and long-term business decisions and essay, indirectly through their representatives on essays about euthanasia, the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in insane, the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of james thurber essay, directors and on other cooperative actions. Is Not. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in intermediate bipc previous papers, a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members.

For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Hamlet Insane. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in thurber, the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. Hamlet Is Not Essay. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in bipc question, equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an hamlet essay operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to persuasive essays about, join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to hamlet is not, members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).

Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. Nys Regents. In the United States, however, federal and hamlet insane essay, most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to dissertation, those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is hamlet is not essay, subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. Essay On Exercise And Health. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.

An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in hamlet is not essay, the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for previous question a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at hamlet is not the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. Algorithm Thesis. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.

In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. Is Not Insane. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in essay, the hopes of hamlet is not essay, increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in james, revenue during 2002 and in insane essay, the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. Bipc. 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to hamlet essay, sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income.

They naturally wish to dissertation employee engagement, get as much as possible for their money in terms of hamlet is not, quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. Intermediate Previous Question Papers. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of hamlet, more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. Employee Engagement. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.

8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in is not, such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of dissertation, members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Essay. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and thurber essay, the extent of their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Is Not Insane. Members, the nys regents, board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the hamlet insane, cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.

Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is james essay, one of the insane essay, seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for intermediate a successful education and hamlet insane essay, communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of thurber essay, sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.

Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by hamlet is not a steering committee to nys regents, ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in essay, greater detail the procedure for bipc question papers organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and hamlet is not insane, limitations, to dissertation, members and the broader community, is hamlet is not, presented in persuasive, chapter 9. Insane. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in and health, Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in is not insane essay, England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for dissertation employee their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and hamlet is not, was marked by a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.

The writings of dissertation employee engagement, Adam Smith at essay the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the dijkstra's, revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to move into hamlet essay, cities to nys regents, find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. Hamlet Is Not. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in employee engagement, land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of hamlet insane, grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Dijkstra's Algorithm Thesis. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.

9 stock. Hamlet Is Not Insane Essay. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and thurber, villages with few remaining jobs. Hamlet Is Not Insane Essay. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to dissertation engagement, publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for improved working and living conditions.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. Is Not Insane Essay. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in nys regents essay, England in 1696, the insane, Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to persuasive essays about euthanasia, members in times of hamlet, sickness, unemployment, or death. Algorithm Thesis. 12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in hamlet is not insane essay, 1793.

A number of bills were introduced in essay, the 19th century to hamlet essay, encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for nys regents essay improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and is not, baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the james thurber essay, turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.

Purchasing cooperatives already existed in is not, most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the algorithm, associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Hamlet Insane. Guilds had binding rules for intermediate previous papers production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to insane, establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and persuasive, William King in 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the is not, establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by nys regents essay the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for hamlet insane essay self-reliant communities were motivated by james thurber the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.

They both envisioned rural villages composed of hamlet is not insane, farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and intermediate, competition, providing self-employment opportunities and insane essay, other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of essay on exercise, Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and hamlet essay, labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to james thurber essay, visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.

Owen’s attack upon insane, individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the employee engagement, “father of cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on hamlet is not essay, the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Dijkstra's Thesis. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and hamlet is not insane, North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. Employee Engagement. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in insane, many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for engagement the actual organization of cooperatives.

Although he accepted much of hamlet, Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the essay on exercise, development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the hamlet is not essay, welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and james thurber essay, educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice. Hamlet Is Not Insane Essay. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. Persuasive About. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.

King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the insane essay, members’ own capital and were restricted to intermediate bipc, Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of hamlet insane essay, their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for thurber consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. Is Not Essay. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. Dissertation Employee Engagement. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in insane essay, England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.

Cooperative congresses also advocated and nys regents, promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. Insane. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in intermediate previous question, 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of hamlet insane, a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in persuasive essays about, New York City in 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in insane essay, the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and persuasive essays about, poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the insane essay, first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in nys regents, Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by is not insane King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.

Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of persuasive essays, 28 continued to is not essay, work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for bipc previous papers a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for hamlet insane essay their members who were either out of about, work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of insane, production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the essay, co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for hamlet insane essay their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.

The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to dissertation employee, the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the hamlet is not, registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is dissertation, open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. 5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.

6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. Hamlet Is Not Essay. 7. Exchange of goods and services at and health market prices. 8. Duty to insane, educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. 12.

Equality in james thurber, membership (no discrimination y gender). Is Not. Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Employee Engagement. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the hamlet essay, cooperative movement in thesis, England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow.

It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for insane essay other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and dijkstra's algorithm, cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.

As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of hamlet insane, England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in james, 1863 to create cost savings for hamlet insane essay members by purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of nys regents, activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world. Is Not Insane. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of thurber, deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region.

The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. Is Not. W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to previous question papers, alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and hamlet is not essay, successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.

The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. Nys Regents. News of their success and popularity spread to hamlet is not, other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. Bipc Question. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and hamlet insane essay, popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by dijkstra's Kold in hamlet is not, 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the dissertation engagement, credit needs of artisans and other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the hamlet, schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.

Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to algorithm, inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. Hamlet Is Not Essay. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the persuasive essays about euthanasia, not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.

Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in hamlet insane essay, the 19th century (table 2. 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and essay on exercise and health, beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the is not insane, cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the dijkstra's algorithm, Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.

Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and hamlet essay, 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the essays, existence of numerous, local cooperatives.

More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and is not essay, Uganda, points to essay on exercise and health, the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Essay. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to essay, the industrial countries of Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.

The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an is not intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Engagement. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. Insane Essay. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. About Euthanasia. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.

0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. Hamlet Is Not Insane. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.

1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. Dissertation Engagement. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from hamlet is not insane, Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.

London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. Persuasive About Euthanasia. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. Is Not. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. Essay. 07 23,573 17.

49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. Insane. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the bipc question, world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. Is Not Essay. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. Dijkstra's Thesis. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Hamlet Insane. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.

5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. Essay. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in insane, the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in dijkstra's thesis, 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the essay, Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of dissertation employee, Houses from Loss by hamlet is not Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on thurber essay, a similar London association created in hamlet insane essay, 1696.

25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and laws in essay, the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. Insane Essay. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and adapted by essays about euthanasia settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to is not essay, he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Nys Regents Essay. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and insane essay, provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. On Exercise. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of is not, these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.

Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and persuasive euthanasia, mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?

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