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Ensure that all the school transport activities are in conformance with the essay, requirement of essay, RTA and Dubai Police. Attend to the grievances of Parents. Streamlining and guiding about fuel consumptions and cost effectiveness. Periodically study the need of new routes and deploying the ielts task essay, buses. Preparing the feasibility report for on education requirement of purchase of new buses and replacement of old buses. Arranging for the provision maintenance of official cars with or without driver. In charge of the day to day operations of the transport department. Efficiently managing a team of drivers and vehicles. Appraising staff performance and also taking disciplinary measures when required. purchasing a fleet of own buses with the profit making in 2 years. Worked as Sales Marketing Executive.
Handle complete sales activities besides searching for new prospects, conduct presentation and negotiate agreements with clients.( for ielts writing essay Toyota Hino, Tata Mitsubishi, Isuzu, Truck Pick up) Regular Sales calls follow up with existing potential key accounts to open new business opportunities ensure client awareness on problems that face essay new promotions-packages offered by the company. Prospect new markets for raising sales volumes. Manage up sell of the products. Arrange and submit offers and agreements to potential clients. Identify new business opportunities in the region and design innovative business proposals. Maintain excellent client relationship, follow up regularly on accounts, provide feedback to management on product performance and help clients get maximum benefit from range. Obtain and correlate customer feedback to assist with production planning, market analysis and product development.
Provide technical support to customer. Maintaining and updating mailing databases Organizing and attending events and writing 2 discussion exhibitions. Securing sponsorship to assist with the publicity and funding of marketing projects. Carrying out market research and customer surveys to assess demand, brand positioning and awareness. Cork? Monitoring competitor activity Analyzing pricing positions Contributing to 2 discussion, and developing long-term marketing plans and strategies Assisting in the delivery of approved strategies Managing budgets Supporting the marketing manager and other colleagues. Date of Birth : 000. Marital Status : Married. Driving license : UAE. Passport No : 000. Visa status : Employment visa.
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Customer and Personal Service – Using knowledge of principles and processes to provide customer and personal services, including customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services and evaluation of customer satisfaction. Received a significant employment award for demonstrating hard work and dedication while completing assigned tasks. Received Local Purchase Material Request (LPMR) from requestors as per essay specifications. Sourced, selected and writing task essay negotiated for the best purchase package in terms of quality, price, terms, deliveries and services with the supplier. Devised quotations, sent inquiry, received incoming and outgoing calls as well as fax and emails from the suppliers. Prepared purchase requisition and kill local purchase order for all departments and branches. Encoded local purchase order number and purchase requisition with vendors. Applied reference in LPMR and ielts task 2 discussion essay attached it with quotations. Dispatched/received all local purchase order to/from concerned authority. Prepared copies and faxed all local purchase orders to suppliers, stores, workshops and branches. Encoded all reference of face today essay, purchase requisition and local purchase order number, requisition number, vendors’ names and date and accordingly forwarded necessary documents to accounts department for 2 discussion essay payment processing.
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References available upon request. Purchase Assistant Officer Resume Sample. This resume is ielts writing essay, a sample for the post of an Purchase Assistant Officer . Every organization has purchase department to meet the needs of all organization on behalf of the chairman. In this post we’ll recommend you to draw a resume with your skills along with honesty . The character may not be so important point in the employer’s point of view but in case of purchase it’s necessary you should show your clean character than your skills. So carefully construct your resume. This resume is for Purchase assistant level post so it can be your first job or you might have 2 or 3 year experience. But as an assistant it means a lot of write essay in good, immediate pressure of the employer. Also try to compromise over ielts task 2 discussion your skills keeping your employer’s competence in mind as overpowering his efficiency would not bring about the results in your favor. If you show extra quality then your immediate boss than as per current experience you could not take your job easily.
Purchase Assistant Officer Resume Sample. Address : Al Rigga Plaza G, Flat 721, Deira, Dubai, UAE. Ambitious business professional dedicated towards managing overall purchasing operations, including stock level management and maintenance. Detail-oriented individual, skilled in accurately processing high volume of purchase orders. Competent team player with ability to establish and maintain positive relationships with various stakeholders. Creative thinker, constantly focusing on bottom-line results while contributing enthusiastically to procurement cost-reduction initiatives. Demonstrating multi-tasking skills while prioritising work assignments. Seeking opportunity to kill a mockingbird, achieve mutual growth and manage varied and challenging assignments in competitive and dynamic work environments. ? Suppliers’ Relationships/Partnerships ? Guaranteeing Optimal Relation between Quality and Price ? Processing and ielts essay Documenting Suppliers’ Requisitions ? Coordinating with Cash Office and Finance ? Invoicing Payments and Follow-Up ? Knowledge of purchasing process as well as general knowledge of budgeting and automatic cost-management. Possessing effective negotiation skills. Strong communication and interpersonal skills with fluency in English and ielts writing 2 discussion essay Tagalog.
Ability to work both independently and within collaborative environments. Exhibiting attention to detail. Administration and Management – Utilising strategic planning, resource allocation, leadership techniques and production methods skills and demonstrating knowledge of business and management principles while coordinating people and resources. Customer and Personal Service – Using knowledge of principles and processes to provide customer and personal services, including customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services and evaluation of customer satisfaction. Received a significant employment award for demonstrating hard work and dedication while completing assigned tasks. Received Local Purchase Material Request (LPMR) from requestors as per problems specifications. Sourced, selected and negotiated for ielts writing task 2 discussion the best purchase package in terms of quality, price, terms, deliveries and services with the supplier. Devised quotations, sent inquiry, received incoming and today essay outgoing calls as well as fax and emails from the suppliers.
Prepared purchase requisition and local purchase order for all departments and branches. Writing Essay? Encoded local purchase order number and essay english purchase requisition with vendors. Applied reference in ielts 2 discussion essay LPMR and attached it with quotations. Dispatched/received all local purchase order to/from concerned authority. Prepared copies and faxed all local purchase orders to suppliers, stores, workshops and branches. Encoded all reference of purchase requisition and local purchase order number, requisition number, vendors’ names and date and binding cork accordingly forwarded necessary documents to accounts department for payment processing. Coordinated with suppliers to ensure on-time delivery and ielts writing receipt of invoices and delivery notes from them. Attached invoices and delivery notes to local purchase ordered as well as checked the details of materials delivered. Encoded invoices and delivery note numbers, dates and total value of essay, invoices for Material Received Reports (MRR). Received MRR documents, verified numbers/dates and writing 2 discussion essay prepared list of documents to problems teenagers face, be sent to ielts 2 discussion, the accounting department. Executed and monitored all regular purchasing duties, including verifying petty cash fund and filing as well as securing confidential files of the company.
Proficient in operating Microsoft Word, Excel, Outlook and Internet applications. References available upon request. Senior Purchase Officer Resume Sample. This resume is problems that essay, a sample for ielts task 2 discussion the post of Senior Purchase Officer. When you prepare a Senior Purchase Officer Resume for this post, you must be careful about few things i.e. your character, past record, past company’s goodwill, and finally your appreciation as a purchaser from your last employer. Your purchase officer resume must mention events where you have provided benefits to your previous employer in friendly as well tumultuous(if any) time. With this your resume is bound to get extra attention. It must also be mentioning your eagerness towards enhancing your ability and how to essay in good english compatibility to writing task 2 discussion essay, expand your experience.
It must also show that you are an active and in good english hardworking person who doesn’t compromise on the quality of writing 2 discussion, his work and performs his duties with honesty. A Mockingbird? Below is the resume sample of Senior Purchase Officer. 7+ years experience as a Purchaser (Civil Mep) in a Construction Company Dubai – UAE (2007 to Still) Indian Driving Licence UAE Driving Licence. Marital Status : Married. Languages : English, Tamil, Malayalam, Hindi.
Passport No :000. Date of Issue :000. Date of Expiry:000. M.A in History MBA Marketing. MS University, Trinelveli, Tamilnadu India. Post box No.2716 Al Rashidya, Dubai, UAE. Mr. ABC, Methukummal. Kanyakumari Dist., Tamil Nadu, India.
Seeking a position as Senior Purchase Officer with a reputed organization where my education experience will have positive contribution. Work in a challenging environment where I can enhances my ability able to expand. Which is conductive to learn and grow at professional as well as personal level thereby directing my future endeavors as an asset to the company.Personal Profile A pleasant, adaptable and presentable person with the willingness to learn new tasks for the betterment of my career and to ielts writing, the growing needs of the company. In depth knowledge of Civil Mep materials. One year of truman show-conclusion essay, experience in material Co-ordination Excellent written and verbal communication skills Appreciated for ielts writing 2 discussion dedicated ness towards work Superior experience of working with different manufactures Sourced products internationally through local dealers. Purchase Officer – Khansaheb Civil Engg, LLC – Dubai – Uae 2007 to Still Date. Reports to the personnel as shown in the organization chart.
Provides functional support to Purchasing staff working within the various business units. To lead the Purchasing Department, including steering and implementing changes required for operational efficiency. Overhauling the existing Supply Chain successfully integrate new members,as appropriate. To develop, support and coordinate Procurement Training programs. Kill A Mockingbird Essay? To undertake functional leadership activities such as preparing annual budgets, manpower plans and managing risks related to procurement issues. To create and maintain mutually beneficial long-term partnerships with Suppliers, fostering feedback and continuous improvement. Negotiate and reduced prices with vendors, resulting in Dhs.2M savings. Worked with diverse populations and developed experience in a variety of purchase activities. Plan, develop and purchase site materials and equipment in a timely and cost effective way. Building site : American School, Burjman Centre, Al Rosthamani Tower, Carrefour-Al Bursha, East Hotel at Mall of Emirates, Fujairah city centre, H.R.H Beach Palace, Burj Dubai(Emaa) Emirates Engine Office, J.B.R etc… Road site : D.I.P Roads Al Furjan Roads, Al Furjan Road work and Dubai R.T.A Road maintenance works. etc….
Processing requisition’s expediently diligently into Purchase Orders. Ielts Writing 2 Discussion Essay? Conducting market survey’s as the situation warrants and floating inquiries to the supply chain. Negotiate with suppliers as necessary to achieve commercial targets. Mutual development of how to write essay english, on-going and new supply chain relationships. On-going advice support to ielts task, Estimating/Operation/Commercial teams. Attend to supplier queries.
Title : Proficiency in herbert on education internet mentor software. I hereby declare that the above information furnished by me is true to the best of my knowledge and writing task 2 discussion essay belief. This resume is kill a mockingbird, a sample for the post of a Purchaser. Every organization has purchase department to meet the needs of all organization on behalf of the Chairman. A Purchaser has to perform his duty both as a purchase person and driver duty. Task Essay? A good resume is what explains your personality as is the requirement. Your code of character may not be so important for the employer’s point of problems that teenagers face today essay, view but in case of purchase and its sub-domains, it’s necessary that you emphasize on 2 discussion the nobility and honesty of your character. So carefully construct your resume.
This resume is for in good english Purchaser so keep in mind that mostly companies at writing task lower level are interested in recruiting. Also try to compromise over your skills keeping your employer’s competence in mind as overpowering his efficiency would not bring about the results in that face today essay your favor. Ielts Task Essay? Adding references of your previous experiences is another plus. How To? Looking for more Purchase Resume? Name: xyz Paste Recent Pic Here.
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A level Biology Coursework - Effect of ielts writing task 2 discussion, substrate concentration on rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Aim: To investigate the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Spencer Essays On Education? Catalase is an ielts writing 2 discussion essay, enzyme which is found in most living organisms. It catalyses the essay in good, decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. Task? Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction.
Without catalase the decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is essay, also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). In the main procedure I will control the temperature in a water bath in order to create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. This will minimise the effect of temperature on the results of the experiment. I have decided to writing essay, do this because in my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of the herbert, hydrogen peroxide (when left on the side) at different intervals, and on different days, and found that the writing task 2 discussion essay, temperature of the hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly. Teenagers Today? By doing this, it will ensure that the test is as fair as I can make it.
Although the reaction is exothermic and ielts 2 discussion, will give out heat during the reaction anyway, since the writing, heat has been dissipated by being kept in ielts task 2 discussion essay the water bath, the kill essay, amount of ielts writing, heat given off in the experiment will be relative to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. However the temperature initially will be kept the same in each case. This is how to write, also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to do the whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. This means the room temperature in each class room or on different days will not be the same for each procedure, because of obvious factors such as type of day (very cold or mild etc) and writing task essay, the level of truman essay, heating within the class rooms. Temperature directly affects the shape of the active site. At a temperature below the optimum, the molecules have less kinetic energy so the rate of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules are low and therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. Ielts Task 2 Discussion Essay? As the temperature increases the molecules have more kinetic energy and dissertation cork, so collide more often, resulting in ielts an increased rate of reaction.
Because of automatic software, this, it is very important to control the temperature, in order to ensure a constant temperature is maintained. Above the optimum temperature, the thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the 2 discussion essay, secondary and tertiary structure together, so the active site changes shape and eventually the essay, reaction can no longer be catalysed. I will keep the ielts writing essay, water bath at 25 o C because the optimum temperature for the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the problems that teenagers, temperature is below the optimum the reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. I may, however need to writing task 2 discussion essay, change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the experiment with 1g of yeast, and 5cm 3 of essay writing, 20 volume of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, and therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. I consequently reduced the writing 2 discussion essay, mass of automatic essay writing software, yeast to 0.2g rather than the 1.0g I used initially, and still used the same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide. Ielts Writing 2 Discussion? This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules so the rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced. This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and measure the volume of oxygen produced.
Another factor which I had to consider was the surface area of the yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the greater the surface area of the yeast the more reactions take place because of the problems today, fact that there will be more collisions between the ielts 2 discussion, enzyme and substrate molecules. In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of yeast as it was supplied in its granule form. However in my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in the main procedure and because of this I decided to truman show-conclusion essay, grind the yeast into ielts 2 discussion, a powder so that the binding cork, surface area would be more similar in each yeast granule. Also, in my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of ielts writing 2 discussion essay, yeast (more than I need), and problems that, then weigh it, rather than weighing the yeast and then grinding. This is important because if I weigh the yeast and then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the mass of yeast slightly. I will also use the ielts writing 2 discussion, same batch of yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area. I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. Kill A Mockingbird Essay? In my first experiment, I used the displacement of water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is placed upside down in writing 2 discussion essay a plastic tub, with a tube attached to the test tube (airtight). A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is also present (as shown in the diagram). I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently.
This is because there will be fewer collisions between the substrate and enzyme molecules (catalase in yeast) – because there are fewer molecules of a mockingbird essay, hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The reaction will then stop because all of the active sites become saturated with substrate because the ielts task essay, enzyme is the limiting factor. This will result in a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the by-products of this reaction. In addition, based on my knowledge of the collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is essay software, doubled (or halved) then the rate of reaction is also doubled (or halved). Ielts Writing Task 2 Discussion Essay? This is because if the concentration is doubled the number of molecules of the substrate is also doubled.
This means there will be twice as many successful collisions. Therefore it is true to say that in theory: rate µ concentration. I will investigate if this is true for this reaction. The hydrogen peroxide is dissertation, injected into the test tube and the volume of oxygen gas is recorded (by the amount of water displaced). This would determine the rate of reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons.
Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to measure as not much water had been displaced. Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the ielts writing 2 discussion, best possible way I could do the essay, experiment was by measuring the volume of gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by writing task, the displacement of water. Problems That Today Essay? Also, because the hydrogen peroxide had to be inserted into ielts 2 discussion, the syringe before the cork, reaction could begin, the amount of writing task 2 discussion essay, time it would be out of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary. I decided that I could reduce this time by using a different method. How To Write English? In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the volume of oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of water. The hydrogen peroxide is ielts task, inserted into a 5cm 3 small beaker and show-conclusion essay, then tipped over to 2 discussion, “spill” the contents and start the reaction. I felt that this would give me more reliable result in my main investigation because the length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is kill a mockingbird, out of the water bath is reduced. Furthermore, the volume of gas is measured directly. I noticed that when doing the first method that “bubbles of essay, gas” were affected by people bumping the table, and that sometimes they got trapped in the tube, so even though the product of the show-conclusion essay, reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in ielts writing 2 discussion the reaction). Also, the bubble volume is affected by the diameter of the tube and the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by using the gas syringe, I will be able to eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in the main procedure.
I will subtract this volume of air from automatic writing, each of my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. The preliminary experiment also gave me an idea as to how often I should measure the volume of gas formed (i.e. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). In my first preliminary experiment the reaction went to fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the reaction was over before I had enough measurements and that the results I gained would not be sufficient to obtain enough results and make a valid conclusion. I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on timing only, and found that if I measured the volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. Ielts Writing? However, I do have to take into account that I will be using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the volume of cork, oxygen produced in the slower reactions and I may need to change this. The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to go any lower than 50% that the 2 discussion essay, rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and will not produce enough results because the substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration. I also want to decrease in 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of truman show-conclusion essay, 0% of ielts writing task essay, hydrogen peroxide.
Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the volume of gas. Bored of automatic, revsion? need to read something GOOD? Want to ielts writing essay, say thanks for essay, this article? Help me out by checking out this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in advance!
The independent variable will be the factor that I am going to manipulate. This will be the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. I intend to use a pipette in order to make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for writing task essay, example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and herbert essays, 10cm 3 water. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into ielts task 2 discussion essay, a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of writing software, measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to ielts writing 2 discussion, make up the concentrations. This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask.
The dependant variable – the variable I intend to herbert spencer essays, measure is the volume of gas produced in each reaction. Ielts Writing 2 Discussion Essay? This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable – the controlled variable consist of all the other factors which must be kept constant. This will be the mass of yeast for each experiment (0.2g). I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of yeast as accurately as I can using the balance. That Teenagers Essay? The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. I have explained this is my method below. I will also consider the ielts, apparatus error of the balance (and indeed all the equipment I use) so I can work out the kill essay, overall error derived from the ielts essay, apparatus and identify this in my conclusion. I am also controlling the temperature, so this has to be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the temperature will be constant, and so eliminate any fluctuations in dissertation binding temperature (as I have explained earlier). It will also rule out the ielts writing 2 discussion, fact that if I have to kill a mockingbird, do my procedures in different rooms/days, the temperature in the room might be different.
Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to measure out the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will do this by adding different volumes of water to make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of essay, 80cm 3 of kill, hydrogen peroxide and 20cm 3 of essay, water, (as shown in dissertation binding the table below). Instead of using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for measuring volumes.
I will then place the ielts 2 discussion essay, 6 conical flasks in a water bath, at 25 o C, to create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. I will do this first to ensure that the mixtures have enough time to reach a constant temperature, rather than only putting them in for today essay, a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the different molecules which I was initially trying to 2 discussion, eliminate. Next, I will grind the yeast into a powder using a pestle and that today, mortar. I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for all of my experiments. This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on different days or for different procedures, because the time spent grinding may be different. Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. I will then set up my apparatus. 2 Discussion Essay? Finally, on setting up the apparatus, I will place the balance on the table, making sure the bubble in the spirit level is in the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the balance position. This means that even though the table may not be level, the pan (or weighing basin) is perfectly level. I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. when I need another lesson to show-conclusion, complete my investigation.
Once the apparatus is ielts writing task essay, set up, I will place a conical flask on problems teenagers face essay, the balance, and task essay, set the balance to 0, so that I can weigh the essays on education, yeast only, which I will place in the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in the conical flask. I will weigh the yeast directly into the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to worry about transferring the yeast from the Petri dish to the conical flask. Next I will place the task essay, conical flask under the gas syringe and place an airtight stopper in the top, with a single tube attached to the gas syringe as shown in the diagram. I will then take the conical flask with the 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the water bath and measure exactly 5cm 3 of the mixture using a syringe, and place it into the 5cm 3 small beaker. Being very careful as not to herbert essays on education, spill the mixture, I will take the ielts task 2 discussion essay, stopper off the conical flask and lower the beaker into the conical flask using tweezers. I will then put the stopper back on binding cork, the conical flask so the procedure is ready to commence.
Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the small beaker is tipped over to when the reaction stops, measuring the volume of gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over when I record 3 volumes of gas that are concordant or very similar. This indicates that no more gas is being produced because the ielts essay, enzyme is the limiting factor as all the active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the kill, different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the equipment thoroughly after each reaction. I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to gain an average. I hope to record concordant results for essay, each repeat, so if an anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the procedure again. I will record the english, data in a table and allow me to work out the rate of ielts 2 discussion essay, reaction. I will then represent the results in a graph.
This will enable me to work out the gradient and make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and essay writing software, toxic. I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the ielts writing task 2 discussion essay, hydrogen peroxide and essay in good english, during the reaction, and will also wear gloves. I will also make sure that my hair is writing task 2 discussion essay, tied back at all times and kill, that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of clothing that may come into contact with the hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. I believe that the graph will firstly start of steep in all the reactions, but steepest in the 100% concentration of essay, hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the a mockingbird, concentration of hydrogen peroxide decrease.
This is because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off and 2 discussion essay, this represents the point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated. The curve will eventually stay constant and this is because the enzyme molecules are fully saturated. This is called the maximum velocity of reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of reaction because it is the how to english, enzyme which is in low concentration. Ielts Writing Task Essay? I believe that the graph for one of the concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below.
I believe that each curve for each concentration will look like the automatic writing software, one above, but for each decreased concentration – 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and essay, 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the spencer essays on education, initial rate of reaction, This is because of the fact that there will be less substrate molecules in ielts 2 discussion each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. This means that the number of collisions that reach the activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the graph using your results or the one's in the above table. Based on the information above, I therefore believe that the graph with all the automatic essay software, concentrations plotted will look similar to task essay, the one below. I will record my results in problems teenagers a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. I will then work out the gradient of each curve and plot a further graph of percentage of writing task, H 2 O 2 against rate of reaction on the y-axis. I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for a set volume of gas would decrease - in other words, the rate is proportional to the concentration.
I expect this graph to look similar to kill a mockingbird, the one I have drawn previously. I will work out the rate of reaction from the results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the writing task, greatest volume of gas is evolved. I had to change the herbert spencer on education, volume of hydrogen peroxide used from 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at ielts writing essay, a measurable rate. When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the volume of gas. I also had to change the gas syringe because at first the how to in good english, reaction did not occur, and this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the whole of the 70% concentration of hydrogen peroxide because the results were all anomalous when compared to the rest of the data. I will talk about why this might have been in writing task my evaluation. * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of essay, results I collected, so I decided to collect some more results. I have explained this later on. Below is ielts task, a table of the results I collected, including all the results which I had to repeat.
The raw results can be seen in the appendix. Because my results where mostly concordant, and at the very least there was only a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the herbert spencer on education, procedures, apart from the whole of 2 discussion essay, concentration 7 which I will discuss later. This then enabled me to work out an dissertation cork, average by adding up 3 three repeat values and dividing by 3. For example the 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) ? 3). Below is a table showing the average results. From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in the first 5 seconds as the concentration decreased and that the overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. Ielts 2 Discussion? This is because there were more molecules of kill a mockingbird essay, hydrogen peroxide in the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and so there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in ielts 2 discussion more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and essay writing, less in the each decreased concentration. This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. I have drawn a graph based on task essay, these average results, with a curve of best fit for each concentration which will allow me to identify any anomalies.
From the graph I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the essay english, volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is because as the ielts writing essay, concentration decreased, the show-conclusion, number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of particles that can react with each other, and so the ielts writing task 2 discussion, number of collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased. Problems Teenagers? This means that there are also less successful collisions, and so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and essay, this is because less collisions overall took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the that teenagers face essay, activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and ielts writing task essay, this resulted in a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of oxygen.
The initial rate of reaction is fastest for the 100% concentration of essay, hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the essay, concentration decreases. This can be explained by how to write essay, the collision theory, which states that the time taken for a reaction to take place, and so a set volume of gas to writing 2 discussion, be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. Herbert Essays On Education? This is because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in 1 second, and so oxygen is writing task 2 discussion, evolved more rapidly. So at the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and enzyme molecules reacting in a second. From the curves of best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only truman some results which were slightly above or below the curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each concentration alone.
To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the rate of reaction. This enabled me to find out if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. I did this by working out the gradient of each curve and plotting these values against task, the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen on that teenagers face today, the next page. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations. On the next page is a graph showing the rate of reaction, with a line of writing task 2 discussion, best fit. Truman Show-conclusion Essay? (again - on your graph showing rate of reaction, draw a line of best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and writing 2 discussion, investigated 8 concentrations in total. Teenagers Today? I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the graph I plotted with the curve of best fit for each concentration, as the concentration decreases the writing, volume of oxygen produced also decreases. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of gas of 77cm 3 of oxygen while the 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of truman, 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on or close to the curve of best fit for each concentration. However there are some factors that I must take into writing task, consideration. Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used.
Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error in which there is an upper and essay, lower limit. For example the balance had an apparatus error of ±0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and so successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of writing task 2 discussion, yeast the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of yeast. This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of reaction of the essay in good english, 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an anomalous result on 2 discussion, the first rate of reaction graph. This would apply for show-conclusion, the substrate concentration too, in ielts essay that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. This would also mean the amount of substrate molecules could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the same concentration.
For example in the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of essay writing, ±0.01. So in 100cm 3 the actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide. If there were fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in each. For example, from writing, my results, in the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of problems teenagers essay, oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in ielts task the third repeat 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced.
I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my plan, it measured the volume of gas directly and would also minimise the volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in herbert spencer on education water. However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the ielts writing, barrel was wet, the syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas. To prevent this I had to spencer, dry out the barrel and syringe before commencing the procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into writing 2 discussion, the conical flask, and when it came to tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker. I solved this by swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the reactions and kill a mockingbird, this seemed to solve the problem. Although, this means that the amount of swirling had to be the same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to keep this constant by making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly. The accuracy of the results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the ielts writing task, repeated concentration of 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of kill, substrate was present in each reaction.
Another factor which was hard to measure was the volume of gas produced because some of the higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read off the correct values every time. I tried to make this as accurate as possible by making sure my eyes were level with the task 2 discussion essay, gas syringe. Again, judging by the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. Truman Essay? In the 60% concentration the task 2 discussion, repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and 20cm 3 , which is concordant.
If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the tube. I ground up the yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there is more molecules being exposed to how to english, collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to cause a reaction. This means that having the ielts writing task 2 discussion, same surface area of yeast in each reaction is very important in truman show-conclusion ensuring a fair test because the number of molecules exposed to collisions must be the same. Temperature is ielts writing, a major factor which affects rate of reaction. This is because at higher temperatures, molecules of both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often.
This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is converted into product. The reaction is exothermic, and dissertation cork, so heat is obviously produced in writing task the reaction. The higher the truman, concentration the more heat will be produced because the task 2 discussion, molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is automatic writing, transferred to the environment. Although I tried to control the temperature in a water bath, and to good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and so the ielts essay, heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of heat given off in a mockingbird each reaction. This would have affected my results for several reasons.
Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in water at a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for ielts writing 2 discussion essay, the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the spencer, volume of oxygen dissolved in ielts task essay the reaction is not constant for all the reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in water at higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. This may have been why the difference in dissertation the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in equal steps which it did not. 2 Discussion Essay? For example, the essay, final average volume of gas for 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in steps of writing essay, 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from equal. This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and only poured the water into herbert on education, the volumetric flask to ielts writing task 2 discussion, make up the essay writing software, 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the volumetric flask. This may have also been a reason why I had to repeat the whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the final volume of oxygen produced in the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Ielts Writing Essay? Also I had to make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. If I hadn’t I could have risked diluting the solutions more and truman show-conclusion essay, this would have affected the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of ielts task 2 discussion, collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. For example, if there was still only 1cm 3 of water still remaining in the conical flask and beaker combined, then in automatic software say the 80% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the ielts writing task essay, concentration would have been closer to 79%.
This can be shown by herbert spencer essays, the simple calculation of 80 ? 101 x 100 = 79.2%. Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that “ as the ielts 2 discussion, concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and substrate molecules due to write essay english, a decreased number of molecules ”. This is shown by writing task 2 discussion, my rate of reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of truman show-conclusion essay, reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and eventually stop because the writing 2 discussion, enzyme will become the show-conclusion essay, limiting factor. This is shown when oxygen stops being produces and ielts writing task 2 discussion, the same results is that face, recorded 5 times. So for example, I knew that the 100% concentration of writing 2 discussion, hydrogen peroxide reaction was over because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times. However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of reaction (volume of oxygen produced) would also be halved, and so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the how to essay in good english, reaction is ielts writing, a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the trend, my results did not show this pattern. So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesn’t necessarily mean I have an accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends.
For example the final value at 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the volume of oxygen produced at 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Again the final volume of oxygen produced at 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double. Kill A Mockingbird Essay? As can be seen from the rate of reaction graph, the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and would suggest that the line of best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the line of best fit (1). However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of oxygen. If the line of best fit (1) is correct it would make this value an anomaly, which clearly it is not since it is the most accurate value on writing task, the graph. Essay Writing? The line of best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is crosses through (0,0), and also shows that the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and task, 90% are still quite even.
However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the show-conclusion, concentration of 100% is not accurate and is an anomaly, or that the line of best fit should in fact be a curve of writing 2 discussion essay, best fit. This presents me with a problem in the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of that teenagers today, best fit. Ielts Writing? Consequently I have decided to do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and 30% hydrogen peroxide. Problems That Face Today Essay? I will use exactly the same method as I did previously, and since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of task, yeast. I will then work out the gradient of the 2 concentrations and plot them on a rate of reaction graph along with the dissertation cork, other concentrations. I will also repeat the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an anomalous result. 2 Discussion Essay? Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the other values. Hopefully, with the today essay, new and repeated results I will be able to analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously.
I will work out the gradient of these new results and plot them on a new rate of reaction graph. This should tell me whether the reaction is indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is required. Now I have carried out the repeats and plotted the points on the rate of reaction graph I can see that the ielts writing 2 discussion, graph is in fact clearly linear. This means that the reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to the concentration. I believe that the binding cork, data also shows strong positive correlation, and writing 2 discussion, there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. I have drawn a line of today, best fit to clearly illustrate this trend. The line of best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. I can find out what these values might be by ielts task, drawing a line up and across from the writing software, line of task, best fit. So, for kill a mockingbird, example the 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to the value of 3 (shown by red line on the graph) Overall, the there is 2 discussion, a pattern showing a constant trend in that as the concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and that the overall volume of gas evolved also decreases. This is because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. Kill Essay? This is shown in the table with all the results I have gained.
Apparatus error was one of the 2 discussion essay, main factors in my experiment which I tried to keep at a minimal. I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to spencer, beakers. Ielts Task 2 Discussion? I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to when measuring amounts. The balance proved to be the how to essay in good, biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only writing task 2 discussion essay 0.1g rather than 0.2g of yeast. Below is kill a mockingbird, a summary of all the ielts writing task, percentage errors. 50cm 3 pipette ± 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette ± 0.03. 10cm 3 pipette ± 0.02. Balance 0.01 ? 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations. 100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15%
0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.10% 70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for apparatus – 5.66% Considering the whole experiment, 5.66% is a relatively small apparatus error, and taking into account that the essay, fact that the balance contributed to 5% of this error, the remaining error is minimal. Ielts Writing Task? Remembering that a apparatus error on the balance is ±0.01, this would mean that the yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and this either increases or decreases the number of molecules present. I will talk about this in my evaluation. for original and kill a mockingbird essay, inspiring surf photography, articles and interviews with your favourite surfers. A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for Powerful Results. by Fairwitness 0. The Enzyme Catalase Activity at ielts writing task, Different Conditions Lab Report. by hyunchang 70. Why is the study of basic chemistry essential to truman show-conclusion essay, understanding human body systems ? by Liwayway Memije-Cruz 86. Classification of 2 discussion essay, Insulating Materials. by OSBERT JOEL C 3. MemeMachine 4 months ago.
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This is the very good the piece of the work but i think the conclusion could be the better man so the marks could the 2 discussion essay, be the highest. Nice hub with great information about enzyme kinetics. (Ignore the last question) What board gave the software, grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is great! full marks..nice! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of ielts writing task 2 discussion, their respective owners.
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cliff notes essay M ercaptans and other volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Printable version is available here. An article on volatile sulfur compounds in wine isn’t likely to ielts writing task essay, turn many heads. In truth, it’s the sort of topic that gets filed away as ‘worthy but dull’, and only ever gets read by people who are swotting up for their diploma or MW, and then gets promptly forgotten. Aware of this, I’m willing to strike a deal with my readers. Binding Cork? If I try my best to ielts writing, cover this otherwise fiercely dull and technical wine science piece in a manner that is both readable and doesn’t require any specialist science knowledge, will you try to venture below the dissertation first paragraph? Volatile sulfur compounds, and specifically mercaptans, are a hot topic in wine at the moment, so it’s worth learning a bit about them. These are the compounds largely responsible for the olfactory defect known as ‘reduction’. And there’s a lot of ignorance and misinformation appearing about task essay them, even in print.
My aim in problems teenagers face today essay this piece is to present a step-by-step guide to these molecules in writing task 2 discussion wine, bringing in that face essay some of the latest research and providing an accessible introduction to the subject without skimping on the meaty bits. There are around 100 volatile sulfur compounds that have been identified in ielts writing wine, but only essay a few are significant enough to be included in ielts writing 2 discussion essay our story here. What do you need to know about them? First and foremost, they are smelly. That Teenagers Face Essay? Thus even at ielts writing 2 discussion essay low concentrations they can have a sensory impact on the wine.
Second, they are chemical chameleons, able to subtly change their form depending on the wine environment they are in: this is significant because if they are below detection threshold in herbert spencer essays one less smelly form, they may suddenly become noticeable in another more smelly form. Third, they aren’t all bad: recent research has shown that they are important contributors to ielts task, varietal character in many wines, so winemakers should be careful not to essays, just eliminate them randomly. ‘Reduction’ is the ielts 2 discussion essay term used to describe the teenagers face today presence of volatile sulfur compounds in wine. It’s actually a bit of a misnomer. Task? Let me try to explain why. Reduction and oxidation are two different chemical processes that complement each other. In a chemical reaction, electrons change hands, and as one compound is oxidized another is reduced. How To Essay In Good English? If there is plenty of oxygen around, then chemical components in a wine will be gradually oxidized (the electrons are transferred from the chemical components in the wine to the oxygen). The end result is an oxidized wine. During fermentation the yeasts need oxygen, and in the early stages of red wine development a little oxygen is writing task, helpful because it allows the herbert spencer oxidation of some ethanol to acetaldeyde (also known as ethanal) which can then help with the development of tannins and pigmented polymers that are important in building structure and colour (this is the theory behind microoxygenation).
But after this, wine development is largely reductive: that is, it occurs best in ielts task 2 discussion the relative absence of oxygen. This is where we will need to get to grips with a chemical term: redox potential. This is a measure of how oxidative or reductive a system, such as a wine in on education barrel or bottle is, and it is measured in millivolts (mV)—the higher the reading, the less reductive. Ielts Task 2 Discussion? Typically, an aerated red wine will have a redox potential of 400–450 mV, whereas storage in a mockingbird the absence of writing essay air for some time will reduce this to kill a mockingbird essay, 200–250 mV. If levels get as low as 150 mV then there is a danger that reduction problems can occur. Exposure to oxygen through winemaking practices such as racking, topping up barrels and filtering, increases the ielts 2 discussion essay level of dissolved oxygen in problems today the wine and increases the redox potential, which will then return to 200–300 mV. In white wines, this redox level will change much more rapidly than red wines, because red wines have a higher concentration of task essay phenolic compounds such as tannins which are able to interact with oxygen, and truman show-conclusion essay act as buffers.
Another variable here is the level of ielts 2 discussion free sulfur dioxide in essay the wine, which will act protectively by ielts reacting with the essay in good english products of oxidation. Yeast lees also scavenge oxygen and protect the wine in a similar fashion, helping to lower the redox potential and ielts writing 2 discussion essay create a more reductive environment. In modern winemaking, reductive conditions are encouraged: the protection of wines from spencer on education, oxygen by the use of stainless steel tanks and inert gases helps to preserve fresh fruit characters. These r eductive conditions—those in which oxygen is more or less excluded—can also favour the development of smelly forms of sulfur compounds. Ielts 2 Discussion Essay? This is where thee term ‘reduced’ comes from, and if this ‘reduction’ occurs before bottling, addition of oxygen may correct the fault. But it is important to note that these sulfur compounds can develop in wine even in non-reductive conditions, at which stage further oxygen exposure may result in turning a smelly wine into essay, a smelly oxidized wine. Equating the term ‘reduced’ with the presence of volatile sulfur compounds is therefore an oversimplification. Ielts Essay? In fact, when people use ‘reduction’, they are actually referring to the presence of sulphur compounds. The use of this term is quite unhelpful, because it is scientifically imprecise and can be misleading. ‘ Reduction is a simplification, a language abuse,’ says Dominique Delteil, scientific director of the ICV in the south of dissertation binding France. ‘As often occurs in wine vocabulary, tasters have been willing to link sensory sensations to chemical or physical states, without being sure they are real or not. Reduction is typical of this.’ Delteil continues, ‘I prefer to call this concept sulfur flavours rather than reduction.’ Now that we’ve spelt this out, I hope that no one will object to me continuing to use reduction as a shorthand for these sulfur flavours.
Volatile sulfur compounds: a quick tour. So what are the characteristics of reduction? These can be quite variable, and this is probably why there’s some confusion on the subject. 2 Discussion Essay? Table 1 summarizes some of the commonly encountered sulfur flavours in wine. TABLE 1 Some of the volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Rotten eggs, sewage.
This is the main baddy, made by yeasts when they use one of the sulfur-containing amino acids as a nitrogen source. Stress also encourages its formation. Mercaptans (also known as thiols) This is a large group of very smelly sulfur compounds. Terms such as cabbagey, rubbery, struck flint or burnt rubber are used as descriptors. If hydrogen sulfide isn’t removed quickly, it can result in mercaptan production. This is a big worry for winemakers. burnt match, sulfidy, earthy. Often negative, but can be positive in essay writing the right wine environment at certain levels.
methyl mercaptan (methanethiol) rotten cabbage, cooked cabbage, burnt rubber, stagnant water. One of the ielts 2 discussion compounds implicated in screwcap reduction. Cooked vegetables, cooked corn, canned tomato at high levels; blackcurrant drink concentrate at lower levels. Quince, truffle. Sweet, ethereal, slightly green, sulfidy. Vegetal, cabbage, onion-like at high levels. garlic, burnt rubber. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) Tropical fruit/passion fruit at low levels; cat’s urine at higher levels.
These are the polyfunctional thiols that are common in Sauvignon Blanc but also found in red wines where they can contribute to the blackcurrant fruit aroma. An example of dissertation binding sulfur flavours that can be positive in the right environment. Can be positive in writing task essay the right context and at the right levels. Where do these sulfur compounds come from in spencer essays on education the first place? It’s mainly from ielts writing task, yeasts. In particular, if yeasts are having a hard time finding enough nitrogen in the musts, they’ll make use of the amino acid cysteine as a nitrogen source. Cysteine contains sulfur, and this sulfur is essays, recombined chemically by the yeast metabolism to form the smelly sulfur compounds that are the subject of ielts writing task essay this piece. It is of great importance, therefore, for winemakers to essay writing software, make sure that their yeasts are happy and have an adequate nitrogen supply. ‘Yeast assimable nitrogen’ is the technical term that’s used here.
But even where the yeasts are relatively happy, some formation of sulfur compounds during fermentation seems inevitable. And these compounds need careful handling by winemakers if they aren’t to turn into problems. Why sulfur compounds in task essay wine is essay writing, officially a hot topic. Volatile sulfur compound chemistry is ielts writing essay, a hot topic in wine for two reasons. First of all, the closures debate has pointed the finger at screwcaps in sealing wines so tightly that the resulting wine environment has a low redox potential that in turn encourages reduction.
Secondly, one of the high-end discussions among wine makers is dissertation binding, whether reduction is 2 discussion essay, always a bad thing. Recent work has shown that some of the volatile sulfur compounds are important components of the varietal character of Sauvignon Blanc. They may also be important for other wine styles, too, and have also been isolated from wines made with Gewrztraminer, Riesling, Colombard, Petit Manseng, Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon and a mockingbird Merlot, among others. And there’s some interesting evidence that ‘reduction’ at a low level, in the right wine contexts, may be an ielts task 2 discussion essay important complexing factor. Could it even be that what we think of essay as minerality in wine, which we attribute to the soil—terroir, if you will—could all be about volatile sulfur compounds? Now there’s a thought. Let’s first correct a popular misconception, though. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is not a volatile sulfur compound, and is not really part of the ‘reduction’ syndrome. SO 2 is added to wine in order to provide microbiological stability, and perhaps more importantly to 2 discussion essay, prevent oxidation.
Actually, it’s a little more complicated than that. Automatic Writing? SO 2 splits into various molecular forms in wine, of which only the free SO 2 has any protective activity. It reacts with oxygen only ielts writing task essay slowly, so in actual fact its role is to bind up the products of oxidation in wine so that the oxidation isn’t apparent, even though oxidation of the wine components will already have occurred. This is a complicated, but important story, but it isn’t terribly relevant to our discussions here. Now the really controversial bit. Can you believe it?
Sulfur compounds in essay wine—‘reduction’—has been in the national press in the last few weeks. The Daily Telegraph carried a story titled ‘Screwcaps blamed for tainting wine’ on ielts 2 discussion 19th September, which was also picked up by other news outlets. Face Essay? This was prompted by the results of the faults clinic from the 2006 International Wine Challenge (IWC). ‘In a number of cases the IWC chairmen validated a link between screw cap use and a unfavourable vegetal/rubber flavoured compound—presumed to be a complexed sulfide’, reports Sam Harrop MW, who was one of the four IWC chairs. Task? ‘At first glance a percentage of 4.9% of dissertation cork total faults may not seem high, but when examined in the context of total screw cap figures, a more worrying rate of 2.2% [of all screwcapped wines] emerges. In the task essay context of the 2006 IWC cork taint figure of 2.8% [of all natural cork-sealed wines], this fault type is significant and automatic essay writing should be given more attention by wineries using screwcap.’ However, Harrop is keen to emphasize that he’s not equating the two: ‘While the IWC figures for ielts writing task essay screwcaps are a concern, there is no question in my mind that the continued incidence of cork taint is still a more serious issue.’ The potential problem with sulfides in essay writing software screwcapped wines first came to the wine world’s attention through the magnificent closures study began by ielts writing task the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) in 1999, and teenagers face today which has been reported on at regular intervals as the wine (a 1999 Semillon from the Clare Valley) has developed under a range of some 14 different closures. Included in this study was a metal-lined screwcap.
The liner is important here: the oxygen transmission properties of ielts 2 discussion essay a screwcap are determined by its nature. In Australia and New Zealand, the two countries where screwcaps have seen the largest take-up, the almost universally used liner has a metal layer in it (usually tin; sometimes aluminium). Problems That Essay? This creates a highly gas-impermeable seal, with very little oxygen transmission. These liners are instantly recognizable because they have a metallic appearance. The other commonly used screwcap liners for writing task 2 discussion essay wine appear white—these are known as saranex-only liners and kill essay allow more oxygen transmission, although probably a bit more than is needed just to avoid reduction, and likely more than we’d want of a closure for wines destined for keeping for more than a few years. In the first major report from this closure trial, 20 months on, the AWRI reported that the tin-lined screwcaps performed as expected: with their tight seals they kept the wine freshest, and the screwcapped bottles scored highest for fruity aromas, maintaining the highest levels of free sulfur dioxide while showing the least colour development. But they also scored highly for ‘struck flint/rubber’ in the sensory analysis. This observation persisted through all time points of the study, including the most recent report at 63 months post bottling. Subsequent trials which have examined the performance of metal-lined screwcaps have reached consistent results, as have studies using sealed ampoules where there is no oxygen transmission at all. ‘Reduction’ seems to be a problem in these sorts of writing analytical studies involving metal-lined screwcaps. The obvious explanation is that the low redox environment of the screwcap-sealed wine is causing some unwanted sulfur chemistry to occur, with sulfur compounds shifting from a less smelly (and thus unnoticed) form to a more smelly (and thus noticeable), more reduced form. What are we to make of this?
Is it a real world problem on a part with cork taint, or is write in good, it just a minor technical problem—a teething issue that just needs a bit of tweaking? The latter position has been the one consistently adopted by proponents of screwcaps. Indeed, quite a number of individuals and wineries have aligned themselves strongly with this closure type by writing task 2 discussion essay signing up to the International Screwcap Initiative. They have invested a fair bit of emotional energy in automatic writing software this cause, as well as several years’ production of ielts essay their wines, so their natural response to these sorts of data is to either fight or deny them. Others have been gunning for screwcaps to fail—none more so than the teenagers face today cork industry who see their livelihood threatened by this remarkably easy-to-use (from the consumer’s perspective) closure. Since the publication of the first AWRI report in 2001, there has been just a trickle of data on the subject of screwcap reduction. But little by little a clearer picture has emerged, and I would go so far as to say that the current weight of evidence suggests that the issue of mercaptans in screwcapped wines is problematic enough that some caution should be exercised in their use. First we have the consistency of the observation: where people have been looking carefully at screwcapped wines, these mercaptans (or what people believe to be mercaptans from sensory analysis) have always been found. Then we have anecdotal observation by interested parties.
I’ve done side by side tastings of the same wines sealed by screwcap and a more permeable closure (Diam or cork), and the difference has been striking. Of course, the value of this sort of observation depends on your view of my palate and ielts task essay intellectual independence. But I was personally convinced that there was a consistent character appearing in the screwcapped wines, which, while I probably would not have noticed it on its own if I hadn’t been looking, appeared detrimental to essay, the wine quality when made evident in the side-by-side comparison. Australian wine writer Campbell Mattinson, reporting on a tasting in which he encountered a number of ielts reduction problems with screwcap wines, has the following to say. ‘Excessive reduction in a wine is a winemaking issue, not a closure issue. I know this. I’ve been told it 357 times—at least. Dissertation Cork? Right. Task 2 Discussion Essay? What I want to know then is: screwcaps have been in increasingly high volume use ever since Orlando bottled its 1998 Richmond Grove riesling under it. It’s now 2006. How long, en masse, is it going to teenagers face today, take for winemakers to ielts writing 2 discussion, get it right?
When is the “winemaking issue” going to essay, end? Should we restrict the writing 2 discussion essay use of screwcaps only to those winemakers who actually know what they’re doing? At what point do we say: screwcaps are fabulous, but too many in the industry can’t be trusted with them. Do we need to how to essay in good, introduce a Screwcap Licence system?’ A recent comparative tasting of writing task screwcapped and cork-sealed bottles was reported by Ralph Kyte Powell in Australian newspaper The Age (21 February 2006).
24 wines were tried, white and red. This comparison was particularly useful because tasting notes were given for each of the wines. Kill A Mockingbird Essay? Reading these notes, two points are emphasized. 2 Discussion Essay? First, that the truman show-conclusion wines taste quite different in writing task 2 discussion essay almost every case. Second, that the number of descriptors indicative of the presence of cork mercaptans in the screwcapped wines is striking. This suggests that screwcap reduction is a real world problem: bottles are out there showing it. New Zealand winemaker (Stonecroft, Hawkes Bay) and ielts writing 2 discussion essay PhD chemist Alan Limmer has been a bit of write english a thorn in the side of the screwcap lobby. He has written widely on the subject, bringing his knowledge of wine chemistry to ielts writing essay, bear. Truman? In particular, Limmer has pointed out that screwcap reduction is not a problem that can be completely eliminated by better winemaking, as many have claimed. ‘In essence we are talking about thiol accumulation, post-bottling, from complex sulfides which do not respond to pre-bottling copper treatment,’ claims Limmer, in response to writing, the assertion that fining with copper removes reduction defects. ‘This reaction occurs to all wines containing the appropriate precursors, irrespective of closure type.
But the varying levels of oxygen ingress between closures leads to significantly different outcomes from a sensory point of view.’ Limmer’s explanation for screwcap reduction is that sulfides present in the wine at bottling necessitate a very small level of oxygen ingress through the closure, otherwise they can become reduced to thiols. Because sulfides are less smelly, it is possible for writing a wine that is ielts writing task, clean at bottling to taste reduced after bottling if the closure doesn’t permit enough oxygen ingress. Today? So the ielts essay use of a closure, such as cork, which does allow a little oxygen ingress (but not too much) is a necessary concession to write, the vagaries of sulfur chemistry. Ielts Writing? Of course, we’d rather not have the sulfides in the wine at all, which would then avoid problems with reduction to problems today, mercaptans at a later stage. But, as Limmer points out: ‘Controlling ferments to not produce the complex sulfides is beyond our means currently.
This sulfide behaviour of the ielts task 2 discussion ferment is a mockingbird essay, more controlled by the yeast genetics than the winemaker,’ he explains. Ielts Writing? ‘It is truman show-conclusion, not the winemaker’s fault these compounds exist in the wine at bottling. We can minimize it to ielts writing task 2 discussion essay, some extent by providing optimum nutrient conditions for the ferment, and employing some specific winemaking regimes. But, the binding cork research tells us this only has a slight impact on the complex sulfide pattern produced by the yeast.’ Limmer reinforces his point: ‘The patterns are quite specific to each yeast type, almost irrespective of writing 2 discussion nutrient conditions. Every wine contains these complex sulfides.’ What can winemakers do to eliminate unwanted sulfur compounds from their wine? A healthy ferment should help, and essay writing software then copper fining is widely touted as the solution. Ielts Task 2 Discussion? This certainly gets rid of mercaptans, but it doesn’t eliminate disulfides which can, as we have seen, can revert in binding cork a low redox environment to mercaptans. For this reason, Limmer calls copper fining ‘the Ambulance at ielts 2 discussion the bottom of the cliff’. Dissertation Binding? Besides, copper fining will also remove the desirable sulfides which are important for varietal character in 2 discussion Sauvignon Blanc and other grapes. The new cork taint?
We have to be careful, however, not to on education, overstate the potential threat caused by mercaptans in wines that are sealed by ultra-low permeability closures such as tin-lined screwcaps. The extent of screwcap reduction is currently unclear. It seems that there are some things that winemakers can do to ielts writing task essay, miminize its occurrence, even if, as Limmer asserts, it can’t be avoided altogether. The IWC data indicating that 2.2% of screwcapped wines suffered from mercaptan problems are alarming, but it should be borne in mind that cork taint irredeemably ruins bottles it affects, while very few consumers will have a problem with low level mercaptans in kill their wines [although most of us can remember at least one occasion where friends or relatives have happily sipped corked wine; still, I think there’s some validity to my point]. I doubt that most of the wine trade would spot this as a problem in ielts writing task essay all but the most extreme cases, so it is kill a mockingbird essay, unfair to equate it with the very well recognized problem of cork taint. Ielts Writing Task 2 Discussion Essay? Having said this, though, screwcap-sealed wines affected by mercaptans should be a major concern for winemakers because the closure is modifying the flavour of the wine, which is emphatically not reaching the consumer ‘the way the winemaker intended’. It would be dangerously complacent for the industry to take the view that if the consumer doesn’t notice it, then it doesn’t matter. Personally, I am slightly concerned that low level mercaptans may be affecting far more than 2.2% of wines sealed with screwcaps. ‘They impact from an organoleptic perspective towards the end of the palate’, claims Limmer, ‘imparting a “mineral” or bitter/hard/astringent aspect.
This has the appearance of shortening or closing up the palate, so the wine does not display a fine fresh long finish, but ends abruptly, and somewhat harshly.’ This is describing something I’ve certainly noticed in side-by-side comparisons of cork and screwcap-sealed wines. Is it happening all the time, but going more-or-less undetected? Gregor Christie of how to write essay membrane cork company ProCork has been concerned enough about this problem that he has sent of wines for testing at ETS laboratories in California. Ielts Task Essay? Clearly, Christie has a commercial imperative for showing that ProCork is superior to tin-lined screwcaps in problems that teenagers face essay this regard, but even given this motivation, the ielts writing 2 discussion essay results are interesting. Christie took the 2002 Clare Valley Semillon used in the commercial closure trial run by the AWRI, comparing ProCork with natural cork and screwcap, and submitted bottles sealed with all three closures to essay in good english, ETS for writing task essay testing for a range of volatile sulfur compounds. For methyl mercaptan, which has a perception threshold of 0.3 parts per spencer essays, billion (ppb), both the ielts writing essay cork- and ProCork-sealed bottles were below detection limit. However, the screwcapped bottle showed a level of 0.6 ppb, above perception threshold. But a sense of perspective is called for here. How To Essay In Good? There’s a real danger that the message that is distilled by writing task essay journalists from all this technical talk becomes a misleading ‘screwcaps taint wine’ story. The picture emerging is a complex one, but such a simplification would be dangerous if it caused producers to herbert spencer essays on education, back away from adopting alternative closure solutions, which would then have the knock-on effect of removing any incentive from the cork industry to put its house in order and do all it can to reduce taint levels. However, complications like this mercaptan issue should put pressure on winemakers to ielts task essay, be more curious about the closures they are using.
They should ask more questions about issues like oxygen transmission, and a mockingbird essay insist on seeing independently validated data on closure performance rather than accepting manufacturer’s testimonials or sales pitches unquestioningly. Article originally appeared in Harpers Wine Spirit Weekly in 2006. Posted here February 2007. Copyright Jamie Goode.