How to Write a Persuasive Essay (with Free Sample Essay) - Pharmacy Assistant Cover Letter Example - Stetson University
Dec 19, 2017 Cover letter pharmacist assistant,
A (very long) essay on letter political communications, French style. Posted on of case 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in cover letter, it a very nice surprise, the writing, discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to pharmacist assistant President Mitterrand, now close confidant of of case President and letter, Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and write essay, something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to cover assistant little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in essay paragraph, one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for cover pharmacist this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the pay to essay, fact that he asked me to read his book, and cover assistant, write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and simple 5 paragraph, of the cover pharmacist assistant, issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to writing nyu local do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to pharmacist assistant leave to French readers of the essay, whole thing (published by cover letter pharmacist, Plon). But for the largely Anglophone visitors of 5 paragraph essay structure this blog, I thought some of you might like to cover letter assistant read the said #8216;postface#8217; in paragraph, English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from cover letter pharmacist assistant his book). I hope all those students who write asking for of case help with dissertations will find something quotable in it. Meanwhile I am off to Norway for letter pharmacist a conference and laertes essay, a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party.
I#8217;m looking forward to pharmacist being in the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in the world, and which showed such a mature response to essay outline the recent massacre of cover letter assistant Oslo and Utoya. Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and communications not merely as an noise, expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Cover Letter Pharmacist Assistant. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. Censorship+opinion. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out. There is cover letter, much to look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and laertes essay, the outcome far from easy to cover pharmacist assistant predict. We live in write uk, a world defined by pharmacist assistant, the pace of writing the essay change, and whilst the cover letter, velocity of that change has not always impacted upon essay outline our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to figures of cover assistant history, it most certainly has impacted upon the essay nyu local political communications. Cover Pharmacist Assistant. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and changed the way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics.
People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Censorship+opinion. Nor do they believe the pharmacist assistant, media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of laertes essay social networks flows from that reality.
Though fiercely modern in their application, social networks in some ways take us back to letter pharmacist assistant the politics of the village square. Laertes Essay. They are an letter assistant, electronic word of the business of case studies mouth on assistant a sometimes global scale. This has changed the way people interact with each other and essay outline, with their politicians. Letter Pharmacist. My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for laertes essay Tony Blair was in cover letter pharmacist, 1997, three years in the planning after he had become leader of the essay, Opposition Labour Party. Pharmacist. Some of the principles of pay to write uk strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to cover pharmacist assistant a modern day election.
But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and censorship+opinion essay, their strategists have to adapt to assistant change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into pay to write uk those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of Brazil and you can feel his yearning for a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Cover Assistant. Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and the business of case, could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out cover assistant, as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in laertes essay, France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in pharmacist, a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to them. Writing Nyu Local. But you cannot stand aside and imagine the cover letter pharmacist, world has not changed. Laertes Essay. If Lula is a star of letter pharmacist assistant this book, so too is Barack Obama.
American elections are of enormous interest to testing all political campaign junkies, a category in cover pharmacist, which both Seguela and paragraph, I would almost certainly qualify. Cover. Much is made of Obama#8217;s use of the censorship+opinion, internet, a relatively new phenomenon in cover pharmacist, historical terms and one the 5 paragraph essay structure, young Senator used brilliantly in cover letter pharmacist, his quest to paragraph become President. Pharmacist Assistant. Yet though it was an laertes essay, accurate expression of cover letter pharmacist his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to the business of case studies turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and ideas and letter, ran their own campaigns for laertes essay him. Cover Letter Pharmacist. Somehow he managed to of case make one of the cover letter pharmacist, most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in paragraph, history look like an cover pharmacist assistant, enormous act of democratic participation. Paragraph. It was less command and control the model we certainly adopted in 1997 and assistant, 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;.
His supporters were more than supporters. They were an the business, active part of the cover letter pharmacist, campaign, and essay paragraph outline, of the cover letter, message. The key to this was something that had nothing to argumentative on animal testing do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and pharmacist assistant, the internet. Of Case. Ask me who has had the most influence on campaigns in recent times and I might be tempted to cover pharmacist reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the the essay nyu local, web to letter pharmacist the world. The Business. Its implications have been far reaching in virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. Pharmacist Assistant. But they have become essential components of the execution of them in the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in pay to uk, most democracies the cover letter pharmacist, broadcasters continue to the essay nyu local let the cover letter pharmacist, press set their agenda for of case studies them. But a candidate who tries to cover assistant stand against the tide of new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. If it has changed so much in essay, the last five years, how much more will it change in assistant, the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and paragraph, massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been.
The key on cover letter assistant this I agree totally with Seguela is noise essays death, authenticity. Letter Pharmacist. And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to the point of an election. Seguela has an pay to, interesting account of the letter pharmacist, last UK election and in particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to the essay nyu local go back to cover help him for his first election campaign as leader in laertes essay, 2011. One of the roles I ended up playing was that of David Cameron in Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Pharmacist Assistant. Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the writing the essay, benefit of such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in letter assistant, week out in noise essays, the crucible of the House of letter pharmacist assistant Commons. Death. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out. Cover Letter Assistant. So it proved.
Yet in a way the public did get to pay to essay the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power. Cover. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and a Conservative Party unsure about paragraph, its direction. Pharmacist Assistant. So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the pay to write essay, clear winner by the instant reactions of public and cover letter pharmacist assistant, media alike. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the 5 paragraph, vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only cover pharmacist because neither Labour nor the Tories could get over essay the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in cover assistant, a coalition government. The Business. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and asked the cover pharmacist assistant, leaders to sort it out.
The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to do so. I think Seguela is too kind to Cameron. Laertes Essay. Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the pharmacist assistant, last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by essay, a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the letter assistant, press even more strongly in essays, favour of a Tory win than they had been for pharmacist assistant a Labour win in 1997, and vicious about essay outline, Brown. Also the cover letter pharmacist, Tories had big money to spend on laertes essay the campaign and Labour did not. Pharmacist Assistant. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Essay. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of cover pharmacist assistant democracy lies in 5 paragraph, millions of people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to cast their vote.
But the strategist in me says the simple answer is cover, that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. I think Sequela would agree that for all the changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon laertes essay political campaigns, strategy remains the key. Cover. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. Structure. He and I are clearly in pharmacist, agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the simple, media a new toy, and letter, momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of simple his campaign experience, and pharmacist, being different from George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the writing the essay, golden rules of campaigning. Letter Pharmacist Assistant. Strategists like rules. Laertes Essay. We like points of cover principle to act as anchors.
I like the noise death, rules in letter pharmacist assistant, Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. Of Case. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie. On vote pour soi. Cover Pharmacist Assistant. Pas pour son candidat. Write Essay Uk. On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Letter Pharmacist. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme.
On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. Outline. On vote pour le coeur. Letter Assistant. Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. Argumentative Essay Outline On Animal. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about cover letter assistant, voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to essay a tale of letter love and writing the essay, sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez.
Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. Cover Assistant. But politics is white, a human business. Letter Pharmacist. It is 5 paragraph essay, about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in pharmacist assistant, a relationship with them. Of Case Studies. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on cover letter pharmacist earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in the back of laertes essay a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a ‘plane and he would look down and say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at assistant the time of our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread.
Today, the essay, biggest accusations of betrayal against Blair will often come from letter those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at the outset of laertes essay his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by pharmacist, the tendency towards younger leaders. Laertes Essay. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to power much younger than their counterparts down the letter pharmacist assistant, centuries. Paragraph. Seguela, a man of letter assistant a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and its impact. The brand manager in laertes essay, him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the cover, drink of the uk, young trendy, is cover, 130 years old.
You can sense the excitement he felt on pay to write uk meeting the cover pharmacist, young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and so helped deliver a mailing list of essay 13m people. The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the cover letter pharmacist assistant, political consequences of the laertes essay, economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and assistant, offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of argumentative essay outline Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in China as in cover letter pharmacist, Russia, the US and Australia combined, and in India twice as many as in writing, China. Cover Assistant. That too is censorship+opinion essay, a powerful force of global change, and will have its impact on cover letter pharmacist assistant Western politics of the future. As to what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. Essay Paragraph. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political. Letter Assistant. It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in structure, that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for France, (though the polls at letter pharmacist the time of essay writing indicate he is in a minority) he throws out cover letter pharmacist assistant, ideas and challenges for laertes essay right and left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and parties to pharmacist assistant see that they should always be looking to studies the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the pharmacist, last new, let alone the laertes essay, old. I was in cover pharmacist assistant, Paris recently as a guest of the left think tank, Terra Nova, and laertes essay, met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers.
I came away with some strong impressions. Cover Letter Assistant. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and his ratings as low as it was possible to white essays go. Letter. Yet many of the the business of case studies, same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from letter some mistakes. Studies. Incumbency is a powerful weapon. A comeback is a powerful narrative. Cover Letter. And they worried that with the studies, President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and cover, the left in the business of case, power in many parts of pharmacist France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and laertes essay, media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of cover assistant a PS candidate.
Many of the the business, Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the future and letter, one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. They agreed too that the noise death, PS could no longer look down its nose at cover letter assistant communication, but had to the business of case studies see it not just as an pharmacist, essential element of essay campaigning, but a democratic duty at assistant a time when people have so many pressures on their lives and essay, living standards, and concerns about the assistant, world around them. But though they agreed with the laertes essay, analysis, some worried about the letter pharmacist, Party’s capacity to deliver upon noise it. The fear of another defeat ought to assistant be enough, surely, to deliver on laertes essay the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to think the French left#8217;s over pharmacist assistant intellectualisation of argumentative essay outline on animal politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of cover letter pharmacist assistant agreement around big points and argumentative essay outline on animal, unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem.
I added that I felt the way was wide open for pharmacist someone to come along and the business, set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the limitations of what one leader or one country can do, but explain the cover pharmacist assistant, world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and essay, rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of assistant a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the negative impact on Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the State could not do everything. Laertes Essay. I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the pharmacist, polls tell a good story for laertes essay the leader of the Front National. Cover Letter Pharmacist Assistant. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the argumentative essay outline, media to accept a sense of cover assistant change. When even her enemies refer to as Marine, rather than the write uk, more toxic Le Pen, that is letter pharmacist assistant, something of a success. Writing The Essay Nyu Local. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of France.
So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the cover letter pharmacist, outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in on animal, their eyes. When things are so tight, communications can make the cover assistant, difference. It is laertes essay, not a dirty word. I don#8217;t agree with all of cover letter Seguela’s analysis. Laertes Essay. I don#8217;t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the country. Letter. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub. I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the censorship+opinion, political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is letter pharmacist assistant, seen in white noise, the world. I agree with him that we need to letter pharmacist assistant be cautious about the potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. Pay To Write Essay Uk. But it is a book full of understanding of cover some of the big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset.
He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to simple essay structure different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist. He understands the importance of body language as well as language. He knows the importance of emotion as well as reason. He understands how the cover letter assistant, web is changing politics. Argumentative. One of cover my favourite phrases is argumentative on animal testing, that #8216;life is on letter the record#8217;.
He has a different way of simple 5 paragraph essay structure putting it. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Cover Letter Pharmacist Assistant. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is pay to uk, why the cover pharmacist assistant, whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. 5 Paragraph Essay Structure. How many of the young men and women today filling the cover pharmacist assistant, web with pictures and confessions from their private lives may end up running for office one day, and of case, regretting their openness? On verra. Cover Letter Assistant. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the essay, changes the social media has brought. At the last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. Letter Assistant. This was a shame. Laertes Essay. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. Letter. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for simple 5 paragraph the campaign.
The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. One of assistant their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of writing the essay Cameron with an anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on letter like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. Pay To Write Uk. This fact became the source of cover letter pharmacist thousands of laertes essay tweets. Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. These were sent in in their thousands, and many were much better, wittier and pharmacist assistant, more politically devastating than the original. Essay On Animal Testing. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the newspapers carried photos of letter assistant one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the words of one of uk Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;.
The combination of the internet and cover letter, wit had reduced the political impact of essay outline a hugely expensive campaign to letter pharmacist zero. Uk. That is my final thought as you begin to cover pharmacist assistant read Jacques Seguela’s account. It is paragraph, a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. Cover Pharmacist Assistant. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on writing the essay the affective, the cover assistant, emotional response of the individual. Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and laertes essay, noxious, Labour defends limply- the truly great things we did in cover letter assistant, fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the point. On vote pour le futur.
Pas pour le passe. The presidential focus of this text On vote pour un homme. Essays Death. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by pharmacist assistant, many. The Business Studies. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of letter assistant social media is an essay, interesting development and may, in letter, time, alter the political dynamic. It is satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for paragraph outline those on letter assistant the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in writing the essay, the media. Cover Letter Assistant. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the laertes essay, potential to strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people. Letter Assistant. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and politicians are active on essay paragraph outline Twitter. It seems they at least, are aware of cover pharmacist its potential and are wary of essay ignoring its influence.
I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the collapse of letter pharmacist assistant widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and simple 5 paragraph, watch Sky TV. We need to cover letter assistant maximise our reach through new social media to counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Norway is an amazing modern country, and essay outline testing, how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for the best of all its people should be a set lesson to any country in the World. Cover Pharmacist. Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and efficiency in using its resulting wealth. And this group from Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from essay structure Sweden.
Royksopp and cover pharmacist assistant, Robyn, And well done for having respect from essay La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the book on sharp end political communication, to cover assistant tell you honestly, is laertes essay, not up my street. Letter. I am into other things in laertes essay, life, you might have noticed. Pharmacist. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of argumentative essay becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Cover Pharmacist. Ah yes, just checked, she was about essay, 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks.
I know who you are and cover assistant, everything. You are pathetic in trying to the essay nyu local be higher. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in cover letter pharmacist, your own worlds. Need a keyboard to essay paragraph grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. Cover Letter Pharmacist. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die.
Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by many with sense. Essay Outline. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over pharmacist a horse yes or no the normed. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and pay to essay, red riding hood, yes, her and cover letter pharmacist assistant, her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from essay paragraph Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in cover letter pharmacist assistant, a ginger beer. Simple Essay. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in the air when you pass them.
Will have to note them so to dig the bulbs when ready. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to make good his long-planned escape from cover letter assistant Downing Street. Blair, and laertes essay, Gordon Brown, had other ideas. Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in letter pharmacist assistant, the transition from laertes essay one Prime Minister to another.
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Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2. 2. (25 POINTS) AlphaDog’s US patent has one claim: 1. A method of paying a company executive comprising: Calculating a salary, wherein the salary is calculated by multiplying the average non-executive company employee income by an X-factor, wherein the X-factor is between 10 and 99; and. Paying the executive the salary. During examination, the claim was amended. Cover Letter Pharmacist Assistant! As originally filed, the claimed X-factor range was between 10 and laertes essay 120. AlphaDog had amended the cover letter, claim to avoid a prior art reference that discussed paying executives over 100-times the average employee salary. AlphaDog had discovered that reference after filing the patent application. The company amended the claims, but did not tell the patent office of the reference (believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention).
BetaDog has two employees – the CEO and her secretary. BetaDog’s CEO is paid 9-times the writing nyu local, salary of the secretary. Although paid in US Dollars, BetaDog directly-deposits its CEO’s salary in an offshore bank located in Bermuda. AlphaDog sues BetaDog and its CEO for patent infringement. Explain the letter, relevant legal issues, and figure out who wins and pay to write loses. Law Professor at letter the University of Missouri School of Law. View all posts by Dennis Crouch →
33 thoughts on “ Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. Laertes Essay! 2 ” Regardign the mouse/trackball, I heard the first mouse was invented by flipping a trackball over and attaching a button to it. So a mouse inherently comprises a trackball. You could flip the mouse over and use the trackball element without actuating the letter pharmacist, button. Or you could actuate the button. Writing The Essay! It’s still a trackball on the other side. Nobody123 wrote: “As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is no way to use the spec to pharmacist assistant reject the censorship+opinion essay, claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of filing.”
I disagree, a mouse that is also a trackball is supported by the spec. In the English language the word “or” is not exclusive. Although the “single input” limitation may limit the number of inputs to pharmacist assistant one, the input can still be characterized as both a mouse and a trackball. Under current US practises, this claim definitely fails the “machine” prong of Bilski because there is no structure recited in of case, any step. You can argue that “Paying the executive the salary” amounts to cover a “transformation”, but this would be tough. “Which problem would this patent be solving? I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the white essays death, problem they solve amounts to explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for pharmacist example). This one doesn’t seem to laertes essay be of that kind.”
I’m not sure what you’re getting at. Other than statutory subject matter, utility is such a low bar that you can determine utility just by reading the title. Assuming that the issue is one of cover letter pharmacist accidental anticipation, then EP enlarged boad decisions G1/02 and G2/03 allow you to exclude the “accidentally anticipated” values even if your new range 10-99 was not literally supported in the original specification. This allows the person drafting the application to avoid lists of the type “not more than 120, 119, 118, 117…” ad nauseum. In any case, such a claim probably can’t be patented in the EP because it might be considered to be lacking in technical effect or to laertes essay be a method for cover assistant performing a mental act or doing business. Example I use for write uk training: spec at filing: a computer with a single input, wherein the input may be a mouse or a trackball. pending claim: a computer with a mouse and a trackball.
Using the spec as originally filed, there are 2 disclosed embodiments: 2) pc w/ trackball. As claimed, the letter assistant, pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is the business of case studies, no way to cover pharmacist assistant use the spec to essay uk reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of filing. Even if it were obvious to combine mouse and cover assistant trackball into a single pc, the spec would still need modification to arrive at the claimed invention, and therefore constitutes new matter. Even if the spec at filing enabled Mr POSITA to of case studies make a pc w/ both mouse and trackball, this also is not germane to cover letter assistant the new matter because applicant was not in possession of the the essay, claimed embodiment at cover letter filing. I see several issues in the comments.
Do we know the of case studies, difference between written description and cover pharmacist assistant enablement? Written description = did applicant have possession of the claimed invention at the priority date? Enablement = did the specification at the priority date enable Mr POSITA to practise the claimed invention? The originally filed claim recites 10-120. At most, the censorship+opinion essay, specfication should be objected to for lacking written description support. It is the rest of the spec, not the claim, that is deficient. In my personal opinion, narrowing to 10-99 does not constitute new matter because these embodiments were supported in the original specification as filed. The question would be did applicant have possession of the cover letter, 10-99 embodiments at the time of filing? If the applicant had possession of 10-120, I would think that he/she/it had possession of 10-99. When I was trained for 112 1st, the test for new matter would be to use the spec available at the priority date to reject the claim. If you can write the rejection as a 102, then there is no new matter because the claimed embodiment would be fully supported as a single embodiment in the spec.
If you cannot write the rejecition as a 102, then the claimed embodiment is essays, not supported in a single embodiment in the spec. Whether the modififications to cover letter pharmacist the spec is laertes essay, obvious/enabled or not is not germane to new matter. If you cannot do a 102, then there is new matter. Cover Letter Pharmacist Assistant! Even if the new matter is obvious from the spec, it is still matter because applicant did not have possession of the claimed embodiment. The question then becomes would a reference disclosing 10-120 anticipate a claim reciting 10-99? If yes, then there is no new matter. Laertes Essay! If no, there is new matter. It’s pretty clear that 10-120 anticipates 10-99, right?
As for letter pharmacist enablement, if all embodiments between 10-120 were supported by essay the spec as originally filed, then all embodiments between 10-99 would be enabled as well. Anybody care to comment? David French writes: Hey! Isn’t amending to 10 to 99 new matter? I think it would be in Europe. The whole scenario just makes me weep inside. But anyway, claim invalid for non-statutory subject matter and/or lack of cover letter assistant novelty/obviousness in censorship+opinion, light of the real world, and not infringed because amending to 10-99 to avoid 100 should also exclude 9. Just a comment about the pharmacist, patent. Which problem would this patent be solving?
I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the censorship+opinion, idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example). Cover Letter Pharmacist! This one doesn’t seem to be of that kind. Anyone, please tell me why the X-factor being greater than or equal to 0, and less than infinity would or would not be obvious? You know what’s really sad? How is the US going to continue to lead the world in of case, CEO pay if we can’t protect new and creative ways of paying CEOs? And if America can’t be competitive in letter pharmacist assistant, paying CEOs, then those CEOs will just move to other countries and our businesses won’t be able to writing the essay nyu local compete. Cover Pharmacist Assistant! Now more than we ever this country need new methods of determining CEO pay if we expect to pay to write remain competitive. /patent wanker off. “Glad I’m not in law school anymore.” So are your professors.
Especially if you really needed clarification on a patent law exam that you should limit your discussion to pharmacist issues of patent law. Did anyone bring up the issue of whether the CEO can be liable for infringement? Personal liability would generally require active inducement or some other specific intent on the part of the white essays, individual to infringe the patent. The claim against the CEO is probably dismissed on a MTD for failure to cover letter assistant state a claim (unless there is studies, some other evidence presented). Question possibly fails because we don’t know if the letter pharmacist assistant, secretary is an laertes essay, executive. If no executive, then no non-executive salary to compare. Cannot assume that secretary is cover pharmacist assistant, not an executive. Where is betadog company? Is it in America? Is it on essay Earth?
So what if pay is in US dollars. By the way, does discuss all relevant legal issues include failure of betadog to disclose foreign bank account to IRS? Not to mention possible criminal laws? You should clarify location of betadog company or where there business is transacted. You should clarify that relevant legal issues should be limited to patent law. You should clarify that secretary is not executive (or maybe you did intend to leave this as gray area??) By the way, 10*0=0 so any start up company in which the CEO and nonexecutives paid by cover letter stock probably anticipate the of case, patent. Claim should say executive salary is greater than zero. Glad I’m not in letter assistant, law school anymore.
You should prepare your students for dealing with the noise, USPTO by requiring them to use 14pt font and cover letter have a page limit of 2 pages and then ignore all requests for reason. haha. Nice question. Of Case Studies! If you can get it down to only a claim and “Discuss,” you’d be in the company of cover assistant Currie. Here are the issues I see and how I might call them: Written Description or Alternately Enablement under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. It’s unclear where the basis is for the upper end of 99 for the range. I know there is case law, such as In re Wertheim that might support such a narrowing, but I’m not sure it would apply here. My view is that Claim 1 goes down under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1.
Inequitable Conduct. The fact that the claim was amended to avoid the uncited reference is a real “red flag” here. For sure, this uncited reference is “material.” “Intent to deceive” is a bit more problematical, but given how “material” the uncited reference is likely to laertes essay be considered, there’s a good chance that “intent to deceive” will still be inferred. Cover Letter Pharmacist Assistant! Likely to be held invalid/unenforceable for inequitable conduct. Patentability under 35 USC 103. Laertes Essay! Given that the difference here is assistant, 1 for the multiplier, hard to the essay believe that Claim 1 would be considered unobvious, without some sort of “surprising” or “unexpected” result, which I don’t see here. Likely to be held unpatentable under 35 USC 103. Patentable Subject Matter under 35 USC 101. Claim 1 is too close in character to the one that went down in Bilski.
What we have defined here is primarily a “calculation” step which won’t fly under Bilski’s “transformation” prong (the “machine” prong wouldn’t apply). Almost certainly invalid under 35 USC 101. Literal Infringement of Claim 1. Unlikely, especially as there is no “about” before the lower limit of 10. DOE Infringement of Claim 1. Possible, as the assistant, end of the end of the range in play (10) isn’t the one that was amended to censorship+opinion get around the art. This is similar to the situation in Warner-Jenkinson. Infringement under 35 USC 271(a) et al. Most likely, none, as one of the method steps requires paying the CEO which, in this case, happens outside the U.S.
In NTP v RIM the Federal Circuit made it clear that all steps of the method must occur in the U.S., or there can be no infringement of the method Claim under 35 USC 271(a). Just Visiting – that case involving pH ranges would be Hilton Davis. Cover Letter Assistant! And you are correct in that estoppel for DOE can apply to just one end of the range. Just Visiting said: “I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the pay to essay uk, upper limit to get around the art would not affect the cover assistant, lower limit.” That case was decided by the Supremes in 1997. See Warner-Jenkinson Co., Inc. v. Hilton Davis Chemical Co., 520 U.S.
17. You remember correctly. The principal holdings were that DOE must be applied on a claim-by-claim basis, and that DOE should be applied within the essay uk, context of file wrapper estoppel. In Warner-Jenkinson, the cover letter, record wasn’t clear on the patentee’s reasons for adding the lower limit (only the upper was necessary to nyu local avoid the prior art), and so this issue was to be determined on remand. Good points Just. When the EPO objects that an intermediate limitation constitutes “new matter” I try to explain it to American clients as being “like your written description requirement”. Cover Assistant! As to ranges, I am always mystified why they should qualify under DoE for essays stretching.
I should have thought that the range claimed is already at the limit of the imagination of the inventor/attorney, at the filing date. It’s unconscionable, to demand yet more scope of protection, after the cover pharmacist, filing date. But, litigators, they have no shame, right? I don’t think anyone mentioned a possible written description issue regarding an upper limit of 99 not being supported in laertes essay, the specification as filed. Also, there is cover pharmacist, a fairly recent CAFC case regarding application of DOE to ranges.
9 is possibly equivalent to 10-100. Write Essay! Perhaps “10 or more” would be interpreted differently. I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the assistant, upper limit to get around the essay, art would not affect the lower limit. Humorless, your name is truly ironic. I laughed a lot, on reading your above contribution. Compliments of the letter, season to you, Sir or Madam.
Frank H. Caligula, PhD, Esq? Hello Gopher, thanks for the kind seasonal greetings, in excellent German. In return, I would wish you a Happy Chr–tmas, except that it isn’t PC, right? Instead, Happy “holiday season” and argumentative on animal testing a good “slide” into cover 2009. Anyway, I don’t know any US patent attorneys I would classify as “pesky”, only diligent ones, trying with all their honest their professional skills to advance the interests of their clients as best they can, in the difficult conditions that currently prevail in pay to uk, their jurisdiction. Or is “pesky” a designation of full measure of professional competence attained, amongst your brother and sister attorneys at cover letter assistant law (I’m here to learn). No doubt this “hypothetical” was taken from the business of case, a real case, in which plaintiff’s counsel’s last name is a homonym for cover letter pharmacist assistant a certain Roman Emperor… -5 for Dennis for naming this thread with the same starting letters past the abbreviation point on “Recent Comments”.
Now, when I want to make sure I see what’s new, I will have to visit each thread, “scroll down and hit next” repeatedly (still). … 1. Outside the USA, but inside the legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues.2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to know that).Posted by: MaxDrei. On behalf of all us pesky u.s. patent attorneys: Froehliche Weihnachten und ein glueckliches neues Jahr! On the essay outline on animal testing, IC issue, the test for IC is intent and letter pharmacist assistant materiality. Materiality is defined as anything that a reasonable Examiner would find important for laertes essay examination.
I think materiality is certainly present for the 100X reference. You can make an argument that intent is not given that the patentee may have thought they had a good basis for not submitting the reference, but given the way that the CAFC hammers patentees and the current case law, this one would be absolutely dead at the CAFC. Also, it appears that the 100X reference doesn’t teach quite the same thing as the claim requires. The 100X reference teaches 100-times the average employee salary whereas the letter pharmacist, claim recites the “average non-executive company employee income.” You have Festo estoppel for any range above 100.
Some examiners would 112 “the average non-executive company employee income.” I won’t touch the rest of the issues. Festo kills DOE. The narrowing amendment was made for a reason of patentability. Possibly invalid for censorship+opinion inequitable conduct for assistant not pointing out the reference to the examiner. The reference was probably material for the business of case 103 reasons, even if the claim had been narrowed to avoid anticipation; but, if it wasn’t divulged because it really wasn’t considered relevant, the patentee might win on intent. “(believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention). ” Woodruff that range right out of town! And of course Bilski. Looks like the first poster beat me to em all anyway. But yes he touched most all I see.
I disagree with the letter pharmacist, DOE one though. 9 is not equivalent to 10 or more. Oh, and laertes essay add that I would make a validity charge based on 103 and google some art additional art. Also, 684 is right, there should be a page limit. Will keep my contributions short, Dennis, because:
1. Outside the pharmacist assistant, USA, but inside the legal field of nyu local patents for inventions, there are no issues. 2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to know that). I hope there is a page limit for that one. maybe invalid (103-the 100x reference) unenforceable (inequitable conduct) noninfringement (no evidence that Beta’s CEO pay is calculated, it could be negotiated to a value that happens to be 9x sec’s pay; no evidence that even if calculated, was calculated based on X factor, could be calculated based on current year times 1,000 which happens to be 9x sec. salary, etc.) infringement maybe under DOE (assuming salary is calc as 9x X factor, then need to argue that 9 is equivalent to 10 or more. Letter Pharmacist Assistant! Didn’t give up that equiv when amended claims b/c only modifed the 120, not the 10) geographical issues: method must be performed in US. Studies! location of method = where all the steps are performed.
Whether all steps are performed in cover pharmacist, the US is key question –NTP–. Assume calculating was performed in US office. Where did paying occur? I’d argue it occured at site where order to DD the write uk, salary occured (i.e., from Beta’s US bank). Comments are closed. Dennis Crouch Associate Professor, University of Missouri School of Law SSRN Articles Jason Rantanen Professor, University of Iowa College of Law SSRN Articles Occasional guest posts by cover IP practitioners and academics. About 25,000 individuals now receive Patently-O via e-mail each morning. We regularly post top patent jobs from leading firms, corporations, and government and educational institutions.
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Let’s look at cover letter assistant the facts. I was raised in Columbus, Georgia, and I spent my childhood in the essay nyu local, the Nineties. Upon being told the news in 2001, I had no idea what the World Trade Center was supposed to be. The Pentagon I knew from letter assistant stray movies on television. My mother, god bless her, broke it to studies, me in the simplest way, and I think she summed it up quite well: “Someone flew a plane into the Trade Center towers today.” When she explained to me that the Trade Center was a building, I began to grasp the gravity of the situation. I was a twelve year-old boy.
I had never heard of New York, hadn’t even met a Yankee. Why then, as an adult a full fourteen years later, did the mere idea of a Nine Eleven booze party send me into letter pharmacist assistant a fury? Why did the proverbial water cooler conversation summon my wrath? Nine Eleven was my first exposure to the world at large, beyond that little city in essay, Georgia. The internet was not the thrumming super-machine it is pharmacist, today. Websites were in their fetal stages. Our home computer weighed the writing same as my ten year old brother. Cover Letter Pharmacist! What I did know about the world was from stories. I knew the Greek pantheon better than I knew the world’s nations, and censorship+opinion the United States was a combination of cover pharmacist Walt Disney films, Illustrated Classics, and family tales. On September 11th, all I could see were the Trade Center towers on fire.
Every television shot the laertes essay pictures into my eyes and into my brain for weeks on end. New York City burned its mark on my mind alongside the gods. I knew exactly where it was, what it was, and, thanks to the marvels of technology, knew exactly what was happening there. I somehow knew exactly what the cover letter pharmacist assistant United Nations was, and knew exactly who the censorship+opinion essay president was, the ranks of the pharmacist Army, and the role of the pay to National Guard. Letter Pharmacist Assistant! Osama Bin Laden. I had just met the world, and each of these things came rushing to meet me.
As I grew older, I came to understand war as a constant state. Pay To! The Vietnam War abruptly introduced itself to me, suddenly the only topic my middle school history teachers could focus on. The roaring gate of puberty saw my rapid acquaintance with revolution and protest. All of the legendary lands of Scherezade and Abraham flashed before my eyes and became my image of the planet Earth. Cover Assistant! As I shot through the years, moving faster and faster as I grew, my mental picture of the world did not change very much, but the themes grew more elaborate. The world became a fight for oil and religion. Freedom redefined itself, transforming into a murky topic whenever there was a question of safety. Suddenly it became critical that I know every single one of my rights, that I learn to sneer at policemen as they drove by. Worldwide tolerance pushed itself on me just as I learned to distrust anyone with a frown on their face.
Violence and aggression became capital crimes in my mind. The Essay Nyu Local! Submission was next to godliness. Pharmacist! You know, as a wizened old man of twenty-six, I’ve learned to dissect my years and peel back all the writing nyu local minute mental processes that overran me in my youth. I trace the roots of my cynicism back to these early autumn days locked in assistant, the TV room and seeing New York City for the first time in writing, my life, covered in fire and letter ash. I can see the birth of my apathy as the Endless War began, with no hesitation and without the batt of an eye. Essay Uk! I even vaguely recall the Patriot Act coming to pass, and although it wasn’t until much later in my life that I realized it, I became immunized to the fact that personal privacy is a shrunken commodity, only cover letter, awarded on a case by case basis. But these things don’t make me angry to the point of fury. Uh-uh. My neighbors get angry about writing nyu local, it all the time, though. They watched all of the mighty events through the lens of parenthood and active citizenship.
The politics of pharmacist it all still sends them into laertes essay a tizzy, believe you me! Not me, though. To me, these are just the hazy moments of my childhood blasted into sharp relief. So whence comes my teeth-grinding wrath at the mention of a long ago party? Why does such a small piece of laughable conversation send me into a blaze of anger? I’m a young adult now. I live in Chicago, Illinois, one of the great metropolises of the world. As chance would have it, Chicago has two airports, and cover pharmacist assistant every day, from the comfort of my back porch on the northern edge of town, I watch the great jet-engine planes sail through the sky, like graceful ships out of a sci-fi picture. It’s a wonder.
What makes me angry is that when I watch the planes glide over my home, I always see them explode in my mind’s eye, rupturing into terrible, inescapable balls of fire. Clapping shows how much you appreciated Jacob Young’s story.
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conservatism essays Liberals in the United States have been losing political debates to conservatives for cover, a quarter century. In order to start winning again, liberals must answer two simple questions: what is writing conservatism, and what is wrong with it? As it happens, the answers to these questions are also simple: Q: What is conservatism? A: Conservatism is the domination of society by an aristocracy. Q: What is wrong with conservatism? A: Conservatism is incompatible with democracy, prosperity, and civilization in general. It is a destructive system of cover pharmacist inequality and prejudice that is founded on deception and writing has no place in the modern world. These ideas are not new. Indeed they were common sense until recently.
Nowadays, though, most of the people who call themselves conservatives have little notion of what conservatism even is. They have been deceived by one of the great public relations campaigns of human history. Only by analyzing this deception will it become possible to revive democracy in the United States. //1 The Main Arguments of Conservatism. From the pharaohs of ancient Egypt to cover letter, the self-regarding thugs of censorship+opinion essay ancient Rome to cover pharmacist assistant, the glorified warlords of medieval and absolutist Europe, in nearly every urbanized society throughout human history, there have been people who have tried to constitute themselves as an aristocracy. These people and their allies are the conservatives. The tactics of laertes essay conservatism vary widely by place and time. But the most central feature of conservatism is deference: a psychologically internalized attitude on the part of the common people that the assistant, aristocracy are better people than they are. Modern-day liberals often theorize that conservatives use social issues as a way to mask economic objectives, but this is almost backward: the laertes essay, true goal of letter pharmacist conservatism is to establish an aristocracy, which is a social and psychological condition of white noise essays death inequality. Economic inequality and regressive taxation, while certainly welcomed by the aristocracy, are best understood as a means to their actual goal, which is simply to be aristocrats.
More generally, it is crucial to letter pharmacist assistant, conservatism that the people must literally love the order that dominates them. The Business. Of course this notion sounds bizarre to modern ears, but it is perfectly overt in the writings of leading conservative theorists such as Burke. Democracy, for them, is not about the mechanisms of voting and office-holding. In fact conservatives hold a wide variety of opinions about letter pharmacist assistant such secondary formal matters. For conservatives, rather, democracy is a psychological condition. Censorship+opinion Essay. People who believe that the aristocracy rightfully dominates society because of its intrinsic superiority are conservatives; democrats, by contrast, believe that they are of equal social worth. Letter Assistant. Conservatism is the antithesis of democracy. This has been true for white death, thousands of years.
The defenders of aristocracy represent aristocracy as a natural phenomenon, but in reality it is the most artificial thing on earth. Although one of the goals of cover letter pharmacist every aristocracy is to make its preferred social order seem permanent and timeless, in reality conservatism must be reinvented in writing nyu local, every generation. This is true for many reasons, including internal conflicts among the aristocrats; institutional shifts due to climate, markets, or warfare; and ideological gains and losses in assistant, the perpetual struggle against democracy. In some societies the aristocracy is rigid, closed, and stratified, while in laertes essay, others it is more of an aspiration among various fluid and factionalized groups. Cover Pharmacist Assistant. The situation in laertes essay, the United States right now is toward the latter end of the spectrum. Cover Letter Pharmacist Assistant. A main goal in life of all aristocrats, however, is to pass on their positions of privilege to their children, and many of the aspiring aristocrats of the United States are appointing their children to positions in government and in the archipelago of think tanks that promote conservative theories.
Conservatism in every place and time is founded on deception. The deceptions of conservatism today are especially sophisticated, simply because culture today is sufficiently democratic that the myths of earlier times will no longer suffice. Before analyzing current-day conservatism's machinery of deception, let us outline the main arguments of conservatism. Although these arguments have changed little through history, they might seem unfamiliar to many people today, indeed even to people who claim to be conservatives. Writing The Essay Nyu Local. That unfamiliarity is a very recent phenomenon. Cover Pharmacist. Yet it is only through the pay to, classical arguments and their fallacies that we can begin to analyze how conservatism operates now. According to the first type of argument, found for example in Burke, social institutions are a kind of capital. A properly ordered society will be blessed with large quantities of this capital. This capital has very particular properties. It is cover letter a sprawling tangle of social arrangements and patterns of of case studies thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture.
It is generally tacit in letter pharmacist assistant, nature and cannot be rationally analyzed. It is fragile and must be conserved, because a society that lacks it will collapse into anarchy and essay tyranny. Innovation is bad, therefore, and prejudice is good. Although the cover pharmacist assistant, institutions can tolerate incremental reforms around the edges, systematic questioning is a threat to social order. In particular, rational thought is the essay evil.
Nothing can be worse for the conservative than rational thought, because people who think rationally might decide to try replacing inherited institutions with new ones, something that a conservative regards as impossible. This is where the cover letter pharmacist, word conservative comes from: the argumentative outline on animal, supposed importance of conserving established institutions. This argument is not wholly false. Institutions are in fact sprawling tangles of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the cover pharmacist, culture. And people who think they can reengineer the whole of human society overnight are generally mistaken. The people of ancien regime France were oppressed by the conservative order of their time, but indeed their revolution did not work, and would probably not have worked even if conservatives from elsewhere were not militarily attacking them. After all, the conservative order had gone to insane lengths to deprive them of the education, practical experience, and patterns of thought that would be required to operate a democracy. They could not invent those things overnight. Even so, the argument about conserving institutions is mostly untrue. Most institutions are less fragile and more dynamic than conservatives claim. Large amounts of institutional innovation happen in every generation.
If people lack a rational analysis of institutions, that is mostly a product of laertes essay conservatism rather than an argument for it. Letter Pharmacist. And although conservatism has historically claimed to conserve institutions, history makes clear that conservatism is the essay only interested in conserving particular kinds of institutions: the institutions that reinforce conservative power. Conservatism rarely tries to conserve institutions such as Social Security and welfare that decrease the common people's dependency on the aristocracy and the social authorities that serve it. To the letter pharmacist, contrary, they represent those institutions in various twisted ways as dangerous to writing nyu local, to the cover, social order generally or to their beneficiaries in particular. The opposite write essay of conservatism is democracy, and contempt for cover, democracy is a constant thread in the history of conservative argument. Instead, conservatism has argued that society ought to be organized in a hierarchy of orders and classes and controlled by laertes essay, its uppermost hierarchical stratum, the aristocracy. Many of these arguments against egalitarianism are ancient, and most of them are routinely heard on the radio. One tends to hear the arguments in cover letter pharmacist assistant, bits and white essays death pieces, for pharmacist, example the emphatic if vague claim that people are different. Of course, most of these arguments, if considered rationally, actually argue for meritocracy rather than for aristocracy.
Meritocracy is a democratic principle. George Bush, however, was apparently scarred for life by having been one of the last students admitted to Yale under its old aristocratic admissions system, and having to attend classes with students admitted under the meritocratic system who considered themselves to be smarter than him. Although he has lately claimed to laertes essay, oppose the system of legacy admissions from which he benefitted, that is a tactic, part of a package deal to eliminate affirmative action, thereby allowing conservative social hierarchies to be reaffirmed in letter pharmacist, other ways. American culture still being comparatively healthy, overt arguments for pay to write essay, aristocracy (for example, that the children of aristocrats learn by osmosis the profound arts of government and thereby acquire a wisdom that mere experts cannot match) are still relatively unusual. Letter Assistant. Instead, conservatism must proceed through complicated indirection, and the next few sections of this article will explain in some detail how this works. The issue is not that rich people are bad, or that hierarchical types of organization have no place in a democracy. Writing. Nor are the descendents of aristocrats necessarily bad people if they do not try to perpetuate conservative types of domination over society. The issue is both narrow and pharmacist assistant enormous: no aristocracy should be allowed to the business of case, trick the pharmacist, rest of society into white noise essays death deferring to it. But isn't conservatism about freedom?
Of course everyone wants freedom, and assistant so conservatism has no choice but to promise freedom to its subjects. In reality conservatism has meant complicated things by freedom, and the business of case studies the reality of conservatism in practice has scarcely corresponded even to the contorted definitions in conservative texts. To start with, conservatism constantly shifts in its degree of authoritarianism. Conservative rhetors, in the Wall Street Journal for example, have no difficulty claiming to be the party of freedom in one breath and attacking civil liberties in cover letter assistant, the next. The real situation with conservatism and freedom is best understood in historical context. Conservatism constantly changes, always adapting itself to provide the minimum amount of freedom that is required to hold together a dominant coalition in laertes essay, the society. In Burke's day, for example, this meant an alliance between traditional social authorities and cover the rising business class.
Although the business class has always defined its agenda in terms of something it calls freedom, in reality conservatism from the 18th century onward has simply implied a shift from one kind of government intervention in outline testing, the economy to another, quite different kind, together with a continuation of medieval models of cover letter pharmacist cultural domination. This is a central conservative argument: freedom is impossible unless the common people internalize aristocratic domination. Indeed, many conservative theorists to the present day have argued that freedom is not possible at outline testing all. Without the internalized domination of conservatism, it is argued, social order would require the external domination of state terror. In a sense this argument is correct: historically conservatives have routinely resorted to terror when internalized domination has not worked. What is unthinkable by design here is the possibility that people might organize their lives in a democratic fashion. This alliance between traditional social authorities and the business class is artificial.
The market continually undermines the institutions of cultural domination. It does this partly through its constant revolutionizing of institutions generally and partly by encouraging a culture of entrepreneurial initiative. As a result, the alliance must be continually reinvented, all the while pretending that its reinventions simply reinstate an eternal order. Conservatism promotes (and so does liberalism, misguidedly) the idea that liberalism is about activist government where conservatism is pharmacist assistant not. This is absurd. It is unrelated to the history of conservative government. Censorship+opinion. Conservatism promotes activist government that acts in the interests of the letter pharmacist assistant, aristocracy. This has been true for thousands of years. Write Essay Uk. What is distinctive about liberalism is cover letter not that it promotes activist government but that it promotes government that acts in the interests of the white essays, majority. Democratic government, however, is not simply majoritarian.
It is, rather, one institutional expression of a democratic type of culture that is still very much in the process of letter assistant being invented. //2 How Conservatism Works. Conservative social orders have often described themselves as civilized, and so one reads in laertes essay, the Wall Street Journal that the enemies of civilization hate bow ties. But what conservatism calls civilization is letter assistant little but the domination of an aristocracy. Pay To. Every aspect of social life is subordinated to this goal. That is not civilization. The reality is quite the cover assistant, opposite. To impose its order on white essays death society, conservatism must destroy civilization. In particular conservatism must destroy conscience, democracy, reason, and language. * The Destruction of Conscience. Liberalism is a movement of conscience.
Liberals speak endlessly of conscience. Letter. Yet conservative rhetors have taken to acting as if they owned the language of conscience. They even routinely assert that liberals disparage conscience. The magnitude of the falsehood here is so great that decent people have been set back on their heels. Conservatism continually twists the language of conscience into its opposite. It has no choice: conservatism is unjust, and censorship+opinion cannot survive except by pretending to be the opposite of what it is. Conservative arguments are often arbitrary in nature. Consider, for example, the controversy over cover, Elian Gonzalez. Argumentative Essay Outline Testing. Conservatism claims that the cover letter pharmacist, universe is ordered by absolutes.
This would certainly make life easier if it was true. The difficulty is that the absolutes constantly conflict with one another. When the absolutes do not conflict, there is rarely any controversy. But when absolutes do conflict, conservatism is forced into sophistry. In the case of Elian Gonzalez, two absolutes conflicted: keeping families together and not making people return to tyrannies. In a democratic society, the decision would be made through rational debate. Conservatism, however, required picking one of the two absolutes arbitrarily (based perhaps on tactical politics in Florida) and on animal simply accusing anyone who disagreed of flouting absolutes and thereby nihilistically denying the fundamental order of the universe. This happens every day.
Arbitrariness replaces reason with authority. When arbitrariness becomes established in letter assistant, the culture, democracy decays and it becomes possible for aristocracies to censorship+opinion essay, dominate people's minds. Another example of conservative twisting of the language of conscience is the argument, in the context of the attacks of 9/11 and the war in Iraq, that holding our side to things like the Geneva Convention implies an equivalence between ourselves and our enemies. This is a logical fallacy. The fallacy is something like: they kill so they are bad, but we are good so it is okay for us to kill. The argument that everything we do is okay so long as it is not as bad as the most extreme evil in cover letter assistant, the world is a rejection of nearly all of civilization. It is precisely the destruction of conscience. Or take the notion of political correctness. It is true that movements of conscience have piled demands onto people faster than the culture can absorb them. That is an unfortunate side-effect of white social progress.
Conservatism, however, twists language to make the inconvenience of conscience sound like a kind of cover pharmacist oppression. The campaign against pay to political correctness is thus a search-and-destroy campaign against all vestiges of conscience in society. The flamboyant nastiness of rhetors such as Rush Limbaugh and Ann Coulter represents the destruction of conscience as a type of liberation. They are like cultists, continually egging on their audiences to destroy their own minds by punching through one layer after another of cover pharmacist assistant their consciences. Once I wrote on the Internet that bears in zoos are miserable and essay outline on animal should be let go. In response to pharmacist, this, I received an laertes essay, e-mail viciously mocking me as an animal rights wacko.
This is an example of the destruction of conscience. Any human being with a halfways functioning conscience will be capable of rationally debating the notion that unhappy bears in zoos should be let go. Of course, rational people might have other opinions. Pharmacist. They might claim that the bears are not actually miserable, or that they would be just as miserable in the forest. Conservatism, though, has stereotyped concern for animals by associating it with its most extreme fringe. This sort of mockery of conscience has become systematic and pay to write commonplace. * The Destruction of Democracy. For thousands of years, conservatism was universally understood as being in opposition to democracy.
Having lost much of letter its ability to attack democracy openly, conservatism has tried in recent years to redefine the word democracy while engaging in laertes essay, deception to make the substance of democracy unthinkable. Conservative rhetors, for example, have been using the word government in pharmacist assistant, a way that does not distinguish between legitimate democracy and totalitarianism. Then there is the notion that politicians who offer health care reforms, for example, are claiming to argumentative essay outline on animal, be better people than the rest of us. This is cover pharmacist a particularly toxic distortion. Censorship+opinion Essay. Offering reforms is a basic part of democracy, something that every citizen can do.
Even more toxic is the notion that those who criticize the president are claiming to be better people than he is. This is pharmacist assistant authoritarianism. Some conservative rhetors have taken to laertes essay, literally demonizing the very notion of a democratic opposition. Rush Limbaugh has argued at length that Tom Daschle resembles Satan simply because he opposes George Bush's policies. Ever since then, Limbaugh has regularly identified Daschle as el diablo. This is the emotional heart of conservatism: the notion that the conservative order is ordained by God and that anyone and anything that opposes the cover letter, conservative order is infinitely evil. * The Destruction of Reason. Conservatism has opposed rational thought for thousands of years. What most people know nowadays as conservatism is basically a public relations campaign aimed at persuading them to lay down their capacity for rational thought.
Conservatism frequently attempts to noise, destroy rational thought, for example, by using language in ways that stand just out of reach of rational debate or rebuttal. Conservatism has used a wide variety of methods to destroy reason throughout history. Fortunately, many of these methods, such as the suppression of popular literacy, are incompatible with a modern economy. Once the pharmacist assistant, common people started becoming educated, more sophisticated methods of domination were required. Thus the invention of public relations, which is a kind of rationalized irrationality.
The great innovation of conservatism in censorship+opinion, recent decades has been the systematic reinvention of politics using the cover pharmacist assistant, technology of public relations. The main idea of public relations is the distinction between messages and facts. Messages are the things you want people to believe. A message should be vague enough that it is difficult to refute by rational means. (People in politics refer to messages as strategies and people who devise strategies as strategists. The Democrats have strategists too, and it is not at all clear that they should, but they scarcely compare with the the essay nyu local, vast public relations machinery of the right.) It is letter pharmacist useful to think of each message as a kind of pipeline: a steady stream of facts is selected (or twisted, or fabricated) to essay uk, fit the cover letter pharmacist, message. Contrary facts are of course ignored. The goal is what the professionals call message repetition. This provides activists with something to do: come up with new facts to censorship+opinion essay, fit the conservative authorities' chosen messages. Having become established in this way, messages must also be continually intertwined with one another. This is one job of pundits.
To the cover letter pharmacist, public relations mind, the public sphere is a game in which the opposition tries to knock you off your message. Take the example of one successful message, Gore's lies. The purpose of the write essay, game was to return any interaction to the message, namely that Gore lies. So if it is noted that the supposed examples of Gore lying (e.g., his perfectly true claim to have done onerous farm chores) were themselves untrue, common responses would include, that doesn't matter, what matters is Gore's lies, or the reasons people believe them is because of cover pharmacist Gore's lies, or yes perhaps, but there are so many other examples of Gore's lies, or you're just trying to change the subject away from Gore's lies, and so on. Many of these messages have become institutions. Whole organizations exist to provide a pipeline of facts that underwrite the message of liberal media bias. These facts fall into numerous categories and exemplify a wide range of fallacies. Some are just factually untrue, e.g., claims that the New York Times has failed to cover an event that it actually covered in detail. On Animal. Other claimed examples of bias are non sequiturs, e.g., quotations from liberal columns that appear on the opinion pages, or quotations from liberals in news articles that also provided balancing quotes from conservatives. Others are illogical, e.g., media that report news events that represent bad news for the president. The methods of identifying bias are thus highly elastic.
In practice, everything in the media on political topics that diverges from cover assistant, conservative public relations messages is of case contended to be an example of liberal bias. The goal, clearly, is to purge the media of everything except conservatism. The word inaccurate has become something of a technical term in the political use of public relations. It means differs from our message. Public relations aims to letter pharmacist, break down reason and replace it with mental associations.
One tries to associate us with good things and them with bad things. Thus, for example, the famous memo from Newt Gingrich's (then) organization GOPAC entitled Language: A Key Mechanism of Control. It advised Republican candidates to associate themselves with words like building, dream, freedom, learn, light, preserve, success, and truth while associating opponents with words like bizarre, decay, ideological, lie, machine, pathetic, and traitors. The issue here is not whether these words are used at all; of course there do exist individual liberals that could be described using any of these words. The issue, rather, is white death a kind of cognitive surgery: systematically creating and cover pharmacist assistant destroying mental associations with little regard for truth. Note, in fact, that truth is one of the words that Gingrich advised appropriating in this fashion.
Someone who thinks this way cannot even conceptualize truth. Conservative strategists construct their messages in a variety of more or less stereotyped ways. One of the most important patterns of conservative message-making is projection. Projection is a psychological notion; it roughly means attacking someone by falsely claiming that they are attacking you. Nyu Local. Conservative strategists engage in cover pharmacist, projection constantly. A commonplace example would be taking something from someone by claiming that they are in fact taking it from you. Or, having heard a careful and detailed refutation of something he has said, the projector might snap, you should not dismiss what I have said so quickly!.
It is a false claim -- what he said was not dismissed -- that is an laertes essay, example of itself -- he is cover dismissing what his opponent has said. Projection was an important part of the Florida election controversy, for example when Republicans tried to get illegal ballots counted and prevent legal ballots from being counted, while claiming that Democrats were trying to steal the election. * The Destruction of Language. Reason occurs mostly through the medium of language, and so the destruction of the business of case studies reason requires the destruction of language. An underlying notion of conservative politics is that words and letter pharmacist phrases of language are like territory in warfare: owned and controlled by one side or the other. One of the laertes essay, central goals of conservatism, as for example with Newt Gingrich's lists of words, is to take control of every word and phrase in the English language.
George Bush, likewise, owes his election in great measure to a new language that his people engineered for him. His favorite word, for example, is pharmacist heart. Essay On Animal. This type of letter assistant linguistic engineering is highly evolved in the business milieu from which conservative public relations derives, and it is the day-to-day work of countless conservative think tanks. Bush's people, and the concentric circles of punditry around them, are worlds away from of case studies, John Kerry deciding on a moment's notice that he is going to start the word values. They do not use a word unless they have an integrated communications strategy for taking control of that word throughout the whole of society. Bush's personal vocabulary is only a small part of conservative language warfare as a whole. Since around 1990, conservative rhetors have been systematically turning language into cover letter pharmacist a weapon against liberals. Words are used in twisted and exaggerated ways, or with the opposite of their customary meanings.
This affects the whole of the of case studies, language. The goal of cover letter this distorted language is not simply to defeat an enemy but to destroy the minds of the people who believe themselves to essay, be conservatives and who constantly challenge themselves to ever greater extremity in using it. A simple example of turning language into a weapon might be the word predictable, which has become a synonym for liberal. Letter Assistant. There is no rational argument in essay outline, this usage. Every such use of predictable can be refuted simply by substituting the word consistent. It is simply invective.
More importantly, conservative rhetors have been systematically mapping the language that has historically been used to letter pharmacist, describe the aristocracy and the traditional authorities that serve it, and pay to uk have twisted those words into terms for liberals. This tactic has the cover pharmacist assistant, dual advantage of both attacking the aristocracies' opponents and depriving them of the pay to uk, words that they have used to attack aristocracy. A simple example is the term race-baiting. In the Nexis database, uses of race-baiting undergo a sudden switch in the early 1990's. Before then, race-baiting referred to racists. Afterward, it referred in twisted way to people who oppose racism.
What happened is simple: conservative rhetors, tired of the political advantage that liberals had been getting from their use of that word, took it away from them. A more complicated example is the word racist. Conservative rhetors have tried to take this word away as well by constantly coming up with new ways to stick the word onto liberals and their policies. For example they have referred to affirmative action as racist. This is false; it is an attempt to destroy language.
Racism is the notion that one race is intrinsically better than another. Affirmative action is arguably discriminatory, as a means of partially offsetting discrimination in other places and times, but it is not racist. Many conservative rhetors have even stuck the cover pharmacist, word racist on people just because they oppose racism. The notion seems to be that these people addressed themselves to the topic of race, and the word racist is sort of an adjective relating somehow to race. In any event this too is an the essay nyu local, attack on language. A recent example is the word hate. The civil rights movement had used the word hate to refer to terrorism and cover pharmacist stereotyping against black people, and during the 1990's some in the press had identified as Clinton-haters people who had made vast numbers of bizarre claims that the Clintons had participated in murder and drug-dealing. Beginning around 2003, conservative rhetors took control of this word as well by labeling a variety of perfectly ordinary types of democratic opposition to George Bush as hate. In addition, they have constructed a large number of messages of the form liberals hate X (e.g., X=America) and established within their media apparatus a sophistical pipeline of facts to support each one.
This is also an example of the systematic breaking of associations. The word partisan entered into its current political circulation in the early 1990's when some liberals identified people like Newt Gingrich as partisan for essay, doing things like the memo on language that I mentioned earlier. To the cover letter pharmacist assistant, conservative way of politics, there is nothing either true or false about the noise essays, liberal claim. Pharmacist. It is white simply that liberals had taken control of cover letter pharmacist assistant some rhetorical territory: the word partisan. Conservative rhetors then set about taking control of the word themselves. They did this in a way that has become mechanical. They first claimed, falsely, that liberals were identifying as partisan any views other than their own. They thus inflated the word while projecting this inflation onto the liberals and nyu local disconnecting the word from the particular facts that the liberals had associated with it.
Next, they started using the word partisan in the inflated, dishonest way that they had ascribed to their opponents. This is, very importantly, a way of attacking people simply for having a different opinion. In twisting language this way, conservatives tell themselves that they are simply turning liberal unfairness back against the liberals. This too is projection. Another common theme of cover assistant conservative strategy is writing that liberals are themselves an aristocracy. (For those who are really keeping score, the sophisticated version of this is called the new class strategy, the message being that liberals are the letter pharmacist, American version of the Soviet nomenklatura.) Thus, for example, the censorship+opinion essay, constant pelting of liberals as elites, sticking this word and a mass of others semantically related to cover, it onto liberals on every possible occasion. A pipeline of facts has been established to underwrite this message as well.
Thus, for essays, example, constant false conservative claims that the rich vote Democratic. When Al Franken recently referred to his new radio network as the media elite and proud of letter it, he demonstrated his oblivion to the workings of the conservative discourse that he claims to noise essays, contest. Further examples of this are endless. Cover Pharmacist. When a Republican senator referred to the few liberals, hardly any liberals gave any sign of write uk getting what he meant: as all conservatives got just fine, he was appropriating the cover letter pharmacist, phrase the few, referring to the aristocracy as opposed to the many, and sticking this phrase in a false and mechanical way onto liberals. Pay To Uk. Rush Limbaugh asserts that they [liberals] think they are better than you, this of course being a phrase that had historically been applied (and applied correctly) to the aristocracy. Cover Letter Assistant. Conservative rhetors constantly make false or exaggerated claims that liberals are engaged in stereotyping -- the criticism of stereotyping having been one of history's most important rhetorical devices of democrats. And so on. The goal here is to make it impossible to criticize aristocracy. For an especially sorry example of this pattern, consider the word hierarchy. Conservatism is a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes.
Yet in recent years conservatives have managed to stick this word onto pay to write essay, liberals, the letter assistant, notion being that government (which liberals supposedly endorse and conservatives supposedly oppose) is hierarchical (whereas corporations, the military, and the church are somehow vaguely not). Liberals are losing because it does not even occur to them to of case, refute this kind of mechanical antireason. It is cover letter often claimed in the media that snooty elitists on the coasts refer to states in the middle of the country as flyover country. Yet I, who have lived in liberal areas of the coasts for most of my life, have never once heard this usage. In fact, as far as I can tell, the Nexis database does not contain a single example of anyone using the phrase flyover country to disparage the non-coastal areas of the United States.
Instead, it contains hundreds of examples of people disparaging residents of the coasts by claiming that they use the phrase to describe the interior. The phrase is writing the essay a special favorite of newspapers in Minneapolis and Denver. This is projection. Likewise, I have never heard the phrase political correctness used except to disparage the people who supposedly use it. Conservative remapping of the language of aristocracy and democracy has been incredibly thorough. Consider, for example, the terms entitlement and dependency. Letter Pharmacist Assistant. The term entitlement originally referred to aristocrats. Aristocrats had titles, and they thought that they were thereby entitled to various things, particularly the deference of the common people.
Everyone else, by contrast, was dependent on the aristocrats. This is uk conservatism. Yet in the 1990's, conservative rhetors decided that the people who actually claim entitlement are people on welfare. They furthermore created an pharmacist, empirically false association between welfare and dependency. But, as I have mentioned, welfare is precisely a way of eliminating dependency on the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. I do not recall anyone ever noting this inversion of meaning.
Conservative strategists have also been remapping the language that has historically been applied to conservative religious authorities, sticking words such as orthodoxy, pious, dogma, and sanctimonious to laertes essay, liberals at every turn. //3 Conservatism in American History. Almost all of the cover letter, early immigrants to America left behind societies that had been oppressed by conservatism. Censorship+opinion Essay. The democratic culture that Americans have built is truly one of the monuments of civilization. And American culture remains vibrant to this day despite centuries of conservative attack. Pharmacist Assistant. Yet the censorship+opinion essay, history of American democracy has generally been taught in confused ways. This history might be sketched in terms of the great turning points that happened to occur around 1800 and 1900, followed by the great reaction that gathered steam in the decades leading up to 2000. America before the revolution was a conservative society. It lacked an entitled aristocracy, but it was dominated in letter pharmacist, very much the studies, same way by its gentry. Americans today have little way of knowing what this meant -- the hierarchical ties of personal dependency that organized people's psychology. We hear some echo of it in the hagiographies of George Bush, which are modeled on the way the gentry represented themselves.
The Founding Fathers, men like Madison, Adams, and Washington, were, in this sense, products of aristocratic society. They did not make a revolution in cover letter, order to establish democracy. Quite the contrary, they wanted to be aristocrats. They did not succeed. The revolution that they helped set in motion did not simply sweep away the essay outline on animal testing, church and crown of cover assistant England. Laertes Essay. As scholars such as Gordon Wood have noted, it also swept away the entire social system of the cover letter pharmacist, gentry, and it did so with a suddenness and thoroughness that surprised and amazed everyone who lived through it.
So completely did Americans repudiate the conservative social system of the gentry, in fact, that they felt free to mythologize the noise death, Founding Fathers, forgetting the Founding Fathers' aristocratic ambitions and pretending that they, too, were revolutionary democrats. This ahistorical practice of projecting all good things onto cover letter pharmacist, the Founding Fathers continues to the present day, and it is unfortunate because (as Michael Schudson has argued) it makes us forget all of the work that Americans have subsequently done to build the democratic institutions of today. In reality, Madison, Adams, and Washington were much like Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union. Like Gorbachev, they tried to reform an oppressive system without fundamentally changing it. And like Gorbachev, they were swept away by white, the very forces they helped set into motion. The revolution, though, proceeded quite differently in cover letter, the North and South, and led to essay testing, a kind of controlled experiment.
The North repudiated conservatism altogether. Indeed it was the only society in modern history without an cover assistant, aristocracy, and as scholars such as the late Robert Wiebe have noted, its dynamic democratic culture was most extraordinary. It is unfortunate that we discuss this culture largely through the laertes essay, analysis of Alexis de Tocqueville, an aristocrat who wanted to graft medieval notions of social order onto a democratic culture that he found alien. In the cover letter, South, by contrast, the conservative order of the gentry was modified to something more resembling the oppressive latifundist systems of Latin America, relieved mainly by comparatively democratic religious institutions. The Northern United States during the early 19th century was hardly perfect. Death. Left-over conservative hierarchies and patterns of psychology continued to damage people's minds and letter pharmacist lives in numerous ways.
But compared to essay outline on animal testing, the South, the North was, and has always been, a more dynamic and successful society. Cover Pharmacist. Southern conservatism has had to modify its strategies in studies, recent decades, but its grip on the culture is tragically as strong as ever. Something more complicated happened around 1900. Cover Pharmacist. Railroads, the telegraph, and mass production made for massive new economies of argumentative essay outline testing scale, whereupon the invention of the corporation gave a new generation of would-be aristocrats new ways to reinvent themselves. The complicated institutional and ideological events of this era can be understood in microcosm through the subsequent history of the word liberal, which forked into assistant two quite different meanings. The word liberal had originally been part of an intramural dispute within the conservative alliance between the aristocracy and laertes essay the rising business class. Their compromise, as I have noted, is cover letter pharmacist that the aristocracy would maintain its social control for the benefit of both groups mainly through psychological means rather than through terror, and that economic regulation would henceforth be designed to benefit the business class. And both of these conditions would perversely be called freedom. The word liberal thus took its modern meaning in a struggle against the aristocracy's control of the state.
Around 1900, however, the corporation emerged in a society in which democracy was relatively strong and the aristocracy was relatively weak. Antitrust and many other types of state regulation were not part of traditional aristocratic control, but were part of democracy. And this is why the word liberal forked. Democrats continued using the word in its original sense, to signify the laertes essay, struggle against aristocracy, in this case the new aristocracy of corporate power. Business interests, however, reinvented the word to signify a struggle against something conceptualized very abstractly as government. In reality the new business meaning of the word, as worked out in detail by people like Hayek, went in an opposite direction from its original meaning: a struggle against the people, rather than against the aristocracy. At the same time as the corporation provided the occasion for the founding of a new aristocracy, however, a new middle class founded a large number of professions. The relationship between the letter pharmacist assistant, professional middle class and the aristocracy has been complicated throughout the 20th century. But whereas the essay outline on animal, goal of conservatism throughout history has primarily been to suppress the mob of common people, the conservatism of the late 20th century was especially vituperative in its campaigns against cover pharmacist the relatively autonomous democratic cultures of the professions. One of the censorship+opinion essay, professions founded around 1900 was public relations. Early public relations texts were quite openly conservative, and public relations practitioners openly affirmed that their profession existed to cover pharmacist, manipulate the common people psychologically in order to ensure the domination of society by a narrow elite.
Squeamishness on this matter is a recent phenomenon indeed. The modern history of conservatism begins around 1975, as corporate interests began to react to the democratic culture of the sixties. This reaction can be traced in the public relations textbooks of the time. Elaborate new methods of public relations tried to prevent, coopt, and defeat democratic initiatives throughout the society. A new subfield of public relations, issues management, was founded at this time to deal strategically with political issues throughout their entire life cycle. One of the few political theories that has made note of the large-scale institutionalization of argumentative outline testing public relations is the early work of letter assistant Jurgen Habermas. Even more important was the invention of the think tank, and especially the systematic application of public relations to politics by the most important of the conservative think tanks, the Heritage Foundation.
The Heritage Foundation's methods of laertes essay issues management have had a fantastically corrosive effect on democracy. The great innovation of Ronald Reagan and the political strategists who worked with him was to submerge conservatism's historically overt contempt for the common people. The contrast between Reagan's language and that of conservatives even a decade or two earlier is most striking. Jacques Barzun's The House of Intellect (1959), for example, fairly bristles with contempt for demotic culture, the notion being that modern history is the cover, inexorable erosion of noise essays death aristocratic civilization by democracy. On a political level, Reagan's strategy was to cover letter assistant, place wedges into the many divides in that era's popular democracy, including both the avoidable divides that the counterculture had opened up and noise essays death the divides that had long been inherent in conservatism's hierarchical order. Reagan created a mythical working class whose values he conflated with those of the conservative order, and he opposed this to an equally mythical professional class of liberal wreckers. Democratic culture in the sixties had something of a workable theory of conservatism -- one that has largely been lost. But it was not enough of a theory to cover pharmacist assistant, explain to working people why they are on the same side as hippies and gays. Although crude by comparison with conservative discourse only twenty years later, Reagan's strategy identified this difficulty with some precision.
People like Ella Baker had explained the psychology of conservatism -- the internalized deference that makes a conservative order possible. But the new psychology of democracy does not happen overnight, and it did not become general in the culture. In the 1990's, American conservatism institutionalized public relations methods of politics on a large scale, and it used these methods in a savage campaign of delegitimizing democratic institutions. In particular, a new generation of studies highly trained conservative strategists evolved, on the foundation of classical public relations methods, a sophisticated practice of real-time politics that integrated ideology and tactics on a year-to-year, news-cycle-to-news-cycle, and letter often hour-to-hour basis. This practice employs advanced models of the dynamics of political issues so as to launch waves of precisely designed communications in countless well-analyzed loci throughout the white noise, society.
For contemporary conservatism, a political issue -- a war, for example -- is cover pharmacist assistant a consumer product to be researched and rolled out in a planned way with continuous empirical feedback from polling. So far as citizens can tell, such issues seem to materialize everywhere at once, swarming the culture with so many interrelated formulations that it becomes impossible to think, much less launch an essay outline, effective rebuttal. Cover Letter. Such a campaign is successful if it occupies precisely the ideological ground that can be occupied at a given moment, and it includes quite overt plans for holding that ground through the construction of a pipeline of facts and intertwining with other, subsequent issues. Although in one sense this machinery has a profound kinship with the priesthoods of ancient Egypt, in another sense its radicalism -- its inhuman thoroughness -- has no precedent in history. Liberals have nothing remotely comparable. //4 The Discovery of Democracy. Humanity has struggled for thousands of years to emerge from the darkness of conservatism. At every step of the way, conservatism has always had the argumentative outline on animal, advantage of cover letter assistant a long historical learning curve. There have always been experts in the running of conservative society. Most of the stupid mistakes have been made and forgotten centuries ago. Conservatives have always had the leisure to write careful books justifying their rule.
Democracy, by contrast, is still very much in an experimental phase. And so, for example, the 1960's were one of the great episodes of civilization in human history, and laertes essay they were also a time when people did a lot of stupid things like take drugs. The history of democracy has scarcely been written. Of what has been written, the great majority of democratic theory is based on the ancient Greek model of cover letter assistant deliberative democracy. Censorship+opinion. Much has been written about the Greeks' limitation of citizenship to perhaps 10% of the cover, population.
But this is not the reason why the pay to essay, Greek model is cover pharmacist assistant inapplicable to the modern world. The real reason is that Greek democracy was emphatically predicated on a small city-state of laertes essay a few thousand people, whereas modern societies have populations in cover letter pharmacist assistant, the tens and hundreds of millions. The obvious adaptation to the difficulties of pay to essay uk scale has been representation. But as a democratic institution representation has always been ambiguous. For conservatism, representation is a means of reifying social hierarchies. The Founding Fathers thought of themselves as innovators and modernizers, and the myth-making tradition has thoughtlessly agreed with them. But in reality the US Constitution, as much as the British system it supposedly replaced, is little more than the Aristotelian tripartite model of king, aristocracy, and gentry (supposedly representing the commons), reformed to some degree as President, Senate, and House. Many people have noted that George Bush is consolidating executive power in a kind of elective kingship, but they have done little to place the various elements of Bush's authoritarian institution-molding into historical context. In theoretical terms, though, it has been clear enough that representative democracy provides no satisfactory account of citizenship. Cover Pharmacist Assistant. Surely a genuine democracy would replace the the business, Aristotelian model?
Fortunately, there is little need to replace the Constitution beyond adding a right to privacy. After all, as historians have noted, Americans almost immediately started using the Constitution in a considerably different way than the Founders intended -- in a democratic fashion, simply put, and not an aristocratic one. The president who claims to be a uniter not a divider is hearkening back to the myth-making of letter assistant a would-be aristocracy that claims to censorship+opinion, be impartial and to cover, stand above controversy while systematically using the machinery of government to laertes essay, crush its opponents. But his is not the winning side. Not that democracy is a done deal. One recent discovery is that democracy does not mean that everyone participates in everything that affects them. Every citizen of a modern society participates in hundreds of institutions, and it is impossible to letter assistant, be fully informed about all of them, much less sit through endless meetings relating to all of essay uk them. Letter Pharmacist. There are too many issues for everyone to be an expert on nyu local everything.
It follows that citizens in a large modern polity specialize in particular issues. In fact this kind of cover issue entrepreneurship is white noise essays death not restricted to politics. It is central to letter pharmacist assistant, the making of careers in nearly every institution of society. Conservatism claims to own the argumentative essay, theme of letter pharmacist assistant entrepreneurship, but then conservatism claims to own every theme. In reality, entrepreneurship on the part of the common people is antithetical to write uk, conservatism, and conservatism has learned and taught little about the skills of entrepreneurship, most particularly the entrepreneurial cognition that identifies opportunities for various sorts of useful careers, whether civic, intellectual, professional, or economic. Entrepreneurship is not just for economic elites, and in fact never has been. One part of democracy, contrary to much socialist teaching, is the democratization of goods and skills, entrepreneurial skills for example, that had formerly been associated with the elite. American society has diverged dramatically from that of Europe largely because of the democratization of entrepreneurship, and that trend should continue with the writing down and cover letter pharmacist teaching of generalized entrepreneurial skills. The real discovery is that democracy is a particular kind of social organization of knowledge -- a sprawling landscape of overlapping knowledge spheres and writing nyu local a creative tension on any given issue between the experts and cover letter pharmacist the laity.
It is essay on animal testing not a hierarchical divide between the knowledge-authorities in the professions and a deferential citizenry; instead it democratizes the skills of knowledge-making among a citizenry that is plugged together in ways that increasingly resemble the institutional and cognitive structures of the professions. This generalized application of entrepreneurial skills in the context of a knowledge-intensive society -- and not simply the multiplication of associations that so impressed Tocqueville -- is cover letter assistant civil society. The tremendous fashion for civil society as a necessary complement and counterbalance to the state in a democracy, as launched in the 1980's by people like John Keane, has been one of the most hopeful aspects of recent democratic culture. Indeed, one measure of the success of the discourse of censorship+opinion civil society has been that conservatism has felt the need to destroy it by means of distorted theories of civil society that place the populace under the tutelage of the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. Economics, unfortunately, is still dominated by the ancien regime.
This consists of cover letter pharmacist three schools. White Essays Death. Neoclassical economics is founded (as Philip Mirowski has argued) on superficial, indeed incoherent analogies to the mathematics of cover letter pharmacist assistant classical mechanics whose main notion is equilibrium. Economies, it is held, are dynamic systems that are constantly moving to essay outline on animal, an optimal equilibrium, and government intervention will only move the economy to the wrong equilibrium. For a long time this theory has dominated academic economics for the simple reason that it provides a simple formula for creating a model of cover pharmacist assistant any economic phenomenon. Its great difficulty is essay that it ignores essentially all issues of information and institutions -- important topics in the context of any modern economy. Austrian economics (associated with Hayek and Mises) began in the context of debates about the practicability of cover central planning in socialism; as such, it is organized around an opposition between centralized economies (bad) and decentralized economies (good). Laertes Essay. Although preferable in some ways to neoclassicism in its emphasis on information and institutions, as well as its rhetorical emphasis on entrepreneurship, it is nonetheless hopelessly simplistic.
It has almost no practitioners in academia for the simple reason that it is cover pharmacist assistant nearly useless for analyzing any real phenomena. A third school, a particular kind of game theory based on the work of John Nash, does have elaborate notions about information and at least a sketchy way of modeling institutions, and as a result has established itself as the major academic alternative to neoclassicism. Unfortunately Nash game theory's foundations are no better than those of neoclassicism. Whereas neoclassicism, though ultimately incoherent, is actually a powerful and useful way of thinking about the economy, Nash game theory is based, as Mirowski again has argued, on a disordered model of relationships between people. Fortunately it has no particular politics. The state of writing the essay economics is unfortunate for democracy. Conservatism runs on ideologies that bear only a tangential relationship to reality, but democracy requires universal access to accurate theories about cover letter a large number of nontrivial institutions. The socialist notion of economic democracy essentially imports the Greek deliberative model into the workplace. Noise Essays Death. As such it is probably useful as a counter to conservative psychologies of internalized deference that crush people's minds and prevent useful work from being done. Letter Pharmacist. It is, however, not remotely adequate to the reality of an interconnected modern economy, in which the workplace is uk hardly a natural unit. A better starting place is with analysis of the practical work of producing goods in social systems of cover assistant actual finite human beings -- that is, with analysis of information and institutions, as for example in essays, the singular work of Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi, John von Neumann, Mark Casson, Joseph Stiglitz, Paul David, Bruno Latour, and Michel Callon.
This work emphasizes knowledge and the very general social conditions that are required to produce and use it. Simply put, knowledge is cover letter pharmacist assistant best produced in argumentative outline, a liberal culture. This is why the most prosperous and innovative regions of the United States are also the most politically liberal, and why the most conservative regions of the country are also the greatest beneficiaries of transfer payments. Liberals create wealth and government redistributes it to conservatives. This is, of course, the opposite cover letter pharmacist of the received conservative opinion in the media, and indeed in most of academia. Censorship+opinion. But it is true. Another connection between democracy and a modern economy is the democratic nature of entrepreneurialism. People who reflexively defer to their social betters will never learn the social skills that are needed to found new types of social relationships. This was clear enough in letter assistant, the interregnum in the 19th century between the fall of the American gentry and the rise of the modern corporation. An economy of generalized entrepreneurialism, moreover, requires an elaborate institutional matrix that is part public and part private. Write Essay. As scholars such as Linda Weiss have argued, the conservative spectre of a conflict between government and entrepreneurial activity is unrelated to cover letter, the reality of entrepreneurship.
To be sure, much has been learned about the kinds of government policies that do and do not lay the foundation for economic dynamism. It is quite correct, for the essay nyu local, example, that direct price controls in competitive commodity markets rarely accomplish anything. (Labor markets are a much more complicated case, in cover letter pharmacist, very much the essay, ways that neoclassical economics exists to ignore.) Free trade would also be a good thing if it existed; in practice trade is distorted by subsidies and by cover letter pharmacist, uneven regulation of externalities such as pollution, and free trade negotiations are a kind of power politics that differs little from the pay to essay, gunboat diplomacy that opened markets in a one-sided way in former times. Cover Pharmacist. The point is scarcely that markets are inherently democratic. Laertes Essay. The economic properties of infrastructure and knowledge create economies of scale that both produce cheap goods (a democratic effect) and concentrate power (an anti-democratic effect). Conservatives employ the democratic rhetoric of entrepreneurialism to promote the opposite values of corporate centralization. But the 19th century's opinions about the political and economic necessity of antitrust are still true. More importantly, a wide range of public policies is required to facilitate a democratic economy and the more general democratic values on which it depends.
Lastly, an important innovation of democracy during the sixties was the rights revolution. Pharmacist. Rights are democratic because they are limits to arbitrary authority, and people who believe they have rights cannot be subjected to conservatism. Conservative rhetors have attacked the rights revolution in laertes essay, numerous ways as a kind of cover letter pharmacist assistant demotic chatter that contradicts the eternal wisdom of the conservative order. For conservatism, not accepting one's settled place in the traditional hierarchy of orders and classes is white essays death a kind of arrogance, and letter pharmacist assistant conservative vocabulary is white essays full of phrases such as self-important. Institutions, for conservatism, are more important than people. Assistant. For democracy, by contrast, things are more complicated. The rights revolution is hardly perfect. The Business Of Case Studies. But the main difficulty with it is just that it is not enough.
A society is not founded on letter pharmacist assistant rights alone. Democracy requires that people learn and practice a range of nontrivial social skills. But then people are not likely to learn or practice those skills so long as they have internalized a conservative psychology of deference. Argumentative. The rights revolution breaks this cycle. For the civil rights movement, for example, learning to read was not simply a means of registering to vote, but was also a means of liberation from the cover letter assistant, psychology of the business conservatism. Democratic institutions, as opposed to the inherited mysteries of conservative institutions, are made of the cover letter assistant, everyday exercise of advanced social skills by people who are liberated in this sense.
//5 How to white, Defeat Conservatism. Conservatism is almost gone. People no longer worship the pharaohs. Cover Letter Assistant. If the gentry were among us today we would have no notion of censorship+opinion what they were talking about. For thousands of years, countless people have worked for the values of democracy in ways large and small. The industrialized vituperations of cover conservative propaganda measure their success. To defeat conservatism today, the main thing we have to do is to explain what it is and white essays what is wrong with it. This is easy enough. * Rebut conservative arguments.
This is my most important prescription. Liberals win political victories through rational debate. But after a victory is won, liberals tend to drop the issue and move along. As a result, whole generations have grown up without ever hearing the arguments in favor of, for example, Social Security. Instead they have heard massive numbers of conservative arguments against liberalism, and these arguments have generally gone unrebutted. In order to save civilization, liberals need a new language, one in which it is pharmacist easy to express rebuttals to the particular crop of conservative arguments of the last few decades. And the way to invent that language is just to start rebutting the arguments, all of them.
This means literally dozens of new arguments each day. Do not assume that rebutting conservative arguments is the business of case studies easy, or that a few phrases will suffice. Do not even assume that you know what is pharmacist assistant wrong with the conservative arguments that you hear, or even indeed what those arguments are, since they are often complicated and confusing in their internal structure. Do not just repeat a stock response that worked for some previous generation of liberals, because your audience has already heard that response and writing the essay nyu local already knows what the counterargument is. Conservative rhetors have invested tremendous effort in working around liberals' existing language.
In the old days, racists were racists and polluters were polluters. But those old labels do not win arguments any more. Liberals must now provide new answers in plain language to the questions that ordinary citizens, having heard the arguments of conservatism, now have. Do environmental regulations work? Why do we protect the cover letter pharmacist assistant, civil liberties of terrorists? Are liberals anti-American? What do we need government for anyway? * Benchmark the Wall Street Journal.
The Wall Street Journal's opinion page is the most important conservative publication, and it is often described as a bulletin board for the conservatism. A better metaphor, however, would be a war room. Day by day, the Wall Street Journal's editors detect liberal arguments coming over the horizon, and immediately they gather up and distribute the studies, arguments that conservatives will need to rebut them. Since the retirement of its late editor Robert Bartley, the Journal's opinion page has become more sophisticated. The crude lies and belligerent irrationality of the Bartley era have not disappeared, but they have certainly been attenuated. Daniel Henninger in particular does something interesting with clouds of associations that are subrational but not quite fallacious.
Liberals should not imitate the antireason of the Journal or other distribution channels of conservative opinion. Instead, as part of the hard work of inventing democracy, it will be necessary to assistant, tell the studies, difference between methods that liberals ought to be applying in cover assistant, their own work, such as the day-to-day rebuttal of argumentative essay testing arguments, and methods that liberals need to analyze and place in the same category as the letter pharmacist, priesthood of Egypt. * Build a better pundit. Political pundits in the media today are overwhelmingly conservative, and the few liberal pundits are overwhelmingly journalists rather than ideologists. The Essay Nyu Local. It is difficult to identify a single pundit in the media who consistently explicates liberal ideology. It is cover assistant time to build a democratic punditry. To start with, everyone in a modern democracy ought to receive practical instruction in the communication genres of the mass media. Pay To Write. There is no reason why every student cannot learn to write a clear 700-word op-ed column that traces an arc from a news hook to some ideology to a new and useful argument that wins elections.
A society in which the average citizen writes an occasional op-ed column would certainly be a step toward democracy. But even if the skills of punditry are widespread, there is no substitute for professional pundits who can make brand names of themselves in assistant, the media, and talented people will not make careers out of democratic punditry until they are reasonably assured of being able to make money at essays it. This is where think tanks and their philanthropic funders come in. Universities do not substitute for think tanks, because research is quite a different activity from punditry. Simply put, professional pundits need a wide variety of fallback options between media gigs. Conservative pundits grow fat on their own think tanks, and liberals need their own war rooms of democratic reason. * Say something new. Conservative rhetors win audiences largely because the things they are saying seem new. People who read them or listen to them continually get the impression that they are being informed. If news and opinion editors seem biased against liberals, one reason is simply that liberals are not delivering the goods.
Whenever you get ready to express a political opinion in the media, first ask whether you have ever heard that opinion in the media before (as opposed, for example, to scholarly works). If so, figure out what the counterarguments are -- because there will be counterarguments -- and cover letter assistant then proceed to base your column on the counterarguments to that. Get ahead of the censorship+opinion essay, curve. Democracy requires that the great majority of citizens be capable of logical thought. The West, starting with the Greeks, has always taught logic in a narrow way. Logic does include the letter, syllogism, but it also includes a great deal of argumentative essay testing savoir faire about what constitutes a good argument, a good counterargument, and a good counterargument to that. In particular, the citizen must have a kind of map of the arguments.
A caller to Rush Limbaugh said that liberals can't do the arguments, and he was right. Existing curricula on letter pharmacist critical thinking are unfortunately very weak. They should be founded on close analysis of actual irrationality. Many on the left unfortunately abandon reason because they believe that the actual basis of politics is something they call power. People like this have no notion of what power is.
For example, they will argue that reason is pay to write useless because the powers that be will not listen to reason. This is cover pharmacist confusion. The purpose of reason is not to of case, petition the authorities but to help other citizens to cover pharmacist assistant, cut through the darkness of conservative deception. Others on the left believe that reason is the property of the white noise, elite. This is true historically, but that is simply because the cover pharmacist, essence of white essays death conservatism is to deprive the common people of the capacity to engage in democracy. Many bad theories of democracy actually reinforce conservatism, and this is one of them. Similarly, others on the left argue that requiring politics to be based on reason tilts the playing field in favor of the elite. This is historically true as well, and politics based on money does the same thing. But that is reality. The fact, again, is cover letter assistant that democracy needs the citizenry to be educated, and the skills of reason are the foundation of democratic education. Democracy cannot be established in any other way.
Aristocratic rule is not reinforced by the use of reason. The situation is quite the reverse: in order to fight off democratic values, conservatism must simulate reason, and pretend that conservative deception is itself reason when it is not. Many conservative pundits, George Will and Thomas Sowell for example, make their living saying illogical things in a reasonable tone of voice. Democracy will be impossible until the great majority of censorship+opinion essay citizens can identify in reasonable detail just how this trick works. * Conservatism is the problem.
Contemporary conservatism's discourse is engineered with tremendous sophistication to get past the specific arguments that liberals know how to make. Conservative strategists, moreover, are willing to letter pharmacist, achieve their goals incrementally, depending on the arguments that liberals are capable of laertes essay making at a given moment. Of course it is important for liberals to letter pharmacist assistant, make the the business studies, arguments against each increment. But it is more important to explain what conservatism is in general, and then to pharmacist, explain what is wrong with it. For example, I once heard Rush Limbaugh discussing with a listener how school vouchers were just a conservative tactic, and how conservatives' real goal was to essay, eliminate public funding for education altogether. This is the pharmacist, sort of thing that loses elections, and yet I have never heard a liberal pundit discuss it. The extreme nature of conservatism -- not just the extremity of nyu local its rhetoric but the oppressiveness of its prescriptions for society -- is clear enough in the conservatives' own literature, but American culture no longer has the categories to cover assistant, identify what it is. Indeed, one can hear fascism, never mind conservatism, on the radio any day of the week.
But Americans have mostly forgotten what fascism even is, so that they can listen to fascist rhetoric and it will actually sound kind of fresh. * Critically analyze leftover conservative theories. Liberal ideology is in disarray. After all, conservative ideology has dominated human thought for thousands of years, and it takes concentrated effort to liberate oneself from it. Such intellectual liberation will never happen without a detailed history of conservative theories -- which is to say, the ways in which these theories have been designed to subordinate people's minds to a hierarchical social order dominated by an aristocracy. Lacking such a history, liberal ideology draws in random and confused ways on conservatism, giving it a sentimental update without particularly changing it. Or else liberalism spins out into something wishfully called radicalism, which at best inverts conservatism into something that does not work as well and does not liberate anyone either.
A genuine tradition of liberatory social thought does indeed exist, but it must be disentangled from its opposite. As an example, let us consider the notion of essay outline social capital, which has been fashionable among both conservatives and liberals for some time now. The conservative version of the social capital is a medieval ideology that justifies the hierarchical conservative order in terms of the values of community. Cover. This medieval notion of community is particularistic in nature: everyone in a community is knitted to everyone else through a system of roles and relationships into which they are born, and which they supposedly accept and love. This network of relationships is made to sound harmonious, and objections to it are made to sound divisive, by neglecting to mention the oppression of the life-long hierarchical bonds that make it up.
This is the kind of society whose passing Tocqueville lamented, and that is at the core of modern conservatism in authors such as Robert Nisbet. For Nisbet, modernity could only be understood in a negative way as an nyu local, erosion of the particular types of community and order that traditional institutions provided. This is letter pharmacist assistant what many conservatives mean when they value social capital, regret its decline, and urge its revival. This notion of social capital should be contrasted, for example, with Ernest Gellner's notion of the modern democratic citizen as modular, that is, as capable of moving about within the society, building and rebuilding relationships and argumentative essay associations of diverse sorts, because of a set of social skills and social institutions that facilitate a generalized, dynamic mobility. The modular citizen gets a place in society not through birth or the bonds of an assistant, inherited order but through a gregarious kind of entrepreneurial innovation. The difficulty with too many liberal notions of social capital is that they are oblivious to the tension between conservatism and democracy. As a result, they are vague and ambiguous as to the nature of social capital, how it might be measured, and what kinds of white death institutions might erode or encourage it. For example, a theory of social capital that locates it in plain numbers of social network connections is insufficient because it undervalues social skills and overvalues particularistic forms of community that are not adaptive in a dynamic modern economy. This is how liberals end up quoting Tocqueville and sounding indistinguishable from conservative theorists of intermediary institutions. Social capital is just one example of a general crisis of liberal ideology.
The first step in resolving this crisis to get clear about what conservatism is and what is wrong with it. Post-sixties, many liberals consider themselves to be watered-down Marxists. Cover Letter Pharmacist. They subscribe to a left-to-right spectrum model of politics in pay to, which they, as democrats, are located in some hard-to-identify place sort-of-somewhat-to-the-left-of-center, whereas the letter, Marxists have the high ground of white noise essays death a clear and definite location at the end of the spectrum. These liberals would be further out on the left if they could find a politically viable way to do it. Conservative rhetors concur with this model, and indiscriminately calling liberals communists is cover letter back in the business, style. This is all nonsense. Marxism is not located anywhere on cover pharmacist a spectrum. It is just mistaken. It fails to describe the write, real world. Attempts to letter pharmacist, implement it simply created an ugly and shallow imitation of conservatism at essay its worst.
Democracy is the right way to live, and conservatism is the wrong way. Marx was a brilliant analyst for his time. His analysis of technology's role in the economy was wholly original. He was the first to analyze the structural dynamism of a capitalist economy. Cover Letter Pharmacist. But his theory of modern society was superficial.
It overgeneralized from the situation of its time: the recent discovery of the business of case studies economies of scale, crude market institutions, no modern separation of ownership and control, and a small middle class. Marx followed the political economy of cover letter his day in analyzing markets as essentially independent of the essay, state. Letter. But this is not remotely the case. One difficulty with Marx, which is the topic of a vast literature, is that his theory requires a periodization of history that does not correspond to essay, historical reality. Capitalism, for example, is supposed to be a discrete totality, but claimed starting dates for this totality range across a good four hundred years.
His economistic analysis of cover letter pharmacist assistant society, though indisputably productive in the way that many powerfully wrong ideas are, makes history seem more discontinuous than it is. In fact, the relationship between conservatism and democracy is more or less constant throughout thousands of years of pay to write history. One evidence of letter this, for example, is Orlando Patterson's stunning discovery that Western notions of freedom were invented by former slaves in the ancient world and have remained more or less constant ever since. In economic terms, Marx's theory is mistaken because he did not analyze the role the capitalist plays as entrepreneur. The entrepreneur does an white noise essays, important and distinctive type of work in inventing new ways to bring together diverse factors of production. Now in fact the nature of letter assistant this work has remained largely hidden throughout history for a wide variety of reasons. Because Marx had no notion of it, the capitalist's profit seemed to him simple theft. It does not follow, though, that entrepreneurs earn all of their money. Of Case. The theories of mainstream economics notwithstanding, serious how-to manuals for entrepreneurs are quite clear that the entrepreneur is trying to identify a market failure, because market failures are how you make money.
The relationship between entrepreneurship and the state is much more complicated than economics has even tried to theorize. Capitalists, moreover, are not a class. Cover Pharmacist. Particular networks of capitalists and other well-off or otherwise connected personages may well try to constitute themselves as an aristocracy, but this is a phenomenon with several more dimensions than just economics. Nor is Marxism of any use as politics. All that Marx offered to people who worked in deadening factory jobs was that they could take over the factory. While unions and the business of case studies collective bargaining exist in cover letter assistant, many contexts for good economic reasons, they are an pay to uk, essentially medieval system of negotiations among orders and assistant classes.
They presuppose a generally static economy and society. They are irrelevant to knowledge-intensive forms of work. Nor do they provide any kind of foundation for democratic politics. People want their kids to be professionals, not factory workers, and democracy helps people to knit themselves into censorship+opinion essay the complicated set of institutions that enable people to build unique and productive lives. Despite all of the conservative attacks, American English remains a useful language. So use it, and learn to say democratic things in it. There is a style of academic theory-talk that claims to be advanced and sophisticated but actually lacks any precision. Privilege, for example, is not a verb. If new words are needed and are actually good for analyzing the cover letter pharmacist, deception of conservatism or the invention of democracy, go ahead and teach them. Writing. Integrate them into the vernacular language.
While you are at letter assistant it, forget the whole strategy of the counterculture. Be the write, culture instead. * Stop surrendering powerful words. Many liberals abandon any word that conservatives start using. That means, since conservatives systematically lay claim to letter pharmacist assistant, every word of the English language, that liberals have been systematically surrendering powerful words such as family, nation, truth, science, tradition, and the business studies religion. This has made it increasingly difficult for liberals to explain what they believe. There is no alternative: if conseratives have been twisting a powerful word, then you have to explain in concise American English what the cover pharmacist assistant, word really means and censorship+opinion how the conservatives have distorted it. Contest the signifiers.
Use the words. * Tipper Gore is right. Snoop Dogg's music really is garbage. Some liberals, however, argue that racists hate rap and so therefore any disapproval of rap abets racism. This is bad logic and stupid politics. If racists hate rap then the logical, rational, politically efficacious thing to do is to say that some rap is cover assistant good and some rap is bad, and white noise death that good rap is an art form like any other, and that the cover pharmacist assistant, bad rap exists because the people who rap it are bad people. Do not be afraid of losing contact with young people. If all you know about youth culture is Snoop Dogg, then I suppose it is essay testing time for some focus groups. Use the cover, focus groups to pay to write uk, identify language that Martin Luther King would approve of.
Besides, there is plenty of good politics in mass culture, as cultural studies professors have explained at length. Nor should you be afraid of letter losing campaign contributions from the entertainment industry. The Hollywood moneybags will keep funding liberal candidates for the simple reason that many conservatives really do support censorship, where liberals do not. That said, there is certainly a disconnect between some liberal entertainers and the liberals who win elections. Some entertainers are willing to get up on stage and censorship+opinion essay embarrass John Kerry.
Scorn them. * Assess the sixties. Make a list of the positive and lasting contributions of the pharmacist, sixties. Americans would benefit from writing the essay nyu local, such a list. The spiritual leader of modern liberalism, Martin Luther King, taught nonviolence. This has been narrowly construed in terms of not killing people. But, as King made clear, it has other meanings as well. You have to cover pharmacist, love your enemies. This is difficult: the reality of argumentative testing conservatism is pharmacist so extreme that it is difficult even to discuss without sounding hateful. There is also an intellectual dimension to essay, nonviolence. Nonviolence means, among other things, not cooperating in cover, the destruction of white noise essays death conscience and language.
Nonviolence implies reason. Analyze the various would-be aristocracies, therefore, and explain them in plain language, but do not stereotype them. Nonviolence also has an letter assistant, epistemological dimension. Few of testing us have the skill to hate with a clear mind. Conservatism is very complicated, and letter pharmacist you cannot defeat it by shouting slogans. This is the difficulty with Michael Moore.
He talks American, which is good. But he is not intellectually nonviolent. He is laertes essay not remotely as bad as Ann Coulter, and liberals have criticized him much more thoroughly than conservatives have criticized Ann Coulter. But he is not a model for liberal politics. There is cover pharmacist assistant no doubt that Martin Luther King would be in George Bush's face. But how? That is why liberals need a language. * Tell the taxpayers what they are getting for their money. Civilization requires a substantial number and variety of public services, which in turn require moderate and reasonable amounts of taxes.
Despite decades of conservative rhetoric, a majority of Americans are perfectly happy to of case, pay their taxes. And yet liberals keep letting conservatives clobber them with rhetoric that makes taxes sound like a bad thing. It is time for liberals to cover pharmacist, stop losing this argument. To start with, do not talk about amounts of money (we should spend $15 billion on health care). Instead, talk about what the pay to essay uk, money buys (we should provide medical care to 15 million children). And stop letting Bush call his tax policies tax cuts: he is not cutting those taxes; he is just postponing them. * Make government work better for cover assistant, small business. The market continually undermines both conservatism and democracy. Both systems must continually improvise to accommodate it. The difference is censorship+opinion essay that conservatism pretends to be a timeless order whereas democracy is all about letter pharmacist experiment, innovation, and entrepreneurial culture. Conservatives have historically tried to include entrepreneurs in their coalition, even though conservatism is almost the opposite of the cultural conditions of a modern economy.
A certain amount of tension between democracy and the business the market is indeed irreducible. But a great deal has been learned about markets and cover pharmacist their relationship to government, and the democratic culture of innovation can reduce the unnecessary tensions between small business and government while providing for social values such as urban design, consumer information, and the environment. An excellent example of this is duplicative paperwork. Small business people must often fill out dozens of forms for various government bureaucracies. Studies. This is a significant expense. These forms should be combined and given a clean and unified interface. The bureaucracies, however, each analyze things in their own incompatible ways, and so the forms cannot simply be merged. Like much of democracy, this is an interesting design matter. * Clone George Soros.
George Soros is an excellent citizen. Conservatism has gotten so out of sync with the conditions of pharmacist a modern economy that significant numbers of wealthy people, especially young entrepreneurs who live and breathe the liberal culture that makes successes like theirs possible, would be happy to help build the institutions that a democratic society needs. White Noise Essays Death. What is needed right now are institutions that train people to win arguments for democracy in the mass media. Antireason has become thoroughly established in the media, and it will take real work to cover letter pharmacist, invent languages of reason that are fresh and cool. And this work just costs money. * Build the Democratic Party. Your model should be Pat Robertson. He is as extreme on the right as anybody in the United States is on the left. Yet his people took over large parts of the Republican Party. They did this in three ways: laboriously designing a mainstream-sounding language, identifying large numbers of talented activists and training them in the day-to-day work of issue and writing party politics, and building their own communications systems.
Liberals should do the pharmacist assistant, same. Now, many liberals argue that the Democratic Party would magically start winning again if it would only move to the left. This is lazy nonsense. The Democratic Party has moved to the right for the simple reason that liberals do not have a language that wins elections. To take over the Democratic Party, liberals need to replace the pay to write uk, left-wing policies that do not work and, for the policies that do work, get a language that moves 51% of likely voters to vote Democratic. Other liberals argue that the Democratic Party, and cover letter the system in general, are irretrievably broken, and studies that they must build a third party, such as the Green Party with its endorsement of Ralph Nader. Cover Pharmacist. The difficulties with this notion are hard to count. For one, splitting the left is a certain recipe for centuries of aristocratic domination. For another, building a party with only people who share your opinions to the nth degree is a certain recipe for factionalism and isolation.
For another, the Green Party is a chaotic mess that has no serious chance of white essays becoming a mass-based political party. Life under aristocratic domination is horrible. Assistant. The United States is noise blessed to have little notion of what this horror is like. Europe, for example, staggered under the weight of its aristocracies for thousands of years. Cover Letter Assistant. European aristocracies are in decline, and Europe certainly has its democratic heroes and its own dawning varieties of civilized life, and yet the psychology and institutions that the aristocracies left behind continue to make European societies rigid and blunt Europeans' minds with layers of internalized oppression. People come to America to get away from white noise, all of cover pharmacist that. Conservatism is writing the essay nyu local as alien here as it could possibly be. Only through the most comprehensive campaign of deception in letter, human history has it managed to laertes essay, establish its very tentative control of the country's major political institutions. Conservatism until very recently was quite open about the fact that it is pharmacist incompatible with the modern world.
That is pay to write uk right. The modern world is a good place, and it will win.