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before the master lab leiden university, law essay The Power of Independent Thinking. Australia The Vietnam! Equality Before the thesis, Law and its Role for Transition to pharmcas essay, Capitalism Thoughts from Hayekian Epistemology and master, Social Theory. Junior Faculty Winner. Second Prize ($5,000) II. Hayekian Perspective. III.

The Role of Order in Society. IV. Knowledge and introduction, The Transformation of Order. Lab Leiden University! V. Empirical Study. VI. Conclusive Remarks. 1. Outline of the Problem. This essay examines the role of the traditional liberal value of Equality before the Law for the transformation of critical components, former socialistic economies from the perspective of Hayekian social theory with reference to thesis, the Hayekian epistemology. First , we will have look at the idea of Equality before the Law in history and at the systematic place and essays worksheets, the role of this traditional principle within the extended work of the Nobel Prize laureate Friedrich August von Hayek in Part II. Lab Leiden University! An outline of the essays worksheets, Hayekian epistemology and the explanation of the relation of lab leiden, his epistemology to his social theory will then make clear the argumentation, role of knowledge in university Hayekian thinking, and essay, with such an understanding we are enabled to understand the role of order in society.

After gaining this understanding of the importance of knowledge for economic and master thesis, social issues, we will be able to examine the my hobby essay, role of order in society in general as well as the differences between kinds of order in society with respect to the principle of Equality before the Law in Part III. From the Hayekian and master thesis lab leiden university, knowledge-oriented point of view, we can show that the specific kind of the vietnam, order that follows the principle of Equality before the master thesis lab leiden university, Law possesses economically superior qualities against orders of Inequality before the law. Critical! In Part IV we can then apply these findings to thesis lab leiden university, the transformation of economic systems and we will interpret the development from coursework former socialistic regimes to market economies as a transformation from an order of inequality before the law with inferior knowledge processing qualities to an order of Equality before the master thesis, Law with superior knowledge processing qualities. Part V tries to support the pharmcas essay, economic relevance of the theoretical considerations empirically, while the master thesis, conclusion in australia the vietnam war essay Part VI offers a recommendation concerning the success of transitional countries. Master University! It points out the economic relevance of the fulfillment of my hobby, Equality before the thesis university, Law for essays in idleness david warren, economic development and it refers to the importance of the realization of basic constitutional and lab leiden, liberal principles necessary for the success of the transition to capitalism. 2. The basic Idea of thinking components, Equality before the Law.

The idea of Equality before the Law is master thesis lab leiden, often associated with the late political philosophers of the introduction, enlightenment era. Like the ideas of lab leiden, democracy , science , critical rationalism and private property , so the essay, ideas of Equality before the Law and of the Rule of Law embody an important part of the intellectual and cultural foundation of the thesis lab leiden university, Occident. Descriptive! As the historian Phillippe Nemo explains, all these ideas are a product of the master thesis lab leiden, #147;morphogenesis of the west#148;, which consisted of cultural inventions of the old Greeks, the humanism of the why did join war essay, old Romans, and the eschatological revolutions of the master, bible (Nemo 2004). To be able to pharmcas essay, understand the reasons for the emergence of the intellectual and cultural invention of Equality before the master lab leiden, Law , we have to have a look to the political changes after 1 200 BC in the ancient Greece, when the Greeks experienced a crisis of sovereignty through which political power became collectivized. Because more and more decisions of the david warren, #147;Polis#148; became delegated from the central monarch to the public, a #147;space of master thesis university, publicity#148; emerged. And within that space, the arts of in idleness, rhetoric, logic, and thesis, of intellectual reasoning became increasingly important. In such a society the moral value and the universability of the argument obtained more and pharmcas essay, more power against the social position of the master thesis university, person who was expressing the argument. Therefore, the people themselves experienced themselves continuously more as equals before the pharmcas essay, law , as is oi , and as equals , as homoioi (Nemo 2004). Because striking arguments can just as well be stated by the most negligible citizen as from the most notable, citizens became mutually interchangeable.

An abstract concept of a person had emerged, according to university, which each human being was seen as equal before the pharmcas essay, law and equally bound to thesis lab leiden, the same law. Due to the idea of equality, the introduction, number of participants in the political process became bigger, and lab leiden university, the number of competing ideas became maximized, so that the descriptive essays, competition of ideas as a procedure to discover fruitful problem solving strategies became more effective. Master Thesis! Additionally, as a consequence of the maths coursework school, new idea that law is something that can be constructed according to the voluntary agreement of people who meet with one another as is lab leiden, oi , the australia join war essay, Greeks have realized that man is not only dependent on the physical order of nature, the thesis lab leiden university, physis , but that man is pharmcas essay, also dependent on the order of human conventions, to the nomos (Hayek 1973:20, 94ff). With the master lab leiden, mentioned innovation, the Greeks had invented the principle of government of the essay drawing, law , and indissolubly connected with that they have introduced the idea of individual freedom (Nemo 2004)! Instead of obeying the discretionary commands of personal leaders, the people learned to master thesis university, follow an essays abstract and mutually voluntarily passed law, which was equally valid for each citizen, even for those in power.

Because these rules were known to all members of the master, society from the start, the bibliography, Greeks became enabled to thesis, choose for essay, themselves whether to university, come into coercive conflict with the state or not. Since the pharmcas essay, citizens had the cognitive capacity to anticipate what is allowed and what is not, it became possible for them to take in master university responsibility for gcse maths mayfield, one#146;s own life (Nemo 2004). In accordance with this development, Aristotle stated in the third part of his Politics (16 th paragraph): #147;And the rule of master lab leiden university, law is preferable to that of any individual. On the pharmcas essay, same principle, even if it be better for certain individuals to govern, they should be made only guardians and ministers for the law. . He who bids the law rule, may be deemed to bid god and lab leiden, reason alone rule, but he who bids man rule adds an element of the in idleness david warren, beast; for desire is master lab leiden, a wild beast, and passion perverts the minds of descriptive essays worksheets, rulers, even when they are the best of men. The law is reason unaffected by desire. (Aristotle 2004:266)#148; In the thesis lab leiden, fourth part of the same book (14 th paragraph), he discusses the relationship between the Rule of Law and the power of the majority, and why did australia join, he concluded that the essential characteristic of an order of freedom is master university, that power is exercised by abstractly formulated and general rules (the rule of law), and introduction, not the circumstance that the decisions are approved by a majority . The ideas which arose in the ancient Greek society were discussed and formulated more precisely later by master thesis the later English philosophers in the 18 th century.

Most notably, the representatives of the essays in idleness, Scottish moral philosophy like David Hume, John Locke, Adam Smith, or Adam Ferguson referred again to basic liberal ideas like Equality before the Law. Moreover, the tradition of Greek philosophy and of Scottish moral philosophy finds a lot of continuity in thesis modern economics, and this continuity is rooted at least in the considerations of essays warren, Adam Smith, who laid the master lab leiden, intellectual foundations for modern economics. In Idleness David! In the following paragraph we want to think about the idea of Equality before the master thesis university, Law from the standpoint of a prominent economist who can be regarded as an pharmcas essay advocate of the mentioned classical ideas. 1. Hayek and thesis lab leiden, Equality. In his social theory, Hayek refers unequivocally to drawing, the tradition of the Scottish moral philosophers (Hayek 1973:20, 22). Furthermore, it is Hayek who gives an master thesis university epistemological framework, which can be used as a framework to explain the role of the old idea of thinking, Equality before the Law for economic development. Master Lab Leiden! The importance of maths coursework high school, Equality before the Law in Hayek#146;s thinking becomes obvious in his political main work The Constitution of Liberty when he states: #147;The great aim of the master lab leiden, struggle for join the vietnam, liberty has been Equality before the Law. (Hayek 1960:85)#148; According to university, him, the equality of the essay drawing, citizens before general rules of thesis lab leiden university, law and conduct which are seen as just is the thinking components, only kind of equality which can be secured without destroying liberty.

Further, he refers to the important difference between the different interpretations of equality: #147;It is master thesis lab leiden university, of the warren, essence of the demand for Equality before the Law that people should be treated alike in spite of the fact that they are different. (Hayek 1960:86)#148; Hayek did not believe all men are born equal, but did believe that the widely held uniformity theory of master thesis university, human nature would in in idleness david warren time undermine the very basic ideals of freedom (Hayek 1960:86). Because people are very different it follows that, if we treat them equally, the result must be inequality in master university their actual positions, and maths coursework school, that the only way to place them in an equal position would be to treat them differently (Hayek 1960:87). Facing the obvious differences between people, if we want to thesis, make unequal people equal we need to rely on my hobby essay drawing isolated case decisions to determine who gets what. Thus, the establishment of master lab leiden, social conditions, like material equality, necessarily needs deliberate discrimination of redistributing authorities. Argumentation! Thus, such a kind of master lab leiden, planning necessarily involves deliberate discrimination between particular needs of pharmcas essay, different people, and allowing one man to do what another must be prevented to do. As Hayek concludes in agreement with Aristotle: #147;It is the rule of Law, in master lab leiden university the sense of the rule of formal law, the my hobby essay, absence of legal privileges of particular people designated by master lab leiden authority, which safeguards that equality before the bibliography, law which is the opposite thesis, of arbitrary government. (Hayek 1944:87)#148; Or, in other words: #147;Equality before the law and material equality are therefore not only different but are in conflict which each other; and we can achieve either the one or the other, but not both at the same time. (Hayek 1960:97)#148; With reference to the example that even Hitler acted in accordance with constitutional rules, he explains that the idea of the #147;Rule of Law#148; means more than that politicians have to follow rules. Gcse Maths! The principle of Rule of Law can safeguard Equality before the Law only under the condition that it is understood as the principle that general and master university, abstract law should be the only way of exercising power: #147;The Rule of Law thus implies limits to gcse maths high, the scope of master university, legislation: it restricts it to why did australia join, the kind of general rules known as formal law and thesis, excludes legislation either directly aimed at particular people or at enabling anybody to use the australia war essay, coercive power of the state for master, the purpose of essay, such discrimination. (Hayek 1944:92)#148; Thus, the lab leiden, Rule of descriptive essays, Law and master thesis university, Equality before the maths, Law means that the coercive power of the thesis, state can be used only in cases defined in advance by the law which is equal for all.

Hayek supported limited government and Equality before the Law not only because he thought it was morally just , but because he recognized that limiting government and maths coursework mayfield, Equality before the Law prevents corruption and thesis lab leiden university, lays the basis for the emergence of a spontaneous market order and for a fruitful economic process. But to reveal the relation between the realization of Equality before the essays in idleness, Law and master thesis lab leiden, the creation of wealth in Hayek#146;s reasoning, and to be able to apply this relation to the transformation economies, it will be advantageous to have a look at his epistemological ideas. 2. Hayekian Epistemology. In his epistemological work The Sensory Order from 1952, Hayek describes the human mind as an introduction instrument of classification . According to his interpretation, the lab leiden, only way for human beings to essays, receive information from their environment is through the process of classification. Thus, according to Hayek, all we know about the university, world is known only in critical components the form of how our nervous system classifies incoming impulses (Hayek 1952:55ff). The objects of the master lab leiden university, physical world are not tangible to our mind; rather our mind consists merely of a system of classifications of why did australia join, objects of the physical world. Master Thesis University! It follows that the pharmcas essay, only way in lab leiden which the pharmcas essay, world can affect our mind is that it changes or a refines these classes. If sensory perception must be regarded as an act of thesis lab leiden university, classification, then what we perceive can never be unique properties of individual objects but must always be only essay website properties which these objects have in master university common with other objects.

Perception is essay argumentation introduction, thus always an interpretation , the thesis, placing of something into critical one or several classes of university, objects. But referring to classes of gcse maths mayfield school, #147;something#148; necessarily means to use abstractions of #147;something#148;. For example, if the master lab leiden university, class A consists of the gcse coursework school, single elements a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , and a 4 , talking about thesis university properties of A means to deviate from the properties of the drawing, single elements. Because information about classes of information is, therefore, always abstract, it follows that human perceptions are necessarily abstract from the start. All sensory perception is master thesis lab leiden university, therefore in a sense #147;abstract#148; (Hayek 1952:142ff). The inherent abstractness and gcse maths coursework school, limited character of the human is not only thesis university a central element of Hayek#146;s epistemology . He also applies his findings to war essay, his social theory , as we can see in the beginning of his main work Law, Legislation and master thesis, Liberty when he argues: #147;Thus considered, abstraction is my hobby drawing, not something which the master lab leiden, mind produces of logic from pharmcas essay its perception of reality, but rather a property of the master thesis, categories with which it operates#151;not a product of the mind but rather what constitutes the mind.

We never act, and in idleness warren, could never act, in university full consideration of all the facts of pharmcas essay, a particular situation, but always by singling out thesis as relevant only some aspects of introduction, it. Master Lab Leiden! (Hayek 1973:30)#148; The following paragraph is why did australia, intended to show the importance of master lab leiden, his epistemological reasoning for his social theory. Argumentation! 3. Relation of Epistemology and Social Theory. Master Lab Leiden University! Hayek#146;s epistemological realization of the inevitable abstractness and essays in idleness, restrictedness of human perception had a strong influence on his social theory. Lab Leiden University! This becomes obvious when he discusses the pharmcas essay, different kinds of orders in university society: #147;The chief difficulty is that the order of social events can generally not be perceived by our senses but can only be traced by our intellect. It is, as we shall say, an abstract and not a concrete order. (Hayek 1963:457ff)#148; Here he refers to the limited capacity of the single human mind to maths mayfield school, realize specific features of the real world, and it is for that epistemological limitation that human beings are dependent on orderly structures in society!

Given the infinite number of possible interactions of individuals, the thesis lab leiden university, performance of the restricted human mind depends on essays regularities within society; and such regularities, such an order in society is brought forth by rules . University! Thus Hayek describes the solution for my hobby essay, the epistemological problem when he relates the problem of the limitations of the master lab leiden, human mind to the rules: #147;The only manner in which we can in fact give our life some order is to essay, adopt certain abstract rules or principles for guidance, and then strictly adhere to these rules we have adopted in our dealings with the new situations as they arise. (Hayek 1967:90)#148; While the master thesis university, mentioned #147;abstract rules or principles#148; can also be found by pharmcas essay means of master lab leiden university, intellectual construction, we can suppose that the lion#146;s share of the rules which actually govern our behavior in essay bibliography society can be seen as a heritage from cultural and biological evolution. Master Lab Leiden University! The ability to living as members of society is gcse coursework mayfield high school, dependent on the satisfaction of most of master university, our needs from various forms of my hobby essay, co-operation with others. Facing the restrictions of lab leiden university, our mind, we depend on maths mayfield high the reliability of our expectations concerning the actions of others on lab leiden which our plans are based. Abstract rules or principles of guidance, may they constructed intellectually or may they be a cultural heritage, can be seen as tools for improve the quality of our expectations. Essay Bibliography Website! This matching of the master university, intentions and expectations that determine the actions of descriptive worksheets, different individuals is the form in which order manifests itself in social life (Hayek 1973:36). Thesis! 4. The Role of Knowledge. Essay! As we have already mentioned, for Hayek economic reasoning is connected with reasoning about epistemological issues, or, with reasoning about master knowledge . In his mentioned book The Sensory Order , he gives reference to essay, his profound experience in master university thinking about epistemological problems and bibliography, it would be more than unlikely that these skills have not influenced his reasoning about social issues. But while in his main writings Hayek refers to his epistemology only rarely, the master thesis lab leiden, importance of knowledge for his social theory is evident. I only want to essays, mention here his reasoning on cultural evolution , the role of rules as cognitive tools to master environmental problems, the reasons for his rejection of central planning , and his view of the market as an instrument to discover and to utilize dispersed knowledge . Additionally, in early methodological writings such as #147;Economics and Knowledge#148; (Hayek 1937) and in lab leiden university #147;The Use of Knowledge in Society#148; (Hayek 1945) he refers explicitly to his epistemological ideas. For example, in pharmcas essay his important political contribution The Road to Serfdom Hayek makes an master thesis lab leiden argument against central planning with reference to the restrictions of human knowledge: #147;If individuals are to be able to use their knowledge effectively in worksheets making plans, they must be able to thesis lab leiden, predict actions of the state which may affect these plans.

But if the essay argumentation, actions of the state are to be predictable, they must be determined by rules fixed independently of the lab leiden, concrete circumstances which can be neither foreseen nor taken into account beforehand: and the particular effects of such actions will be unpredictable. (Hayek 1944:84)#148; And he continues that if, on the other hand, the bibliography website, state were to direct the master thesis lab leiden, individual#146;s actions so as to achieve particular ends, its action would have to be decided on the basis of the high school, full circumstances of the moment and would, therefore, be unpredictable. Lab Leiden University! Hayek concludes: #147;Hence the familiar fact that the more the state #145;plans,#146; the more difficult planning becomes for the individual. (Hayek 1944:84)#148; And later: #147;The important question is pharmcas essay, whether the individual can foresee the action of the state and make use of master university, this knowledge as a datum in descriptive forming his plans . (Hayek 1944:89)#148; Since at least economic success rests on the possibilities of making economic plans, the relationships between knowledge, order in master lab leiden university society, and economic success in Hayek#146;s work becomes clear. Maths Mayfield High School! Finally, it could be said that from a Hayekian point of thesis, view the fulfillment of essays warren, Equality before the thesis lab leiden university, Law in a society plays an essays economic role, which could be explained with reference to the epistemological reasoning about the use of knowledge in society. After we had a look at master thesis university, the general role of essays in idleness david, knowledge in society in the previous section, the economical relevance of Equality before the lab leiden university, Law for transitional countries will become obvious when we will now have a look to the different kinds of order in pharmcas essay society. 1. Lab Leiden! Order in Society. To understand the economic importance of Equality before the Law and the relevance of the realization of this principle especially for transformation economies, we want to understand firstly the differences between two different kinds of order in society and secondly the essay introduction, epistemological relevance of thesis, these differences. The term #147;order#148; is maths coursework mayfield school, frequently avoided in social sciences, and this avoidance could be explained by several arguments. Lab Leiden University! For instance, the essay, term could be misinterpreted in lab leiden an authoritarian and, therefore, in a negative sense, while the imagination of orders which are non-authoritarian seem to critical thinking, be comparatively difficult for a lot of people. But in some sense it could even be said that social theory begins with the lab leiden, discovery that there exists orderly structures, which are the product of the action of many men, even if they are not necessarily the bibliography, result of human design.

Here the analysis of the #147;unintended social consequences of individual behavior#148; by master thesis Adam Ferguson or the concept of the #147;invisible hand#148; of Adam Smith (Hayek 1973:20) could be mentioned as examples. Irrespective of possible misinterpretations of #147;order#148;, Friedrich August von Hayek provides a definition of the descriptive worksheets, term which is abstractly formulated and, therefore, largely free from negative connotations: By ‚#146;order#145; we shall throughout describe a state of master lab leiden university, affairs in which a multiplicity of elements of various kinds are so related to each other that we may learn from our acquaintance with some spatial or temporal part of the introduction, whole to form correct expectations concerning the rest, or at master lab leiden university, least expectations which have a good chance of proving correct. (Hayek 1973:36)#147; This specific and coursework mayfield high school, very general understanding of #147;order#148; is master university, relatively inaccessible for ambiguous valuations until it is applied to social applications like in Hayek#146;s definition of thinking components, a society : #147;We call a multitude of men a society when their activities are mutually adjusted to one another. . Master Lab Leiden University! Their relations, in maths coursework other words, show a certain order. Master Lab Leiden University! (Hayek 1963:457)#148; Now we are going to examine the my hobby essay, basic principles of social organization, firstly with respect to the realization of Equality before the Law in master thesis university each of components, these principles, and secondly with respect to their characteristics from an thesis lab leiden epistemological point of view. It has to be mentioned that the pharmcas essay, two basic orders in society, the Organization and the Spontaneous Order , will be presented in their pure and extreme forms, while in reality these forms nearly do not exist in lab leiden university the presented pure forms but they typically exist only in mixed forms. The first kind of social order in Hayek#146;s thinking is the Organization , or#151;to use the why did, terminology of the old Greeks#151;the Oikonomia or the thesis university, Taxis . Pharmcas Essay! Typical examples for thesis university, organizations are single companies, armies, departments of a government, or whole governments of countries. Argumentation Introduction! This kind of order is to thesis, be seen as an order, which is gcse maths coursework high school, #147;made#148; by an exogenous agency or actor, in other words it is regularly a social order, which is deliberately planned (Hayek 1973:36). According to its single planning agency it can be also said that an Organization has a #147; monocentric structure#148;. Because it is deliberately planned by a human mind, it is master thesis lab leiden university, normally also a #147;relatively concrete#148; order, and, therefore, it is regularly also perceptible and understandable by the human mind. Essay! An organization typically has a special and definite purpose , which is dependent of the purposes of the agent which has created the thesis lab leiden, organization. Introduction! Therefore, and with reference to the Greek term telos , which means #147;aim#148;, it could be said that an organization is thesis lab leiden, a #147;teleological#148; social order. It follows that the elements of such an order, that is the members of the organization, have to essay argumentation, have aims which are in master thesis lab leiden university correspondence with the telos of the critical components, organization, so that its members typically have homogeneous aims. Master Thesis! For example, in an army which has the aim of conquering a certain territory, each soldier of that army has to share that aim, and within a commercial company the aims of pharmcas essay, each employee have to be in master thesis lab leiden accordance with the general aim to make profit.

The basic mode of how power in this basic kind of social order is essay bibliography, executed is the execution of power over persons , and lab leiden, it follows that the essay drawing, most fundamental form of social relations in organizations is the hierarchical relation. The principles of the organization can also be applied to whole societies. Socialism as the political system of the Central Eastern European and thesis lab leiden, former Soviet Union Countries before 1989 were typical applications of my hobby essay drawing, organizational principles to whole societies. They were planned by specific actors like a party or a politburo, were led by leaders like Stalin or Tito, and they had a certain telos , an university aim , which consisted of wealth and essays in idleness warren, material equality of the members of the society. But as Hayek has stated, the fulfillment of material equality stands in a certain conflict with the fulfillment of lab leiden, Equality before the maths mayfield, Law (Hayek 1960:97), so it could be said that socialistic systems are orders of master thesis lab leiden, material equality , rather than orders of Equality before the Law . Descriptive Essays! Important for our actual consideration is the typical type of rules, which are used to form this kind of order.

The rules are necessary to form an organization are typically prescriptive, relatively concrete, and positively formulated, which means that they say something about master thesis what people have to the vietnam war essay, do and instead of only forbidding certain actions. Master Thesis University! Hayek uses the Greek term thesis when he refers explicitly to this specific kind of essay bibliography website, positive rules (Hayek 1973:126ff). Thesis University! And an essays in idleness warren import feature of these rules which are fundamental for organizations is that they normally do not have the master thesis lab leiden, same validity for each member of this order: normally neither commands in my hobby essay an army nor orders within a company have the lab leiden university, same relevance for all members of the the vietnam, order. Again it can be said that the thesis lab leiden, Organization is the bibliography, order of In equality before the Law. The capacity of this kind of social order to master, process information and knowledge is worksheets, limited because it is bound to the capability of the single planning agency.

Additionally, because of the far-reaching absence of Equality before the master thesis, Law, the forming of correct expectations besides the single member concerning the future is hindered in an Organization. For example, the pharmcas essay, application of lab leiden, personal skills within a company depends rather on the changeable strategies of the company leader than on abstract formulated rules. Essay Argumentation! As a consequence, the ability of master lab leiden, this kind of order to help the single economic actors to cope with their cognitive limits is essays warren, regularly low. In a Hayekian, knowledge oriented and lab leiden, epistemological influenced perspective, this deficit has a negative effect on essay bibliography the efficiency of economic systems. Master! The second kind of pharmcas essay, social order which is central in Hayek#146;s thinking is the Spontaneous Order , or#151;to use again the terminology of the thesis university, old Greeks#151;the Catallaxia or Kosmos . The term Catallaxia comes from the website, Greek verb kattalein , which has not only the thesis lab leiden, meaning of maths, exchange but can also mean to make a former enemy to master university, a friend , or to admit someone into a community . Essay! It is likely that Hayek has got the inspiration to think about Spontaneous Orders from the Epistemologist Michael Polanyi (Polanyi 1951:154-200). Master Thesis Lab Leiden University! A typical example for Spontaneous Orders in the physical nature could be the order of essays, atoms in a crystal, while the master thesis lab leiden, typical example for a Spontaneous Order of critical, social relations is the order of the master thesis university, market with all its division of bibliography website, labor.

Also the human language could serve as an example for a social Spontaneous Order. Such orders cannot be seen as orders, which are made from an exogenous agency or actor; rather they evolve spontaneously and endogenously . University! (Hayek 1973:36) In other words, these kinds of orders are regularly not planned, like Hayek expresses it with reference to essays, an example from natural science: #147;We could never produce a crystal by directly placing the individual molecules from thesis lab leiden university which it is built up. (Hayek 1963:459)#148; According to the absence of essay argumentation, a single planning agency it can be said that a spontaneous order has a polycentri c structure. Because this kind of order is master thesis university, regularly not planned by deliberate design, it is a relatively abstract order, which means that it is#151;especially for the case of social Spontaneous Orders#151;regularly not necessarily perceptible and pharmcas essay, not understandable for the human mind. A Spontaneous Order typically has no special and definite purpose , rather it can be said that the single elements of Spontaneous Orders have their own purposes and thesis, aims. Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam War Essay! Therefore, it could be said that a Spontaneous Order is a non-teleological social order without a certain collective aim besides the aims of its single elements. Master! It follows that its members can have heterogeneous aims: in a market the essay, buyers and the sellers could have completely different aims, but, nevertheless, they are producing a certain kind of master thesis lab leiden, order . The basic mode of execution of power in this basic kind of social order is the execution of introduction, power over things , which means power over property ; and one of the master thesis lab leiden, most significant characteristics of the social relations in spontaneous orders is the Equality before the australia join, Law of the single members! Like the principles of the organization , the principles of the thesis, Spontaneous Order can also applied to whole societies.

A market economy , a capitalistic system or#151;to follow the gcse coursework school, terminological preferences of Hayek#151;the Catallaxia is such an application. The structures of a Catallaxia are typically not planned by master lab leiden university specific actors like a party or a politburo, their elements are independent in bibliography website determining their aims, its elements are not led by central leaders, and master, they have no certain telos . Rather the critical thinking, evolution of these structures is dependent upon abstractly formulated rules , which are the master thesis university, same for descriptive, all elements of that society! Because of the mentioned conflict between the master thesis university, two #147;equalities#148; it could be said that spontaneous market orders#151;in contrast to Organizations#151;are orders of Equality before the australia, Law , rather than orders of material equality . Master Thesis! Important for essays david, our actual consideration is the typical type of rules , which is lab leiden university, used to form this kind of order. They are typically proscriptive, relatively abstract, and negative formulated, which means that they say something about what people are not allowed to david, do, instead of master thesis lab leiden, prescribing certain and definite actions. Hayek uses the australia join the vietnam, Greek term nomos when he refers explicitly to this specific kind of positive rules (Hayek 1973:94ff).

But the most import feature of the master thesis, rules which are fundamental for organizations is worksheets, that they have normally the same validity for each element of the order: #147;Rules which are to enable individuals to thesis lab leiden, find their own places in a spontaneous order of the whole society must be general; they must not assign to particular individuals a status, but rather leave the pharmcas essay, individual to create his own position. (Hayek 1963:463)#148; Hayek addresses explicitly this kind of master thesis lab leiden, rules when he refers to #147;rules of just conduct#148; (Hayek 1976:197) and he explains in join detail the master university, evolvement of critical components, these rules in the process of cultural evolution . Master Thesis Lab Leiden! These rules, the nomos , are necessary to guide a fruitful market process. It can be said that the spontaneous order is the traditional and true order of Equality before the Law ! The capacity to process information of essay introduction, Spontaneous Orders is regularly higher than the capacity of an Organization, and this is university, because it is not bound by the capability of critical thinking, any single planning agency. Master Thesis Lab Leiden! Rather, Spontaneous Orders of essay bibliography, persons under a framework of abstract and general formulated rules, which have the same validity for all people are the most effective way to utilize as much from the master, hidden and essay, economically relevant knowledge about scarcities and about human needs, the knowledge which is lab leiden, dispersed within society. Website! The mechanism, which is used to transfer and to lab leiden university, process the knowledge in spontaneous market orders is, according to warren, Hayek, the price mechanism . Lab Leiden University! In his view, the pharmcas essay, price systems serves as an informational system just as the internal #147;preferences#148; or #147;valuations#148; serve as cognitive instruments within the human mind: #147;Fundamentally, in master thesis lab leiden university a system in which the bibliography, knowledge of the relevant facts is dispersed among many people, prices can act to co-ordinate the master lab leiden university, separate actions of different people in thinking the same way as subjective values help the individual to master lab leiden, co-ordinate the parts of his plan. (Hayek 1945:85)#148; And while in pharmcas essay a planned order of inequality before the thesis university, law expectations cannot be applied to any member of the society in the same way, in a catallaxia all participants of the market process meet as equals before the law, and my hobby essay, this fact enables the master university, full utilization of experience in the market process. Additionally, the australia the vietnam war essay, principle of master thesis university, Equality before the Law of australia the vietnam war essay, all participants maximizes the number of master thesis lab leiden, competing alternative problem solving solutions within an economic system and, therefore, the probability to find the most fruitful product or strategy. As a consequence, the ability of this kind of order to help the single economic actors to cope with their cognitive limits is regularly very high. This advantage of spontaneous social orders to pharmcas essay, process more of the economically relevant knowledge has, as we will see, its effect on the efficiency of economic systems.

1. Economic Effects of Information Processing Characteristics. Thesis! As we have seen, the different kinds of rules are economically relevant because they produce different types of orders, and these different orders have different capabilities to essay bibliography website, process dispersed knowledge. Thesis Lab Leiden! Thus the economic relevance of rules can be described in Hayek#146;s words: #147;The aim of the rules must be to facilitate that matching or tallying of the introduction, expectations on which the plans of the individuals depend for their success. (Hayek 1973:98)#148; With reference to the equivalence of master thesis lab leiden, classification and abstraction he relates the process of why did australia, abstraction, the university, role of general rules of gcse mayfield high, just conduct, and the idea of liberalism to one another: #147;Although the master lab leiden, use of abstraction extends the scope of phenomena which we can master intellectually, it does so by limiting the degree to which we can foresee the effects of our actions, and my hobby essay drawing, therefore also by master lab leiden university limiting to maths coursework mayfield high, certain general features the master thesis, degree to which we can shape the essays in idleness david, world to our liking. Thesis Lab Leiden! Liberalism for gcse mayfield high, this reason restricts deliberate control of the overall order of society to master university, the enforcement of such general rules as are necessary for gcse mayfield school, the formation of a spontaneous order, the details of which we cannot foresee. (Hayek 1973:32)#148; Also, he refers explicitly to the spontaneous order of Equality before the thesis, Law when he describes the most effective way to essay bibliography website, use the dispersed knowledge: #147;It is the master thesis lab leiden university, only procedure yet discovered in introduction which information widely dispersed among millions of men can be effectively utilized for the benefit of all#151;and used by assuring to all an individual liberty desirable for itself on ethical grounds. Master Lab Leiden University! (Hayek 1976:70)#148; Therefore, from a Hayekian epistemological standpoint it appears to be economically necessary to bibliography website, restrict individual behavior by general rules because of the cognitive limits of the single mind! Or, as Hayek expresses it: #147;It is, in other words, our restricted horizon of knowledge of the master thesis lab leiden university, concrete facts which makes it necessary to coordinate our actions by submitting to abstract rules rather than to attempt to decide each particular case solely in view of the limited set of relevant particular facts which we happen to know. (Hayek 1963:465)#148; It may sound paradoxical that rationality should, thus, require that we deliberately disregard knowledge which we possess, but this is part of the necessity of coming to terms with our unalterable ignorance of much that would be relevant if we knew it. As the essay drawing, Hayekian epistemology has showed us, this paradox is a result of the fact that, in contrast to our superficial, introspective experience, all perception consists of abstractions. With implicit reference to his own epistemology, Hayek states: #147;It is the great lesson which science has taught us that we must resort to thesis lab leiden, the abstract where we cannot master the concrete. Bibliography Website! (Hayek 1963:466)#148; Applying the presented theoretical framework of the different kinds of orders to real economic systems, the master lab leiden university, process of transformation from socialism to capitalism can be interpreted as an why did australia institutional change from an oikonomia , which is master university, based on why did australia prescriptive rules, and commands, which are regularly unequal for the members of the society, to a catallaxia , which is based on thesis lab leiden university proscriptive and abstract formulated rules with the same validity for each member of the gcse maths coursework high, society. Furthermore, according to the Hayekian observation that the master thesis lab leiden university, two possible interpretations of #147;equality#148; are in conflict with each other (Hayek 1960:97), transformation can be interpreted as the transformation from a political system, which follows the idea of material equality into a system, which follows the competing ideal of Equality before the essay, Law . Master Lab Leiden! Facing the different capabilities of the descriptive essays, two orders to utilize the dispersed knowledge in master thesis university society it can be said, that this institutional transformation to bibliography, an order of Equality before the Law also means an university improvement of essay bibliography, economic success of the respective order.

Such an interpretation could be fruitful for the analysis not only with respect to the transitional countries in Central, Eastern or Southern Europe, but also in other countries which want to strengthen their market economic character, for master university, example Afghanistan, Iraq, or China. 2. Critical Thinking Components! Socialism as an Oikonomia. We will now have a look at typical characteristics of thesis university, socialistic political and pharmcas essay, economical systems, emphasizing that the ideas of socialism stick to the idea of the #147;organization#148; and that these social orders are necessarily characterized by inequality before the law. Like a typical Organization, the classical socialistic regime followed a definite and homogeneous goal, and thesis, that goal was expressed through the idea of #147;Communism#148;. We can read in the program of the IX. party conference of the essays, Socialistic Unity Party (SED) of the German Democratic Republic (DDR) from 1976: #147;Communism#151;that is the classless order of society in which .. all members of the society are footed socially equal . and which is governed by the principle: #145;from each according to his ability and to each according to thesis lab leiden, his need#146; (SED 1976:73)#148;. The mentioned Marxian idea of critical components, #147;from each according to his ability and to each according to his need#148; was translated into public policy by thesis a variety of political instruments. Selective subsidizing of goods and services, rationing of goods, and administratively fixed uniform wages for nearly all occupations are only a few examples.

Thus, classical socialistic systems typically followed the coursework mayfield, ideal of material equality rather than the ideal of Equality before the thesis university, Law . Typical socialistic regimes tried to achieve this aim by central planning, a style of the vietnam war essay, administration, which has, according to the socialist ideology, an economic as well as a moral superiority against the #147;anarchy of the master thesis, market#148;. Worksheets! To exercise the master lab leiden, #147;superior#148; central planning according to bibliography website, the will of the working class, dictatorship was officially accepted and wanted. Master! But this dictatorship was not exercised by the working class directly; rather it was #147;represented#148; by the party, which was seen as the only authorized #147;interpreter#148; of the official ideology, the #147;Socialistic Scientism#148;. This central power was exercised in economic relations through the maths coursework mayfield high, various state owned companies and master lab leiden, agricultural cooperatives. The extent of why did the vietnam, this power could be imagined, if we have a look at the share of the public sector as a percentage of GDP in European Socialistic Countries shortly before the start of the master thesis, transitional process in 1989: in the year 1988, the pharmcas essay, Public Sector produced 99.3% of the master thesis university, GDP in Czechoslovakia, 96.4% in East Germany and 95.5% in Romania (Kornai 1992:72). Additionally, the in idleness, administration in lab leiden university socialistic systems exercised a lot of thinking components, influence into the civil society via #147;mass organizations,#148; which were also led by the ruling socialistic parties. Neither in civil nor in economic life there were independent actors which could be seen as equals before the law. University! (Kornai 1992:33ff) Since the essay argumentation introduction, central planners in such political systems were subject only to the #147;interests of the working class#148;, and not to any constitutional law or to the aims of independent individuals, they had exercised their power not according to master thesis lab leiden university, the Rule of Law but to my hobby essay, the rule of master university, reason #151;which means necessarily that they had to pharmcas essay, treat different persons unequal ! Or, as Hayek expresses it: #147;A necessary, and only apparently paradoxical, result of this is that formal Equality before the Law is in conflict, and in fact incompatible, with any activity of the government deliberately aiming at material or substantive equality of different people, and that any policy aiming directly at master thesis lab leiden university, a substantive ideal of distributive justice must lead to the destruction of the in idleness, Rule of Law. (Hayek 1944:87)#148; 1. Rule of master university, Law and Equality before the Law. In our considerations of the role of knowledge we have seen that Equality before the essay argumentation, Law, the basic principle of the spontaneous market order, is lab leiden, supposed to have certain relevance for why did australia join, economic performance. For Hayek, the idea of a non-discriminating social order in which all people are treated equally before the lab leiden university, Law is not only critical thinking related to, rather it is to be seen as the core of the idea of the Rule of lab leiden university, Law (Hayek 1944:87, 92).

Since until now there has been no estimation of the realization of website, Equality before the Law available, we want to make use of master, this tight relation between the two principles of liberalism. The realization of the join the vietnam war essay, principle of the Rule of master lab leiden, Law had been estimated by Kaufmann, Kraay, and Mastruzzi in 2003 and we want to why did australia the vietnam, use this index as a proxy for the realization of Equality before the thesis lab leiden, Law in single transformation counries. Gcse Coursework Mayfield High! To estimate economic performance, we will use the lab leiden university, Gross National Income in single transformation countries. Pharmcas Essay! To see the relation between these basic liberal principles and the economic performance we have depicted in master the following chart on the X-axis the estimation variable for the realization of the worksheets, principle of the Rule of master thesis university, Law in gcse maths coursework high school the single transformation countries. University! The variable reaches from -2.5 for countries which treat their people completely unequal up to +2.5 for the (imaginary) country, which provides full Equality before the Law to its citizens. At the Y-axis we can see the Gross National Income of each of these countries, measured by the Worldbank per year and per capita according to essays, the Atlas method (Worldbank 2003).

The above graph clearly shows a positive relationship between the Rule of Law index of Kaufmann, Kraay, and Mastruzzi at lab leiden university, the X-axis and the income parameter on the Y-axis. 2. Constitutional Framework. Argumentation! To support this result, we want to compare the Gross National Income also with the parameter for #147;Constitutional, Legislative, and Judicial Framework#148; of the Freedom House#146;s annual #147;Freedom in the World#148; survey, because this parameter explicitly refers to the fulfillment of Equality before the Law (Freedom House 2004) and master thesis lab leiden, could, therefore, serve as an additional proxy. Critical! The mentioned parameter reaches from 1 for thesis lab leiden university, a good constitutional framework and why did war essay, high Equality before the Law up to lab leiden, 7. On the Y-axis you will find again the Gross National Income per year and per capita in 2002, measured by the Worldbank (Worldbank 2003). Coursework Mayfield! Like in the first chart one can see a clear relationship between our proxy for the fulfillment of Equality before the Law and national income. 3. Explanation of the master university, Results.

As we have pointed out, the transformation process of former socialistic states to market economies can be interpreted with reference to argumentation, the Hayekian kinds of orders as a transformation from master thesis lab leiden a society, which is organized according to the principles of the Organization , to a society, which possesses the david warren, characteristics of lab leiden university, a Catallaxia . With respect to the institutions and pharmcas essay, rules, which form the order in master thesis lab leiden society, it can also be stated that transformation means an gcse maths coursework mayfield high school institutional change from an order of master lab leiden, mainly prescriptive, concrete commands to an order of maths high school, mainly proscriptive, abstractly formulated rules. Additionally, we have found out master lab leiden that in the Hayekian view the david warren, use of master thesis lab leiden university, knowledge in society plays a crucial role in pharmcas essay affecting the thesis university, success of the my hobby, overall economic process. Thesis University! Since we have also seen that societies which are organized according to drawing, the principles of the Catallaxia, have a higher capacity to process knowledge than those orders which obey the rules of the master thesis lab leiden, Organization, it could be expected that the catallactic structures support economic success better. As we have argued, the order of the Oikonomia can be expected to have only why did australia join the vietnam war essay a low capacity to process economically relevant knowledge. In the real existing socialistic systems that deficit became visible in thesis lab leiden university the poor innovative forces and in website the regular shortages in master thesis all markets: while lacking innovation is the vietnam, a phenomenon of the master thesis, missing discovery of new knowledge , shortages are the phenomenon of join the vietnam, a lacking exchange of master lab leiden university, knowledge about pharmcas essay scarcities and needs! On the lab leiden, other hand, the Catallaxia possesses the in idleness warren, necessary characteristics to discover and to master lab leiden university, exchange knowledge. In capitalistic and catallactic systems the characteristics are regularly provided by maths school the mechanism of competition and the price system. Thesis University! The price systems serves as information systems just as the internal #147;preferences#148; or #147;valuations#148; serve as cognitive instruments within the human mind.

Or, expressed differently, #147;We need decentralization because only thus can we insure that the knowledge of the particular circumstances of time and place will be promptly used. (Hayek 1945:84)#148; If we describe the thinking components, transformation process as a institutional change from thesis to thesis lab leiden university, nomos , that means a change to an order of coursework mayfield, Equality before the Law, then the master lab leiden university, above charts show that the more perfect this change is realized, the more successfully the economy works. Or, in other words, the closer an economic order comes to descriptive worksheets, the ideal of the Catallaxia , the order of Equality before the Law , the master thesis university, wealthier the gcse, participants of that order can be. But, on the other hand, if political systems adhere to master, their organizational principles of socialism and in idleness, of inequality before the law, they omit the thesis lab leiden university, opportunities to discover innovations and to my hobby drawing, make use of the knowledge which is dispersed among society. Differences between the success of master thesis lab leiden university, implementation of the principles of the spontaneous market order in website the constitutional framework as well as differences between the economic impact of such implementation can be explained, like Zweynert and Goldschmidt have done recently, with reference to the different cultural legacies and the different #147;informal institutions#148; (also with reference to cognitive reasoning) in the single countries (Zweynert/Goldschmidt 2005). With respect to the intellectual history of the occident and to master, the work of Friedrich August von Hayek we have pointed out the critical components, importance of the principle of Equality of Law for liberalism and for economic performance. The systematic place of the master thesis lab leiden university, struggle of liberalism for Equality before the Law in Hayek#146;s work is to be found in bibliography website his differentiation between the fundamental principles of order in society. Since in his work the order of Equality before the thesis lab leiden, Law is the critical components, Spontaneous Order or the #147;Catallaxia#148;, the master thesis university, transformation from a central planned society to a catallacitic and spontaneous order can in join the vietnam war essay a Hayekian sense interpreted as a transformation to a liberal order of Equality before the Law! And while the principles of the Organization can be fruitfully applied in hierarchical social orders like armies or companies , for whole #147;open#148; societies only the application of the principles of the Spontaneous Order can cause positive effects to the processing of knowledge in these societies.

The role of lab leiden university, order in society for the processing of australia the vietnam war essay, knowledge has been explained with reference to master thesis, the Hayekian epistemology, while the role of my hobby essay, knowledge for the economic performance of lab leiden, societies has been explained with reference to his social theory. Why Did Join War Essay! Additionally, the theoretical relation between the order of master thesis lab leiden, a society and join the vietnam, its economic performance has been tried to express with statistical figures. We have shown that those countries, which became better examples for master thesis university, the realization of the liberal value of the Rule of Law, have regularly a higher income per capita. Pharmcas Essay! As a consequence it could be stated that Equality before the Law is thesis lab leiden, not only important with respect to the fulfillment of human rights in components an ethical sense. Additionally, the realization of Equality before the master lab leiden, Law is has economic importance, which is by in idleness no means an argument with less moral value. With respect to thesis, the transitional countries it could also be stated that the success of gcse maths coursework mayfield high, transition depends, in master lab leiden university addition to critical, a lot of master university, other important parameters, on the grade of the realization of the principle of Equality before the Law and of the Rule of Law in those counties! The recommendation to transitional countries from the standpoint of this article is, that if these countries want to improve the wealth of their citizens, they have to essay introduction, realize the value of Equality before the Law! Major steps to fulfill this goal would be to master university, install and to respect constitutional structures and to realize and to pharmcas essay, adhere to the basic principles of master thesis lab leiden, liberalism.

Aristotle (2004): Selections from Nicomachean Ethics and Politics , The Collector#146;s Library of Essential Thinkers, London. Hayek, F. A. (1937): Economics and essay, Knowledge , in: Economica IV 1937, S. 33-54. Hayek, F. Master! A. (1944): The Road to essay drawing, Serfdom , University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Master! Hayek, F. A. (1945): The Use of Knowledge in australia Society , in: American Economic Review, XXXV, No. 4, September, S. 519-530. Master University! Reprinted in: Individualism and Economic Order (1948), University of Chicago Press. Hayek, F. A. (1952): The Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundations of in idleness david, Theoretical Psychology , University of Chicago, Chicago.

Hayek, F. A. (1960): The Constitution of Liberty , The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hayek, F. Master Thesis University! A. (1963): Kinds of Order in descriptive essays worksheets Society , New Individualists Review, Vol. Lab Leiden University! 3(2), pp. 457-466. Hayek, F. Maths Coursework Mayfield! A. Master Thesis University! (1973): Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. High School! I : Rules and Order, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Lab Leiden University! Hayek, F. A. (1976): Law, Legislation and essay drawing, Liberty , Vol. II: The Mirage of Social Justice, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hayek, F. A. (1967): Studies in master Philosophy, Politics and gcse maths high, Economics , University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Kaufmann, D./Kraay, A./Mastruzzi, M. University! (2003): Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators for 1996-2002 , Worldbank 2003. Kornai, J. (1992): The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism , Claredon Press, Oxford. Nemo, Ph. (2004): Qu#146;est-ce que l#146;Occident? , PUF, collection Quadrige, Paris. Maths Mayfield School! SED (1976): Programm der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands , erschienen zum IX. Parteitag der SED, Dietz Verlag, Berlin (own translations). Smith, A. Master Thesis Lab Leiden University! (1759): The Theory of maths mayfield, Moral Sentiments , London. Worldbank (2004): GNI per capita 2003, Atlas method and PPP , World Development Indicators database, Worldbank,

Zweynert, J./Goldschmidt, N. (2005): The two transitions in master university Central and essays in idleness warren, Eastern Europe and the relation between path dependent and politically implemented institutional change , in: Freiburger Diskussionspapiere zur Ordnungsokonomik, 2017 INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE, 100 SWAN WAY, OAKLAND CA 94621#8209;1428 | (510) 632#8209;1366 | (510) 568#8209;6040 FAX | SEND EMAIL.

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If you were placed in the role to resolve specific challenges, it’s vital to note the circumstances at your entry into the position. For example, if you were hired to turn around declining sales, what was the sales level when you started? What sales level did you attain or position during your tenure? Keep it brief – your position introduction should take up only 2 to 3 lines of text. Make every word count! Do the same thing with your achievements by including key details that reveal the thesis lab leiden university larger context of your actions. If you averted a division closure by turning around sales, that’s vital to thinking components, highlight. If your marketing efforts helped open new market sectors which paved the way for a mission-critical merger, say so. Don’t just focus on results – put your results in a larger context that makes your overall contributions more clear. 4. Front-Load Your Resume’s Achievements With A Strategic Focus.

Most job seekers assume that recruiters read resumes the same way that they do. Not so. Many recruiters read a resume “out of order” or in pieces and parts in order to master lab leiden, nail down their big picture perspective of the prospective candidate’s career. Bibliography. This often includes reading achievement statements differently than you and I do. Before reading them in their entirety some recruiters briefly review the master first few words of each bulleted statement to test the waters, so to gcse maths coursework school, speak, and see if the accomplishments are more tactically or strategically focused. Master Lab Leiden. It thus imperative that you front-load your achievements with the strategic focus they’re looking for, assuming you have that experience. In leadership positions, your strategy influence is often a bigger deal than your monetary impact. Begin your bulleted statements by clarifying your strategic impact, then note the thinking components specific impacts you achieved.

Here’s my revamp which shifts the emphasis to strategy: Roadmapped Greenfield plant start-up from thesis lab leiden university strategic planning to on-time, on-budget rollout in 1 year. Outcome: Doubled throughput and critical increased revenue by $42M. For example, here’s a typical “homemade” bullet written by a real job seeker: “Working on a green field project that would double the capacity of the master plant.” 5. Align Your Education Extra Sections With A Leadership Focus. It’s always vital to include up-to-date listings of your educational credentials, of course, including certifications, relevant affiliations, and professional development coursework. But don’t overlook other details that can bolster the leadership focus of your resume. Any evidence of coursework, your present or past leadership experience may be relevant. Master University. Thus, consider adding present or past volunteer leadership roles in pharmcas essay, professional or community organizations. Make sure you include any for profit or not-for-profit board or committee roles you have fulfilled. Lab Leiden University. And if space permits, include key initiatives you have contributed to why did the vietnam, during your tenure on lab leiden these boards or committees. Leadership courses completed at gcse mayfield high, major grad schools deserve emphasis as well. When you list industry-specific certifications, include them in master university, acronym form as well as spelled out because either form is a keyword.

If you have won leadership awards or been selected for my hobby drawing, leadership development programs with any of your employers, make sure you note these. 6. Use The Job’s Title As Your Resume’s Title. This is master lab leiden university, a quick change but a critical one: make sure you insert the exact title of the position you’re pursuing into your resume as its title. This will of course add more keywords to descriptive, your resume, but, more importantly, it will shape the master university perception of your resume’s readers to see you as qualified for the position you are targeting. Now, this won’t work if you apply for a leadership role for which you have few, if any, qualifications. But if you are well-qualified for the position you’re targeting and meet 75% or more of the role requirements, then this is worksheets, a wise and appropriate thing to do.

7. Harness Your Career Brand In A Tagline. Whether you call it a tagline or a power statement, these single-line headlines are the perfect length to university, encapsulate a key leadership trait you possess along with your most impactful and important career-long impacts. These kinds of statements are big picture by nature and thus encompass the whole of your career rather than just your most recent role. Secondary or tertiary power statements can be used to components, spell out additional role-specific achievements. For example, here’s the tagline I used for thesis, an executive resume I recently wrote: Fueled $12B in revenue career-long while delivering 3X investor returns. As you can see, short statements are more powerful when used as headlines; key details can be provided in the work history section of your resume. Let’s say you’re a leader with a turnaround history – that would be important to note in a key location. Essay. Hence, a tagline such as this might be beneficial: Reversed the performance of 4 mid-size companies from negative to up to master lab leiden, +$124M in 6 months.

All of the foregoing are content shifts you need to make in your resume to why did join war essay, properly position yourself as a leadership candidate. In addition, consider overhauling your resume’s “look and master thesis feel” to call attention to maths coursework high, executive-level experience. Take a look at some formatting makeovers in this blog post. This post was originally published on an earlier date.

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and university Experiments Undertaken for maths mayfield Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on master thesis lab leiden university, the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for pharmcas essay Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in master university, the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of essay, 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at thesis lab leiden university, least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern.

‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is essay, viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for lab leiden future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the critical components, directorship of lab leiden university, agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. Maths Coursework High! ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to thesis lab leiden university the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and essay social life of master lab leiden, a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor.

It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth. It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the critical components, interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors.

These have to thesis lab leiden university be integrated with Government policies and why did join war essay plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and master thesis nutrition housing and essay website a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in lab leiden university, distribution of critical thinking components, rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and thesis university economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to website sustain and accelerate the university, pace of descriptive worksheets, these improvements. The critical element in master lab leiden university, the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the bibliography, poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and master lab leiden human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of descriptive essays, rural activities. Master Thesis Lab Leiden University! Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of critical thinking, organising production, welfare and lab leiden exchange in rural activities has a long history and critical thinking components is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the master thesis lab leiden university, failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and worksheets 1960s.

Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and master thesis unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the thinking components, present day developed countries. The growth of university, output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to drawing 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods. Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of master lab leiden university, economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system.

Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. Join War Essay! These impressive increases were also accompanied by thesis lab leiden university, growth of population and gcse school large-scale migration from lab leiden university not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in maths high school, long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of thesis university, labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and essay better employment opportunities. The role of the master lab leiden university, State has been changing significantly since the coursework mayfield school, Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the lab leiden university, “Public works” component has been an pharmcas essay expanding area of master, State activity.

Modern development policy makers while, recognising the pharmcas essay, importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is lab leiden, one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and my hobby drawing urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. Master Thesis University! In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of join the vietnam, infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Thesis University! Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and worksheets documents on national planning policies. Master Lab Leiden! In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to australia war essay the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and master landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in essays worksheets, the governmental orchestra.

The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in master, the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the essays, view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in university, our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and essays worksheets experiments undertaken for rural development in thesis lab leiden, Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments:

This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. My Hobby Essay! The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained.

The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920. This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to master lab leiden university deal with the whole life and the activity of the gcse mayfield high, peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in lab leiden, a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in maths coursework mayfield school, all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the master thesis lab leiden university, agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of my hobby, Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the lab leiden, project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities.

The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the maths coursework high school, education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and master university self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the bibliography website, various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the master, provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of pharmcas essay, self-confidence and master cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World.

The project also exhibited the critical components, exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. The Rehabilitation of master thesis university, displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to descriptive essays provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to master thesis university activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to essay this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to master thesis include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. My Hobby Drawing! The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and master thesis university policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. Maths High School! The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per master thesis university, the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the thinking components, centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of master university, its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to critical thinking components 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages.

In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to master thesis university implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. Pharmcas Essay! The programme was also implemented in Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government.

The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to thesis lab leiden university achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme. Descriptive Essays! In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and master the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in essay website, rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the thesis university, plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and website adequate nutrition to lab leiden the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of join, rural society. Master Thesis! In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes.

These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in pharmcas essay, limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the master thesis lab leiden university, existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for coursework high Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period. The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on thesis, the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the australia war essay, inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the master thesis, Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and.

(ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and gcse coursework mayfield high school social justice. In order to attain all-round development in thesis lab leiden, rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is my hobby essay, regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. Master Lab Leiden! As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of descriptive essays, rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of lab leiden university, Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of essay, Women and master Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. Pharmcas Essay! were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an university independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and my hobby justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies.

The plan intended; to continue the master, rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the pharmcas essay, plan period. The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of master thesis lab leiden university, adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the essay, infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to master thesis lab leiden continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of essay, agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of lab leiden, agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and pharmcas essay other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999.

In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on master university, Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to high school rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in master thesis lab leiden, our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to pharmcas essay bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance.

(4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the thesis, important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Gcse Maths Coursework! Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors.

The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over master thesis, the period of 50 years. Thinking! The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the master thesis university, country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam! The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development. Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the master, important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of essay drawing, these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on master university, the secondary data available.

As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and thinking components the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in thesis, the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of people’s participation is my hobby drawing, essential and to master thesis lab leiden university implement this ideology, the worksheets, Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. Thesis Lab Leiden! The Community Development Programme was launched on thinking, 2nd October 1952.

A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of master lab leiden university, land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the pharmcas essay, objectives of Community Development Programme was framed.

The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by lab leiden university, means of self-help. Gcse Coursework School! This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of master lab leiden university, rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and bibliography services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. Master Thesis Lab Leiden University! It also aims at the largest possible extension of the pharmcas essay, principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the thesis lab leiden, recommendation of why did join war essay, Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and lab leiden university the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block. The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme.

The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the bibliography website, end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974). During the master thesis lab leiden university, said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and my hobby essay large number of stage II block to master lab leiden university post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III.

Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of essays worksheets, Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of lab leiden, a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for pharmcas essay implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the master thesis lab leiden university, way for australia join democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to master thesis university assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in worksheets, conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is observed that the whole programme suffered from thesis lab leiden lack of vitality, and descriptive essays worksheets was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to thesis university the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to australia war essay the instrument of master thesis university, economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the thinking components, Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. Master Thesis University! This programme was put into essay bibliography website action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to master improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of why did war essay, these districts was made on thesis lab leiden university, the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply.

(b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for gcse maths mayfield high the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the thesis university, district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of descriptive essays, higher yielding paddy in master lab leiden university, the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only essay, self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State.

The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and master thesis increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to website the development of thesis university, scientific and thinking components progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per master, cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in critical components, 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of lab leiden, inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on why did the vietnam war essay, agricultural production. It was decided to thesis university implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres.

In Orissa a total of join the vietnam war essay, 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an lab leiden additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the essay, importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):

The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the master thesis, economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of pharmcas essay, paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and master thesis bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in drawing, Indian agriculture which consists of the master thesis lab leiden, introduction of my hobby, new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of thesis lab leiden, fertilizers and extension of the use of essay, pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in master lab leiden university, respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the gcse maths coursework mayfield school, progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the master thesis lab leiden university, main food crop.

The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the why did australia the vietnam, Chairmanship of lab leiden university, Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for maths mayfield high the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in master lab leiden university, terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to my hobby be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.

It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the thesis, problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and bibliography land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to be undertaken by master lab leiden, the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to pharmcas essay the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to university small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. High! However, the master university, scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in components, the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in master thesis, selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act.

The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per descriptive, cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. University! During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes.

Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala. Bibliography! The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the master thesis lab leiden university, scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at australia the vietnam war essay, Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and master agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the bibliography website, first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the thesis lab leiden university, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and australia war essay skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and master lab leiden Commercial banks. Besides provision of critical, matching subsidies were also provided to thesis the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and pharmcas essay inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively.

A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per cent of the master thesis university, beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP):

A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of website, providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and master thesis university provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the pharmcas essay, objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in master thesis university, its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in critical, the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the thesis lab leiden, concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of essay bibliography website, Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the thesis lab leiden university, Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by components, the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. Thesis University! As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an essay amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. Thesis Lab Leiden University! During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on my hobby essay, different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and master thesis Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against descriptive essays the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for university DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores.

The launching of pharmcas essay, Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. Master Thesis University! The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and my hobby drawing 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to lab leiden university 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs.

The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to critical components Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in master university, the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is maths mayfield, found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for lab leiden university achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in essay, the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on lab leiden, tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods.

However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in descriptive, the first three plans emphasis was placed on thesis university, sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to descriptive essays worksheets planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the thesis lab leiden, Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of thinking, these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out.

A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the university, preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent. (iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities.

In order to drawing implement the lab leiden, sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Why Did Australia Join The Vietnam! Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and master thesis university Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and why did programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of master thesis lab leiden, different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.

There were about australia join war essay 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of lab leiden, that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of join war essay, which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. Master Thesis! A total financial outlay of gcse mayfield, Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about master thesis 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is gcse coursework high school, observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of master thesis, funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the essay drawing, plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from thesis social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on gcse high school, the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.

The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the lab leiden, Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration.

The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. Bibliography! There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in master thesis lab leiden, those areas.

The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.

In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP):

The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the my hobby essay, irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of master thesis lab leiden, C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of why did australia join the vietnam war essay, field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and.

(iv) Adoption of master lab leiden university, Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at school, their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by master university, the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of my hobby drawing, a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by master lab leiden university, Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for my hobby essay the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey.

(iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the thesis, total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in essay drawing, the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput. An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and master thesis lab leiden land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply.

(iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and essays worksheets ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation.

The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in thesis, 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period. The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is my hobby essay, a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period.

Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the master, attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by essays worksheets, great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to master thesis lab leiden all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country. The programmes are varied in nature and approach.

Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from essay time to master lab leiden time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and descriptive evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to university a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc.

In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of essay website, Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the master lab leiden, Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and worksheets coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the thesis university, Ministries, the Reserve Bank of essay, India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level.

At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of master thesis lab leiden, developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Descriptive Worksheets! Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in master university, the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and pharmcas essay a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee.

There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and master thesis lab leiden university other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and pharmcas essay tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.

(vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of thesis university, India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation.

(xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the essay website, representatives of various government departments are also participate in thesis lab leiden, the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes.

The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of mayfield high, Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the lab leiden, District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and bibliography order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the thesis lab leiden, developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the essay bibliography, District Administration, known as the thesis, District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer.

Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and my hobby essay area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented. All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by master thesis lab leiden university, Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and critical components an economist/statistician. Thesis! In addition there is coursework mayfield high, one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the lab leiden university, Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level.

The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and gcse maths high Development Board to master thesis provide necessary guidelines and direction to bibliography district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in lab leiden university, the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from pharmcas essay state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the master thesis lab leiden university, Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to thinking devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. Master Thesis Lab Leiden University! M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment. (iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector.

(v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s.

The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is my hobby drawing, intended to master university be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to critical thinking components be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and master thesis women and child welfare etc. Below the extension officer there are about essay website 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee.

The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the master thesis university, hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to worksheets arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and lab leiden assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks. The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities.

(ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. Essay! The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector.

(v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the master thesis lab leiden, planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the descriptive essays, rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in thesis lab leiden university, a “Trickle down approach”. The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and maths implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and thesis lab leiden university implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state.

5. Essay on pharmcas essay, the Observations and lab leiden Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is bibliography website, worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the thesis university, jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.

In addition the bibliography website, NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the master thesis lab leiden, programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the essay bibliography, problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. Lab Leiden University! They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes.

Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. Essay Drawing! All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources. These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in master thesis lab leiden university, the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in essays worksheets, nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other.

All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good co­ordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and master thesis Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to essay maintain such principles and master thesis lab leiden ideologies. The said representatives often interested to critical thinking fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and thesis lab leiden university highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to critical change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment.

The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of master thesis lab leiden university, planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for gcse maths high a particular rural development Programme.

These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to master lab leiden be inadequate. Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over gcse high school, many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the master, precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the maths coursework mayfield high, authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to thesis lab leiden act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to essay bibliography website the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited.

All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is master thesis lab leiden, observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and my hobby essay groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and thesis university deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the bibliography website, society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the university, petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of gcse maths coursework high, financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the master, beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts.

This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and my hobby drawing subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on thesis lab leiden, the principle of descriptive essays worksheets, write off by lab leiden, political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries. This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries.

(x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the drawing, programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is master, also don’t hesitate to wind up the pharmcas essay, ongoing programme despite of its importance and thesis lab leiden university success.

In India, due to these problems, the australia join the vietnam, rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and lab leiden university the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to critical components enhance the thesis lab leiden, awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the pharmcas essay, rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people.

The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. Master Thesis Lab Leiden University! The existing system of publicity about the rural development is descriptive, required to be re-considered and should be based on university, rural realities prior to my hobby drawing the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the master thesis university, programme is target oriented. Pharmcas Essay! The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and thesis lab leiden university beneficiaries.

As against bibliography this, the master university, Government should lay more emphasis on maths coursework high school, the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the master university, effectively functioning Gram Sabha. The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. Critical Components! The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by lab leiden, the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to essay the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to university draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to why did the vietnam make their own decision. 3. The important objective of master thesis, rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors.

Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in essay drawing, relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the university, determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the high, poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in master lab leiden university, the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to essay website be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.

This approach will not only improve the thesis lab leiden, infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the coursework school, initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. Thesis Lab Leiden University! The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of critical components, subsidies for rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. Lab Leiden! The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed. Besides, for the success of my hobby drawing, Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently.

8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to master thesis university have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for join the vietnam alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and master Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and maths mayfield high school can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure.

The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and lab leiden followed by essays, progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Master Lab Leiden! Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and pharmcas essay from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in master university, appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. Maths! The planning, implementing, monitoring of lab leiden, rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies.

This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of essay bibliography, failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Choose search keywords wisely and my hobby essay drawing, copy and paste key ideas and quotes into a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to master university, get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and bibliography website, remember to use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the thesis lab leiden university essay your own voice and critical components, make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. University? Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for gcse maths coursework mayfield your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end.

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Simply enter the details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of extra work typing out master thesis university, your references and bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the word limit!

Get all your content down and don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in handy if you need to make up the word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the pharmcas essay word limit, don't panic. Master? Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is essays, a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on university, them and build around each piece of gcse maths school, meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to master thesis university, make the full kebab… time for critical thinking a dinner break?

Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to master thesis lab leiden, hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues.

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While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from recommended and unlikely to thesis, get you the why did join the vietnam best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for thesis university any extensions. Remember, this is critical, a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck! Exams coming up?

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