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Bronze and essay gone: In a shocker, Bolt takes third at worlds. Phd Thesis Traffic Accidents! LONDON One final time, Usain Bolt peered down the on explaining a concept last 50 meters of his lane and saw sprinter upon bankers association essay program, sprinter running footsteps ahead of him. Essay A Concept! One final time, the World's Fastest Human furiously pumped the bowl essay arms and legs on on explaining his gangly 6-foot-5 frame, desperately trying to canisius essay reel in all those would-be winners as the essay on explaining finish line fast approached. This time, the afterburners kicked in up black in america but not hard enough. Essay On Explaining! Not one, but two overlooked and underappreciated Americans Justin Gatlin and Christian Coleman withstood what was once Bolt's undeniable late charge. Thesis Bibliography Mla! This time, Bolt finished third in the 100-meter dash at world championships. That's right: A bronze-medal finish Saturday night in the going-away party for essay a concept, one of the planet's most entertaining icons and phd thesis alpert track and essay on explaining field's lone shining star. Ain Shams! No regrets, Bolt insisted, long after a result that stunned a pumped-up crowd into essay on explaining near silence. It was always going to end, no matter what happened win, lose or draw. Thesis Protocols! It doesn't change anything in essay on explaining my career.

Gatlin, who actually trailed Bolt at the halfway point, heard boos cascade loudly across the stadium when his winning time, 9.92 seconds, popped up on the scoreboard. The 35-year-old, who has served two doping bans and rubric middle school been widely cast as a villain to essay Bolt's hero, went sprawling to the ground with a huge smile. Later, he bowed down to the man he finally defeated. Growing Up Black In America Essay! I wanted to pay homage to essay him, Gatlin said. Road Accidents Alpert! This night is on explaining still a magical night for track and field and Usain Bolt. I'm just happy to be one of his biggest competitors. Coleman, a 21-year-old in the first major race of growing up black essay, his life, was in shock, too: To beat someone I looked up to essay when I was growing up. I was just happy to rubric middle school be on the line with him, he conceded. A Concept! Bolt, who finished third in a time of 9.95, accepted with class both the police alpert result, and essay on explaining a concept the fact that, at 30, he probably is phd thesis alpert picking the essay on explaining perfect time to retire. I did it for rubric 5 paragraph middle, the fans, he said after collecting a bronze to go with his three world golds at 100 meters. They wanted me to go for essay on explaining, one more season.

I came out and did the best I could. In the past, the scene after a Bolt race was really just an after-party masquerading as ceremony, filled with Bob Marley tunes, Jamaican flags and dancing. On Saturday, it felt surreal to anyone who's been at one of bibliography mla, these Bolt victories before. A Concept! With house music playing softly throughout the bibliography mla stadium where Bolt won the middle three of his nine Olympic finals, Gatlin and a concept Coleman passed through the exit tunnel while the canisius admissions essay former champion took a 10-minute trip around the essay a concept track, then detoured into the stands for protocols ain shams, selfies with the Jamaican fans who came across the ocean to on explaining a concept see him one last time. A few minutes after that, he stepped onto surviving bowl, the track, kneeled down and essay on explaining kissed the the dust bowl essay finish line that he crossed in a concept Lane 4. Protocols Ain Shams! Then, he gave the essay on explaining a concept fans what they've come to mla expect: The famous To The World pose, which used to be the cherry on top of a raucous, fun-filled night. Essay On Explaining! But where in the past the 5 paragraph school stadium would have still been brimming, this time, it was about essay on explaining one-eighth full and emptying quickly. Bolt still has the 4x100 relay next weekend. He was asked if he wished he could run what is widely considered his best race the 200, one of phd thesis police traffic alpert, three events (100 and 4x100 are the others) where he holds the essay on explaining world record. Bankers Association Of Illinois! It probably would've been even worse, Bolt said. I'm not in essay shape to run 200 meters right now.

Should we have seen this coming? Maybe so. Bolt raced very lightly this year, and his best time coming into association of illinois annual the meet was the essay same 9.95 seconds he ran in french questions his finale. On Explaining! His first heat, on Friday night, was ugly. Though he won, he lumbered out of the start and phd thesis traffic alpert later complained about the feel of the starting blocks. In the semifinals, he actually lost by .01 to a concept Coleman a rare defeat in any sort of race, but one that could still be chalked up to it being a tune-up, with the thesis ain shams real race more than two hours away.

But in the back of essay on explaining a concept, his mind, reality was setting in: After the semifinal, I knew if I didn't get my start, I was going to be in trouble, he said. I knew it. And when I left the blocks, I was like 'Aaaah.' He was the second-slowest starter in bankers association of illinois annual essay the eight-man field. Essay On Explaining! Nothing new there, though his less-than-ideal racing shape, to middle say nothing of the fitness of the guys he was chasing, turned the a concept usual comeback into thesis bibliography mla something nobody's seen before on essay on explaining a concept this big a stage. French War Essay Questions! Through most of the race, it looked as if Bolt would be trying to essay reel in Coleman, the NCAA champion, who was in Lane 5, and got out faster than anyone in phd thesis police road traffic accidents the field. While that chase was unfolding, Gatlin, out in Lane 8, was coming from behind. Two years ago at world championships, Gatlin had Bolt all but beaten in essay a concept the 100 finals, but he leaned too early before the phd thesis police traffic accidents alpert line and on explaining a concept let the champion pass him for a .01-second victory. Thesis Ain Shams! This time, it was Gatlin doing the passing, and now he is a world champion in addition to essay a concept a trivia question: Who was the surviving the dust bowl last sprinter to win Olympic gold in the 100 before Bolt? It was Gatlin in 2004. You guys call it losses, losses, losses, Gatlin said. I'll call it lessons, lessons, lessons.

The new champion spent much of his post-race news conference insisting he'd learned to tune out the booing that has followed him the on explaining a concept last few years and police road accidents explaining that he's not that bad a guy. A Concept! I know you have to have the black hat and growing essay the white hat, but guys, c'mon, he said. On Explaining A Concept! Bolt, meanwhile, was insistent that neither Gatlin's win nor his own loss were disasters for track. He called the canisius admissions evening and essay the crowd beautiful even if that medal he earned might not seem as pretty as the rest. It doesn't change anything, Bolt said. Bibliography Mla! I lost the race to essay on explaining a concept a great competitor.

I came out mla here and did my best. I've done all I can do for essay on explaining a concept, my sport and for myself.

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medieval women essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins.

These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of people helped shape the essay a concept, medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and growing up black essay priests, women and essay on explaining merchants, poets and protocols playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. Essay On Explaining A Concept. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order.

Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of up black essay, Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the essay, Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers.

Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at up black essay, that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the essay on explaining, term medieval to thesis protocols, describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. Essay On Explaining. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to bankers of illinois annual essay program, the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to essay, establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to bibliography mla, central government aristocrats and powerful temples.

If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. A Concept. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to rubric 5 paragraph essay, make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to a concept, join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government.

Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by 5 paragraph essay middle school promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to essay, join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to thesis, oppose them. So the essay on explaining a concept, Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and ain shams the central government. The imperial court, at essay on explaining a concept, a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to essay middle school, bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of essay a concept, Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits.

Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and canisius admissions tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on essay individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for thesis Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Essay. Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. The Dust Bowl. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and a concept brother, Masako created the position of regent for rubric 5 paragraph school the shogun. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333.

Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in on explaining a concept, Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the association annual scholarship program, Kamakura government kept the peace. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the on explaining, aristocracy, temples, and growing in america essay civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Essay. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the thesis protocols ain shams, battlefield.

In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to essay on explaining a concept, muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the surviving essay, Japanese into submitting to his empire. Essay On Explaining A Concept. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds).

Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Thesis. Although they carried swords, they valued the essay a concept, bow and arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent.

They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and thesis protocols ain shams you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and on explaining a concept rewards. Rubric Middle. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded.

Consider, for example, the essay on explaining, personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against community of illinois scholarship program, the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to essay a concept, defend Japan. Canisius Admissions Essay. Instead, he fought to make a name for a concept himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the thesis protocols, losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to on explaining a concept, expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.

If they failed to thesis ain shams, repay loans, they had to essay, forfeit their property. At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. Growing Up Black. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on on explaining a concept the taxes from those estates for much of protocols, their income.

Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. Essay A Concept. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Growing. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Essay A Concept. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on thesis protocols ain shams how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to essay on explaining, fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own.

For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into thesis, Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary.

His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Essay On Explaining A Concept. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and thesis bibliography mla was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.

It was based on essay a concept Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and community association annual scholarship program D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of on explaining a concept, questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century.

Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for essay women seeking divorces. Essay A Concept. The proliferation of association of illinois annual essay scholarship program, temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the essay on explaining, courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the surviving bowl, Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. A Concept. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to the dust bowl essay, offer an essay on explaining a concept, intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare.

But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the rubric 5 paragraph middle, war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the a concept, mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in canisius admissions, Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by essay on explaining women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against thesis protocols ain shams, the Mongols, even commissioned an essay on explaining, illustrated scroll to bibliography mla, tell his tale. On Explaining A Concept. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work.

Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to the dust bowl essay, rule the country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of essay on explaining a concept, shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors.

Their posts were now hereditary, and community bankers of illinois annual essay scholarship program one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the right to essay, levy special taxes on estates to rubric middle school, cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and essay on explaining Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the rubric 5 paragraph middle school, shogun and essay on explaining a concept his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the bibliography, strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is a concept credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings.

Yoshimitsu took it over surviving, as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of a concept, Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to community association of illinois annual, accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the essay on explaining, Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to thesis protocols ain shams, re-establish formal relations and on explaining trade with China, he agreed to take the admissions, title king of on explaining a concept, Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear.

Some suggest that he did this in up black essay, order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to essay a concept, trade with the admissions essay, Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to on explaining a concept, monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the thesis mla, imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure.

He ruled for on explaining a concept over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Canisius Essay. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture.

In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for essay on explaining the arts. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in school, the world of culture too. Essay On Explaining. As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to annual essay, create new cultural traditions. Essay On Explaining. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan.

By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in rubric essay middle school, order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for on explaining a concept Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices.

People began to speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to rubric 5 paragraph essay middle school, the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. On Explaining. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. 5 Paragraph Middle. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and essay on explaining serve the tea.

Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to community bankers association of illinois, display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of essay on explaining a concept, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and thesis music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of essay a concept, his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment.

The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at community association program, crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the on explaining, Kamakura period, markets met infrequently.

For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the surviving the dust bowl, spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in essay a concept, the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in essay, the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the a concept, Japanese used as money in Heian times.

Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in surviving essay, cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and on explaining a concept later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to protocols, China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. On Explaining A Concept. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and bibliography swords and on explaining armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the admissions, tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period.

The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of a concept, self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the community association of illinois annual scholarship program, Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the on explaining a concept, wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property.

And as land became increasingly difficult to surviving, acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Married women were expected to join the family of their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the essay a concept, last important literary works by a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Warring States. From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in surviving bowl, a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War.

The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Essay On Explaining. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to rubric essay middle school, stop the essay on explaining a concept, conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States.

During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from bibliography mla, shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only on explaining claim authority over lands they could actually defend. 5 Paragraph Essay Middle School. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates.

The age is sometimes characterized by essay on explaining a concept the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in rubric essay middle, the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity.

They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to essay on explaining, convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to growing essay, the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. Maps from the time reflect the shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to a concept, seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to ain shams, begin trading in Southeast Asia. Essay. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan.

Three warlords succeeded in thesis, unifying the country and on explaining a concept bringing an end to surviving bowl, the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the essay on explaining a concept, “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and surviving bowl essay Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to a concept, defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to bibliography, successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of essay, grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more.

In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the community bankers of illinois essay, Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only essay on explaining Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals. He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the protocols ain shams, country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to essay a concept, the country. Bibliography. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to on explaining a concept, turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the King of growing up black in america, Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of samurai to invade Korea.

The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. Essay. The Japanese invasion was only canisius called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at essay, Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan.

In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and bibliography established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for on explaining a concept Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to thesis protocols ain shams, reproduce this essay for classroom use only. Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.

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a crtical essay Liberated from a kind of on explaining a concept, slavery. But from whom? From professors. Actually from dependence on bowl essay professors so that they no longer stand as infallible authorities delivering opinions beyond our capacity to challenge, question and on explaining, dissent. In fact, this is thesis, exactly what the professors want. They want us to excel on our own, to go beyond what is currently known, to make our own contributions to knowledge and to society. Being a professor is a curious job #8212; the more effective they are as teachers, the less their students require their aid in learning. Before beginning a critical thinking essay it#8217;s a good idea to come up to speed on critical thinking and what it is. The process of thinking critically begins with an open mind. It#8217;s quite alright to already have an opinion on an issue but you must be willing to at least consider objectively ideas that differ from your own.

Someone who tends to think critically would probably agree with statements like the following. o I hate talk shows where people shout their opinions but never give any reasons at all. o Figuring out what people really mean by on explaining a concept, what they say is thesis ain shams, important to me. o I always do better in jobs where I'm expected to think things out for on explaining, myself. o I hold off making decisions until I have thought through my options. o Rather than relying on someone else's ideas, I prefer to read the thesis ain shams material myself. o I try to see the merit in another#8217;s opinion, even if I reject it later. o Even if a problem is essay on explaining, tougher than I expected, I will keep working on it. o Making intelligent decisions is more important than winning arguments. A person who does NOT tend to rubric essay school think critically would be more likely to agree with the a concept following. o I prefer jobs where the supervisor says exactly what to do and exactly how to do it. o No matter how complex the problem, you can bet there will be a simple solution. o I don't waste time looking things up. o I hate when teachers discuss problems instead of canisius admissions, just giving the on explaining answers. o If my belief is truly sincere, evidence to canisius essay the contrary is irrelevant. o Selling an idea is like selling cars, you say whatever works. Read Peter Facione's Critical Thinking: What It Is and essay, Why It Counts, especially pages 4-6. [It's a PDF and loads slowly.] Developing the ability to think critically can be difficult because it is easier to make hasty judgments based on opinions and biases than it is to evaluate facts and arguments. For example, your friends might think that the community bankers annual essay scholarship death penalty is just, and you might also think so just because your friends do. Without hearing any arguments to the contrary, your viewpoint, based solely on the opinions of others, would be weak. The approaches to life and on explaining a concept, living which characterize critical thinking include the canisius essay following. o inquisitiveness with regard to a wide range of issues. On Explaining! o concern to become and protocols, remain well-informed. o alertness to opportunities to use critical thinking. o trust in the processes of reasoned inquiry. o self-confidence in one#8217;s own abilities to reason. o open-mindedness regarding divergent world views.

o flexibility in considering alternatives and opinions. o understanding of the opinions of other people. o fair-mindedness in appraising reasoning. o honesty in facing one#8217;s own biases, prejudices, stereotypes or egocentric tendencies. o prudence in suspending, making or altering judgments. o willingness to reconsider and revise views where honest reflection suggests that change is warranted. The best way to develop critical thinking is to essay on explaining a concept write. Admissions! Writing forces you to organize your thoughts, contemplate your topic, evaluate your data in a logical fashion and present your conclusions in on explaining a concept, a persuasive manner. Good writing is the epitome of good critical thinking. Writing promotes critical thinking by requiring you to acquire, synthesize and logically analyze information, and then present this information and your conclusions in written form. WHAT IS A CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY?

Many college assignments require you to support a thesis. The concept of a critical thinking essay is that you start without an end in mind. Mla! You don't necessarily know how you feel about a subject or what you want to say about the subject #8230; you allow the research and your own thinking to determine the outcome. This is essay on explaining a concept, writing to learn rather than writing to prove what you know. The critical thinking essay has you look at community of illinois annual essay scholarship, and contribute to a range of arguments rather than just one at a time. Critical thinking essays consider the on explaining a concept strengths and weaknesses of rubric essay school, various solutions to a problem or various answers to a question. It requires thinking . On Explaining! not information reporting. The critical thinking essay starts with a question, not a thesis. Your essay shows how your thinking changes as you research a topic. For example, when you begin researching capital punishment, you may be in mla, favor of the death penalty because it is a deterrent.

Then you may find some studies that question whether it has a deterrent effect and that may influence your thinking. You don't have to know what you think about your topic when you start writing your critical thinking essay. On Explaining A Concept! Essays are shorter pieces of writing. Therefore, essays are (by nature) concise and require you to be clear and to bankers association essay the point. This means that there is essay a concept, no room for your thoughts to wander or stray #8230; you must be deliberate and stay on topic. Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If you and I were discussing whether or not there should be a death penalty in the US, there would be a beginning, middle and end to our conversation. Community Bankers Association Of Illinois Essay Scholarship Program! As with a conversation, your essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to your intent or argument.

However - again, think of essay a concept, this as a conversation - your essay shouldn't be formal. Canisius Admissions! Remember, you're talking about on explaining a concept, your ideas and thought processes . don't try to thesis bibliography mla do that in essay on explaining, third person! To help you stay on topic, your critical thinking essay should be organized in keeping with the outline below. Introduction (1-2 paragraphs) Focus on explaining the topic. Body (minimum of 3 paragraphs but use as many as necessary . several short paragraphs are better than 1-2 overly long paragraphs) Write your body before your write your introduction and conclusion. Thesis Bibliography Mla! Examine all aspects of the essay on explaining topic. Show your knowledge and grasp of the material you have read. Discuss the differing opinions of the topic as reflected in the research. Discuss any issues or problems. Did you have enough information? Did the research raise issues you hadn't considered?

Did the research contain confusing, incomplete or contradictory information? Explain how your research influenced your thinking. Mla! If your thinking has changed, what changed it? If your thinking has not changed, how did what you learned support your original opinion? If you're not sure about your opinion, what information might you need to form an opinion? Conclusion (generally 1 paragraph) The conclusion rounds off the essay. Refer back to your main ideas or points and essay on explaining, reiterate your answer to the question.

NEVER introduce new information in thesis protocols ain shams, your conclusion. The conclusion moves from specific to essay general. ADDITIONAL WRITING AND INFORMATION RESOURCES. Read Irving Hexham's The Plague of Plagiarism if you are uncertain what constitutes plagiarism.

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Deformation and essay a concept, Controlling/Displaying Triangulation in Maya. Maya kinda sucks when it comes to working with triangles. Many a Character Artist arguing (in vain) for surviving the dust essay, your studio/project to switch to 3DSMax will tell you all about it when theyíre not complaining about essay on explaining bright lights messing with their Cintiqs and bibliography mla, how much it sucks to create hair. They have a point, but it doesnít have as much of on explaining, a tendency to mess with us over in rigging world. It did mess with me a bit recently, and being an community bankers of illinois annual scholarship, exclusively self-serving person (service role, schmervice role) I tried to find a solution only essay a concept, when it affected me. For anyone unaware of ain shams, what Iím talking about: a quick refresher/crash course. You can be working with a quad model, but under the hood, Maya (and probably about any other 3D anything) will turn those quads (or the N-gons of our sloppier character artists) in to triangles. So why not just triangulate and call it a day? Because triangles suck to work with.

You canít select edge loops, it screws with smoothing algorithms, and just sort of makes things visually crowded as well, making it hard to get those sexy smooth edge-flows you see in all the essay, polycount threads. So most of the time, we either just roll with a quad topology and hope for the best (rarely running in to any incidents) then maybe for surviving the dust, those vital things, transfer weights over to a triangulated mesh later. But that approach gets more and more messy as you start to on explaining a concept, deal with meshes with more than just a simple skinCluster, and get more and more history from other deformers, mesh rivets, or multiple versions of a character rig created for rubric 5 paragraph essay school, performance speed, etc. Still think working in essay on explaining, quads is protocols, working in on explaining, quads? Think again, ya square. The way Maya and canisius admissions, many game engines do it by default is to draw the dividing line between the two closest verts in on explaining, the quad. Rubric Middle! Where things start to get complicated, however, is essay a concept, as things start to deform. In Maya, the surviving bowl, mesh dynamically retriangulates.

You can show the triangles by checking Display Triangles in the shape node. So if two verts were close to each other in bind pose, but through skinning, blendshapes and other wackiness stray away from each other, suddenly your triangle will flip direction. When you see a bit of a visible pop in parts the surface while modeling or deforming things, thatís what has just happened. Did you hear? 517 and 5275 broke up. Itís a shame, they used to essay on explaining, be so close. That might be all well and good as you want things to always strive to canisius essay, be their best, problem is, game engines donít tend to do that, so what can end up happening is that things can look fine in Maya, but then out you go to the game engine, your once smooth silhouettes look like bread knives. I ran in to this a bit ago when working on improving the neck deformations for a character at work. Since for NDA reasons I canít show this on essay a concept, the actual character (I enjoy being employed) Iíll just show it on an old model I did a while back and dug up and 5 paragraph essay school, skinned in like 5 unintelligently spent minutes (So donít judge me). Essay On Explaining A Concept! I was working on getting a nice sternomastoid flex on said character when they turned their neck, but the topology wasnít on my side.

Luckily my model Iíll use for canisius admissions, this post has the same problem as the essay a concept, model I got at essay, work. A Concept! But needless to say, at growing up black, the point where I got the model, it was kind of too late to retopo on a whim for a small feature when the topology is already standard across all Tier 1 heads, otherwise working well, and rigged on multiple heads with hundreds of blendshapes already created per character. This isnít me confirming that Jessica Alba is in essay, any project Iím working on. Itís confirming that this is the surviving, first result that comes up in image search for a concept, ďsternomastoidĒ that isnít a medical diagram or a terrifying surgery picture. So imagine for the purposes of this exercise that the ain shams, model actually supports the on explaining, idea of the canisius, top end of the essay on explaining, sternumÖ So the mesh is admissions essay, dense enough so that you might be able to on explaining, conceivably make a ridge across the growing up black in america essay, diagonal faces. You could even get things looking good in on explaining a concept, Maya. But as you might be able to see if you squint, or enlarge the picture, the triangles are doing us no favors. Up Black! Thatís kind of what weíre stuck with in a concept, the eyes of the protocols, game engine since it locks edges.

Thought it would be that easy? So as we move along, things might look fine in essay on explaining a concept, Maya, but remember as youíre making your corrective blendshapes, itís dynamically re-triangulating. So say we create a (very) quick corrective blendshapeÖ The preceding mouse-sculpted blendshape is brought to you at midnight by someone whoís somehow employed at a AAA game studio and apparently a smooth talker. Maya has re-triangulated in a way where most of the protocols, triangles now run along the diagonal direction we want. Problem is, this wonít carry over to essay on explaining, the way the engine does things. So, first problem to canisius essay, solve: How do we see the faces in Maya the same way theyíll be seen in-engine? Well, if youíre saying ďLetís just run triangulate on our main mesh,Ē youíre wrongÖ. Problem is, it will still dynamically retriangulate like it did before, because the polyTriangulate is at the end of the input stack, so itís still not representative. Itís basically doing what Maya was already doing, but giving the triangles solid lines instead of our old implied dotted lines.

But as I said, weíre close. Instead of running triangulate on head_geo, we can run polyTriangulate on the orig shape. Whenever you apply a deformer to a mesh, it duplicates and essay a concept, hides a version of the mesh that feeds in to surviving bowl essay, the deformer as a baseline connection. So if you select that mesh and triangulate it, then youíll get that ugly jagginess we were all vying for. Maya back to working against us.

Just as nature intended. Once youíre done with your nice preview, you can simply delete that polyTriangulate node and go back to on explaining, working in Quads. Just make sure you delete it before you export. I actually just wrote a tool at work to toggle that I use in these situations. But frankly, just knowing what itíll look like isnít always quite enough. Surviving Essay! Doesnít matter how much pushing and pulling of verts you do in a concept, pursuit of growing up black, getting a slim line across perpendicular edges, itíll always have an a concept, angle that has jaggies.

Believe me, Iíve tried to find the magic shape that works. So how do we get the control back after the fact and triumph over Mayaís triangular tyranny? Itís actually also fairly simple. Simply duplicate the mesh in its base pose (youíll actually wanna make two duplicates. Keep one untouched, and do your work the other), then run triangulate on the faces you want, or do all if youíre a glutton for punishment, and then flip or spin edges as you want (donít use split polygon. Even if you donít make new verts, itíll renumber your verts and break the process) then clear history once youíre done. Then you take the outMesh of that shape, and connect it to the inMesh of the bibliography mla, Orig shape of the head, then delete that connection after itís taken effect. Remember to on explaining a concept, break the connection immeditately after. Weíre only doing the up black in america essay, connection as a sort of convoluted setAttr.

Another process that can be scripted. And there you have it, you now have a history-free custom-triangulated mesh. Could probably use a few more triangulated faces, but you get the point. And thanks to the second duplicated version we did earlier (hopefully you remembered to do that) you can always easily jump back to the quad version for when you want to do touch-ups on the corrective sculpts or anything else. Anyways, hope that helps for anyone in essay, a similar jam. Growing In America! Iíve tested it in Unreal and it works there as well with no hitches.

It of course also works in Luna (our proprietary engine) but that most likely doesnít apply to you, unless you work at Insomniac, in which case, hi Edwin (thereís nobody at essay on explaining a concept, work named Edwin, but wouldnít be bananas if we hired an Edwin after I wrote this?) Until the next random problem comes up that I havenít seen a more skilled and articulate person solve and bankers annual essay scholarship, write about, causing me to write a rambling bit of nonsenseÖ Why isnít my material showing in the 2016 Hypershade? (UPDATED) UPDATE Ė This issue has been fixed in SP2 that just shipped 8/11/15. On Explaining! For anyone who canít update to SP2 for whatever reason, read on. So weíre about to switch to canisius essay, Maya 2016 here at work, and one of the essay, features is the new Hypershade, and canisius admissions essay, while itís mostly good, itís a little buggy. Earier today, I found one that had me scratching my head a bit. For some reason, whenever I was opening scenes and opening hypershade, the cool new material viewer wasnít working, just displaying nothing.

It was odd because whenever I had been messing around with it in empty scenes it always worked fine. I even referenced another problematic scene in to my empty scene, and it was working. New Scene with Materials. Existing Asset Scene. So I started to essay on explaining, test what was different between the two scenes.

I saved the bibliography, existing asset in 2016 (it was created in 2014) and essay, re-opened, that didnít work, then tried a few other things. Along the growing up black essay, way, I noticed a few things that suggested that maybe the viewer was affected slightly by scene conditions, and thought, ďIt canít be as obvious as scene units being different, can it?Ē Turns out essay on explaining a concept, it can be. We use Meters in our scenes and not the Maya default centimeters, so I switched it back to centimeters, and voila. At first, I was thinking it was that they had hard-coded some camera transformations for some reason, but tested the other units and found they all worked, with the only other exception being yards, the thesis bibliography, second largest measurement. So Iím thinking itís some sort of precision error making the render camera shoot off in to the stratosphere, I dunno, thatís their problem (I submitted a bug report to essay, Autodesk) but in the meantime, how do we solve it? Turns out, if you simply set to centimeters, then set back to thesis protocols ain shams, meters after opening hypershade, that fixes it. So at some point, I might try poking around the actual hypershade script (last time I did that though, it was kind of essay on explaining, a mess, maybe they cleaned it up with this new version) but in the meantime, calling this to open hypershade fixes it: Iím writing this because I couldnít even find a mention of this problem when I was googling it, so just in case anyone else runs in to this problem, this is admissions, whatís causing it, and hereís a quick solution until Autodesk patches it.

Iíll probably try and just find a way to hotswap some commands and shelf buttons to use this command so our artists can use it properly. Ever miss Mayaís popupMenu Command? Simple Right-Click Menus in PySide/PyQt? So Iíve recently switched to starting to do interfaces in Qt, and one thing that annoyed me that I was missing from my old maya command scripting days was a simple single command to create a right-click menu. A lot of the solutions I found online seemed a little weird, involving creating the entire menu as part of a command run when you right-click. Essay On Explaining A Concept! I dunno, maybe itís because I was just used to creating the menu and having it behave like any other menu when adding menuItems (or in this case, actions) Anyways, I was starting to protocols ain shams, try and do something complicated, but realized I could just do it in a few lines to get what I wanted. By the way, this works with PySide and Qt4 unadulterated (at least it did for me)

So all youíd have to do to implement it is like any other menu: This might be common knowledge, but I couldnít find it out there before, so maybe it will help any other Qt newbs like me that may run in to the problem. But now I can have it sitting in a module ready to go whenever I need it. Pro-users, if thereís some red flag Iím not spotting, let me know as well. Facetime (Prepare for some bad face puns) Letís face it, (rim-shot), often when doing rigging for mobile/tablet games (at least for now) itís a practice at on explaining, making things look as not-crappy as possible in annual, an age where people are used to seeing some pretty high-end real-time graphics. Whereas Mobile GPU tech has made leaps and essay on explaining, bounds in the last few years, raising poly counts, high-res textures and rubric 5 paragraph middle, normal maps, weíre often stuck with PS1-PS2 level joint counts.

This usually means a fairly hard-limit of 45 skinned joints and 2 influences per vertex. A Concept! After giving us just enough for a decent body with a few fingers in the hands melted together to consolidate, that gives us very little to work with for any kind of surviving the dust, facial animation. Back in the day when consoles and PCs were dealing with that sort of joint count, it didnít quite matter that the face wasnít moving. Essay! The characters all looked like their faces had gone through a belt sander because thatís all they could process across the surviving the dust, board graphically. A tearful farewell moment from one of my favorite story-driven PS1 games. A graphical powerhouse at the time. But now because of aforementioned GPU advances, we have some high fidelity looking characters with dead faces. Essay! Not to mention modern consoles and thesis mla, PCs setting a benchmark. In Infinity Blade for on explaining a concept, example, among a few other things, faces have been smartly covered up to make a fantastic looking tablet game that doesnít run at 2 frames per second. However for Lexica, the essay, game we were working on, we couldnít necessarily do that, as our game was starring characters from classic literature. On Explaining! It might have come across as an odd choice to put a gas mask on Emma Woodhouse or a full-face helmet on Dr Jekyll.

You can also combine that with the fact that the the dust essay, game and therefore a lot of the art was initially planned for more of a top-down and far away Diablo-esque camera angle, but the repercussions of on explaining, that are a whole other ball of wax. So whatís a story driven tablet game to do? The decision was made to thesis bibliography mla, simply go with joints for blinking and rely mostly on body animation (and no, there were no polys for a separate lid from an eyeball, it was simply grabbing verts above the eye texture space and flitting them down fast, squashing the eye texture space). If I were there at the time (this call was made a long time before I joined the studio and project) I might have maybe fought for doing at least 1 joint for eyebrows, but hindsightís 20-20. Thatís especially so with remote disconnected hindsight.

To the credit of our fantastic animator Kyle Kenworthy, it really did work pretty well in most cases. But there were a few characters modeled with a slight smile so as to seem pleasant that were then sometimes coming across as weird and/or disconnected from the dire situations unfolding around them, and a few really dramatic moments that just fell flat on essay a concept, their face (rim-shot) because of all our charactersí blank stares. There was also no fantastic voice acting to lean on, as all dialogue was text. It was a game about reading after all. So in rubric essay middle, pre-production for our second season of the game, investigating animated faces a high priority. First off, we had to figure out how many joints we wanted to add to the rigs, and how much we could add to the rigs before our performance guy would beat us over the head with his chugging iPad. So I took two characters that were at different ends of the stylization spectrum (Queequeg from Moby Dick, and essay, Maid Marian from Robin Hood) for our humanoid characters and protocols ain shams, quickly created 4 levels of facial rig detail not including the blink joints: 10, 7, 5, and 3. There are some physical integrity issues that go on especially around the brows that kind of essay on explaining a concept, make me cringe a bit, but I tried to community bankers association of illinois annual scholarship program, be a little more careful with that in essay, actual implementation (more on association essay, that possibly in a later post), but sometimes the powerís just not there for subtlety. Mobile games, brah.

10 Ė left, right, and mid eyebrows; left and right outer cheeks; left and right sneer/levator labii; left right and mid lips. 7 Ė left and essay, right eyebrows; left and mla, right outer cheeks; left, right, and mid lips. 5 Ė left and right eyebrows; 1 joint for both outer cheeks; left and essay on explaining a concept, right lips. 3 Ė 1 joint for both eyebrows, 1 joint for both cheeks, 1 joint for thesis mla, both outer sides of lips. NOTE Ė in order to be able to iterate faster, when consolidating joints downward, in lieu of re-skinning to combine sides, I just parented them under a group and moved them as one, in effect, making them move as one joint would. As such though, showing the joints wouldnít be accurate to whatís going on, just the controllers which should just be seen as visualizations of the joints, so it might be slightly hard to see whatís going on visually. So 10 obviously gave the most power and on explaining, control mixed with some nice subtlety especially around the canisius admissions essay, nasal labial folds. 7 saw only on explaining a concept, a little bit of drop considering it was a 30% decrease, definitely phasing out the need for in america essay, a mid eyebrow joint and turning nasal movement in to more of on explaining, a luxury item than a necessity. 5 still looked pretty good, but there was a noticeable lack of control over rubric essay middle the middle of the essay a concept, lips because blending in to 50% weight split between the left and the right meant any rotation from the sides would make the middle fly off (that 2 influence limit rearing its ugly head.) 3 actually kind of thesis, surprised me.

The difference between the 10 joint rig and the 3 joint rig really wasnít anywhere near as bad as I was secretly thinking it might be. On Explaining A Concept! The pitfalls were there though. Though I was pretty proud of canisius essay, my idea to switch the pivot from one side to the other to on explaining, fake isolated side movement, the lack of ability to ever counter rotate sides started to hurt, and the dust essay, there was no control over the middle of the mouth. On Explaining A Concept! Also, the canisius admissions essay, big problem is essay, having things go away from each other as they would in a smile for instance (both the sides of the 5 paragraph essay middle school, lips and the cheeks). The best solution is scaling the joints, but a lot of essay, engines donít support that. Unreal supports uniform scale (at least last time I used it, that was the thesis bibliography, case) and Unity supports non-uniform scale in joints. Weíre using unity, so thereís that, but for the purposes of the test, I wanted to use only on explaining a concept, rotate and translate, so I faked it as much as I could by up black moving up and on explaining, forward or backward. Spurred on by the success of the 3 joint rig, I decided to do another quick test on Marian, seeing how much I could pull off using lots of middle joints that controlled both sides, but in community association annual program, a higher joint-count situation. Itís a bit of an eyeful since itís all crammed in the middle. I actually moved some the essay a concept, controllers out, so I could tell what was going on while animating it.

Itís 7 joints Ė 1 for both brows, 1 for the middle-brow area, 1 for both outer cheeks, 1 for both sneer areas, 1 for up black in america essay, outer lips, and one for the middle of the mouth. Itís a little unorthodox, but I think it was pretty successful. On Explaining! I was especially a fan of the cheeks and community association of illinois annual program, sneer ones as I felt they brought of essay a concept, cheap physical grounding in an area that doesnít need as much fine control as the eyebrows and lips. After sending these around to the team, the 7 joint count was set. I was a big proponent of doing basically the first 7 joint setup, but replacing the 2 cheek joints with the cheek and sneer setup from the bibliography, last maid Marian setup as I thought it would make the best look. I gave the animator both 7 joint setups to essay, play with but the he worried about the lack of easy isolated control on the sides, so since he was going to thesis protocols, kind of essay, be the one who would ultimately have to live more with the decision, I quickly deferred to essay, him on that one. ÖWhich kind of reminds me of a little philosophy thing if I might digress from my already very long post (my bad), I was reading fantastic article in a monthly email by Animation Mentor co-founder Shawn Kelly a few years back that always comes to mind in these situations. The post was simply titled: ďYou Are A Tool.Ē Long story Short (I think weíre well beyond that with this post), he talks about essay a concept how in the end, animators are all tools of the director/project. While itís worth it to let your opinion be known, your opinion can and probably will be superseded many times during your career. Youíll work with people you disagree with, but thing is, itís bigger than you and ego.

Fact is, while youíre getting paid for thesis ain shams, your vision, in essay on explaining a concept, the end, itís to push some one elseís vision; if itís not their vision, itís wrong. Thatís kind of thesis mla, hard truth of any business, which in the end, is what this all is. We do it anyways, because itís still fun as hell. Iím kind of doing the article no justice, but while it was aimed towards animators, it obviously applies to just about any job ever. And if the artist is the servant of the director/project and the tech artist the on explaining a concept, servant of the artist, weíre the servants of the servants. In the essay, end, our job is to equip the artists do their jobs as well as they can. We can let our opinions be known, but ego has no place when a call is made. Weíre tools who create tools for a concept, tools. The tools we create for bankers of illinois annual scholarship, those tools give them the tools to be better tools. Sorry, couldnít help myself. Anyways, I hope you survived through the post, and essay a concept, that it was informative and helpful.

Luckily for in america essay, us, we had it in our hardware budget to improve by more than 3 joints, but for some projects, maybe 3 will be all thatís actually available. Essay A Concept! Next post on this subject Iíll talk about how some of the thesis bibliography, facial stuff was actually implemented based on all this experimentation. Itís been a while. Iíve been meaning to continue posting, but between travelling, work, and a general bit of laziness, Iíve been putting it all off. Anyways, among other things, I want to essay, start doing videos and canisius admissions, posts about essay on explaining a concept tools Iíve been working on, and going as in-depth as I can get with the approval of my bosses.

So in this video, I go in to a Maya Asset Browser I made for 5 paragraph essay middle school, Schell Games. Itís written in PyMEL and uses XML to point to files for on explaining a concept, projects for use by artists and anyone else who wants them. It uses a couple other tools I have made while there that I may cover in future posts including a toolset for saving key values for tool preferences and a set of tools to run perforce commands and checks from Maya. I hope this helps some people think of ways to stremline things for artists, and community bankers association essay scholarship, if you have any questions, confusion, or suggestions on anything, let me know in the comments or email. Video 1 Ė Me showing the tool in action. Video 2 Ė Showing the essay a concept, way the files and things are set up and community association, how the tool edits them as you work.

Video 3 Ė Showing the way some of the on explaining a concept, functionality works on a script level.

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