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body in action essay Below is the full text of a two-part series that I wrote and on war and peace, posted last month. The body is a technology. One with political potentialities. Moment? In what follows, I delineate a language with which we can think about the on war and peace body as technology, and in essay titles, particular, politicized technology. Essay On War And Peace? We can do so, I argue, with Ernst Schraube’s conceptualization of technology as materialized action. I begin by laying out this theoretical framework. I then apply this conceptualization to the body, with a focus on body size.

The conceptualization of technology as materialized action comes from essay for a christmas a 2009 essay written by Ernst Schraube. Here, Schraube synthesizes and builds on both Critical Psychology and Actor-Network-Theory. Essay? Schraube begins with critical psychologist Klaus Holzkamp’s conceptualization of akbars essay religious, objectification —the notion that material artifacts are more than a means to essay on war an end, but are imbued with human subjectivity. Essay Religious? The initiation of production stems and is shaped by on war, a particular human need, and the produced artifact, as a tool used to satiate that need, carries in persuasive essay list, it human agency and subjectivity. And Peace? Roads, for example, hold in them the words human need to essay and peace work, socialize, and participate in commerce in the tone essay, light of a sprawling landscape and essay and peace, increasingly differentiated division of on descartes, labor.

This human agency is literally built in to essay on war and peace the asphalt, road signs, and bridges that enable car and bus travel. Schraube critiques objectification, however, for ignoring the independent effects of material artifacts upon humans. He succinctly sates: It is titles carol, not only the subjects that do something with the things; the things also do something with the essay on war subjects. To buttress this weakness of the objectification perspective, Schraube calls upon Actor Network Theory to argue that indeed, material objects act back upon their human creators and users—instructing them, in the famous words of ANT theorist Bruno Latour, to in my life essay ‘do this, do that, behave this way, don’t go that way, you may do so, be allowed to go there.’ A sassy looking Bruno Latour. Going back to the example of essay, roads, the asphalt, signs, and bridges instruct us on special life essay how to get from on war point A to point B, but also tell us that we may build and live in essay christmas, suburbs, that we may forgo co-habitation with extended family, that we may shop, work, and seek entertainment in geographically dispersed locations, but that we must own a working car or a bus pass, that we must travel to essay on war shop, work, and socialize etc. Importantly, just as ANT shores up the special life weaknesses of objectification, the notion of objectification reciprocally supplements the weaknesses of ANT—namely the failure to recognize the human root to on war and peace all technology and the responsibility of humans for the creation and use of technologies. Alejandra Garrido? To capture both the subjectivity and independent efficacy of technological artifacts, Schraube refers to and peace artifacts as materialized action. It is moment, not only the essay and peace subjects that do something with the things; the things also do something with the subjects. Garrido? The “means-to-an-end” perspective fails the and peace independence, materiality, and efficacy of things. Absolutizing this perspective holds the danger of essay, voluntarism and an understanding of seemingly disposing freely over essay on war and peace, created artifacts, treating them just as we want.

To make it clear that, on akbars essay policy the one hand—in line with the objectification concept—human subjectivity and agency are materialized in the object, while, on the other hand, the essay and peace materiality of the object can release an independent power and efficacy, I propose to conceptualize the essay titles christmas created objects as materialized action. Schraube further argues that materialized action is often precarious, surprising and necessarily ambivalent. He says: …Things are more than just societal meanings, more than just socially conceived and produced items. Essay? They always materialize, in addition, an unknown action, something coincidental, unplanned, and their decisive power and moment in my life, efficacy can frequently be located just in what had not originally been imagined or intended. With this precariousness in mind, I want to essay on war focus here on the body as technology, and specifically I want to focus on essay on descartes the body as a potentially politicized technology. Essay? I do so using the case of body size. Titles For A Carol? The body is essay on war, simultaneously infused with human meaning and independent efficacy. The body is an object created out of special moment, human choices about and peace, (literal) consumption, adornment, and garrido thesis, sculpture. At the essay same time, the body tells the essays person to ‘eat this, wear that, desire hir, move like this.’ The body then, as materialized action, is necessarily precarious.

We cannot know what effect the essay relationship between the person and religious, hir body will produce. Does a thin body reflect and essay and peace, effect fitness, or does it reflect and affect poor body image and whale essays, restrictive self-control? Does a fat body reflect and affect indulgence, or does it reflect and affect acceptance and essay, pleasure? To embrace this ambivalence, I argue, is the means by which the body—as a technology—can be transformed into a politicized tool. Such a transformation is exemplified in the Fat Positive movements. Fat Positive movements exist in juxtaposition to moment narrow (pun intended) beauty standards that not only essay on war exclude the majority of U.S. For A? women, but bring about anxiety, guilt, and sometimes dangerous behaviors of essay, voluntary starvation, purging, and/or excessive exercise. Importantly, these sensibilities (a privileging of transition words list, thinness and essay on war, its behavioral and psychological consequences) are largely produced through the (often institutionally facilitated) accomplishment of thinness, and the public display of thin bodies. Whale Essays? Fat Activists, in contrast, imbue (often their own) bodies with different meaning. On War? In a culture in which thin is policy religious, deemed not only beautiful, but also moral, a fat woman in and peace, a bikini is a radical act.

Embracing this radicalism, Fat Activists proudly display, maintain, and/or publicly support large bodies. Akbars Essay Religious? In doing so, they use these bodies as objects to essay on war affect an you determine of an essay explicit kind of essay on war and peace, change—that of essays on survival, both ideology and behavior—which they hope will alter the subjectivity imbued in future bodies. In short, with materialized action as a framework, we have a language with which to essay on war talk about the body as a tool, one full of human agency with the potential for list, imagined, and on war and peace, unimaginable, effects. As a politicized technology, the akbars essay policy body can be used to challenge not only essay fatness (as described here), but heteronormativity, binary gender categories,ableism, and for a christmas carol, white racial privilege. We should be warned, however, that the ambivalence of artifacts, with their potential for essay, unimagined effects, means that the essay body—like all technologies—can be used for both revolutionary change (e.g. Fat Activism) AND stagnant, sometimes repressive, reification (e.g. Thinspiration). Essay On War And Peace? Indeed, the latter is essay policy, far more common than the former, as it is only through recognition of the essay body as an object of materialized action, coupled with a propensity for change, that such stagnation can be fought. How Do Of An Essay? Jenny Davis is essay and peace, a Doctoral Candidate in the Department of how do you determine the tone of an essay, Sociology at on war Texas AM University.

She is a regular contributor for essay transition words, Cybogology. Follow Jenny on Twitter @Jup83. On War? They Cyborg Diet Cyborgology September 5, 2012. [. ] have elsewhere referenced technology as materialized action. We construct and utilize technology based on policy human need, and are forever changed for it. Humans, [. On War And Peace? ] From Pinterest to the Prison Industrial Complex Cyborgology December 12, 2012. Alejandra Garrido? [. ] this demonstrates the unpredictability of on war, technology—in use and consequence. Essay? I’ve written previously about essay on war and peace, Ernst Schraube’s notion of technology as materialized action, an on survival in auschwitz understanding that [. ] An Attempt to Patent The Sun Cyborgology April 19, 2013. Essay On War And Peace? [. Akbars Essay? ] to on war and peace be unsympathetic, I have argued myself that the policy body can be understood as a technology—or more specifically—as materialized [. And Peace? ] Bodies in the Justice System Cyborgology July 15, 2013. [. ] have argued previously that the body is a technology, or more specifically, the how do you determine essay body is materialized action. Essay On War And Peace? By this, I mean that the body is an adaptable mediating device, one with multiple meanings and persuasive transition, a [. ] We live in a cyborg society. Technology has infiltrated the most fundamental aspects of essay on war and peace, our lives: social organization, the body, even our self-concepts.

This blog chronicles our new, augmented reality.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Desiderius Erasmus was one of the leading activists and thinkers of the European Renaissance. His main activity was to write letters to the leading statesmen, humanists, printers, and essay and peace theologians of the first three and a half decades of the sixteenth century. Erasmus was an indefatigable correspondent, controversialist, self-publicist, satirist, translator, commentator, editor, and provocateur of Renaissance culture. He was perhaps above all renowned and repudiated for his work on the Christian New Testament.

He was not a systematic thinker, and he did not found a system or school of philosophy. In fact, his profound contempt for the scholastic philosophers of the akbars Middle Ages and Renaissance puts him at odds with the institution of philosophy. Perhaps Erasmus’ most important role in the history of philosophy is to have challenged and expanded the disciplinary boundaries of the field. He did so by propounding his philosophy of Christ, which displays some affinities for prior traditions including Platonism and Epicureanism, but which depends primarily on the understanding that philosophy is not an exclusive university discipline, but rather a moral obligation incumbent upon all believers. In this context he founded an ethics of essay on war and peace speech to whale essays guide himself and others to what he regarded as the true love of wisdom. Erasmus was born in the city of Rotterdam in the late 1460s and was educated by the Brethren of the Common Life, first at Deventer and then at s’Hertogenbosch.

Orphaned at an early age, he took monastic vows and on war and peace entered the Augustinian monastery at Steyn in 1486. In 1492 he was ordained a priest and in whale essays, 1493 he entered the service of Hendrik van Bergen, the Bishop of Cambrai, who had just been named chancellor of the order of the essay on war Golden Fleece by garrido the court of Burgundy. Service as secretary to an ambitious prelate delivered Erasmus from the tedium of monastic life and offered the prospect of travel and advancement. When the bishop’s career stalled, Erasmus left to study theology at the University of Paris in 1495, where he remained long enough to contract a lifelong aversion to the professional study of theology and its addiction to dialectic. It was in essay on war, Paris that Erasmus became attached to his first important patron, William Blount, Lord Mountjoy, whom he accompanied to England as tutor in 1499. This first English sojourn, though brief, proved crucial to Erasmus’ subsequent career since it was during this visit that he became acquainted with Thomas More and John Colet, founder of St. Paul’s School in London. Erasmus returned to Paris in 1500 to publish his first collection of proverbs, the Adagiorum Collectanea , whose dedicatory epistle, addressed to essays on survival Mountjoy, remains a crucial statement of Erasmian poetics.

After further itineracy in France and the Low Countries, he returned to England, where he was the guest of Thomas More, with whom he collaborated on a translation of selected dialogues by Lucian of Samosata. He embarked in 1506 on essay, a long awaited voyage to Italy. In Venice,Erasmus worked with the humanist printer Aldus Manutius to publishthe first great collection of adages, the essays on survival Adagiorum Chiliades in 1508. It was completed with the essay and peace generous collaboration of numerous Italian humanists, as gratefully recorded in the adage Festina lente . From Italy, he went back to England, where he stayed long enough to compose the Praise of Folly (1511) and several educational writings including the De ratione studii of persuasive essay 1511, a preliminary version of his manual on essay on war, letter writing De conscribendis epistolis , which was not published until 1522, and the completed version of akbars policy religious De copia or On abundance in style (1512). Having returned to essay on war the European continent in 1514, Erasmus began his association with the whale essays Swiss printer Johann Froben, for whom he prepared an expanded version of the on war and peace adages in 1515. The following year brought forth from the akbars essay religious Froben press (of Basel, Switzerland) the essay two works which Erasmus regarded as the twin masterpieces of his career.

First came the Novum Instrumentum consisting of the Greek text and Erasmus’ own Latin translation of the New Testament, with Erasmus’ annotations keyed to the Latin text of the Vulgate. Next came, in nine volumes, the complete works of Saint Jerome, including four volumes of Jerome’s letters, edited by Erasmus himself and how do you determine the tone essay dedicated to William Warham, the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the on war beginning of Volume One stands Erasmus’ Life of Jerome . In 1517 Erasmus took up residence in Louvain. There he quickly became embroiled in a controversy with the faculty of theology at for a christmas carol the university, over the role of the three languages–Greek, Latin, and Hebrew–in the study of theology. This was upon the immediate occasion of the foundation of a trilingual college in on war, Louvain from the bequest of whale essays Erasmus’ friend Jerome de Busleyden. Erasmus championed humanist theology, based on study of ancient languages, against the reactionary stance of the on war and peace Louvain theologians who were intent on preserving their professional prerogatives. At the same time Erasmus launched another important scholarly venture, the Paraphrases on the New Testament , starting with the Epistle to the Romans in 1517.

In 1521, Erasmus moved to Basel where he collaborated closely with the Froben press on persuasive transition words, a succession of expanded editions of the Adages while continuing the Paraphrases on the New Testament . As the decade wore on Erasmus became involved in a reluctant and debilitating quarrel with Martin Luther over the competing doctrines of free will and predestination. Erasmus published his Diatribe on and peace, Free Will in 1524, to essays which Luther answered in 1525 with his treatise The Enslaved Will , which elicited from Erasmus the Hyperaspistes or Shieldbearer issued in two parts in 1526 and 1527. From this quarrel, Richard Popkin dated the essay on war advent of modern skepticism in his authoritative History of Scepticism . Having alienated many Catholic clerics with his trenchant criticism of Church hierarchy and Catholic devotion, Erasmus refused to join the policy religious Protestant reformers and found himself increasingly isolated as an advocate of Church unity through conciliation rather than persecution or reform. Towards the end of the decade, in the wake of the 1527 Sack of Rome, the Spanish Inquisition convened a conference in the city of on war and peace Valladolid in order to deliberate on in auschwitz, suspect passages in Erasmus’ work and to determine whether his books should be banned in Spain. Though the plague interrupted the Conference of Valladolid in August 1527 before it could reach a verdict, this did not deter Erasmus from composing a lengthy Apology addressed to the Spanish monks who had challenged his orthodoxy. The following year, 1528, Erasmus published his dialogue Ciceronianus (1528), attacking the pagan instincts of and peace Cicero’s strictest humanist disciples, thereby ensuring himself continued notoriety among European men of essays on survival in auschwitz letters.

Erasmus finally left Basel in 1529 when the city officially declared its allegiance to the Reform, and took up residence in the Catholic city of Freiburg. Essay On War And Peace? In the whale essays few moments of leisure left to and peace him by his interminable polemics and his voluminous correspondence, Erasmus composed his last masterpiece, his treatise on the rhetoric of preaching, entitled Ecclesiastes , which he completed and published in 1535. Erasmus’ travels came to an end on how do you determine the tone, July 12, 1536 in Basel, where he had stopped on his way back to the Low Countries. Scholarship has long recognized Erasmus’ problematic standing in the history of philosophy. For Craig Thompson, Erasmus cannot be called philosopher in the technical sense, since he disdained formal logic and essay on war metaphysics and cared only for moral philosophy. Similarly, John Monfasani reminds us that Erasmus never claimed to be a philosopher, was not trained as a philosopher, and whale essays wrote no explicit works of philosophy, although he repeatedly engaged in controversies that crossed the essay on war boundary from philosophy to theology. His relation to philosophy bears further scrutiny. To evaluate Erasmus’ relationship to you determine essay philosophy, we have to understand his identity as a humanist. One of his earliest works, begun in on war and peace, his monastic youth, though not published until 1520, was the Antibarbari. It proposes a defense of the alejandra humanities, then essentially the study of classical languages and literature, against detractors who were scorned as barbarians.

One of the key themes of the work is the vital role of classical culture in a Christian society, and this theme entails a redefinition of philosophy, in contrast to on war the prevailing university discipline of philosophy. Everything of the tone value in pagan culture, insists the main interlocutor in the dialogue, was intended by Christ to enrich Christian society, and this includes philosophy, since Christ himself was “the very father of philosophy” (CWE 23:102; ASD I-1:121). The philosophy he fathered is the philosophy that Erasmus professed throughout his life and work, the philosophia Christi . This philosophy is not so much a set of dogmas as it is a way of life or an ethical commitment. One of essay on war and peace Erasmus’ first published works and one of his most enduringly popular ones was the Enchiridion militis Christiani , or Manual of the Christian Soldier , of 1503. Written to an anonymous friend at court who had asked Erasmus to garrido compose for him a guide to life, or ratio vivendi , that would lead him to a state of mind worthy of Christ.

The Enchiridion gained immediate notoriety for its repudiation of monasticism and its insistence that true piety consists not in outward ceremonies but inward conversion. In the course of events, these themes would become associated with the Protestant Reformation. The Enchiridion espouses a philosophy of duality, the duality of body and on war and peace soul, letter and spirit, that is explicitly modeled on Platonism. The author deplores the fact that professional philosophers, obsessed with Aristotle, have banished Platonists and Pythagoreans from the essays on survival in auschwitz classroom, and on war he cites approvingly St. Augustine’s preference of Plato over Aristotle. Of the two classical philosophers, Plato’s doctrines are closer to Christianity and his allegorical style is better suited to the exposition of scripture. When the Enchiridion defines philosophy, it invokes a Socratic precedent. Socrates, in Plato’s dialogue Phaedo , said that philosophy was nothing other than meditation on death because it gradually alienates us from the material and corporeal concerns of life. Philosophy takes us out of the world, the mundus , and into garrido Christ. This withdrawal from the world is and peace, not just for religious professionals, such as priests or monks, but for essay words list everyone in every walk of and peace life.

Philosophy is a spiritual state rather than a professional identity. Among the many Platonic topoi that appealed to Erasmus, none feature more consistently in his work than the christmas carol ideal of the philosopher king, first introduced in Plato’s Republic . Often this serves as an epideictic topos, as when Erasmus hails Charles V’s brother Ferdinand as a philosopher king (in the essay and peace conclusion to his treatise on the Christian concord De sarcienda ecclesiae concordia ) (ASD V-3:313), or when he similarly acclaims King Sigismund of Poland in a letter to a Polish correspondent (Ep. 2533). Yet, the topic also sponsors some provocative thinking on philosophy. Essay Transition Words? When Erasmus published his Education of a Christian Prince in and peace, 1516, he dedicated the in auschwitz treatise to Prince Charles, King of Spain, who was soon to succeed his grandfather Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor, under the title Charles V. The dedicatory epistle evokes the familiar Platonic claim that no republic will be fortunate until philosophers are kings or kings embrace philosophy. By philosophy, Erasmus understands not the Aristotelian physics and metaphysics that dominated the university curriculum, but rather that kind of philosophy that frees our mind from errors and and peace vices, and demonstrates correct government on the model of the eternal power.

This model, or aeterni numinis exemplar , (ASD IV-1:133) is Christ, and the new philosopher king is a disciple of Christ. Erasmus returns to the philosopher king in the text of his treatise on political philosophy when he again qualifies the meaning of “philosophy.” To be a philosopher does not mean to be skilled at essay dialectic or physics, but rather to prefer truth to illusion. In sum, to be a philosopher is the same as to be a Christian: “idem esse philosophum et esse Christianum” (ASD IV-1:145). This is the most compact and emphatic statement of Erasmus’s philosophy of Christ. His most mature and complete statement can be found in the Paraclesis , one of the forewords or prefaces he composed for his edition of the and peace New Testament, also from essay titles for a christmas, 1516. On War? In its opening lines, the Paraclesis exhorts all mortals to the holiest and most salubrious study of Christian philosophy, insisting that this type of wisdom can be learned from fewer books and with less effort than the arcane doctrines of Aristotle. The philosophy of Christ is a straight road open to all who are endowed with pure and simple faith, and not an exclusive discipline reserved for specialists. Persuasive Essay? In this context, Erasmus adds a controversial endorsement of vernacular translations of the essay Bible, so that everyone can share in the message of for a christmas carol Christ. As we have seen, Erasmus often defines philosophy in the negative: his philosophy is not what people conventionally understand as philosophy. He repudiates conventional philosophy as too contentious, too belligerent and dogmatic. He prefers instead to experiment with a non-assertive form of philosophy that relies on paradox and on the neutralizing force of essay and peace opposing arguments.

His best known experiment in extended paradox, and his best claim to permanence in school curriculum, is the Praise of Folly , first published in Paris in 1511, and accompanied in subsequent editions by a commentary attributed to Gerhard Lister but thought to have been dictated by Erasmus himself. Folly, or Moria , delivers her own encomium, proudly invoking the inspiration of the whale essays ancient Greek sophists and seemingly disqualifying her every claim, except perhaps for her satire of the clergy and the learned professions; this is followed by on war and peace a deceptively earnest exposition of Pauline spirituality, where we detect the same stylistic devices and profusion of proverbs as in the rest of the text. Erasmus labeled his text a declamation, in the sense of a thesis meant to provoke a counter-thesis rather than to assert a dogma. After all, the essay christmas carol speaker is Folly, a notoriously unreliable authority on all matters secular and religious and from whom it is no dishonor to essay on war differ in views. Rather, we should be ashamed to agree with her. Essay Titles Christmas? By resorting to this subterfuge, rather than positively asserting his beliefs in his own name, Erasmus was able to intervene in essay, a number of the tone intellectual, political, and spiritual debates in contemporary Christendom without affirming or denying anything. Though voiced by Folly herself, the critique of church and clergy contained in the Praise of Folly provoked a bitter resentment among doctors of theology, as we know from on war, correspondence between Erasmus and the Louvain theologian Martin Dorp. In a letter dated September 1514, Dorp testifies to the hostile reaction of the professional theologians to the Moriae Encomium and their apprehension of essay titles christmas Erasmus’ new project to edit the and peace New Testament, of which word had already begun to circulate largely due to Erasmus’ own public relations campaign. Erasmus’ response to Dorp in epistle 337 recapitulates many of the you determine the tone of an essay themes of his life-long tirade against scholasticism. Essay? One of the key themes here is the stark contrast drawn between the recent style of theology exemplified by the scholastics, and the old style of theology associated with the Church Fathers, many of whose works Erasmus edited. The passage from old to new has hardly been an improvement.

The upstarts or recentiores are so engrossed in their factional disputes and dialectical quibbles that they do not have time to whale essays read the Bible. Erasmus makes his case most succinctly when he asks, “What does Aristotle have to on war do with Christ?” In effect, he accuses the schoolmen of idolatry in their substitution of pagan for Christian authority. The letter to Dorp, which was revised for publication with the transition list Praise of Folly beginning with the essay on war and peace Basel edition of 1516, offers a powerful and insidious repudiation of university theology and philosophy. Erasmus thus had little enthusiasm for akbars essay policy religious the various philosophic orthodoxies prevailing among the ancients or the moderns. However, fairly late in essay on war and peace, life, and only belatedly acknowledged by criticism, he did turn in sympathy to one of the Hellenistic schools of philosophy, namely Epicureanism. Erasmus never espoused Epicureanism as a comprehensive system of thought, and he could not endorse the central tenet of the mortality of the human soul. He was, however, attracted to the Epicurean ideal of peace of whale essays mind through the essay and peace retreat from worldly cares and the cultivation of whale essays a clear moral conscience. As Reinier Leushuis writes, Erasmus’ very last familiar colloquy, The Epicurean , published in 1533, contains the startling claim that no one better deserves the name “Epicurean” than the essay revered prince of Christian philosophy, Christ himself (CWE 40:1086; ASD I-3:731). You Determine Of An Essay? Christ teaches his followers how to essay and peace attain a state of complete tranquility, and freedom from the torments of a guilty conscience, that corresponds to you determine the tone the Epicurean ideal of ataraxia . This ideal, it is worth noting, is not the same as Stoic apathy, which Erasmus carefully disassociates from Christianity in various places including the Ecclesiastes. He points out that apathy would defeat the purpose of the Christian preacher who tries to arouse the on war emotions of the audience.

The Christian ought to combine compassion with a clear conscience in whale essays, order to achieve tranquility. This understanding of Christianity has little in common with the sterner tenor of Protestant thought, and may explain why Martin Luther labeled Erasmus an Epicurean in the vulgar sense of an atheist or unbeliever. Finally, it may not be out of essay place here to point out that, through his mature, non-dogmatic embrace of Epicureanism, Erasmus shows some affinity for the late Renaissance prose writer Michel de Montaigne. Speech, for Erasmus, is not only a defining attribute of humanity but also a key to the relation between humanity and titles christmas divinity, which was a central preoccupation of on war his thought. The Gospel of John declares that in the beginning was the logos , which Erasmus famously, or infamously, retranslated as sermo in essays in auschwitz, preference to on war the reading of the Vulgate, verbum . Erasmus felt justified in changing the reading of the Vulgate, but only in the second edition of for a christmas his New Testament published in 1519, because the received text of scripture is not divine. The words are human, or rather, a mediation between the human and the divine. The Bible is speech, and as such it must be read, interpreted, and understood according to the arts of speech.

Moreover, the arts of speech are the only means we have of approaching divinity. Speech brings man close to God. It is not entirely clear under what circumstances Erasmus first took an interest in biblical scholarship. His meeting with John Colet in England is known to have kindled his interest. Another factor, and perhaps an independent factor, was his discovery, in the summer of 1504 at the Praemonstratensian abbey of Parc just outside the walls of Louvain, of the manuscript of Lorenzo Valla’s Annotations on the New Testament , completed fifty years earlier. Erasmus prepared the editio princeps in and peace, Paris in 1505 with a prefatory epistle addressed to Christopher Fisher, papal protonotary and for a carol doctor of canon law. This preface in defense of Valla can be read as a sort of paradoxical encomium, or praise of invective, since Valla had a controversial reputation as a harsh critic and bitter polemicist. Erasmus compares Valla to Zoilus, a proverbial figure of odious slander for his presumptuous critique of Homeric epic, as we are reminded in the Adages ; but here, in the preface he carries a positive connotation as a heroic censor. In his masterpiece on the elegance of the essay on war Latin language, Valla rescued literature from barbarity by administering the harsh medicine of criticism to the inveterate disease of scholastic Latin.

Erasmus published an on survival epitome of Valla’s work in and peace, 1531 based on an abstract he had composed many years earlier in akbars essay, the monastery at essay Steyn. Titles For A Christmas Carol? Valla had collated the Vulgate with the Greek text of the essay on war and peace New Testament and emended the translation according to grammatical criteria, including the titles for a criterion of elegance. Surely, Erasmus asks, translation, whether of sacred or profane texts, is the purview of grammar. Essay And Peace? A translator is not a prophet. The prophet requires the gift of the alejandra Holy Spirit, but the translator needs grammar and essay on war rhetoric, the arts of language. In effect, since the word of God reaches us through human intermediaries using human language, theology cannot dispense with skill in language or linguarum peritia . This is the program of humanist theology.

The fervor with which the letter to Fisher defends Valla’s biblical philology suggests that Erasmus had already begun a similar enterprise himself. Persuasive Essay Transition Words List? Indeed, the text that Erasmus edited in 1505 was the model and impulse for his own Annotations on the New Testament first published as part of the Novum Instrumentum in 1516. Essay On War? Jacques Chomarat has demonstrated convincingly how much Erasmus owed to Valla’s precedent and transition words how little he acknowledged it, often expressing severe criticism of Valla’s choices, which can be taken as a sort of mimetic tribute to Valla, the modern Momus or god of criticism. Even the substitution of essay on war sermo for verbum , which embroiled Erasmus in such endless quarrels, and earned him a denunciation from the pulpit of titles christmas St. Paul’s Cathedral in essay and peace, London, was anticipated by Valla in his notes on the Gospel of John . Often the Erasmian Annotations revisits the themes first broached in the prefatory epistle to Fisher, including the notion that the Bible, like all human language, is immersed in historical time. Chomarat draws our attention to Erasmus’ annotation on Acts 10.38, where the apostle Peter is preaching to the Roman soldier Cornelius. Peter tells Cornelius that God anointed Jesus, which the Vulgate renders with a turn of phrase that elicits a long commentary from Erasmus, lengthened in successive editions. First of all, he observes, though the New Testament is written in Greek, it’s not clear whether Peter was speaking Greek or Hebrew, that is to say the local dialect of Hebrew. If he spoke Greek, he spoke it as a foreign language inflected by akbars policy his own vernacular, which accounts for stylistic irregularities.

After all, the apostles were only human, subject to error and ignorance like the rest of us. Essay And Peace? This got Erasmus in a lot of trouble. He rounds off his note with a disclaimer: “I’m not the oracle; you can take my opinion or leave it.” This pronouncement coincides with similar disclaimers throughout his biblical scholarship and his apologies. To his implacable foe Edward Lee, Erasmus insists that his opinions are not dogmas to be taken on faith but only ideas to be debated: excutienda propono non sequenda (ASD IX-4:46). Alejandra Garrido? In humanist theology, both the text and on war the exegete are fallible. Erasmus’ main statement on human speech comes at the beginning of his Paraphrase on the Gospel of persuasive essay list John , published in 1523 between the third and fourth editions of his Annotations . On War? Speaking in the voice of the evangelist, he acknowledges that the nature of God surpasses human understanding, and exceeds all of our powers of representation.

Consequently, it is better to believe in God than to try to understand him through human reason. Christian philosophy is a kind of fideism, and not a speculative theology. Policy Religious? But, in order to convey some understanding of things that are neither intelligible to us nor explainable by us, we have to use names of things that are familiar to our senses, though there is nothing in reality that is truly analogous to God. Therefore, just as the Bible calls that highest mind God, so it calls his only Son its speech. For the Son, though not identical to the Father, nevertheless resembles him through perfect similitude. Essay? In the same way, speech is the true mirror of the mind. In this sense, John’s logos is the paradigm of human speech. There is something miraculous about human speech which, arising from the inner recesses of the mind and passing through the ears of the listener, by a kind of occult energy transfers the alejandra garrido thesis soul of the speaker to the soul of the and peace listener. This “occult energy” is not divine but nevertheless insinuates the titles christmas carol proximity of the human and essay on war the divine. Christ is called the logos because God wanted to make himself known to us through him, so that we might be saved. Speech is the gateway to eternity.

The topos of the mirror of speech runs throughout Erasmus’ work as a guiding thread of his ethical and garrido religious thought. It is the figure of essay and peace speech that animates his philosophy. We find the mirror in the Praise of Folly , in how do the tone, several adages, and in the Lingua. In the latter, it is associated with a saying of Socrates, “Speak that I may see you,” that reappears in the Apophthegmata , whose prefatory epistle to William of Cleves cites Plutarch’s claim that, more than any deeds, sayings are the true mirror of the mind. Erasmus’ last work, the essay on war and peace Ecclesiastes devotes a rather important development to the exalted role of speech as the true mirror and whale essays image of the soul. In all these instances, we should recognize the expression not of a linguistic theory but rather of a moral imperative.

Our society and our salvation depend, according to Erasmus’ favorite figure of speech, on the coincidence of our words and thoughts. Erasmus brings out this dimension of and peace his theme best in the Lingua of 1525, which identifies the tongue as the source of our greatest benefits and ills. If speech is a mirror, he explains ruefully, it can certainly be a distorting mirror. Christ wanted to be called the logos and the truth, so that we would be ashamed of whale essays lying, but now even Christians have become so accustomed to lying that they don’t even realize they are lying. This sad state of affairs is the occasion for a very solemn admonition: “Once lying becomes acceptable, then we can have no more trust, and without trust we lose all human society” (CWE 29:316; ASD IV-1A:83). True speech is the foundation of society, and once this foundation is on war, cracked, the social edifice collapses. At the persuasive essay transition words end of the sixteenth century Michel de Montaigne will make the very same claim in the same prophetic tones, first in on war and peace, his essay “On liars” and again in the essay “On giving the lie.” Both writers experienced their age as a crisis of truth and language. If we want to do justice to the prolific and whale essays multifarious achievement of Desiderius Erasmus, we might say that he devoted his life to the ethics of speech. Since his death in 1536, Erasmus can hardly be said to have rested in peace.

His adversaries and detractors were unappeased by essay and peace his earthly disappearance, and his partisans and disciples shared some of his enthusiasm for polemic. Christmas? One way to assess Erasmus’ legacy is to essay and peace trace the publication history of his work, or what we might call the making of his canon. Persuasive? Erasmus himself was thinking about an edition of his complete works as early as 1523, as we know from a letter he sent to Johann von Botzheim in which he drew up a preliminary catalogue of his works to be edited in nine separate tomes with a tenth tome pending. The first tome was to include everything that concerns literature and education including all his translations from Lucian, Euripides, and Libanius. Tome two was reserved for the adages, and tome three for his correspondence.

Volume four would be devoted to moral philosophy, including his various translations from Plutarch’s Moralia , and his original works such as the essay and peace Praise of Folly , the how do you determine Education of a Christian Prince , and the Complaint of Peace . Volume five was to handle works of religious instruction such as the Enchiridion , his psalm commentaries, and all the prefaces to his New Testament. Eventually, his Ecclesiastes would be included in this group. Volume six would consist of the New Testament and the Annotations , while volume seven was for the Paraphrases . Volume eight was supposed, on a conservative estimate, to hold all the Apologies , or polemical writings. Volume nine was for the Letters of St. Jerome , as if Erasmus wrote them himself, and time permitting, he promised to write a commentary on Paul’s Epistle to the Romans to fill volume 10. Erasmus revised his plan in a letter addressed to on war and peace the Scottish historian Hector Boece in 1530, partly to accommodate all he had written in the intervening seven years. As a practical measure, the works are now distributed in series, or ordines , rather than individual volumes, and a few other modifications are introduced.

The Paraphrases join the New Testament in ordo six to make room for all of whale essays Erasmus’ translations of the Greek Fathers in ordo seven. The ninth series now includes several Latin Fathers in addition to Jerome, and the plans for a tenth volume have been shelved. When the posthumous Opera omnia finally issued, from the Froben press of Basel in the course of 1538 to 1540, the publishers followed Erasmus’ plan, but once again separated New Testament and Paraphrases into orders six and seven, while the projected volume of essay Latin Fathers was canceled. The Apologies occupy the ninth and final order. This is substantially the same organization adopted by alejandra the French Protestant refugee Jean Le Clerc in his ten volume edition of the Opera omnia published in Leiden during the on war and peace first decade of the eighteenth century. Essay Titles For A? This edition is known as LB from the and peace Latin name for the place of titles for a christmas publication, Lugduni Batavorum. And Peace? Le Clerc had to add a tenth volume to accommodate all the Apologies . As a further innovation, he even added an Index Expurgatorius , or repertory of all the titles for a christmas passages in Erasmus’ work that were marked out for expurgation by the Spanish and the Roman censors, keyed to the pagination of the Basel edition. And Peace? From this index it appears that the censors were particularly interested in the correspondence, and that only ordo eight, consisting of Latin translations of the Greek Fathers, escaped their vigilance.

Le Clerc’s index is an opportune reminder that during the century and a half intervening between the Basel edition and titles for a carol LB, the history of the reception of essay Erasmus is largely a history of censorship. The Counter-Reformation devoted a fair amount of its institutional effort to the suppression of Erasmus’ legacy in Italy. The first indices of prohibited books were municipal lists whose scope of enforcement was necessarily restricted. In 1555 the Congregation of the Index promulgated the first papal Index of Prohibited Books , which included several titles of Erasmus such as the Annotations on the New Testament , the Colloquies , the Praise of Folly , the Enchiridion , and some writings on prayer and on celibacy. Essay Policy? This index was suspended shortly after its promulgation but it did deter Italian printers from publishing new editions of essay on war and peace Erasmus’ work. Then in 1559 the papacy promulgated a new index which inscribed Erasmus among the first class of heretics whose works were banned in entirety. This index in whale essays, turn provoked a major incidence of book burning in the capital of European printing, Venice. Pope Pius IV issued a revised index in the wake of the Council of Trent, the Tridentine Index of 1564 , which relaxed the comprehensive ban on Erasmus’ work. However, it also included new provisions for enforcement that resulted in the confiscation and destruction of a considerable number of Erasmus editions in the stock of Italian booksellers. The Tridentine Index also included a new provision for the expurgation of those works by Erasmus that were not banned outright. This provision yielded, after some delay, one of the and peace more important printing and publishing ventures of the garrido Counter Reformation, namely the official expurgated edition of Erasmus’ Adages.

This was commissioned by the Council of Trent, prepared by on war Paolo Manuzio, prefaced by his son Aldo, and alejandra thesis published in Florence by the Giunti in 1575 bearing the imprimatur of Pope Gregory XIII. This was the censored edition of the essay on war Adages , purged of anything that could give offense to pious ears, and from which all traces of its author, Desiderius Erasmus, were so scrupulously removed that the work is often catalogued as the Adages of Paolo Manuzio . Akbars Essay Religious? It’s a blessing that readers beyond Italy had access to the unexpurgated edition of the Adages , for if Montaigne had had to rely on Paolo Manuzio’s version, he never would have invented the essay form. Subsequent revisions of the Index of Prohibited Books gradually abandoned the project of further expurgation. The index of Pope Clement VIII in 1596 turned over essay on war and peace the task of expurgation to individual readers relying on their own conscience or someone else’s directions. Eventually the papacy resigned itself to the presence of some copies of Erasmus’ literary and educational writings in private libraries in Italy.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the on war, question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. Garrido! To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for essay on war, your answer with reasons and persuasive essay words evidence. Essay And Peace! • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is essay for a carol this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias?

Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to essay on war and peace rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at garrido first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime?

Why do we have short and and peace long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar?

Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves?

Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs?

Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at essay learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein?

Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to essay establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in akbars essay policy religious, boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt?

Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and essay on war breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and whale essays jellyfish glow? What causes tides?

Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and on war and peace cicadas to alejandra garrido thesis make such loud noises? Why are animals used in on war, research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is alejandra garrido larger size an advantage for essay, animals in you determine, colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs?

Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings?

Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war?

What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in on war and peace, the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the essay policy, U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is essay and peace North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and you determine the tone of an essay more people moving to large cities and away from essay and peace, rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics?

Why has neo-Nazism been on essay religious, the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system?

What caused the essay and peace, settlement of Australia by how do you determine the tone essay the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is on war English the main language used around the world in business and for a science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of essay atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to essay titles for a christmas stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the on war, parliamentary system? Why does America have an how do the tone of an essay, educational system that is different from the European system used by essay most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S.

Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and akbars essay African American was third at essay 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to essays in auschwitz study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of essay on war and peace possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for on survival in auschwitz, your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of on war and peace your paper.

Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the alejandra garrido, situation or effect. See the chart for essay on war, easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. How Do You Determine The Tone Of An Essay! Thesis: Start your thesis by essay on war asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of alejandra garrido your essay. Body: Be careful to and peace write the reasons in for a christmas, parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and essay talking with other people about the experience, and alejandra garrido they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on and peace, the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on persuasive transition list, one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of essay Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Akbars Essay Policy! Gather evidence from your own observations and from research.

Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to essay either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Essays In Auschwitz! Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to essay and peace Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by alejandra Virginia Kearney 55. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. Essay On War! I have many more articles about writing.

Please look at my How to titles for a christmas carol Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for essay on war and peace, more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. Words List! I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. Essay On War And Peace! A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the persuasive list, body like the introductory and essay on war concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of alejandra others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago.

This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Essay On War And Peace! Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you!

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from how do essay, United States. And Peace! Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the on survival, beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is essay on war why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for whale essays, over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan.

Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at essay Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and essays on survival company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. On War! HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. On Survival In Auschwitz! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on on war, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Essay: Dreams – theories, history and film. What is a dream? Is it just a figment of the imagination? Are dreams reflections of personality or a prophecy? Humans were and still are wondering, discovering, learning about the source as well as meaning of dreams, their visions for centuries. From a scientific point of view, a dream is not just the sleeping state in itself, but awareness – resting of the brain, it is the on war and peace moment most closely related to the sphere of essay for a carol human desires. It is on war and peace a source of knowledge coming from the deepest recesses of the psyche, a path from the mind to the brain. REF. This topic was chosen as the author became fascinated with the subject of dreams following her practical work an earlier stage and decided to explore the essay topic in more depth, including historical references and symbolism used by artists and writers. How do dreams arise and what images do they create? How do artists reconstruct them and present in their work?

Night is not only the time in which one is resting, but it is also the time to disclose the essay true subconscious thoughts and persuasive transition, desires, senses, needs, values, fears or even human hopes. Essay On War And Peace. What one dreams of is a record of the the tone of an essay life of unconscious human targets, a combination of experiences. On War And Peace. The analysis of essay dreams is the path to get to know oneself, reveal they suppressed psychical content. The sleep state is something spectacular, a gateway to on war another world, far away from everyday life. The dream reveals the akbars essay religious secrets of the past, the future, as well as the present.

It is essay and peace a state of union of the human soul with the whole world around. Chapter one will look at the relevant theories developed by Jung, Emerson and the controversial Sigmund Freud, the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist who claimed that the human psyche is not only limited to consciousness. Chapter one aims to critically analyse psychoanalysis and essays, the symbolisms of dreams. Chapter two aims to investigate the title in more depth in terms of the historical aspect. It also attempts to discover how the interpretation of dreams has evaluated through at the centuries. Chapter two will examine the role of dreams in a few selected literary works and pieces of art and will explore the essay and peace outcomes.

Chapter three will consider in whale essays more depth the one of the most interesting movements in essay Dali’s work including the 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalon’ (An Andalusian Dog) CHAPTER ONE – THE THEORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS MEANINGS. The title of the alejandra garrido thesis first famous work of the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist Sigmund Freud has been translated as “The Interpretation of Dreams”. This is the manifesto of essay his ideas. The book which was published in 1899, threw a completely new light on the subject of sleep.

According to Freud night is not only the persuasive transition list time in which a man rests ‘ it is primarily a time to reveal his true, unconscious thoughts and desires. Essay. REF. Freud discovered by examining his patients that the human psyche determines active yet unconscious representations that relate to childhood. He concludes that the experiences from the early stages of how do the tone personality development can after many years cause obsessive thoughts, fears and strange courses of action. The reasons for such behaviour are, according to and peace Freud not admitted to consciousness due to the high emotional charge when the whale essays emotions which are too painful or too improbable. On War. REF. Freud distinguished three spheres of the human psyche: the unconscious the Id, the Ego and persuasive essay transition, conscious irrational the Superego. The Id acts in accordance with the pleasure principle.

In 1933, Sigmund Freud described the Id as. ‘the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learnt from our study of the dream-work and of the construction of neurotic symptoms, and essay and peace, most of this is of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We all approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations… It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the in auschwitz pleasure principle.’ REF. The Id remains in conflict with the Superego and on war and peace, the outside world. How Do The Tone Of An. The Ego, guided by the principle of reality, tries to alleviate this conflict and customize the behaviour of the individual to conform to given environment principles. It attenuates impulses or satisfies them in the safest and most beneficial manner including the most important – sexual. According to the theory of Freud one of the on war and peace proofs of the existence of the Id are dreams, fulfilling the unconscious desires and replacing real action.

Dreams are hidden desires, which reflect the subconscious, and thanks to them it is possible to discover the cause of anxiety and neurotic behaviour. According to Freud, the dream is a creation of the dreamer’s own activity, but during sleep censorship temporarily weakens its activities. How Do The Tone Of An Essay. This allows unconscious thoughts to have the opportunity to appear. REF. Thus the essay dream is a record of life, unconscious human needs, and a combination of experiences. The analysis of dreams is the words path to essay on war and peace get to know oneself; dreams reveal suppressed psychological content. In a dream, several forms merge into one.

For example, anxiety concerning one house may manifest itself in dreams as a few houses. According to scientists, the dream is something extraordinary, the gateway to another world, far away from everyday life. Freud concluded that the human psyche cannot be limited only to akbars essay religious consciousness. He claimed that there is an unconscious that contains in itself the essay specific content and which is also directing its own mechanisms. Unconscious processes affect our behaviour. REF. Freud introduced two new theories concerning dreams-manifest and latent content. Manifest content is simply remembered dream, latent content is an essays expression of latent desires, memories of the previous days, and the impetus of the body or the and peace environment. The close connection between the essays on survival dream and the unconscious the Id makes every detail of the overt content of dreams imbuing with it some significance. According to and peace Jung, dreams are influenced by whale essays ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious – what might be called unconscious memory. Essay On War. He believed that dreams are unconscious revelation of transcendental wisdom to the individual.

Freud and Jung have made great contributions to the study of dreams and have created a solid foundation for translating dreams. These studies show that during sleep the essays on survival subconscious sends signals that actually deciphered can explain where the source of the problem is and how it can be solved. Essay And Peace. REF. In dreams nothing happens without a reason, they can be deciphered. Because sexual desire, according to Freud, plays a crucial role in human life, different objects and situations in dreams can refer to sexual objects. Alejandra Garrido. For example, sticks, knives, umbrellas and shotguns, are unconscious representations of the penis.

According to this theory, young girls seeking sexual contacts and yet fearful of them are often in dreams pursued by men with a knife or firearm. On the other hand, for example, fruits such as apples, in men’s dreams symbolize a woman’s breasts. REF Indeed, not all dreams are filled with unconscious sexual content. One patient told Freud a dream in and peace which members of his family were sitting around an odd-shaped table. Seemingly the dream did not make sense. But it turned out whale essays that the man had seen a similar table the house of a friend he had met recently. On War. REF. Another example of alejandra garrido thesis dream analysis he in and peace accordance with Freud’s theory is cited in the book, “Secrets of Sleep” by Alexander Borbely. A certain man dreamed that he was riding a bike. His answer to the question of what bike reminded him was that this was his son’s favourite pastime.

In the you determine essay autumn the son would be leaving for university and the man wanted to spend more time with him before his departure. The second dream involved a combination of his father’s death following a heart attack. The bike had helped the father to maintain fitness. The dream of cycling related to essay on war two very serious things in his life. REF. Some people believe that many theories developed by Freud and his successors such, as Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and Erich Fromm (1900-1980), are not supported by sufficient scientific evidence. On the other hand, the akbars essay policy religious phenomenon of essay sleep and subconscious human hides so many puzzles that one cannot authoritatively determine who is right and who is wrong. Perhaps doubt will never be justified. Formerly dreams were given different meanings.

They were considered as information derived from the gods, and the mysterious language of sleep sought to be explained in many ways. The sages and words list, priests spent much time on this. In order to fathom the mystery of dreams, dreams were collected and were written down in order to later attempt to interpret them. Erich Fromm believed that ‘Both dreams and myths are important communications from essay on war and peace, ourselves to ourselves. If we do not understand the language in which they are written, we miss a great deal of what we know and tell ourselves in those hours when we are not busy manipulating the outside world. ‘ REF. Myths and dreams are united by one shared feature – dreams can be written in symbolic language. It is a language in which the inner experiences, feelings and thoughts are expressed in such a way as if they were sensory experiences, events in the outside world. This language is governed by logic which is different from the conventional, everyday logic, in which there is not significant space and time, but intensity and association.

Historically, for people living both east and west, dreams and myths were among the most important creations the mind, and titles christmas, the lack of essay on war and peace understanding of dreams was treated as ignorance. An interesting interpretation of dreams was presented by Artemidorus in the second century. His work on the translation of the dream had a huge impact on the views of the Middle Ages. He distinguished five types of dreams: 1) Dream hides the truth in latent form. 2) The vision is when what is seen in a dream is transition list what happened in the real world. 3) An racle is essay a revelation sent down in a dream by an angel, or another character to garrido fulfill the will of God. 4) Fantasy is when what preoccupies s person during the day t is subject of the dream. 5) The phantom is a night vision, which is manifested to small the children or elderly people to scare or scandalize them. Ralph Emerson theorized that dreams reflect character, and particularly those aspects that cannot be observed in waking behaviou.

This manifests itself in the character of the other , as he claimed, ‘in the dreams of other persons their hidden forces which affect their behavior and in this way we can often predict their future actions.’ REF. Whereas Emerson suggested a relationship between character and dream, Henri Bergson argued that dreams are actually caused by different physical stimuli, but these stimuli do not need to be explained as the dominant desires. According to him dreams are caused by memories being pushed into oblivion. He assumed that the human mind does not forget anything, and what is remembered, is only a small fraction of the whole of one’s memory. REF. Many researchers share the view that dreams have in on war them something of both an irrational and a rational nature. Some people believe that dreams reveal the animal nature and are the gateway to illusions whereas dreams for others are an expression of the most rational forces, which is the gateway to how do the tone essay truth.

According to some researchers, the role of dreams is to on war and peace explain when the dream manifests the persuasive essay transition better part of the “I”, and when it dominates the animal nature. REF. A long time before psychoanalysis, great importance was attributed to dreams; hence the frequent presence of dreams and visions as theme in the literature of different eras. The works of some artists also embed this convention which will be discussed further in essay on war and peace the following chapter. CHAPTER TWO ‘ HISTORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS EVOLUTION. The first references regarding dreams in art are as old as literature itself. The interest in dreams and their analysis began with the birth of humanity. Since time immemorial, dreams have been the richest source of the interpretation of the past, present, and most importantly the whale essays future.

The stories of Gilgamesh, Iliad and the Bible all describe dreams of some of the main characters along with their meanings. However dreams as art, without historical or tale format appear to have developed in later years, although it is impossible to know how many pre-modern works were inspired by dreams. (Belanger, 2005)’According to one of the oldest beliefs, sleep was a state similar to the state of on war and peace death. In former times dreams considered were to titles for a carol be the journey of the soul leaving the body REF. This idea of the soul leaving the body can be to the pre-Christian era. In the Bible there are many examples of dreams. In ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, the dream was considered a bad omen, unless it was interpreted by experts who carried out the appropriate rituals according to their message.

Babylonians treated dreams as a kind of guide to conduct in everyday life. On War. Also the ancient Greeks had a highly developed technique of dream interpretation. Initially, they considered dreams as signs from the alejandra thesis gods, consisting of a kind of essay guide to the complicated way of life. Health was analysed in terms of dreams. According to mythology, the persuasive essay transition words Ancient Greeks imagined the god of sleep, Hypnos, as a winged youth.

He was the essay brother of Thanatos, the god of death. Hypnos could make people fall asleep just by touching their foreheads with a twig or strewing on them poppies stored in horn. A more common representation of on survival in auschwitz a dream coming from ancient culture is Morpheus, son of Hypnos the god of on war and peace dreams. Morpheus had the ability to mimic any human form and appear in dreams. REF.

In the how do the tone Bible the dream has a symbolic meaning. It could be an omen, prophecy or vision. God appeared to Pharaoh in a dream, cautioning him of imminent danger. Pharaoh’s vision allowed him to avoid the oncoming adversity. God gave him a chance to save the people from famine, which was coming in the near future. Pharaoh dreamed that he was standing by the Nile, when up seven cows, sleek and fat appeared out of the river and they grazed among the essay on war and peace reeds. After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out how do of the Nile and stood beside those on the riverbank. Essay And Peace. The cows that were ugly and gaunt ate up the seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up, but when he fell asleep again, he dreamed a second dream.

Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. Essay. After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted thin and scorched by the east wind. The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads. Pharaoh woke up again and essay, realized it was a dream which may have been sent as a warning. – Image 1 Pharaoh’s Dreams by James Tissot. The next day, Pharaoh decided to for a christmas convene all the magicians and wise men of essay and peace Egypt but none of them knew what the dream meant. Joseph, who was held captive had the gift of interpretation of dreams . Whale Essays. ‘The dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to and peace do. The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years; it is whale essays one and the same dream. The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the and peace seven worthless heads of grain scorched by the east wind: They are seven years of famine.’ REF. However, after seven years of prosperity there was to be time of misery and poverty.

Joseph advised Pharaoh to build granaries where he might store the excess food. In addition, Joseph announced that if the dream was repeated twice, it was certain that it would happen. REF. The author of the Exodus proved that dreams could predict the future or foreshadow any specific event. The Bible is a source of various motives and words list, symbols that are for essay on war people a reference to essays real life. Dreams in essay and peace the Bible reveal the intricacies of the human psyche, reveal fears and anxieties, and yet are a path which God and man can communicate. God appeared in Solomon’s dream and persuasive essay transition list, announced that he would give anything that Solomon wished. Solomon was king of Israel and did not demand long life or riches; he preferred to have the wisdom to distinguish between good and evil, when governing the people. God fulfilled his wish, but also gave him fame and wealth. The dream here demonstrated Solomon’s attitude to God, who not only fulfilled his request but gave him more.

REF Luca Giordano was one of the most important painters of the essay late Baroque period. Invited to garrido thesis Spain by King Charles II in 1692, he was soon established as the essay on war and peace leading painter at the Spanish Court. For the crown, he painted in alejandra particular the biblical stories of inter alia Solomon where he also immortalized the scene of Solomon’s dream. Early Christians interpreted dreams as a state in which the defenseless body and spirit were susceptible to a variety of influences. Essay And Peace. Nightmares were thought to be a clear manifestation of demons and monsters or warnings from God or a message from heaven.

In the New Testament, an how do you determine of an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and declared that Mary was pregnant by the Holy Spirit. Mary and Joseph were not married yet and Joseph thought about annulling the betrothal because of the pregnancy of Mary. However, the angel told him that the future child would be the Saviour, which led to Joseph’s change of heart. REF. Dream themes appeared as early as in ancient Greek and Roman comedies, and continued to provide material for drama throughout the centuries. One example is the Baroque ‘Life Is a Dream’ by essay on war and peace Calderon de la Barca in 1635 (WHERE?!) Long before the discovery of garrido thesis psychoanalysis and its development, there were attempts to unravel the mystery of the origin and message of dreams.

Also artists started to be more involve in essay on war this phenomen. The Renaissance era was no exception. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, dreams became a theme often adoptedby artists who tried to push the boundaries of art seeking ways to show the essay religious unpreventable. How could an artist capture on canvas something so intangible, ephemeral and incomprehensible as a dream? Another form, which was as its basic material, imagination and essay and peace, dream, is the drama of the Renaissance era. Writers used dreams to reveal the complexities of the whale essays human psyche and to reveal subconscious fears and anxieties. This method was used by William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) who already in essay on war the sixteenth century broke with the existing conventions of drama and placed the supernatural alongside the real world. In “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” the playwright applied a phenomenon called the dualism of the represented world, which means that fantasy should be represented equally with reality. Persuasive. REF. One night in the middle of summer the boundary between these two worlds was obliterated. The forest, which was the place of the action, became a place for and peace the simultaneous operation of two states of consciousness: reality and dream.

In this way, Shakespeare created an persuasive words image resembling the original beliefs of the people or the fantasies of a child whose mind was not yet sufficiently affected by the suffering of the world and the things overlooked by adults. The forest was turned into a magical place with the presence of magic and elves. Among the characters of the drama, two circles could be distinguished: humans and elves. The first is a symbol of the ordinary and the mundane, while the second circle symbolizes the extraordinary and magic. Elves show that anything can happen. On War And Peace. By being transformed physically into an ass, Bottom’s true character is revealed. Essay. This was depicted by on war and peace Edwin Landseer in his painting ‘Scene from A Midsummer Night’s Dream’.Elvish magic showed the impossibility of distinguishing dream from reality. In the words of Shakespeare: ‘The lunatic, the lover, and the poet, are of imagination all compact.’ REF. In Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’ the world resembles ghostly phantom apnea, which is rife with crime, and of an, the scenery is immersed in the darkness of on war and peace night. Essay. The theme is the desire to gain power, which Macbeth and his wife achieve by the murder of essay and peace King Duncan. After the crime both perpetrators have guilty consciences, which they cannot suppress.

Dark thoughts and memories haunt both characters in dreams. The crime which they have committed has led to essay titles christmas them believing every man was a threat to them as a potential enemy. Essay And Peace. In a dream Macbeth sees the essays spirit of essay a dead friend, Banquo. This means he is faced with a difficult choice. On the one hand there is the desire to gain power, on alejandra the other sensitivity and a sense of morality, which ultimately is essay on war victorious. Macbeth could no longer keep secret, the terrible crime which was haunting him every night. Nightmares also tormented his wife.

Remorse disturbed his peace of mind. However, recurring nightmares still had a greater influence on his wife, and especially on the psyche. This is confirmed by the words of Macbeth (ACT 2 SCENE 5) REF. ‘Methought I heard a voice cry, ‘Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep”the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the raveled sleave of care, The death of each day’s life, sore labor’s bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course, Chief nourisher in life’s feast.’ REF. The killing a man by Macbeth is the killing of dream, his own conscience.

The painting “Nightmare” by Henry Fuseli (1781) reflects the struggle of the protagonist of Macbeth and his wife to whale essays come to terms with the murder. The woman lying on the bed perfectly reflects their mental state. Moreover, the woman’s position suggests that she may be dreaming of something horrifying, manifesting as fear in the dreamer. The painter has not left any specific instructions regarding its interpretation. It can be assumed that a woman lying on on war the bed is his beloved Anna Landolf. This would allow the how do you determine the tone discovery of an additional intimate sense. REF. ‘The Nightmare simultaneously offers both the image of a dream’by indicating the effect of the nightmare on the woman’and a dream image’in symbolically portraying the sleeping vision.’ REF It is also unclear whether the woman is immersed in on war and peace a dream or whether she is trying to catch her last breath. The symbolism and imagery of the painting is very much exposed. The outer form is the “undercover” for what is important, which is a nightmare of the spirit. Within the symbolism there is a monkey ornament, which according to ancient times was the creature which most closely resembles to a human.

However, in the art of the Middle Ages it symbolized the essence of a degraded, creature hiding in the animal nature of man. REF Similar symbols associated with the persuasive transition list character of the horse. Additional evidence may be darkness, from which it emerges. ‘Sleep, the Cousin of Death’ – Charles Sackville REF. Indeed the woman lying on essay the bed could be dead or just sleeping. During the Renaissance poets developed an awareness, not only of the importance od dreams but of the tone of an unlimited imagination. The poets of the seventeenth century liked to on war compare dream to the state of death. They even discussed the concept that human life ends in the sleep of death. How Do. – Miko??aj S??p Szarzy??ski (1550 ‘ 1581) REF. In European literature Romanticism emphasized the value of essay and peace emotions and inspirations coming from the irrational. Visions, stemming from dreams or the mental, and sometimes the physical state caused by the interaction of drugs, served as excellent material to manifest the highest potential and skills of the artist. Onirism which is an art form directly based on material from dreams, or which employs dream-like imagery, often embraces the entire composition of the artist’s work, especially the construction of the person and his relationship with the real, fantastic and spiritual world. (Drucker, 2006) In fact, the term Onirism in alejandra thesis relation to art appeared in the twentieth century as a result of the achievements of the Surrealists, for whom creativity and onirism tendencies are very characteristic.

The Surrealists were fascinated by on war and peace hypnosis, myths and tales, tearing down the logical order of reality and investigating absurdity, dreams and mediumship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The Surrealists attributed on enormous role to unrestrained imagination. Oneiric tendencies were noticed and disseminated in the 1960s and 1970s with the resurgent popularity of surrealism. Garrido. (Jurewicz, 2014) The epithet “oneiric” is most commonly used to essay on war characterize the artistic techniques, rather than the overall concept of the dream. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century symbolism and expressionism introduced dream images to how do you determine the visual arts. Expressionism was also a literary movement and embraced later work. (Jouvet, 2000) August Strindberg coined the term “dream play” for narrative style, which does not apply the and peace differentiations between fantasy and reality. Whereas others believed that sleep is a kind of escape from the world. ‘The Wedding’ (1901) defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the akbars essay policy religious 20th century by Stanis??aw Wyspia??ski (1869 – 1907) describes the perils of the and peace national drive toward self-determination following the two unsuccessful uprisings against the Partitions of Poland, in November 1830 and January 1863. The author, by combining reality with fiction, evaluates Polish society facing an opportunity to regain independence. There are large number of symbols, which serve as criticisms of inconsistency, lack of understanding and the motivation to fight for the country. Wyspiariski placed in his act realistic as well as fictional characters, ghosts and spirits.

There is garrido thesis no doubt that the essay and peace whole of the second act of the drama is constructed from oneiric conventions. Ghosts and spirits, which have symbolic importance, are merely the essay titles christmas carol imagination of the authentic characters. Almost every one of them is a remembrance of the past, the essay embodiment of their desires, fears and aspirations. Their task is to unmasked the christmas inner state of the on war person to whomghost are appearing. The Poet is titles for a visited successively by essay on war and peace the Black Knight a symbol of the nation’s past military glory, the Journalist, then by the court jester Sta??czy who is a conservative political sage and by the Ghost of Wernyhora, a paradigm of leadership for Poland.

Wernyhora presents the Host with a golden horn symbolizing the persuasive national mission, and calls the Polish people to revolt. On War And Peace. There is a mood of horror, mystery, understatement, ambiguity, so it is not known whether the characters see spirits while they are awake, or they are merely a dream. Painting “B’?dne ko??o” (The Mad Circle) by Jacek Malczewski is an example of a symbolic painting. The painting presents quite a strange scene referring to the play ‘The Wedding ‘ In the center of the painting is located a ladder on it there is sitting little boy while numerous characters are dancing around him. Among them is essay titles for a christmas impossible to distinguish between both the and peace rural population, positioned on second plane of the painting, naked women and men in titles for a christmas the foreground.

The humans and essay, the figure of the essay policy devil, that is, half-naked creature with hooves instead of feet. The painting is on war and peace a composition closed, is kept in dark tones predominate, gray, black, brown only on essay policy religious the left side, where there are people of rural origin suddenly colours change in a very lively, much happier with a majority of red, yellow, blue. The image is essay on war and peace very dynamic, but the full balance is akbars policy maintained between one and essay, the other side of the work. Malczewski’s painting sums up all the thoughts and values which carries with it drama ‘The Wedding’. The twentieth first century brought many amazing discoveries in the field of parapsychology, which allowed for a variety of interpretations of various phenomena in the area of the human mind. It has been proved that the brain during sleep functions only garrido, ten percent. REF. What is happening with the rest? It is still a mystery to be solve. Essay On War. The dream is a kind of escape into the world of fantasy, a condition in which a person is in no way limited’ even by the force of gravity. Wislawa Szymborska (1923 -2012) demonstrated this in the poem “In Praise of Dreams”.

In praise of dreams. I paint like Vermeer van Delft. I speak fluent Greek. and not just with the garrido living. that does what I want it to. and write mighty epics. as clearly as any venerable saint. My brilliance as a pianist. I fly the way we ought to, Falling from the roof, I tumble gently to the grass.

I’ve got no problem. breathing under water. I’ve been able to locate Atlantis. It’s gratifying that I can always. wake up before dying. As soon as war breaks out,

I roll over on my other side. I’m a child of my age, but I don’t have to be. A few years ago. And the night before last a penguin, The poem’s title makes the subject matter obvious. The subject shows the reader that during sleep, nothing is impossible. . One can become an outstanding painter fluent in different languages who plays the piano beautifully or soars high above the ground. The poet sees sleep as a land where anything can happen, an essay on war endless realm of alejandra thesis improbable things like two suns. In the dream, death does not need to be feared. Each time, when all kinds of threat are revealed by simply opening the eyes one is again lying safely in bed cuddling a pillow. Unknown corners of the earth can be explored; it is possible or to breathe underwater, we become better, we blur the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead.

In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends.. people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in essay on war and peace the laws of logic that govern thinking in reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the alejandra thesis most shocking or the most important moments of sleep are remembered. It is not surprising that Szymborska devoted a poem to the praise of dreams for their uniqueness. A dream is a second life; it is state of transition, in essay on war which people are the masters of their dreams.

Apnea material began to policy religious be used as an inspiration for comics in on war the 1980s. For instance the essays on survival popular comic strips of Winsor McCay. Artists began to illustrate their own dreams. In’ The Committee of Sleep’ the Harvard psychologist Deirdre explored material for on war and peace media provided by dreams among many modernist works inspired by dreams she included paintings such as ‘Flag’ (1954’55) by Jasper Johns, most of the transition work of on war and peace Jim Dine and Salvador Dali, novels ranging from ‘Sophie Choice’ directed by Alan J. Pakula, who adapted William Styron’s novel of the same name. Works of Anne Rice and Stephen King, even films such as ‘3 Women’ directed by Robert Altman, ‘Wild Strawberries’ directed by Ingmar Bergman, ‘Dracula’ or even ‘Frankenstein’. For A. Barrett also mentions that the song ‘Yesterday’ by Paul McCartney, was heard by him in a dream. (Belanger, 2005) Content coming from the dreams is still used for different purposes by many contemporary artists.

The exploitation of dreams is considered by some to give suitable psychological weigt to their work, regardless of artistic value. (Pells, 1973) CHAPTER THREE ‘ SURREALISM: THE DREAM MOVEMENT. Dreams have been an inseparable part of everyone’s life since time immemorial, and this is reflected in the fields of and peace literature and art where the use of akbars essay policy dreams as theme. Simultaneously, the discussion regarding dreams reached a new level of awareness in the western world due to the work of Sigmund Freud who introduced the concept of the unconscious as a field of and peace research. Freud’s theories greatly influenced the twentieth-century Surrealists who combined visionary impulses and titles for a carol, expressionism placing great emphasis on on war and peace the unconscious as a creative tool, with the assumption that the seemingly irrational content might contain much of relevant information, perhaps even more than the rational. The aim of the Surrealists was to investigate the transition words realm of the on war unconscious. They took the essay titles for a carol view that man is governed by forces beyond his conscious Ego, an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud. Although the essay and peace Surrealists strongly embraced Freud’s theory he wrote letter to whale essays Stefan Zweig (20 July 1938), after meeting Salvador Dali, that he was “inclined to look upon surrealists, who have apparently chosen me for their patron saint, as absolute (let us say 95 per cent, like alcohol) cranks!” (Pontalis, Frontiers in on war Psychoanalysis, p.49) Films, particularly those of Bunuel have, to a large extent been responsible for spreading the in auschwitz concept of the dream. Some of Bunuel’s sequences have been described as “an involuntary imitation of sleep.” (Solar, 2003) Film criticism popularized the epithet oneiric, but very often it is used interchangeably with the term “surreal” – regardless of whether it is a film created through surrealism or not. Commonly, these terms apply to discontinuities in and peace the film, the scenes that are a contradiction of realistic logic and unexpected associations. The invention of film and whale essays, animation has brought new opportunities to and peace describe irrational events, but films composed entirely of dream-like images and content were still rare avant-garde. (Peterson, 1994)

One of the most interesting movements in painting of the twentieth century was Surrealism. Artists representing this style were using surprising ideas that were innovative, inspired by reality as well as dreams. Antonin Artaud states that, ‘Surrealism is essays on survival in auschwitz not a style. It is the cry of a mind turning back on itself.’ (1997, p.3) Surrealism was founded in France and quickly gained followers. It expressed what is difficult to determine, allowed freedom of association, and even expressed the irrational. The style was a revolt against classicism, realism, empiricism, rationalism, utilitarianism and previous conventions in and peace art.

The main feature of Surrealist painting was a visual expression of internal perception. Artists tried to create images that disturbed the logical order of reality. Essays On Survival. Often these were grotesque visions, the on war and peace borderline between reality, dream, fantasy, hallucinations and a movement away from rationalism. (Durozoi, 2002) The Surrealists, who attributed a major role to unrestrained imagination, also derived some ideas from Romanticism. They wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Essay Religious. Important for them also was the element of surprise, absurdity and nonsense.

The Surreal images are shreds of disordered and and peace, illogical thoughts. Christmas Carol. Important inspirations for the Surrealists were Hieronymus Bosch’s (1450 ‘ 1516) paintings. Art historian Walter Gibson described Bosch’s paintings as “a world of dreams [and] nightmares in which forms seem to flicker and change before our eyes.” The Spaniard Felipe de Guevara wrote that the artist was regarded merely as “the inventor of monsters and chimeras”. On War. Whereas a Dutch art historian Karel van Mander described Bosch’s work as “wondrous and strange fantasies (‘) often less pleasant than gruesome to look at.” The aim of the Surrealists was to investigate the realm of the unconscious. They took the view that man is governed by akbars essay policy forces beyond his conscious ‘Ego’. The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, automatic writing, medium-ship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The most prominent psychoanalysis’s were Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Although the essay Surrealists referred to the theories of Freud, he himself was utterly puzzled by the Surrealists.

They Surrealists wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Their images are shreds of disordered and illogical thoughts. Salvador Dali (1904 ‘ 1989) was one of the most outstanding artists who was highly influenced by the world of dreams. An example can be Dali’s most recognizable series of melting clocks, supposedly inspired by a dream about camembert cheese. ‘Dali transferred on canvas culinary materialistic dreams and obsessions. Symbolism is part of the inherited culture of essay human nature. And Peace. It should be remembered that new symbols are constantly being created and they join the how do you determine the tone of an essay old.

Each symbol has its counterpart which is its translation or example. The quantity and quality symbol which humans use to express thoughts and desires, is, however, changed during the course of life and depends on the changing socio-cultural context. Because desires are suppressed during resting, they are revealed only in conditions of reduced censorship. The essence of dreams is the hallucinatory fulfilment of irrational impulses and desires. The formation of dreams involving two types of mental processes: one that creates thoughts of sleep and the other encodes these thoughts in such a way that they are irrational. Encoding is designed to conceal infantile desires, as well as those that are contrary to essay on war the principles of pleasure, but which are thought about in everyday life.’ (Jurewicz, 2014 p.7)

The 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalou’ (An Andalusian Dog) by Salvador Dali and Luis Bu??uel is a Surrealistic potpourri of shocking, dream-influenced obscene non-related episodic clips with no purpose but merely to shock the viewer. The chronology of the films is chaotic and disjointed, there are no central characters to follow, it jumps from ‘once upon persuasive essay transition words, a time’ to ‘eight years later’ without any explanation whatsoever. ‘It uses dream logic in narrative flow that can be described in terms of the then-popular Freudian free association, presenting a series of on war tenuously related scenes.’ (The Generalist, 2014) The film is reminiscent of on survival dream logic that requires no rhyme or reason, just like an actual dream. For centuries, people have been having dreams. Every night they enter into the world of essay on war and peace dream, an unknown world where it is possible to be anyone.

In dreams, it is essay transition possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends… people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking, the most important moments of sleep are remembered, and so it is with this film. The film includes ants crawling out of on war a man’s palm, a severed hand in the street and thesis, a shocking scene when a razor is held to a woman’s eyeball and an incision is promptly made. Bu??uel in his youth played outside surrounded by essay on war and peace dead donkeys and Dali had a dream of ants poking out of his hand. The film is a patchwork of scenes inspired by Dali’s and akbars essay religious, Bu??uel’s dreams. This dissertation has examined the importance and relevance of dreams in and peace art and literature.

It has shown that dreams can reveal the secrets of the past and essay carol, present and predict the future. Dreams may be evidence of supernatural power, and may provide an insight into the afterlife. Dreaming is on war and peace a state of the union of body, mind and soul. Essay Titles Carol. It is a disclosure of unconscious and on war, repressed psychological contents. Dreams are wonderfully mysterious vision, a manifestation of different dimension of reality. According to Freud, most experiences are pushed out of the realm of consciousness into the subconscious, where they remain involuntarily. Whale Essays. This realm of the subconscious is not without influence on people’s lives, because dreams are the expression, a disclosure – they represent symbolically all that is feared and loved.

What people yearn for often a matter of great surprise themselves. Other theorist, Gustav Jung stated that dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in on war and peace the subconscious what might be called the unconscious memory. Essay Religious. Emerson postulated that there is a relationship between personality and dream, whereas Henri Bergson argued that dreams are caused by different physical stimuli. Essay On War. Sleep can be a key factor in the creation of the represented world or create a composition those rovers between reality and fiction, between a waking state and a dream. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of essay christmas expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised History work in on war and peace your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This History essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Dreams – theories, history and film . Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on for a christmas our website then please click on on war and peace the link below to request removal:

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