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Internet Encyclopedia of humour Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of write essays modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the place of the thesis, established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and embarrassing in your essay, inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and thesis, promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service.
His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of call thesis James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in humour 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. Literary Necklace? He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for thesis, better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family.
His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to analysis on the the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to thesis humour Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in embarrassing life essay England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of humour just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to trait essay Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the humour, second son of a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and call thesis, no immediate prospects, he returned to England and humour, resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in call thesis 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn.
In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in thesis 1584 as a member for Melcombe in essay about people you meet in heaven Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to thesis his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at do lawyers essays his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of humour Robert Devereux, the embarrassing experience in your life essay, Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Thesis Humour? Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt.
When the on the necklace, coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved. After being knighted by thesis humour, the king, he swiftly ascended the call thesis, ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the thesis, Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the call thesis, Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and thesis, influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment.
Yet it was at this point, while he stood at trait essay the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and thesis humour, charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and in your, Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in thesis humour Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from experience suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in humour Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Literary Analysis? Yet the damage was done, and thesis humour, Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. Call Thesis? According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on.
Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the humour, reform of learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the “use and benefit of analysis essay necklace men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of thesis humour a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and scientific activity. Trait Essay? As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the humour, Seventh and The History of the Reign of about the five you meet King Henry the Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). Thesis? The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of literary necklace hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt).
Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to humour be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of call thesis his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and thesis, a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of trait essay a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies. Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the thesis, works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of essay about people in heaven English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the humour, top echelon of 17th-century English authors.
And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and trait essay, especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in humour the first rank of call thesis English literature’s great men of letters and humour, among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by literary analysis essay on the, no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the thesis humour, use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and embarrassing in your life, straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is thesis humour noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to experience life produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in thesis his writing he was never quite able to call thesis resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings.
Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the thesis, New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the life, work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. Thesis? According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the experience essay, design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of thesis humour what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an embarrassing experience ideal commonwealth). Humour? The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and embarrassing experience in your life, More to Huxley and thesis, Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the literary analysis essay necklace, Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from thesis humour Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of an unusual its historical impact, the novel has proven to thesis be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for do lawyers essays, the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is thesis humour never easy to summarize the do lawyers write essays, thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by his own helpful habits of thesis humour systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. Necklace? (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas.
As early as 1592, in thesis humour a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and essay about the five people in heaven, vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to humour make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of essay about the five in heaven his political success, he published the preliminary description and thesis, plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the call thesis, word science being then but a general synonym for humour, “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the experience in your essay, first two were completed, while the thesis, other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is do lawyers essays less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag.
Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in 1623. It is thesis humour basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to call thesis James in 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the thesis humour, correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the embarrassing experience in your, essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to thesis associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.” Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Call Thesis? Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to humour the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in embarrassing in your essay this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of humour learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in necklace the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the thesis, three “distempers” of write learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”).
By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to humour an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in do lawyers write the form of astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to thesis humour the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the analysis essay on the necklace, phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in thesis humour which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of call thesis Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style. Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in thesis humour short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Literary Analysis Necklace? Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge.
In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures. What is needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is thesis humour hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of experience new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of thesis senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the do lawyers, signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the Advancement , the humour, idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. Embarrassing Experience Essay? But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and thesis, the active development of the arts and sciences.
h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of trait essay De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the thesis humour, three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of about the five people its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in humour essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. An Unusual Experience Essay? In essence, it becomes simply a means of thesis recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of call thesis Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the humour, New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the essay necklace, mythical pillars of humour Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the call thesis, known world.)
The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to humour favor as less legislative and the five people you meet, dogmatic and humour, more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and experience in your life essay, critical inquiry. Combined with his gift for humour, illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and call thesis, philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the humour, mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is as important to trait essay the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of thesis bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of an unusual essay idol.
Each arises from thesis a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. Trait Essay? The Idols of the thesis, Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and trait essay, easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to thesis humour correct them.) Our tendency to literary on the necklace discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to humour Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence).
2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from embarrassing essay individual to thesis individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to analysis essay on the necklace a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities.
A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline. 3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of thesis humour confusion). 4. Write Essays? The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the thesis, metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from about people in heaven grand schemes or systems of thesis humour philosophy – and especially from three particular types of analysis essay on the philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of thesis abstract argument and literary analysis on the, speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds.
Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at thesis pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the an unusual experience, Magna Instauratio and in humour Book II of the literary analysis necklace, New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and thesis, a necessary tool for trait essay, the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to thesis humour have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of essay Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from . . Thesis? . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to trait essay arrive at humour intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. Embarrassing Experience In Your? – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the humour, next step is trait essay taken.
In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to humour a higher truth, with the trait essay, most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of thesis humour a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to do lawyers be welcomed rather than feared. Thesis? For instead of do lawyers threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from thesis carefully observed particulars to true and write essays, “inevitable” conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in humour the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and literary, critics have had doubts. Humour? For one thing, it is not clear that the literary analysis essay necklace, Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to humour any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true.
For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on call thesis continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in thesis humour a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and an unusual essay, academic person knows how tempting it is to thesis put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in the five people in heaven order to continue doing some form of rote research.
Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the thesis, unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is call thesis just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and thesis humour, improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of the five people in heaven assistants, faithfully observed and thesis, then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is literary on the doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. Thesis Humour? (Darwin, it is trait essay true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to humour collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is trait essay quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of thesis Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by the five people you meet, unpredictable – and often intuitive and thesis, even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds.
Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the analysis essay on the, very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of humour amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. But the point is already made: advances in trait essay scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and humour, exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to write ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and thesis humour, guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by trait essay, subsequent research.
In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of humour his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of about people knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for thesis, those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of essay learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and thesis, ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to call thesis moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career.
Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of thesis himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and portrayed him as an angel of call thesis enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in thesis the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and trait essay, lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an thesis humour exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land,
And from the do lawyers, Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shew’d us it. . . Humour? . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and literary analysis essay on the, welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. Thesis Humour? The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and experience essay, likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Humour? Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. Essay The Five People In Heaven? In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of thesis humour mottoes.” In his view, the write essays, Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and thesis humour, utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and trait essay, shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . Humour? After referring to Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today.
While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and essay necklace, moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to thesis us. The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for about people you meet, the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the other hand, those who view nature as an thesis humour entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is literary analysis on the only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of science as the instrument of humour global imperialism and technological conquest. On the the five people you meet, one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of thesis humanity.
On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on call thesis the other lies the thesis humour, real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of essay about people you meet in heaven clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the thesis humour, giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of call thesis Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is humour still that of the five people you meet James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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Dec 19, 2017 Thesis humour,
Sociology Of Death and Dying Essay. This paper will explore what would entail “A good Death”. I will discuss Pain Control, No Excessive Treatment, Retention Of Decision Making By The Patient, Support For The Dying Patient And His/Her Family And Friends, Communication Among All Parties And Acts Done Out Of Love That Make Dying More Difficult. I will make references from The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland and Albert Lee and the “On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer. Keywords: death, dying, palliative, hospice. pain management. “Everyone knows they’re going to die but nobody believes it.
If we did, we would do things differently.” A good death is dying surrounded by loving family and friends, free of pain, suffering and worries, a death where the dying has had great support from caretakers and family leading up to his final day. A good death is when there is thesis, no confusion of decision-making and will and when the dying, their family and caregivers are all on the same page. Experience! A goon death is thesis, when the last decisions come from love and not necessity and where all parties; the dying, the family and the care takers feel at ease and all decisions where well made. A death free of pain is a large part of constructing “a good death”. As death is commonly physically painful, ways of controlling pain are a very important factor.
When a person decides to stop their treatment of essay a terminal illness or may still be in the process of trying to treat a terminal decease, pain control is essential to make the humour patient have any kind of good quality of life. Embarrassing! Pain control is an essential factor in hospice and palliative care. “For hospice and palliative care. The goal of medication is to restore or sustain a sense of equanimity and personal integrity despite the disturbances caused by the illness. The main aim is to control pain and other physical distress”. Dr. Meier at the Hertzberg Palliative Care Institute Mt Sinai explains in “On Your Own” the thesis PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer that “ People that are in pain are exhausted, depressed and are not sleeping well and literary analysis essay on the necklace, then taking pain medication does not mean they are giving up their fight against thesis their disease”. In the series an old woman named Mrs.
Fort is featured. Essay On The! Mrs. Ford has Alzheimer’s decease and is dying. Her palliative care team that includes a Dr. Carter is helping her with Fentanyl patches to relieve her pain. Fentanyl patches are a new helpful way to distribute pain medication evenly for a long period of time. Mrs. Fords daughter is explaining that “when mother is in pain, I am in pain” and emphasizes how important her mother’s pain management helps not only her mother, but their entire family. “What would be a good death?” Bill Moyer asked a patient. “A pain free death” he answers. No excessive treatment.
When is the right time to make the decision to stop treating a terminal illness? At what point will the dying and their family come to terms with the illness being terminal and decide to face death and stop treatment? A decision to say no to excessive treatment is usually a hard decision for the dying and their family. Thesis Humour! It is hard to give up hope on life and trait essay, difficult to come to peace with the fact that the thesis humour patient is actually dying and that there is nothing anyone can do to call thesis, stop it. Thesis! Stopping treatment is a great decision that patient; family and treatment team should make together and has to call thesis, be done with great care.
Excessive treatment might extent the life of the patient, but to a cost that might be devastating. A dying person might not want to extend their life only eating through a feeding tube or getting hydrated intravenously because they cannot drink any longer. A terminally ill person might not want to receive more treatment if he can no longer breath by humour, his own will. The Five People! Keeping a person alive by excessive treatment might devastate the family and make the humour dying suffer tremendously in the end. “Advance medical technology that seems to one person a godsend, extending life, may seem to another a curse that only prolong dying. Dignity can be devalued amid technology focused solely on the biological organism.” Retention of decision-making by the patient.
It is very important that each individual, if possible has a say in his or her own dying and death. Facing death is hard for everyone and there are specific issues to be talked about in advance. A living will or a Physician Order for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is extremely useful. Analysis Essay On The! The POLST is designed for humour people with serious or life-threatening illnesses. “This is a standardized form that describes a patient’s wishes and is signed by his or her physician, providing both summary of an individual’s advance directive decision and the physician’s order. It can be used to inform emergency personnel about a patient’s wishes for do lawyers essays life sustaining procedures, such as CPR. “ Every seriously ill patient and humour, their family should have decided the following issues: proxy, resuscitation, hospitalization, and specific treatments. Every seriously ill person needs to have pointed out a person to speak on embarrassing experience life essay their behalf when they get too sick to do so.
A “proxy” can be filled out at thesis humour any hospital or nursing home granting “power of attorney” to a loved one to trait essay, be able to make decisions. A person that does not desire to be resuscitated needs to have their physician write an humour, order “not to attempt resuscitation” to not be resuscitated by emergency personnel in case of sudden death. Hospitalization is also something that needs to be discussed in advance. Many terminally ill people do not want any more surgeries or tests done. They want to avoid hospitals except to relieve suffering. Trait Essay! Specific treatments are also important to humour, discuss in an early state of illness.
Many patients fear breathing by machine or getting artificial hydration and nutrition. If the patient wants to forgo these treatments, he can write that down in advance. Support for the dying patient and his/her family. There are different kinds of support for the dying and their family. Literary Essay On The Necklace! The most important part is that everyone involved receives support. For the humour dying patient there are many different points of support. There are family members and friends, physicians, therapists and hospice workers. Important things to do for a dying individual is being there, listening, helping with death planning, touching, talking and call thesis, assisting with arrangements. Thesis! Hospice assist patients with emotional and people in heaven, spiritual support as well as palliative care. “The mission of hospice care goes beyond the physical and seeks to relieve suffering by humour, caring for all of a patient’s needs: physical, psychological, spiritual, and existential.” “We take our elders and put them away not to see their pain instead of greeting death at the door” says Frank Ostoteski at Zen Hospice. Frank continues to explain that they “focus on the person and not the illness and that each person’s dying is call thesis, unique.” He says, “pain can be relieved by morphine, suffering cannot.” Families that experience death need support as well and humour, each person living through a death of call thesis a loved one learns something personal and unique.
Mary Catherine Kinnick lost her mother at humour 21 years of trait essay age and humour, realized at that point she was not afraid of dying. She did not want to dye, but she was not afraid. Literary! She now volunteers at a hospice facility. Thesis Humour! Some families grow closer while others grow apart when family members die as everyone experiences loss in about you meet their own way. Pam Roffol-Dobies got emotional support from family and friends while dealing with the emotional trauma of loosing her husband to humour, cancer; others lean on physicians and health care professionals for support. Family members are often involved as caregivers and usually report it being the embarrassing experience essay hardest thing they have ever done, but also the thesis most rewarding. Most dying individuals figure out their own tecnique to hold their heads up, to call thesis, go through each day as strong as possible: “I don’t know about the rest of thesis you, but I cannot live each day as if it is the last day that I am going to literary analysis essay on the, be alive. I can’t. That makes life really hard for me.
But what I did discover is that I can live by the calendar method; I can live in yearlong segments. I could live each day on the calendar as if it were the last time I would be above ground that day. Humour! I could live each birthday that way, each wedding anniversary, each spring, each Christmas. And it not only worked, it actually made each of those days more special than it would otherwise have been” Communication Among All Parties. Watching “A Death of One’s month” part of “On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer you are amazed over the great communication between the the five people you meet in heaven veterinarian Jim Wittier suffering from ALS and his wife Suzie. Jim slowly gets more and more paralyzed and doesn’t know when he will give up and give in to death. Thesis! Jim changes his mind continuously as his disease progresses but continues to experience, communicate these changes to his wife. His request to humour, complete a physician-assisted suicide is denied from his health care team and resisted by some family members but his continued communication with his wife is remarkable. Jim’s papers are in order, denying feeding tubes and hydration though in IV and his family is aware of wishes and the five people in heaven, the signed papers. Communication between the thesis humour patient, family members, health care team and hospice workers is essay about the five people, essential for humour a good death.
That all parties are on the same side, knowing about all documents signed, knowing the plan and what to do in each incident is embarrassing life essay, crucial for complete teamwork in humour completing a good death. Another important factor is trait essay, communication about economics, like the will, insurance and death benefits. “Estate Planning not only optimizes survivor’s financial security but also helps to thesis, ensure peace of mind, both for trait essay the bereaved and for the person who has taken steps to put his or her affairs in order.” Insurance and death benefits are also issues that should all be in order and thoroughly communicated to family members involved as this can hold spouses left behind or children to thesis humour, cover medical and funeral expenses. About The Five You Meet! “Depending on a person’s age and health, life insurance can be a convenient way of humour leaving a basic estate for our beneficiaries after we die. Life! Life insurance offers some advantages not available with other investments. Thesis! For example, life insurance benefits payable to a named beneficiary are not subject to call thesis, attachment by creditors.” Acts done out of love that makes dying more difficult. As we care for humour our parents, spouses, brothers or sister in their dying hour it is very hard for us to know what the right thing is to do as we are emotionally attached to the dying individual. An Unusual Experience! We want to save them, help them, cure them and rescue them. We want all their suffering to disappear and for them to return to the healthy happy selves we once knew. It is hard to make the thesis right decision. When watching Jim’s daughter speak against his wishes to die with assistance from trait essay, his physician, she does it out of love.
She does not want him to die nor go against the church and sin. Humour! Is this really helping Jim? When loved ones choose feeding tubes and write essays, breathing machines to prologue the lives of their loved ones, dying become a lot more difficult. “Dying well, to many means control over choices to be made as we die. We fear dying in pain; we fear that too much will be done to keep us alive, or we fear that not enough will be done” This paper has discussed issued of what would make “A good Death”.
I have discussed different matters researched from The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland and Albert Lee and the “On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer. I have talked about Control, No Excessive Treatment, Retention Of Decision Making By The Patient, Support For The Dying Patient And His/Her Family And Friends, Communication Among All Parties And Acts Done Out Of Love That Make Dying More Difficult. Ending this paper on a personal note; I have learned that death is universal but also as personal and individual as something can possibly become. It can be a beautiful part of life, but also a horrible and traumatic experience. Everyone will die one day. Hopefully, as many of us can do it on our own terms, having “as good of humour a death” as it possibly gets. 1. Call Thesis! The Last Dance: Encountering Death and thesis, Dying, 9th Edition by literary essay necklace, DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. 190 2. Dr.
Meier, Hertzberg Palliative Care Institute Mt Sinai explains “On Your Own” PBS 3. Humour! Mrs. Ford, “On Your Own” PBS. 4. Steve, “On Your Own” PBS. 5. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. 253 6. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by the five people you meet in heaven, DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland and Albert Lee p. Thesis! 190 7. Frank Ostoteski, Zen Hospice “On Your Own” PBS. 8. Mary Catherine Kinnick, “On Your Own” PBS. 9. Bill Bartholome, “On Your Own” PBS. 10.
The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by trait essay, DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. 238. 11. The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 9th Edition by DeSpelder, Lynn Ann; Strickland p. 249 12. Jim Wittier, On Your Own” PBS series narrated by Bill Moyer. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 16 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Sociology Of Death and thesis humour, Dying.
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5 Resume Rules You Need to Ignore. In the last few years, technology and the economy have changed most of the resume “rules” you’ve heard. As a result, based on what I've learned, you should generally ignore the following five pieces of thesis conventional wisdom because the process of posting jobs and collecting resumes is generally automated: Rule No. 1 to ignore: Don’t bother including widely-held skills like email, spreadsheets and word processing expertise. Wrong! If the words are used in literary essay necklace the job description, be sure to include them in thesis humour the resume you submit for that job.
Rule No. 2 to ignore: When it comes to call thesis, resum e s, one size fits all. Not anymore. In the past, we created one version of our resume that was distributed via snail mail, fax or hand-delivered. This physical version was read by a human being and thesis stored in embarrassing in your essay a file cabinet. Humour? Those days are long gone. Now, resumes are usually stored electronically and trait essay read by thesis humour a human only after appearing in the results of a computerized keyword search. At a minimum, the top of your resume should now be customized to match the trait essay, job title of the job you’re seeking, like this:
Objective: [employer's job title] Summary: [one or two sentences that summarize why you qualify for the job, like Administrative professional with 5 years of experience managing the calendar, group meetings and conferences, travel arrangements, and staff communications for the VP of Whatever .] You’d do even better by customizing your resume to the particular position you’re going after. That’s because the thesis humour, words in the job description are most likely the ones the searcher will use to pull resumes out of its applicants’ database. So make sure you pay close attention to the words in your application or resume and match them as closely as possible to the ones in the job requirements: If the job requires someone who has “managed” a group of workers, don’t use the term “supervised.” If the job requires someone who has “expertise with Microsoft Office,” don’t say you have “expertise with Microsoft products.” If the job requires someone with “experience managing social media,” don’t write that you have “experience managing a LinkedIn Group.” Rule No. 3 to ignore: Be consistent in your use of language. Nope. The person who ultimately searches through resumes may not use exactly the same terms as the one who wrote the job description. And the person who wrote the about the five, job description might not have described the position or qualifications accurately. So it pays to be inconsistent in your use of language on your resume. Include the humour, exact terms in embarrassing experience in your essay the job description, but also include alternate versions. Humour? For example: If the call thesis, job requires someone who has “expertise with Microsoft Office,” you might say you have “expertise with Microsoft Office (Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, and Outlook, both 2007 and 2010 versions).” If the job requires someone with “experience managing social media,” you could say you have “experience managing social media (including LinkedIn Groups with more than 5,000 members).” This way, you have the exact terminology from the job description and have also added important keywords that are alternatives.
Similarly, be inconsistent by including multiple versions of abbreviations and thesis humour acronyms with the words or phrases they represent. Essay About The Five You Meet In Heaven? Some examples: “BofA” and “Bank of thesis humour America” “NM” and “New Mexico” “WP and “WordPress” “Admin Assistant” and “Administrative Assistant” “CPA” and “Certified Public Accountant” Rule No. 4 to ignore: Use a functional resum e (rather than a chronological one) to highlight your skills, particularly if your work history is an unusual a little spotty. No! Recruiters I’ve discussed this with have told me they ignore functional resumes that are completely focused on a job seeker’s skills. Rule No. 5 to ignore: Underlining, borders, and thesis other graphic elements make a resum e stand out.
These may add emphasis, but they can also confuse the computer software reading the resumes. Essay About The Five? And in this age of hyperlinking , underlining often confuses people; what’s intended as emphasis becomes mysterious when the “link” doesn’t work. © Copyright, 2013, Susan P. Joyce. All rights reserved. Next Avenue Editors Also Recommend: Rework Your Resume for Nonprofit Jobs. 6 Effective and Essential Steps for thesis humour Older Jobseekers.
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How to Become the #8216;Entrepreneurial You#8217; in Retirement. Essay The Five People You Meet In Heaven? Author Dorie Clark on thesis humour, ways to profit from your expertise. About People In Heaven? 7 Ways to Market Your Small Business to Millennials. Thesis Humour? The right and wrong ways to appeal to embarrassing life essay, America's largest generation. Ageism in the Tech Industry: A Septuagenarian Speaks Out. A new survey's surprising findings about hiring and pay for older tech workers. What Keeps Women Out of Upper Management? There are many women in the workplace.
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Crime In Urdu Essays and Research Papers. The term ' Urdu ' and its origin The term Urdu derives from humour, a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu . language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. Trait Essay? These soldiers lived in thesis, close contact with each other and do lawyers write, communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually evolved into present day Urdu . It is for this reason that Urdu is thesis humour, also referred to as Lashkari. English language , Hindi , Hindustani language 1737 Words | 4 Pages. Sociology Professor McGowan 11/23/12 Crime Crime is an act where someone breaks the embarrassing in your life law or illegal activities. Thesis? There . different types of essay people, crimes such as vice crimes , street crime and thesis humour, computer crime . Vice crime is essay the five people you meet in heaven, a crime where someone is doing a criminal act such as gambling or drug use.
Street crime is something down the lines of rape, robbery, or assault. Finally is computer crime , which would be hacking on the computer for money or personal mail. These crimes are different and can affect our society. Computer crime , Crime , Criminology 1327 Words | 4 Pages. Violent crime among youth on the rise: StatsCan The overall crime rate among youth inched up by just three per thesis, cent between . 2005 and 2006, but homicides and other violent crimes are becoming more common, Statistics Canada reported Friday.
BY CANWEST NEWS SERVICE MAY 16, 2008 OTTAWA — The overall crime rate among youth inched up by just three per cent between 2005 and 2006, but homicides and other violent crimes are becoming more common, Statistics Canada reported Friday. According. Crime , Crime in the United States , Crime statistics 618 Words | 3 Pages. All men have crimes , and most of them are hidden. Do you agree with this statement? As a matter of about you meet, fact, in this modernization and . globalization era, many people go against the laws to thesis humour commit the immoral activities such as kidnapping, murdering and drug dealing because they are self-centered and they do not care about others' feeling. People? Why do people commit crime ? Normally, people commit crimes because that is what they want to do.
Criminal behaviour is a matter of choices. Today, there are many. Capital punishment , Crime , Criminal justice 878 Words | 3 Pages. Problem Identification The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of humour, 1994 was created to call thesis solve the problem of high crime . . To deal with the crime problem in our nation, there must be a balance approach between getting tough on the hard-core violent offenders, and prevention and treatment for nonviolent offenders, all within the context of punishment. Thesis? The major crimes that were going on in 1994 were the war on drugs, gun violence, and juvenile violence(book, pg.470). Write Essays? It was suggested that police. Crime , Crime prevention , Criminology 1757 Words | 5 Pages. Understanding a Criminal Crime amp; Society SOC 305 Angelique Lees July 16, 2012 Understanding a Criminal Crime . is an activity that societies around the globe have had to experience from close to the beginning of thesis humour, manhood. Crime is nothing new to us but the extent of criminal behavior has evolved over the centuries.
We will probably never live in a world that is free of do lawyers write essays, crime , but learning more about the criminal aspects in our society may one day make our world a much better place. Corrections , Crime , Crime statistics 2315 Words | 7 Pages. discussed. Also in thesis, this paper the discussion on how crime , twin studies, adoption studies, and an unusual experience, testosterone studies are linked to genetics will . be discussed. This essay will show some of the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence that is linked to genetics and crime . I will also be giving my feelings on whether or not I agree with police departments using these findings, or if they should dismiss such findings. The link between genetics and crimes is a very contentious topic when it comes to. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1494 Words | 4 Pages. ?This essay aims to draw upon some of the elements which make up the idea of crime . Thesis? There are many aspects to consider, including the . definition, hidden crime and conflict within society. According to the Sage Dictionary of Criminology, the ability to define crime is a difficult concept. Essay? It depends at humour, what stage of time we are in write essays, and how we perceive things.
The idea of crime also draws upon how an individual, or a set of individuals are linked with society, in that they show, or do not show solidarity. Age of Enlightenment , Crime , Criminal justice 1507 Words | 4 Pages. ? Urdu - The Origin and History of the Language Published on February 17 2014 by thesis humour, www.eautytask.com The term ' Urdu ' and essay about the five people in heaven, its origin . The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu languagedeveloped between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually. Arabic language , Ghazal , Hindi 1257 Words | 2 Pages. 115), so it’s easy to use and set up, install and thesis humour, maintain. The monitors are placed in certain areas of the store or strategic places that meet their needs. . The good thing about these types of cameras is embarrassing experience life, they not only alert to humour shoplifters but other crimes as well (pg. 115). Because they are also set up outside in parking lots and tape continuously they can get license plates or pictures of faces in essays, case of thesis, kidnaps or murders, and muggings as well if there in range of the cameras.
Security. Crimes , Police , Security 750 Words | 3 Pages. going to make poor choices. We all hope the impact of trait essay, those choices will be minor, provide opportunities to learn and leave no lingering consequences for . your children or others. When a child who has been taught normative behavior chooses to commit a crime , then he or she should be held responsible. The only exceptions are when a parent has become aware of a situation that might have been prevented had they known about thesis it and failed to trait essay intervene or when they provide the tools that lead to humour criminal acts.
Childhood , Crime , Criminology 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Natural Crime and write essays, Legal Crime Antoine Brown Axia College of the University of thesis, Phoenix Foundations of trait essay, Criminal Justice CJA/ 303 . Matthew Smith November 10, 2008 What are Natural Crime and Legal Crime ? A natural crime is an act in which the ethics of society finds a particular action to be offensive. This nature of crime is associated with Malum in se; a term that signifies crime that is considered wrong in thesis humour, and of it self (MojoLaw.com, 2008). Legal crime is an act that violates criminal. Assault , Crime , Crimes 1382 Words | 4 Pages.
symbol of do lawyers write essays, identity since a long time. It is considered as a gelling force to keep the communities united. Urdu was the official language of the . sub-continent and was spoken and used by both, Hindus and Muslims. All groups had contributed towards the development of the language. The Urdu -Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. This is because the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the thesis invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and call thesis, Persian words had been added to humour it. Therefore, the. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. Categories of Computer Crime Smith Strayer University CIS170 Wk2 Professor Masudur Chowdhury July 4, 2013 Explain in . detail the four common categories of computer crimes and provide at least one example for each. There are many different types of computer crime and multiple ways to categorize them. I will discuss four categories in detail to shine light on how vulnerable people are, when we choose to embarrassing in your life essay use a personal or publicly used computer to transmit confidential information.
Computer , Computer program , Computer programming 820 Words | 3 Pages. Crime Rates and humour, Perceptions of Crime. ?1.1 Sociological Problem The public perception of embarrassing in your essay, crime is that it has increased whilst official statistics show that overall, . crime has decreased over the years. Thesis? In this ‘risk society’, a fear of victimisation has become part of experience, our lifestyle and we are constantly reminded of the thesis humour potential dangers of becoming victims of crime . The famous study by call thesis, Stanley Cohen (Folk Devils and Moral Panics (1972)) is a prime example of how society is encouraged to thesis worry about certain groups and use them as. Broadsheet , Crime , Criminology 2810 Words | 7 Pages. and mediaTERRORISM AND INDIAN MEDIA :A Comparative Study of approach English, Hindi and Urdu newspapers towards terrorism by India Policy . Foundation A serious research work on do lawyers write, the approach of the Indian print media towards terrorism was brought out by India Policy Foundation (IPF) in March 2009. The book, Terrorism and thesis humour, the Indian Media (English) amp; AAtankwad aur Bhartiya Media(Hindi) was released on March 9, 2009 in Delhi. It evoked a constructive discussion on its content in essay about people in heaven, teh media. . Delhi , Hindi , Hindustani language 892 Words | 3 Pages.
of four provinces and its national language is URDU . Thesis Humour? URDU - THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF PAKISTAN Urdu is our . national language. It has played an importyant role in the articulation of muslim culture in South East Asia.It has been rightly said that urdu had been the embarrassing essay a symbol, an issue and thesis humour, a weapon in our struggle for you meet in heaven, independence. The 1973 constitution of Pakistan has also declared Urdu to be our national language. History of Urdu language; Urdu is nearly 300 years old and was considered as the. History of Pakistan , India , Islam 850 Words | 3 Pages. SOCY-101 Crime After Crime is an true documentary film, story that is totally incredible! While . watching this film, It gave me a new perspective on thesis humour, life and our justice system. This documentary it is an must watch, I recommend it to see because there is a lot of missing out on some really important information that we should all be aware of in ours life. Literary Essay? This film is simply unbelievable, I wonder how can an . Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 926 Words | 4 Pages.
? Measuring Crime CJA/204 October 9, 2013 Richard Pacheco Measuring Crime There are two different instruments . used in reporting crime . There are also major crimes reporting program used in humour, the United States. These major crime reporting programs do have a purpose and does give statistical information on crime in the United States. Trait Essay? There are a difference between crime rates, arrest rates, clearance rates, and recidivism rates. The information reported about crime rates can be misleading. Crime , Crime statistics , Criminology 1237 Words | 4 Pages. ?Assignment: The Crime Pin Map In this assignment, you will discuss and thesis humour, create a crime pin map. What is essay about people in heaven, it and how is it used in humour, . Trait Essay? crime analysis? Do you believe they are effective? Create your own map of thesis humour, your town and using at least 6 different colors create your own pin map on criminal activity that has occurred there. (You may make up the crimes and their locations). Use colored pencils (NOT MARKERS) to complete the on the necklace map. Make sure you have a legend showing which color goes with which crime . Complete the.
Constable , Crime , Crime mapping 840 Words | 4 Pages. Crime and Geography CRIME MAPPING Crime mapping is thesis, how we detect areas with crime . In . About The Five You Meet? Crime Mapping, it focuses on identifying places or areas where crime is high or low. Mapping crime is helpful as police can track down which areas in a city, town or country has high risk of crime . When a crime has been committed, the thesis crime will be plotted on about you meet in heaven, a map with information like when the crime was made, what offence was made and who the humour offender was. Currently, Crime mapping has been used actively. Crime , Crime mapping , Crime prevention 912 Words | 3 Pages.
Violence Hate Crimes A hate crime can be defined in two ways, by the legal definition and the criminological definition. . The legal definition of trait essay, a hate crime is thesis humour, a traditional offense like murder, arson, or vandalism with an added element of bias, a criminal offense against a person or property motivated in analysis essay, whole or in humour, part by an offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, ethnic origin or sexual orientation. The criminological definition of a hate crime is a crime committed as an. Assault , Crime , Crimes 2525 Words | 7 Pages. Running head: HATE CRIME 1 Hate Crime Demetrix Kelley Indiana Wesleyan University Mike Lepper 12/13/2012 I . Embarrassing Experience In Your? have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement to humour the title page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. If it is literary essay necklace, found that cheating and/or plagiarism did take place the possible consequences of the act/s, which. Assault , Crime , Federal Bureau of thesis, Investigation 1020 Words | 3 Pages.
Hate Crime The simplest definition of about people you meet, what a hate crime is, is a crime committed against a victim due to his or . Humour? her perceived role in experience essay, a social group. Social groups can be defined by many factors such as sexual orientation, race, disability, religion, age, gender and many other factors. Within this essay I aim to evaluate the causes of thesis humour, hate crime and also to assess the impact of crime on essay on the necklace, victims and the strategies used for responding to hate crime . The types of hate crime I am going to be focusing. Abuse , Assault , Crime 990 Words | 3 Pages. theories of youth crime This essay will discuss the understanding of the sociological and psychological factors of youth . crime . It will be agreeing and disagreeing in the above statement Youth crime is also known as juvenile delinquency, juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centres. There are a multitude of different theories on the cause of crime , most if not. Conduct disorder , Crime , Criminal justice 1959 Words | 6 Pages. Birth of Urdu Journalism in the Indian Subcontinent. available in each of the languages.
The case of Urdu Press, which is the thesis humour second oldest language press of the Sub-continent after Bengali (the . mother tongue of Bengal), and the first in the rest of India, is no exception. Its observers and researchers have resorted to literary on the premises, hypotheses and humour, even oversight wherever they could not lay their hands on some definitive record. But the field is not without omissions. Jam-I-Jahan Numa, the first printed Urdu newspaper of the Subcontinent, is an call thesis outstanding. Akbar the Great , British Empire , India 1838 Words | 5 Pages. ?Throughout crime statistics, crimes of the powerful, for example white collar, corporate and state crimes seem to thesis humour . be almost non-existent.
Over the about you meet last few decades crimes of the powerful are beginning to gain some sort of emphasis with regards its recognition. Crimes of the humour powerful have been gaining awareness since approximately the do lawyers essays mid 1980’s. For example legislations towards corporations have been changed, gradually establishing criminal categories. Relatively recently it has been recognised. Corporate crime , Crime , Criminal justice 2656 Words | 7 Pages. Immigration rights hate crimes . Thesis Humour? Now when looked into the most talked about, the two issues I found were the biggest problem now is experience, gay rights, . and humour, hate crimes . The first issues I looked into was gay rights, majority of the trait essay issue with gay rights was the right to thesis get married, which is a big issue today, but when I looked into more about hate crimes I found much more information, especially with the Trayvon Martin case that just ended. This case has brought a lot of attention to on the necklace hate crimes and a big issue.
Assault , Hate crime , Hate crime laws in the United States 903 Words | 3 Pages. Crime Theories Jaime Morris Professor Al CIS170-Wk.4Ass.2 11/04/12 Digital crimes are believed to be caused by humour, . In Your Essay? different types of theories. The Strain theory could be the cause of digital crimes because the strain of everyday life. Thesis Humour? The Strain theory is a sociological theory. The strain of an individual’s everyday life is causing people to an unusual experience “give in” to the pressures in society. Some of humour, these individuals feel that they can’t survive without crime . Strains such as peer pressure. Crime , Criminology , Economics 770 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: TYPES OF CRIMES 1 Types of . Crimes Eugene Cortez Speer Professor Phillips CRJ 105 15 Oct 2012 TYPES OF CRIMES 2 Types of trait essay, Crimes There are many programs and websites today that are available to show different stats on different crimes . One of the thesis particular programs.
Assault , Crimes , Criminal justice 751 Words | 3 Pages. Unemployment and Crime : An analysis of the Cointegration and experience in your, the Socio-economic Impacts of humour, Unemployment on Crime Marvin A. . Cole Strayer University Economics 405, Section 004016 Professor Stradtner March 28, 2010 Unemployment and literary analysis, Crime : An analysis of the Cointegration and the Socio-economic Impacts of Unemployment on Crime In today’s society, we are faced with an alarming situation with tends to plaque us and humour, have made it on many of trait essay, our chief economist and researchers list. Evidence. Crime , Crime statistics , Criminology 1468 Words | 5 Pages. Victimless crime is defined as a violation of humour, community standards or an illicit act against a government policy or agency (Wisegeek, 2009) yet, . which neither directly harms nor violates the rights of any specific person, although some people may claim it harms society as a whole. Many people consider such acts as drunk driving, prostitution, public drunkenness, assisting someone to die at call thesis, his or her request, using drugs, white-collar crimes , and abortion to be victimless crimes . They feel, as though. Crime , Criminology , Informed consent 1410 Words | 4 Pages. role of thesis, gender in crime . That also means that female victimisation was minimised almost completely or ignored (Chesney-Lind et al., 2004). The Five? . Using legitimate statistics and some criminological theories, this essay will show extend of a gender gap in thesis humour, crime and try to explain reasons of this gap. The reason why criminology mainly focused on male offenders is pretty obvious – majority of call thesis, criminal offences is humour, done by men and women tend to be much less involved in any type of crime . Many studies and. Crime , Crime statistics , Criminal justice 1713 Words | 5 Pages.
for the high proportion of trait essay, young, working class males shown in official statistics on thesis humour, crime .” This essay will start by making a distinction . between the concepts of do lawyers essays, crime and thesis, deviance, followed by experience, an examination how such concepts have been acquired and accepted by society. Further reference will be made to the current crime statistics, and analyse some of the possible explanations for the high proportion of crime that is being committed by young males. Finally, consideration will be given to what. Bourgeoisie , Crime , Crime statistics 1900 Words | 5 Pages. Katiya Mountcastle February 14, 2012 Criminal Justice Frank Plunkett HATE CRIMES AGAINST THE HOMELESS In the past twelve years . (1999-2010), the National Coalition for the Homeless (NCH) has documented one thousand, one hundred eighty-four acts of thesis, violence against homeless individuals by housed perpetrators. Call Thesis? These crimes are believed to be motivated by the perpetrators’ bias against homeless individuals or their ability to target homeless people with relative ease. The documented violence. Abuse , Assault , Crime 645 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of Crime In this modern era, many crimes keep happening around the world. A crime is the humour breaking of rules . Do Lawyers? or law for thesis humour, which some governing authority can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Crimes that we usually find in newspaper are the embarrassing experience in your disappearance of children, threats, kidnappings and many more.
The causes of crime include poor parenting, failure education, media violence and poverty. One of the causes of crime is poor parenting. According to Currie and Tekin (April 2006), maltreatment. 1967 , 2006 , Crime 739 Words | 3 Pages. best define crime ? Discuss. The Oxford English dictionary defines crime as “an act punishable by thesis humour, law, as being forbidden by an unusual essay, . statute or injurious to the public welfare, an evil act; an offence, a sin, -an act can only be considered a crime when identified as such by law.
An act was defined a crime in the old testament with the creation of the Ten Commandments. This was when it was literally set into stone that numerous acts became a crime against God, the humour first rules of the trait essay world. Thesis? Crimes are now defined. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1932 Words | 5 Pages. leads to homelessness and forced people to commit crime . On my research paper, I will talk about crime and literary analysis necklace, its effect to the . society. According to thesis dictionary, crime can be defined as an essay people action or an instance of negligence that is deemed injurious to humour the public welfare or morals or to the interests of the call thesis state which is legally prohibited. INTRODUCTION What is the main cause of homelessness and its imperative relationship to poverty and crime ? Such a question at thesis humour, first may seem unanswerable.
Bloods , Crime , Criminology 2135 Words | 6 Pages. The Functions of Crime According to essay the five you meet in heaven the Oxford English Dictionary, crime is defined as an act punishable by law, as being . forbidden by statute or injurious to the public welfare. Even though it varies in nature, crime is found in almost every society known to man. Thesis Humour? There is embarrassing, no society that is not confronted with the problem of humour, criminality (Durkheim). Essay People? Despite the obvious social costs of crime , some crimes make important contribution to the operation of a social system. Crime is functional for. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 759 Words | 3 Pages. ?Capital punishment or the death penalty is humour, a legal process whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime . The . judicial decree that someone be punished in this manner is a death sentence, while the actual process of killing the person is an execution. Crimes that can result in embarrassing experience in your, a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. Capital punishment has, in the past, been practised by most societies, as a punishment for criminals, and political or religious.
Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States 1512 Words | 5 Pages. My View on Organized Crime As a society until one reaches a certain age we are exposed to on certain thoughts and ideas. We get these through . television, celebrities, news and other social media that runs through our minds from a young age. We take these ideas and form opinions because what else are young people taught. It is not until you reach an thesis interest or get properly educated that one can see the real truth behind many fake things on call thesis, television, many things that are described wrong or inaccurate. Crime , Crimes , Criminology 863 Words | 3 Pages. Media and Crime What is thesis, crime ? A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing . Analysis On The? norms – cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally. This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect changing definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law-enforcement, and thesis humour, penal responses made by society. These structural. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 2509 Words | 7 Pages.
ORGANIZED CRIME Organized crime , by and large, maybe described as a level of crime mainly carried out by groups . of individuals coming together for experience life, the one goal of carrying out criminal activities such as drug and gun trading, human trafficking among other heinous crimes in a coordinated and organized fashion. These crimes are usually coordinated nationally but often have international connections. Thesis Humour? The groups carrying out embarrassing in your life essay, these organized activities are usually deeply entrenched in the social. Crime , Crimes , Criminology 801 Words | 3 Pages. Statistics of Crime in America Today Abstract This paper is to inform everyone about the statistics of thesis, crime in trait essay, America today. . It also tells you about crime statistics and how the government got these statistics. Also each different organization has their own way of getting these statistics. Does this make one more efficient than the other? I cannot fully answer this question but maybe you can. Statistics of Crime in America Today Crime statistics tells us the variation of crimes that are. Crime , Crime statistics , Criminology 1123 Words | 3 Pages. occupations usually does not involve manual labor.
White collar crime is usually defined as any illegal offense that is committed in humour, business . or professional setting with the an unusual experience goal of thesis humour, achieving personal financial gain (whitecollarcrimefyi.com). The origin of the term white collar is traced back to 1939, to Professor Edwin Sutherland, of Indiana University, Pontell, Rosoff Tillman (2002). Sutherland defined white collar crimes as “ crimes committed by experience essay, a person of respectability and high social status. Charles Ponzi , Confidence trick , Crime 944 Words | 3 Pages. ? Measuring Crime CJA 204 January 30, 2014 Measuring Crime What instruments are used to measure crime . in the United States?
There are so many different police agencies and levels here in thesis humour, the United States. Here are a few of the an unusual essay Federal policing agencies: Department of agriculture, commerce, Defense, FBI, and justice, but there are 15 Federal departments. The State level agencies consist of highway patrols, port authorities, state police, fish and humour, wild life police which are only a. Crime , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Law enforcement agency 647 Words | 5 Pages. Juvenile Crime Introduction Every year, millions of juveniles are involved in criminal activities. According to do lawyers statistics, as of 1999, . the humour arrest rate for juvenile crime has dropped from its peak in the mid-1990's. Statistics about trait essay juvenile crime have shown a steady increase of juvenile arrests from 1987 to 1994. Although overall crime rates have decreased since 1994, they are still above what they were in 1980. The following paragraphs and charts show the crime rates of thesis, specific crimes committed. Assault , Crime , Criminal law 996 Words | 4 Pages. Crime is an unfortunate part of many people’s lives - both for the victim of the crime and in heaven, also the suspect.
There . are many theories as to humour why crimes happen, who commits the crimes , and why crimes happen to certain people. Essay? Not all crimes can be solved, or questions answered but these theories give a peek into the thinking or background behind some crimes that are committed. Social process theory believes that individuals are socially conditioned into or against humour crime (Siegel, “Social. Crime , Crimes , Criminal justice 867 Words | 3 Pages. Organized Crime By Patrick Grant Kaplan University CJ350-03 Mitchell Sowell Due April 9, 2013 In the United States of America, . Hollywood has made billions of dollars with movies about organized crime . Movie producers are keen on the sense of the public’s infatuation of mob or mafia movies which depicts organized crime . Blockbuster hits such as The Godfather, Good Fellas, Casino and trait essay, Scarface has mesmerized movie goers for years. The fact is thesis, organized crime in America has a deep and violent. American Mafia , Crime , Federal Bureau of trait essay, Investigation 953 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of Crime Carolyn Whatley, Eddie Blanco, Laura Rushing, Adrian Garcia, Mel Bravo University of Phoenix Causes of thesis, . Crime Throughout history the study of what causes crime has been an important part of helping in the reduction of some of the crimes . Studies have shown that there are several contributing factors as to the reason individuals commit crime . Among these factors there is Biological Theories, Sociological Theories, Psychological Theories, Economic Theories, and. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminology 1091 Words | 4 Pages. far do recorded crime rates show how much crime occurs in society Introduction • What is a ‘ crime ’? • . Essay? Definition of humour, recorded and unrecorded crime • Indicate how crime rates are recorded and by literary analysis on the, whom Main Body • Discuss reasons behind recorded and unrecorded crime • Discuss how crime rates are recorded and by whom • Discuss whether crime rates are recorded and collated accurately • Discuss impact on society Conclusion • Summary How far do recorded crime rates show how much crime occurs in society.
Crime , Crime statistics , Criminology 600 Words | 2 Pages. | UNIT THREE CRIMINOLOGY PROJECT | URBAN amp; RURAL CRIME | | | | Elaine Lawrence | 23/4/2012 | | RURAL . CRIME INTRODUCTION This project is going to humour look at urban crime and embarrassing experience in your, rural crime and how it differs. It will look at statistics for crime in urban and rural areas and see whether there is any difference. There is research put forward by thesis humour, criminologists to suggest that crime is higher in analysis essay on the necklace, urban to that of rural areas. The project will be using secondary research as.
City , Crime , Criminology 1487 Words | 4 Pages. ?Functionalism and thesis humour, crime : In this essay I will be talking about the functionalist perspective on crime and deviance and be . Analysis Essay On The? comparing it with the Marxist view. Humour? The main functionalist theories I will be examining are Merton’s strain theory, Cohen’s status frustration and analysis on the necklace, Cloward and humour, Ohlin’s three subcultures. Functionalists argue that crime and deviance is useful and necessary in society as they reinforce the trait essay consensus of values, norms and behaviour of the thesis humour majority non-deviant population. Functionalists. Bourgeoisie , Criminology , Marxism 965 Words | 2 Pages.
?Hate Crimes Religious Racial Hate Crimes Introduction: Through history you hear of . On The Necklace? major crimes committed out of the hate for a certain culture or race or maybe even sexual orientation. Humour? These crimes are now considered a “Hate Crime ” since 1968 after the in your essay murder of Matthew Shepard, a gay college kid murdered in Wyoming (Abrams, 2009). A Hate crime is “a crime criminal offense committed against a person, proper tot society that is motivated, in a whole or in. Al-Qaeda , Hate crime , Ku Klux Klan 936 Words | 3 Pages. bully-ers, and some people are just flat out victims of straight hate crimes that lead to death. “A Hate Crime is a criminal . offense committed against thesis humour persons, property or society that is motivated , in experience in your essay, whole or in part, by humour, an offenders bias against essay on the necklace an individual’s or a group’s race, religion, ethnic/national origin, gender, age, disability or sexual orientation.” -IACP Definition. Thesis Humour? With the definition of a hate crime explained, hate crimes are offenses against essay about the five you meet in heaven society. Thesis Humour? The perpetrators have their eyes. Assault , Crime , Hate crime 1827 Words | 6 Pages. ? Crime Rate in trait essay, Centervale Introduction to Criminal Justice Instructor Latonya Peterson August 1, 2013 Compared Centervale . Crime If one was to compare the crime in Centervale to that of Alaska or Alabama it would be clear that Centervale has the highest crime total. If one was to compare the thesis crime rate it would be clear that Alabama has in fact the highest crime rate with Alaska and then Centervale sitting very close in write essays, numbers. Alabama has the highest population and Alaska has the.
Assault , Capital punishment , Crime 1040 Words | 3 Pages. Crime in Belize: We start off by humour, defining crime . What is do lawyers, crime ? A crime occurs . when someone breaks the law by humour, an overt act, omission or neglect that can result in essay about people you meet, punishment. A person who has violated a law, or has breached a rule, is said to have committed a criminal offense. There are two main categories of crime : property crime and violent crime : Property Crimes : A property crime is committed when someone damages, destroys or steals someone else's property, such as stealing. Belize , Belize District , Crime 1663 Words | 5 Pages. Drugs and crime Author Institution What 2 theories did you select? Briefly identify and describe them This paper will deal with . biological and sociology theories.
Biological theory Emerged in 19th century in response to the moralistic nature theories biological theories used a disease model to thesis explain addiction. Sociology theory attempts to create an Understanding on how phenomena such as drug and experience, alcohol use and abuse are defined is important in helping us to discover explanations and creating. Crime , Criminology , Drug 1450 Words | 4 Pages. ?Houston Crime Stopper Proposal Description: This Crime Stopper Awareness presentation will be given to a small group of . family and friends. This presentation is based on thesis, informing the audience members about the trait essay Crime Stoppers Organization in hopes of raise their awareness of Crime Stoppers and to get them more involved in humour, stopping crime in our area. It is an opportunity for the audience members to learn about the many accomplishments of an unusual, Crime Stoppers, and what makes this organization so successful. Arrest , Crime , Criminology 935 Words | 3 Pages. for Definitions of “Organized Crime ” CARLO CAVALIERE 100817631 OCTOBER 1ST 2014 Defining organized . crime has proven to be a general difficulty throughout history. The belief of this paper is that definition is crucial, however, at the same time one should identify that within the scope of organized crime , definition has been quite subjective and controversial.
The reason why it is important is because the exact way in which organized crime is defined goes a significant distance. Capital punishment , Crime , Crimes 2324 Words | 9 Pages.
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Dec 19, 2017 Thesis humour,
essay ethical topics This paper presents over 30 significant ethical issues that remain unresolved and invite more discussion by the general public. Social policy regarding these issues shouldn't be decided by special interest groups and lobbyists. Humour! The list below is meant to be evocative rather than comprehensive. Embarrassing Experience In Your Life! (I hope it stimulates you to think of some issues I haven't listed. Please feel free to email me and make suggestions for additions or revisions. Perhaps we'll add them to the list.)
One application of these issues is as a way to assess the humour effectiveness of a philosophical system or theory of consciousness-raising. Can the ideas advocated in that system guide or help us in addressing the literary essay the problems posed? Ethics involves the sphere of thesis, interpersonal, group, and community politics at trait essay the level of values–not just what can be achieved or how to humour achieve it, but more what should be sought, in the realm of do lawyers essays, social harmony and fairness. Thesis! It is the complexity of the other side of an unusual, individualism– other than taking care of oneself, what do we want our collective to do or refrain from doing? Ethics looks at our proper relations, our duties to each other, indvidually and collectively.
In the past, ethics–and a good deal of civil law, in addition–was mixed with the requirements of thesis, religious ritual and the establishment of the details of the priestly caste. Call Thesis! There was no other law back then, around the thesis time of Moses, at least for the wandering Israelites, and when the alleged basic rules were laid down in an unusual experience the Torah, the first five books of the Bible. Thesis! In most other countries, the law wasn't codified, and although there were traditions, the king was the boss and he could be pretty capricious. (The code of Hammurabi, around 1700 BC in the area near Babylon, was a bit of an exception, as far as we know.) It took a while to establish a civil government with some semblance of consistent law, and the revisions of the code re-established this effort. Such efforts also were in reaction to the five you meet the growing problems of trade, the establishments of small sub-cultural communities within larger communities, and inter-cultural mixing, which then required laws that applied to all sub-cultures within a greater empire. Thesis Humour! (Before that, each minority or mini-nation or tribe was allowed to apply its own traditional rules of justice–as long as they paid their taxes, sent their military levies, and didn't make trouble, they were left pretty much alone.) The ascendency of the Church in the West and of a theocratic legal system in the Islamic Empires tended to re-establish a more theocratic process, but once again this has broken down in most countries of the essay West and many in the Middle East, so that civil questions are distinguished from religious ones. This preamble is being presented because there's still a sense that our ethical rules are if not explicitly described in the Bible, they are implicit there, and can be applied to all modern issues. The Jews actually tried to do this, and humour the Talmudic tradition was a result, an interpretative tradition that laid the groundwork for some of the later traditions of rational argumentation found in our judicial systems. But the problem is this: New circumstances and technologies really create new problems.
Should we rationally tie our ethics to these traditional sources and precedents, especially when they arose out of cultures that may be becoming minority cultures in experience life essay our present society? (i.e., English law, English Biblical translations, which were politically biased pro-royalty works, etc.) Beginning perhaps with the Magna Carta and flowering in the 18th century, the idea of rights emerged. The problem is that these were perceived as existing a priori, 0ut there, so to speak, objectively. Nowadays we have become more sharply aware that rights are negotiated, they are social arrangements. As increasing groups of peoples--including, lately, the thesis humour unborn, and now, even animals, are viewed as having rights, ethics has expanded to explore who should have which rights? Is health care a right, and if so, are we obligated to collectively offer it, or should it be something people have to purchase (at some significant expense) from privately-owned corporations? Thus, we are charged with a goodly number of hot potatoes, sticky and pressing ethical problems, social issues, that are more often than not avoided, at least as topics of trait essay, ongoing rational social discussion. There are positions taken, of course, and challenges to these positions, but, alas, rarely is there really rational discourse.
So it is worth while to stand back and consider what these issues are in contemporary culture. The following are presented in thesis humour no particular order–I haven't been able to think of about in heaven, a way of classifying them or attributing any sort of rank or hierarchy. The numbering, then, is just for humour, the convenience of referring to literary analysis essay on the necklace them later in the paper. For example, if offered work, is the person who is given welfare obligated to accept that job, even if they don't like that work? What if the decision as to a job being not acceptable is viewed as trivial or unworthy by others? (1) Do we owe people jobs? To what extent do we collectively need to extend ourselves to sustain lines of work that are economically uncompetitive? (2) As tobacco is becoming viewed as less of a socially beneficial substance, what obligations do we have to tobacco farmers? (1) What about thesis humour strings attached? Can we demand political, human rights, ethical governmental policy, enforcement of the five people in heaven, human rights, etc. before we give aid?
(2). What rights do we have on criticizing the ethics and humour priorities of peoples in other cultures? 2. Experience In Your Essay! Addictive Substances –Alcohol, drugs, tobacco. (1) Should we collectively pay for humour, drug treatment? (2) If they enter rehab and relapse, should they be taken back? How many times? (3) How much should addiction be considered a mitigating circumstance from some associated misbehavior or crime? 3. Abortion : Should abortion be allowed? Is this a religious or a legal issue? A. What about if the life of the analysis on the necklace mother is endangered?
B. Thesis Humour! What if the fetus is found to be anencephalic –no functioning brain– Or if it has some other either catastrophic congenital defect? Is Down's Syndrome–moderate retardation–grounds for an abortion? C. Embarrassing Life Essay! How late can an humour, abortion be performed? 3 months? 5 months? 7 months? D. The Five You Meet! How early can an abortion be performed? Is the morning-after pill? an abortion? (I.e. before the embryo has implanted into the uterus) E. Should the community regulate contraception or is thesis humour, this for do lawyers write, the individual to thesis humour decide?
4. Suicide: How should the community relate to people in heaven the problem of suicide? Should there be any legal constraints at all? A. Might it be allowed only to thesis humour stop the suffering of the terminally ill? (1) What about those who have failed to leave an advanced directive: If they are left in a vegetative state after an accident, stroke, etc., when is it okay to pull the plug? (2). Should a consideration of the legal device of advanced directives be made a compulsory unit–you don't have to sign it, but you do have to discuss why you won't–for people at age 80? 60? 30?
In college? 5. Call Thesis! Parenthood: Is there a right to parenthood? Should we support anyone who wants to be a parent in this activity? What if they are thought to be unfit? What makes a person unfit as a parent? (This is humour, related to the next topic of call thesis, abuse.) How much attention does a child really need?
How nice must the housing be? The neighborhood? What if a parent cannot protect a child from the humour bullying of other children? (1) Is it okay for gay or lesbian partners to adopt a child? (2) What about experience essay adopting a child of humour, a different race? Or religion? (3) If the child is in permanent foster care because the parent has lost rights, can that parent nevertheless protest against the parents who would adopt that child on the basis of religion or some other ethnic criterion? 6. Animal Rights What rights should animals have? Our sensitivity to other peoples, minorities, etc. Literary Essay Necklace! continue to expand. We're less tolerant of rank cruelty.
What about intermediate conditions, excessive constraints in raising livestock, for instance? Animal laboratory testing? A. Supervision and regulation of animal farms, e.g., dog-raising kennels. 7. Heroic Medicine : How sacred is life itself? How heroic are we obligated to be in near-terminal conditions? A. How much money should be spent to attempt to keep alive a 2 month-premature infant? A 3-month premature infant? The limits of viability gradually are pushed down along with an exponential increase in cost and resources. Thesis Humour! Just because science can do something, it raises the do lawyers write essays question whether it should be done.
Expensive AIDS treatment for those whose lives were reckless? Lung transplants or other heroic treatments for inveterate smokers? Rehab, surgery, etc. for thesis humour, victims of an unusual, reckless driving and thesis motorcycling without helmets? Or should health care attempt to be blind and non-judgmental as to embarrassing experience life essay the source of illness (All this is related to item 1-B and 4-C.) 8. Safety Standards : What standards of thesis humour, safety do we wish to set? Is there a right to be protected even from essay about people you meet our own foolishness? A. Should government get out of the business of telling people what substances they can or can not put into their bodies? (A strict libertarian stance.)
(1) Is there a moral difference between legalization and humour de-criminalization? (2) Are there ethical or philosophical issues in drawing distinctions among the harm potential of alcohol, tobacco (in different forms), cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, marijuana, LSD, heroin, other opiates (e.g. Oxycontin), sedatives, ecstasy (MDMA), etc.? (3) What about the whole field of restricting drugs or medicines to doctor's prescriptions? (a) what are the economic advantages of making all drugs over-the-counter?
9. Environmentalism . What obligations do we have to the environment? A. Essay Necklace! To what extent must we go to preserve species of animals or plants? 10. Governmental Corruption: Should corruption in politics be dealt with more severely? What kinds of ethical standards are appropriate for those in greater power, in government or business? 11. Rehabilitation of Criminals : What kinds of efforts should we make to thesis rehabilitate prisoners?
A. Is there an write essays, obligation to differentiate between violent and nonviolent crimes? (1) should there be protection against homosexual rape? (2) to thesis humour what degree should criminals be supported in write the right to appeal? (What if they are in fact innocent?) (1) What degrees of defense and protection should there be to humour make sure the innocent are not executed? (2) Would some punishments, such as flogging, be less destructive and experience expensive in humour the long run and more deterrent?
(1) How many chances should people be given for literary analysis essay on the necklace, various problematic behaviors? E. Thesis Humour! What about obligations for restitution to the victims of crime? 12. Supporting Businesses : Do people have an obligation to collectively ensure that others be supported if the economy shifts? 13. Population Control: Is it ethical for a collective to take steps to control population growth? A. China's policies regarding having second children. 14.
Is medical care a right? What is the moral problem of demanding medical care for literary on the, all? What would the cost be? (A). What kinds of mental health care, psychotherapy, is appropriate for coverage by the collective, and what kinds are not appropriate? (B) What about substance abuse treatment? 15. Immigration: How much should the collective extend itself for immigrants?
A. Thesis! Should we have bilingual education? B. What levels of immigration should the better-off countries permit, and what restrictions are permissible? 16. Support for the Gifted : What obligations should the collective take on to foster talent, the gifted? 17. Literary! Homosexuality : What should be the thesis status of gays and lesbians? Are they immoral? A. Trait Essay! Parenting rights: See. D. What about bisexuals, trans-gendered folks, etc.? 18. Humour! Affirmative action: Should extra weight be given anyone because of that person's belonging to a group that has been considered disadvantaged.
Should there be any communal or governmental policies that level the playing field? 19. Freedom of essay about people, speech : What are its proper boundaries? Should it extend to include pornography? To what degree? Now that the internet is available, what kinds of censorship is thesis, permissible?
20. Smokers' rights : Should we recognize such a concept? What about non-smokers' rights? 21. Write Essays! Gambling : Should there be any restriction of thesis humour, gambling? Is it a form of freedom, or an invitation to addiction? 22. Prostitution : What about legalizing or regulating prostitution? Is it always a degradation of women, a form of call thesis, subtle oppression? What if some women who claim to enjoy this way of making a lot of thesis humour, money are not deceiving themselves? A. Experience In Your Life Essay! If it isn't a problem for consenting partners, is it a moral or ethical issue?
23. Thesis! Privacy Rights : Are the embarrassing experience life rights to privacy diminished by the demand for drug testing for thesis humour, various schools, jobs, etc.? A. Should the type of embarrassing life essay, employment have to justify its reason for demanding drug testing? Why couldn't a person use drugs on their days off? B. What about medical privacy in a world of managed care? 24. AIDS Venereal Disease : Now that one venereal disease is both deadly and un-treatable, should our policies and ethics about free sex be changed? A. Is there any place for humour, governmental intrusion or laws, say, to call thesis make sure that all people who test positive can be interviewed and thesis their contacts also notified? (1) Is it a moral obligation to inform contacts.
What about for herpes or other venereal disease? 25. Tort Reform : Now that liability insurance is beginning to cripple health care delivery and interfere with other industries, we need to look at the fairness issues involved in civil liability suits and tort reform. Trait Essay! Should there be limitations, caps? Is there any way to suppress nuisance litigation without also limiting the rights of people who are disadvantaged? 26. Exclusive Clubs : When are free organizations, clubs, fraternities, etc., against the common interest, unduly privileging certain groups, enabling of thesis humour, prejudice, etc?
A. Are there any contexts where limiting participation by members of the opposite sex is write, appropriate? B. Should schools with co-ed dorms also make sure they have non-co-ed dorms for thesis humour, those who don't want to essay about the five people you meet be exposed to humour the pressures on trait essay modesty in co-ed living? 27. Age Limits : What should be the proper age limits for driving, drinking, smoking, voting, going into the military, getting married without a parent's consent, having an abortion without a parent's consent, and thesis humour other age-limitations. A. Should there be any routine age limitations on the older age side?
For which roles or skills? 28. Colleges Supervising Students : What responsibilities should colleges assume in trait essay loco parentis ? 29. Grade Inflation : What is the obligation of the teacher, administrators, and general society (parents, media) to fight against pressures for humour, grade inflation? A. Are there circumstances in call thesis which a child who has failed to perform should be flunked, retained, not passed along? When? B. Should kids be passed in the service of self-esteem? Other reasons?
C. At what ages should these policies be looser or tighter? D. Is expulsion ever justified? Where should the thesis child go? What responsibility does the community school system take for severely obstreperous kids? E. What pressures are appropriate to demand psychological evaluation of not only a child, but also of the family? Is this intruding on the freedom of essay the five people in heaven, parents to raise their kids as strictly or permissively as they wish? F. When is discipline abuse? 30. Language Dialect and Accent : Is it all right to discriminate among people because of dialect, when that mode of speech may not be understood by a significant portion of the community?
A. Thesis! Should people be encouraged or even coerced into reducing their dialect? B. Or should dialects be granted equal status? What about call thesis jobs or roles in which being understood clearly is an important role component, such as in offering tech support by phone, or other service-related dealing-with-people roles? 31. Privacy : What are the appropriate limits of humour, privacy? Is it unethical to break a confidence if the behavior that is essay the five, known involves something really destructive to thesis humour the person or others–e.g., suicide or murder?
A. What about self-mutilation, cutting; or driving while intoxicated? B. Should there be more boundaries on group pressures for intimacy: (1) What about church ministers who encourage people to hug each other? (2) In groups, being encouraged to disclose more about one's life than is comfortable. (This could apply to embarrassing experience in your essay this class, too– so check it out.) C. Thesis Humour! Recent moves toward a standard or pooled electronic health records opens them to hackers and insurance administrators who then can use this information to deny health care coverage to an unusual the people. Claims that these records can be made secure are of dubious validity, even if they are naively sincere. 32. Thesis! International Obligations : Are wealthier nations obliged to help other nations or governments, not just with humanitarian aid, but with military aid, or even more, are we obliged to trait essay intervene if those governments institute or enable or condone massive human rights abuses?
A. What if the thesis humour governments collapse in trait essay civil war? Or become chaotic and humour ineffective? Or allow or encourage genocide (ethnic cleansing)? (Some have advocated a return to write colonialism as being more ethical and benign than our self-righteous claims to non-interference in the service of promoting democracy) 33. Degrees of Wealth : Should a distinction be made between those who earn moderately more than the average and those whose income is hundreds or thousands of times greater than those who earn a minimum wage? Should there be a steeply graduated income tax or inheritance tax so as to reduce this discrepancy?
A. What about people who own a moderate amount of property versus those who own extensive holdings? Are property rights a category that should involve no internal distinctions?