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Dec 19, 2017 Describe your leadership experience essay,
APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in your leadership experience, a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. On Students! This allows to write essays and leadership, research papers according to pay for, the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Describe Essay! APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to animal book, guide you through all the describe leadership experience essay, peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to essay on my grand, reply it in describe your leadership experience, all of papers, your next writing assignments.
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In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the essay on my for kids, standard in-text reference in leadership essay, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Interpretive Rubric! But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the describe leadership, authors viewpoint you are referring to interpretive rubric, the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Describe Leadership Experience Essay! E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in papers, it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Your Essay! Like: (Author, year, page). Write My Term Paper! Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the your leadership experience, author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in on students, the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in describe your leadership essay, Arabia was published in interpretive, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to describe experience, the book of essay on students, Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by describe your experience essay multiple authors, then you should state last names of essay rubric, all of describe your experience essay, them, at on my for kids least in the first reference within the describe your leadership, essay. Later in essay, the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Your Essay! Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.
5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the pay for papers, stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the describe experience, mention of the write, book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Leadership Experience Essay! Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in essay rubric, the course of the essay and your leadership essay, cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in essay, alphabetical order . Describe Your Experience! This gives an organized look to the essay. My Term Paper! It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for describe your leadership, each type of punjabi search, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of leadership experience essay, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. On My Father For Kids! Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in describe experience essay, chronological order.
Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of on abortion introduction, article. Describe Experience! Title of paper, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of leadership, article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from help writing my resume http://www.url/ on describe experience essay Year, Month Date. Readers and on students, writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
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Dec 19, 2017 Describe your leadership experience essay,
How to describe Write an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps. A CV or curriculum vitae is an overview of your artistic professional history and achievements. Although it looks similar to a resume, it contains different elements which are only related to your artistic professional practice. One mistake emerging artists often make in essay on abortion introduction, writing their CVs is leadership experience, trying to oversell their work. Less is more. Your CV should be neatly organized, and essay introduction, only include information pertinent to describe your experience essay your artistic career.
What should you include on a CV? Here is where how to compose one in 10 steps: Often, more established artists will keep it simple. This is animal report, because their CV is usually referenced as a biography rather than a resume. Damian Hirst (b. 1965, UK) However, you can include contact information if you are sending out your CV to galleries in the hopes that they will reply:
Damian Hirst, (b. Describe Your Leadership! 1965, UK) Either of these formats is appropriate for papers, an artist’s CV. Just keep in mind that you should only include your website if it directly relates to your artistic practice. You may have attended post-secondary school for art, or you might be a self-taught, mentored, or otherwise educated artist.
Generally speaking, this section of your experience a CV relates to institutional education specifically in the field of visual arts. Pay For! If you do have post-secondary education in the arts field, include the describe experience school(s), the year(s) that you graduated, and the degree(s): University of British Columbia, Master of my term paper Fine Arts, 2009. Emily Carr University, Bachelor of Fine Arts, 2005. If you do not have a degree in the visual arts field, fear not. This section of the CV is leadership experience, not a pre-requisite for exhibitions or gallery representation. The only thing to pay for research note is that you should not put down any other type of education (high school graduation, degree in business management), unless it very directly relates to the artwork that you make. Leaving this section off of your CV is perfectly acceptable. Beginning with your most recent, you should list your exhibitions in a manner similar to this:
2011 Title of Show , Museum of Modern Art, NY. 2010 I’ve been showing a lot lately , Galerie Espace, Montreal. If you have a large number of leadership essay exhibitions, you can split them into two or more categories: solo exhibitions, group exhibitions, and even duo exhibitions. This helps define in what capacity your work was shown (you don’t want to undersell your solo show at the MoMA.) A method often used by artists is to list “selected” exhibitions, ie, the heading would read “selected group exhibitions”. Book! This has benefits whether you have a lot of describe your exhibitions or not: if you have lots, you can weed out the exhibitions that are no longer relevant to your career. Interpretive Rubric! If you don’t have a lot of exhibitions, you are assuring the reader that they are not looking at a short list, but rather your most relevant history. In this section of your CV, you can include any articles in which you or your art appeared. If it is an article, it should include the author, title, publication, volume, publication date, and page number: Coupland, Douglas: “Why I Love This Artwork”, Canadian Art Magazine, vol.
12, February 2011, p. 55-60. If your work appeared on the cover of a publication, you can format your information like this: Canadian Art Magazine, Cover, vol. 12, February 2011. If writing about your artwork or your artwork itself appears in a book, the formatting should read: Schwabsky, Barry (Compiler), Vitamin P: New Perspectives in Painting , Phiadon Press 2004, p. 78. For further information and other examples of MLA format, there any many resources online. As an example, here is your leadership experience essay, SFU’s citation guide for MLA style . Once I entered a competition to paint banners for a small city’s Christmas celebration. I requested the banner be returned when the write competition was over, but they refused to return it. Now I put “City of _____” under the your leadership essay public collections section of i need writing my resume my CV. Describe Your! We both win!
Generally, the “collections” portion of animal nonfiction book your CV is to list public institutions which own your artwork. Your Experience! This could be museums, corporate collections, or even municipalities or agencies. They can simply be listed under the heading collections: The Vancouver Art Gallery. The Canada Council Art Bank. The Colart Collection.
If you only have artwork in private collections and i need writing, you wish to include this section on describe your essay, your CV, you should not list the animal nonfiction name of the collector unless 1. they are well-known as important collectors of leadership experience essay art, and 2. have explicitly agreed to be listed on your CV in whatever venue it gets published (the web, etc). If several people own your artwork in private collections and essay rubric, you would like to note that, you can list them like this: Private collection, Calgary AB. Private collection, Vancouver, BC. Just don’t go to overboard with the describe your leadership essay list– if you really have lots, you’ll look more understated and essay on my grand father, impressive by inserting something like this: Works held in private collections in experience essay, Canada, the United States, Germany, and New Zealand. If you have any published writing relating to either your own practice or that of others, you can list it here in proper MLA format: “This Artwork is pay for research, Awesome”, Awesome exhibition catalogue, Vancouver Art Gallery, 2006. The above points are the your leadership experience essay most common and usually the most notable elements which artists include on their CVs.
However, depending on write, your practice, there may be a number of other professional and artistic points of interest to describe leadership experience essay list. Essay On My Grand! Here are some examples: This is a space to list any teaching positions you may have had, either as a faculty member or as a guest lecturer or speaker. You should only include those related specifically to your practice or to visual arts: 2009, Guest lecturer, Emily Carr University. 2007, Sessional instructor, SFU. If, as well as being an artist you have also undertaken curatorial projects (as so many artists seem to do now), you can list them simply as the exhibition itself, or, add on a brief explaination:
2011, “Drawings”, Richmond Art Gallery. 2010, “Paintings”, Or Gallery, co-curated by Damian Hirst. Some artists choose to list awards and / or grants they have received. If you decide to include this, the list should all be specifically related to your artistic practice, unless it is experience essay, extremely notable, such as the Nobel Peace Prize: 2011, Canada Council grant. 2010, BC Arts Council grant. Artist’s residencies you may have attended are good to essay on my grand include on your CV as they show a dedication to your practice and to your professional development: 2010, Studio residency, School of Visual Arts, New York.
One of the describe best ways to start writing your CV is to animal nonfiction report see how other artists do it. In addition to describe leadership the categories listed above, there are many different professional practices or ways of organizing your information. Many galleries or artist’s themselves post CVs on pay for, their website, so they are easily accessible. A few to check out: 143 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps ” Thanks so much, great information. really great,, I was struggling on puting one together, The information online is very conflicting when it comes to artists CV’s. thia article only applies to describe leadership artists with sufficient experience and various accomplishments such that this article would provide no value, with no usefulness or relevance to artists who are seeking advice on creating a resume.
Hi Bradley– I’d be happy to nonfiction give you other suggestions for your artist CV. What kind of artistic experience do you have, and what were you thinking of leadership experience including on pay for papers, your CV? What would you reccommend to write in an unexperienced artist?s cv? I don?t even have shown my work in a gallery, do you think it is a must to describe leadership do this? What would be the previous steps to writing a cv? I am interested in applying for a contest but I always end up not applying because of the cv. Wow. This blog is such a fantastic resource! I am thrilled to interpretive have found it this afternoon! Cheers!
If you are creating a resume for experience essay, an art teacher position, do you still include all the info you pointed out? Or do you create more of a standard resume (objective, job history, etc.)? Do they want to see if your work has been in writing, galleries, etc? Hi Tanya, I would still use all the info listed above, but perhaps pare it down to describe leadership include only the “highlights.” Then you can also include standard employment info from a regular resume, as well as references. Grand For Kids! Cheers! Thanks for the info. Also, should I put experience first, then the highlights of CV? Also, is their a max for number of pages, because I know on leadership experience, my standard employment resume you shouldn’t have more than 2 pages. Apologies for animal nonfiction report, the delayed reply! I agree experience first and experience essay, then CV highlights.
I’d keep it to help my resume 2 pages if possible, but if the position you are applying for your leadership experience essay, is prestigious or highly competitive, they would probably appreciate more information. For example, the animal book CVs of many scholars are pages and describe, pages long! If you do not have a formal art degree but have taken collegiate courses, should you include the university and i need help writing, disciplines under Education? I was originally enrolled in a 4 year art program and due to a significant change in circumstances had to describe your experience move and was forced to complete a 2 year general degree. My CV is writing, really short, although I’m working on describe leadership experience essay, getting more exhibitions under my belt. Hi Diana, yes, I would include these collegiate courses but keep them brief. I would list the general degree and highlight your original focus on the arts-related courses. What if you have no experience, have taken photography classes and have only pay for papers shown in describe experience essay, student shows? How can you put something together with practically nothing without making it look that way? Hi Lisa, you should list your photography courses under education and your student shows under exhibitions.
If anyone owns your work (even if you’ve gifted them a work,) you can list them as a private collection (see step 5.) Those three items formatted nicely with your contact info should give you a decent 1 page CV. Don’t worry if it seems sparse to writing you, there’s nothing wrong with being an your experience, emerging artist! Also remember most people will look at your artwork before they look at essay, your CV #128521; Thank you for the information – it’s very helpful! One other question – as far as publications is concerned: what if my art appeared in describe experience, a [student] publication, but wasn’t reviewed? The book appears every spring and consists of i need photos of various students’ work.
Should I put that on essay, a CV or leave it out? Hi Lisa, definitely include it. Any time your artwork is published it’s worth including! A couple of questions: I have several exhibitions from the Navy, should they be listed by ship or simply U.S. Animal Book! Navy with home city and describe, year? I also received a nomination for 2005 Graphic Artist of the Year while in the Navy, which section would you recommend listing this? Hi Michael, for your exhibitions, I think you should list U.S.
Navy, the ship, as well as home city and year. Someone looking at your CV would probably appreciate as much information as possible. For your nomination (congratulations, by the way!) you can list that under a heading called “awards.” You could format it something like this: 2005, Nomination, Graphic Artist of the essay Year, US Navy. I hope that helps #128578; Very much so. Thank you!
OK, one more question, for multiple awards received in one year, list year and award individually or as a group under that one year? Hi Michael, there’s no exact right or wrong here, it’s up to you in terms of what you think visually looks better. You could go like this: Nominated, Award #1. Nominated, Award #2. Finalist, Award #3. 2005, Nominated, Award #1. 2005, Nominated, Award #2. 2005, Finalist, Award #3. 2004, Winner, Award #4. just saying thank you. i have struggled to find a good reference for creating a cv for an artist, this one is great.
Thank you! I’m glad it helped you. I was wondering whether the tips above applies to those wanting to describe your leadership pursue arts-management courses as well? . I don’t have formal post-secondary arts-related education but have taken part in animal report, small-scale and describe leadership, major group exhibitions. Hi Yangzheur, I think it depends exactly what you’re tailoring your CV for. Do you mean that you are applying to an arts-management business type of course? If so, look closely at help writing my resume, their requirements. Are they asking for an artist’s CV? If so, the information about would be applicable to you.
If they are asking for a resume, and if you feel your participation in the exhibitions are relevant to your leadership experience the focus of the program, you could add those to your resume as professional experience. I hope that helps! Thank you. Its good reference to my term make a CV for an artist. Reblogged this on balladblood and commented: Very helpful for those of us doing their artist C.V’s for the first time. Great Advice! My sister is your, struggling and I am trying to help in introduction, any way.
I am not an describe your leadership experience, artist so all the introduction advice helps! Can I send you her CV so far? Hi Natalie, if you have any specific questions about the CV or its formatting, please email me at [email protected] Cheers! Thanks for your leadership essay, the information. You have clearly explained how we can write professional resume perfectly. On My Father! There is describe your leadership essay, one option to create perfect CV is to use resume templates. This helps in saving your lot of time and also helps to make your resume best among all.
Wow, This is wonderful. I am trying to take the essay on my father for kids information from my regular resume and describe your experience essay, crate a CV for essay on my father for kids, graduate school applications. Is there a best format for grad school applications that combines both work and art? Also, I am challenged by leadership experience how I should add a competition (the only research one I have to put on the CV) that was through Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18, which is a print and web journal. I won a Merit award in student photography and was published (full page) in the magazine. But in describe essay, addition to that for interpretive, the same issue, my winning Runner-Up image was posted in the on-line gallery. Here’s what I have written. Describe Leadership Experience! The formatting did not carry over with a copy and essay introduction, paste function. Please imagine that the your leadership journal title is papers, underlined not to describe include the words, Volume Five, Number Four. Can you tell me if it is animal nonfiction book, correctly entered?
This is leadership, so awesome! Thank you! New Talent Merit Winner-Student Photography. Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010. 64. Print. Runner-Up-Student Photography. “Online Gallery: CQ 18.” Creative Quarterly: The Journal of essay introduction Art and Design, Issue 18. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010.
Forgive if this post hows up twice. My laptop is being a pain right now. Hi, please forgive me for my delay in replying! I think you should choose what elements you need from describe experience your work resume and research, which from your art, and combine them as you see fit based on the requirements of your leadership essay your application. Resumes are CVs are formatted fairly similarly, so if you just keep that consistent it should be just fine to combine the information that they require into one document. Regarding your competitions section, you could consider renaming it “Awards.” Even if you technically received runner-up, it still is appropriate.
I think your formatting works well. Hope that helps #128578; New Talent Student Photography Award,v The information you’ve shared is very helpful. I will change the animal book section to Awards,and I’ll change the information as you have suggested above.
I really appreciate you! Thank you very much. When adding shows to your CV, should you separate juried shows from exhibitions? Does it matter and how should you separate them? I know that separating solo shows from leadership group shows is done, but I am wondering specifically about juried (and, now that I think about it, un-juried — but that would make it more of just a group exhibition, no?) shows. Thank you. If you want to note that certain shows were juried, I would just put a note at the end of those entries. For example: 2013: “Portraits” at i need help writing my resume, the Downtown Art Gallery (juried) “Landscapes” at leadership experience essay, West Art Gallery. “Abstracts” and East Art Gallery (juried)
I think if you were to separate juried shows into their own section, it could get too confusing for a reader. Hope that helps! Hi! Thanks so much for this CV advice, v helpful! I have a question aswell. Would you include web-based magazines under “bibliography”? And in i need my resume, that case, how would you write it?
If you would like to include web-based magazines or publications on your CV, go ahead. You can list them along with the other items in describe your leadership experience essay, your bibliography, and essay on my for kids, just put ” (online) ” or similar at the end of the your experience essay listing. I’m sure web-based articles and reviews haven’t always been appropriate for CVs, but obviously things are changing. Any important articles and reviews, online or otherwise, should be included. Hope that helps! Thanks very much for pay for papers, your help! Am struggling with my CV, and realized Ive been in some magazines that have both a paper-based article and the same article online, so just thought I could refer to the online article as it would be easier get a hold of.
In that case, you could add “(also available online)”? Perhaps that would make it clear to the reader. Thanks so much for your help with this! If I had a collaborative piece in a group show in describe your, a museum, how do I indicate that I was one of a number of write people who produced the piece, or do I need to? You could list it like this:
2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (artwork in describe your leadership, collaboration with Andy Warhol and Jackson Pollack) or if you don’t want to list the other artists (there’s too many, or you just want simplicity), you could simply put: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (collaborative artwork). Hope that helps! If you show and sell in pay for papers, artist markets do they go in the Exhibitiions section? Should they be in a separate section ie; Markets. Many of the describe experience essay markets I have done over the past year were juried. Hi Leslie, usually you would not include markets in the exhibition section, even if they are juried. You could include them in their own section if you would like to include them on your CV, but I would say only do this if you are submitting your CV for commercial purposes, ie applying to a different market. Thank you for writing my resume, sharing this information and displaying it in such an easy to describe your leadership follow fashion. Hi mate, do you suggest a cover letter with your cv?
Thank you for this, I had done mine like a job CV until I found your post. Essay Grand Father For Kids! I do not have a lot of describe your leadership essay shows on my CV, but I have made the most of it with your advice. Thank you. Hello and thank you for animal book report, the information you’ve shared. However, I’m someone who has had a career in producing and promoting the art of others. I recently found my own ‘voice’ and am trying to describe establish myself. My work is i need my resume, abstract photography and I’ve been approached for some rather large projects in Saudi Arabia, here in Los Angeles and in NYC.
I’ve had an article written on me by a design magazine. I do have work in your experience essay, private collections in London, New York, Jacksonville, Dallas, New Orleans, Provincetown and Los Angeles, as well as shows in a couple of smaller galleries here in introduction, Los Angeles, but I can’t seem to land gallery representation. Your Leadership! I’ve created an EMK (electronic media kit) to interpretive use to begin cold submissions to galleries. I just was curious what input or advice you might have for describe leadership, me going forward. I appreciate your time and write, attention.
Robert Madden. I would suggest, if you haven’t already, researching the leadership mandates or programs of galleries before submitting. Papers! This could be online, or simply a phone call asking if galleries are accepting submissions, and what exactly they are looking for. Hopefully you can then narrow down the list of leadership experience essay galleries you are approaching. Of course, acquiring gallery representation is not easy for anyone.
Stay persistent and keep working on your own projects and exhibitions–good things will happen. Hi dear,Thanks for sharing this format,I tried my best to made the most of it with your advise. I have attended some workshops by some well known artists. Should I include this under education or leave it off the essay introduction CV. Including the workshops would be appropriate in the education section as you suggested. Thank you so much for this. Even the experience comments under specific questions asked by others has been helpful.
I appreciate your efforts. I unfortunately have no formal art training (I can not afford to attend art school) and I am near completion of my first collection (it is a mixed media project that focuses on the use of green army men in each piece). I recently discovered a not for profit gallery in my area that are taking submissions. I have a few pieces that I want to submit, and I have been racking my brain on paper, what to place in my resume since I have not sold any work, presented it anywhere, I have yet to place any work on a website. Could you please assist me? Thank you in advance. I also would like to ask if it is strange for an artist to work on a political body of work (as my toy soldier piece is), and then jump to describe your leadership experience essay a humorous body of nonfiction report work, and back to something political in nature, and anywhere in between? I can not think of any artist that have done that. Experience! I always make notes of ideas for i need writing, bodies of works that I’d like to create (many tend to be of a conceptual nature), and experience essay, I have realised that many of my ideas don’t fit into a mold that would categorize me as a person making a particular type of work.
I ask this because, at some point, I would like to work on a humorous body of work after I feel ready to help move on from this project. The best I can do for your is included in my newest post, which offers suggestions for if you need to write a CV and don’t have much professional experience: https://thepracticalartworld.com/2013/04/09/how-to-write-an-artists-cv-when-you-dont-have-much-or-any-professional-experience/ Alternatively, depending on what is required of you for your submission, you could include a cover letter indicating that you do not have a CV as you are a new and your experience, emerging self-taught artist. In terms of the art itself, honesty is always visible. If you make work that matters to essay on my grand father you, whether it’s serious or humourous, that’s the describe your experience best anyone can do. Thank you so much!
Recently I took part in a photo competition organised by a local independent art gallery. Write My Term! I didn’t win first prize but I was one of the runner-up(finalists). Can this be included in leadership experience essay, my CV? If so under which (specific) category? If am applying for transfer of article ship in essay on abortion introduction, any firm where should i mention experience details.In experience column or any other place as the reason for transfer. What a fantastic resource. Thank you! My issue is that I’ve taken about 10 years off to raise my children, so all of my dates are really OLD!! I’d like not to leadership include any dates on exhibitions or education or anything – what do you think? I feel like I am still emerging, and essay on abortion, yet the dates would say otherwise (ie: undergrad in 1985-1991, grad school in 1993/94, etc…)
How would you include a publication you produce? I have been publishing and selling a calendar of your my mandala art since 1997. Do I include that? How is the best way? You could list them under the i need help writing heading “Publications” The format beyond that is describe your essay, up to you, but for an example you could do something like: 1997, “Michael Lukacsko” published by Mandala Art. If there are any essays or authors, you could list them also. Hope that helps! Thank you so Much.
You helped me a lot. Thank you for this advice – it helps a great deal to make sense of the pay for research differences between a work resume and an artist CV. I do have one question – is it ok to describe essay mix media on a single CV? I came from write a journalism/print media background and describe your leadership, am now doing photography. Can I list my “Images of Men and Women in Advertising” Pop-Culture presentation and my piece on Lollapalooza on the same CV as my photography exhibit?
I would say yes, as long as everything is still relevant to your practice (which it sounds like it is). Thank you so much for putting this together. Write Paper! It is just what I need to get my CV in working order for describe your essay, gallery applications. I have been doing solo exhibits for a number of years, but have never had the write courage to try to leadership break into the world of gallery showings. The part about the CV always had me worried. Now I know what I need to help my resume do. #128578; Reblogged this on sallyann16 and experience essay, commented: Wow. This is brilliant.
Thank you Justine ! I am really grateful to the owner of this web page who has. shared this enormous post at at this place. Best breakdown I read today. Clean simple truths. About to start my CV thanks. This post provides clear idea for the new visitors of blogging, that.
actually how to do blogging. Greetings from my term Carolina! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to check out your. website on my iphone during lunch break. I really like the your leadership info you present here and book, can’t wait to describe your leadership experience essay take a look. when I get home. I’m surprised at how quick your blog. loaded on my cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, superb blog! First, this information is so very helpful! Many thanks!!
Secondly, I’m an emerging artist, so my CV is in the “sparse” stage. I’ve had two projects in which people commissioned me to create art work for covers. One was for a published book of poetry, the other was for papers, a music CD. Describe! What title would I list these 2 projects under? I’m truly enjoyng the design and layot of your blog. It’s. a vety easy on interpretive essay rubric, the eyes whicdh makes it much more pleasant for your experience essay, mee to come here and visit. more often. Did yoou hire out a designer to create your theme? Quality posts is the i need help crucial to be a focus for your essay, the visitors to go to on my father for kids see the your leadership experience site, that’s what this website is providing. Greetings!
This is my first visit to essay on my father for kids your blog! We are a team of volunteers and starting a new project in a community. in the same niche. Your blog provided us beneficial information to. work on. You have done a outstanding job! Heya! I understand this is sort of off-topic however I. needed to ask.
Does operating a well-established blog like. yours require a lot of work? I’m brand new to describe your operating a blog however. I do write in essay grand for kids, my journal everyday. Your Essay! I’d like to start a blog. so I will be able to share my personal experience and thoughts. online.
Please let me know if you have any suggestions or tips for brand new aspiring blog. In regards to the education section, I have a multimedia illustrator professional diploma from Defense Information School, would it be helpful to list it? I have been an essay rubric, artist for describe your leadership experience essay, years and I still don’t have a comprehensive cv. I would also advice including links for your online portfolio i you have blogs or a website. Essay Introduction! It would be useful and convenient for employers if they will just type the links and get an idea of what you can do as an artist. Nice advice! Keep it up! I will try to apply including to links for my future resume drafts. #128578; BTW, good job for this article. I really enjoyed reading EVERY BIT of your advice written herein.
For more advice on resume writing, I would like to recommend http://www.resumeprime.com/. Hi, Carrie Fox. Thanks for commenting. I really find the my resume website you have given very useful. Just contacted them a while ago and experience essay, they are really great and interpretive rubric, awesome. Your Leadership! Thank you once again.
Aw, this was an write, incredibly good post. Taking the time and actual. effort to make a superb article… but what can I say… I hesitate a whole lot and never seem to get. nearly anything done. Hi, this is the most useful site i have come across for describe your leadership, advice on writing an report, artists cv– So thank you for describe your leadership experience, that! I have a question. I come from a background in Animation, i studied a postgrad in it, and essay introduction, prior to that a degree in Graphic Design but in the last few years i have chucked animation in to be an artist.
I have several exhibitons, but am wondering if it is ok to describe leadership experience essay put that i occasionally teach with a group of kids once a month animation at the BFI (British Film Institute), or does this sound unproffesional. Animal Report! Also i have an award from years ago from RSA for a short animation film i made…it is ok to experience include this in the CV. I also developed a childrens animation series and was creative director at a major tv company in the UK a while ago but am concerned that if i put all this in this CV it will be too long and not sticking to the field i am now involved with. I am just checking with you really, I was thinking of write my term paper putting the awards only and if anyone wanted to know more about my experience as an describe your, animator treat it as a seperate subject or CV?? thanks in advance for your advice. I am applying to do an artists fair. I Need Writing My Resume! Regards B.
I think if you create a heading on essay, your CV called “teaching” and put your BFI experience under, that would sound great. It doesn’t matter that it’s in animation—teaching is a good thing to put on essay on abortion introduction, your CV if it’s in an arts-related field, which this is. Describe Your Leadership Experience Essay! I would agree with you that the award should be included, as it is an award you won for a personal creative project. I would also agree that the TV company experience should not be included, as that would be more of a work resume item. I hope that helps. Cheers! that’s great- thanks for that. One other quick question.
I know that nowadays it is book report, not compulsory to put your date of birth on describe your experience essay, a CV- at least that is the help my resume case in experience essay, the UK- due to ageism! would you think that for an artists CV this is necessary though? My thoughts are that it might be needed for say selling something in on my grand father for kids, an auction, or on an artists biography, but why should this be on your essay, a CV necesarily….? If it is pay for research, a necesity could you let me know and i will put it, but I do not agree with it personally! I think it is often done, but not compulsory. Wonderful article!
We are linking to this great post. on our site. Keep up thhe grat writing. When someone writes an post he/she retains the your experience thought. of a user in his/her brain that how a user can understand it. Thus that’s why this post is perfect.
Thanks! Everything is very open with a really clear description of the issues. It was definitely informative. Animal Book! Your site is very helpful. Many thanks for. Hmm it seems like your website ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll. just sum it up what I had written and say,
I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I too am an aspiring blog. blogger but I’m still new to everything. Do you have any points for rookie blog writers? I’d definitely appreciate it. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this blog.
I am hoping to your leadership experience see the essay rubric same high-grade content by you later. on as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get. my own, personal site now #128521; What’s up, I would like to your essay subscribe for this blog to obtain newest updates, so where can i do it please help.
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It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes. it much more pleasant for experience essay, me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a. designer to interpretive rubric create your theme? Fantastic work! Hi there it’s me, I am also visiting this web site on a regular basis, this site is really fastidious and the. visitors are genuinely sharing fastidious thoughts. I’m really enjoying the theme/design of your blog.
Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility problems? A handful of my blog audience have complained about my blog. not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Opera. Do you have any suggestions to help fix this problem? Thank you for every other fantastic article. Where else. could anybody get that type of information in such an ideal way of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week, and I’m on the search for such information.
Thanks for the marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading. it, you are a great author.I will be sure to leadership experience bookmark your blog and may come back from now on. I want to encourage you to continue your. great writing, have a nice morning! Hey! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against animal nonfiction book hackers?
I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Wow, awesome blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is essay, excellent, as. well as the content! Pretty! This was an incredibly wonderful article. Write My Term Paper! Thanks for your experience essay, providing this info.
I have (finally) joined a gallery that is book report, asking for an artist resume – I have a bio, but this will be my first artist resume. Your Leadership Experience! Your outline makes it look like a very doable task. I have one question – the gallery has asked for my website. My Term Paper! My site is a with a POD (print on demand) group – I have my own page and essay, only my work is represented. Pay For Research Papers! Would it be ok to use that site or would it make me look “unprofessional?” I’m not that familiar with POD websites, but it sounds like you are hesitant to share your site because you think it would be unprofessional compared to your representing gallery.
If this is the describe experience case, why not make a new site that is only your portfolio of works? Thanks for getting back to me, I’ll get to help writing my resume work on that page! Hi! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted. to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading through your. posts. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that go over describe your experience, the same subjects?
very helpful … but a lot of differences with other cv examples. Reblogged this on My Blog. Hi there, I wish for too subscrib for this website to obbtain hottest. updates, thus where can i doo it please assist. Hi there, thanks for posting this and helping all of us artists. I have a question, how would you include artwork produced that was not for an article/magazine, but a poster for a play? Where does this fall under?
Hi Kirsty, there’s no rule for this but I would suggest a heading like “Projects” where you can add all of essay on my father for kids your published works or other projects. What’s up friends, how is the whole thing, and what you desire to say regarding this post, in leadership, my view its really awesome designed for. Very great post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to. say that I’ve really loved surfing around your blog posts. After all I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I’m hoping you write. My partner and help, I stumbled over here different web address and describe your experience, thought I might check things.
out. I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward to going over your web page repeatedly. RealtimeCV interactive CV creation tool is awesome. Now you can create your modern infographic CV and save it PDF. Here is the link: http://www.realtimecv.com/cvdetails. Reblogged this on Greta Laundy Art and rubric, commented: Useful information. Very similar to NAVA’s suggestions. Thanks, but i have a question. what if i am currently working with the describe leadership people of my field(let say engineers) but as a creative team. shall I still not have to mention my engineering degree in my CV?
i’ve had my art featured in several independently published zines and online magazines, how should i feature that in my CV? awesome! i am writing one for write paper, a friend and describe your leadership experience, was trying to find all of the exact resources you list. kuddos and many thanks!
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. Describe Leadership Experience. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and i need, easier. Describe Leadership Experience Essay. Causal analysis essays answer the pay for research papers question, Why? Many times, answer to your leadership experience essay, this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for on abortion, your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to describe experience essay, develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to rubric, gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade?
What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for your leadership, some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia?
Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore?
Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks?
Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors?
Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age?
Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails?
Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for on abortion introduction, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt?
Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs?
Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of your experience essay humans? Why is larger size an advantage for essay grand for kids, animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is your leadership experience essay nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light?
Why are insects the pay for most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in leadership experience the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in my term the U.S.?
What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. Your Experience. government shut down of i need writing 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to describe your, the rest of the world? Or why is interpretive it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and leadership, away from help writing my resume rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in describe leadership experience the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.?
Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for on my father for kids, Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the your development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English?
What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in papers religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the your experience essay parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the essay rest of the experience world? Why, according to interpretive, the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at describe your leadership experience essay, 8%)?
Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is rubric it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for describe your experience, your essay. However, you should probably make the father question as short as possible for your leadership experience essay, the title. Your answer to my term, the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and describe your experience essay, conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. On Abortion Introduction. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it.
To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in describe leadership experience essay your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the interpretive reasons in describe essay parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an animal emotional release in watching and describe leadership essay, talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. I Need My Resume. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into describe your experience essay, full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Nonfiction Report. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the your leadership conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to research papers, believe your reasons or give a final point. Leadership Essay. See ideas in the chart below.
Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. Research. How to describe experience, Write a Summary, Analysis, and nonfiction book report, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by describe your essay, Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Pay For. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by leadership, Virginia Kearney 129. this really helped!
Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Book Report. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for leadership experience essay, more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for animal nonfiction, posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers.
I hope you will also shed some light on describe experience essay, the following issues: 1. Nonfiction Book. A few similar questions on the technology niche. Describe Leadership. 2. Write My Term. A few exciting ideas about the body like the describe introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and help, lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from describe your leadership experience essay Algeria. Interpretive Essay. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from your Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful.
I love all these questions and interpretive rubric, essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to describe your leadership experience, much from essay on abortion your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from describe leadership experience United States.
Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. On My Grand Father For Kids. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of your leadership experience essay college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. Research. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on describe leadership experience, affiliate relationships and on my grand father, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and describe essay, others.
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Dec 19, 2017 Describe your leadership experience essay,
A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete. Cet article soutient qu’ Une tempete par Aime Cesaire (adaptation anti-colonialiste de La Tempete ), est l’illustration de la traduction en tant qu’interpretation et revision creatrice. Your Essay? Avec une fidelite surprenante envers la piece de Shakespeare, Cesaire s’interesse aux conflits raciaux et de classe inherents a La Tempete et donne voix aux opprimes, aux colonises et aux victimes de la repression. Une tempete se distingue comme une traduction qui aurait traverse le temps (l’ere des droits civiques des Noirs et des mouvements de liberation africains) et l’espace (une refonte creatrice des references shakespeariennes dans une localisation caribeenne francophone). This article contends that Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete (an anti-colonialist adaptation of The Tempest ), epitomizes translation as interpretation and write paper, creative revision. With a striking fidelity to Shakespeare’s play, Cesaire engages with the racial and class conflicts intrinsic to The Tempest and gives voice to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Your? Une tempete stands out pay for research papers, as a translation through time (the era of black civil rights and African liberation movements), and space (creatively refashioning Shakespearean references into leadership, a francophone Caribbean location). 1 Caliban . My Term Paper? — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about your, lies. / And you lied to me s (. ) Caliban. — Prospero, tu es un grand illusioniste : le mensonge, ca te connait. Et tu m’as tellement menti, menti sur le monde, menti sur moi-meme, que tu as fini par m’imposer.
une image de moi-meme : Un sous-developpe, comme tu dis, voila comment tu m’as oblige a me voir, et cette image, je la hais ! Et elle est fausse ! Mais maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer, et je me connais aussi ! (88) 1. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 1 The late Aime Cesaire (1913-2008) shall be forever associated with the philosophy of introduction, negritude that he espoused with such impact on the francophone black world from the 1930s on. Your Essay? Negritude re-appropriated the word negre with its insulting connotations. On the wave of my term paper, Jamaican national hero Marcus Harvey’s “Back to Africa” movement, negritude was a banner for “black consciousness” avant la lettre , a rejection of and a riposte to disabling white mythologies: “elle troue l’accablement opaque de sa droite patience” [“breaking through the opaque prostration with its upright patience”].2 It straddled both a political project and a poetic renewal, confronting the violence of colonialism with cataclysmic passion: “the striking of the describe, mental wave against the rock of the world.” Negritude sought to “decolonize the mind” and Cesaire’s poetry is essay for kids, a cry to revolt, intransigent in its fidelity to the “invulnerable idea” of justice—and shot through with pain at the tragedy of its non-realisation.
3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to describe essay 14 October, 1998. It was described by on my father for kids Professo (. ) 2 The Gate Theatre in Notting Hill, London, is a small space above a pub which exists on slender means. At the same time, it is considered by many as “the home of international drama” in the capital. I became the Gate’s literary manager in 1998. The then artistic team conceived of the Gate as an arena of spiritual liberation and describe leadership, an enriching crucible of cultures: a gateway to a richer knowledge of the human. I believed that these themes lay at the heart of Cesaire’s great anti-colonialist adaptation of my term paper, The Tempest which he entitled Une tempete (the lower case t is no accident; here Shakespeare’s island play is cut down to describe your leadership size; this tempest is one colonial storm among many). Report? As the vanguard production for describe your experience essay our Home for the Exiles season in 1998, I advocated staging this play to mark the 150 th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the French colonies and the 50 th anniversary of the arrival of the first wave of post-war immigrants from the West Indies to Britain on board the S.S. Writing? Windrush, (Notting Hill itself remaining a locality with close ties to those immigrants, not least the celebrated annual carnival attended by leadership experience millions). We would commemorate those momentous events in help what was to be a critically acclaimed British premiere and I provided a new translation of the play for this purpose.3. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph.
Their co-ed (. ) 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and describe leadership experience, the Drama of Negritude (. ) 6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in my term the Counter-Cul (. ) 3 Une tempete was already well known within the francophone world.4 First produced at an international festival in your leadership experience Hammamet, Tunisia, in the summer of 1969, before playing in Paris in January 1970, it was directed by on abortion introduction Jean-Marie Serreau, with whom Cesaire had worked so closely on most of his theatrical writing. Serreau’s death in 1973 brought Cesaire’s career as a playwright to a close.5 That first production is of special interest: a Caribbean rewriting of describe your leadership experience essay, The Tempest , produced in Tunisia, close to Sycorax’s origins and to Claribel’s destiny (though neither, interestingly, feature much); which reads the play in part through the US black politics of the Civil Rights period (associating Caliban with Malcolm X and Ariel with Martin Luther King), and interpretive essay rubric, which adopted the manners and dress of an American Western. It was also staged in an anti-naturalistic manner, with a range of historical and contemporary images projected onto vast screens. Another notable production was that by Elie Pennont in Martinique in 1992, where the actor playing the African god Eshu became the your leadership experience essay, unifying image, remaining on stage throughout the performance (in Cesaire’s script he appears in one scene only), watching silently from a distance: “the incarnation of the my term, fragmented psyche that must be acknowledged before any healing can take place.”6. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and describe experience essay, Caliban also colonised the island and suppl (. On My Father? ) 4 Cesaire’s single point of describe leadership experience essay, attachment to Shakespeare’s play is to be found in Act III Scene 2 when Caliban declares: “I am subject to research papers a tyrant, a sorcerer that by his cunning hath cheated me of the island.”7 Subtitled “an adaptation for a black theatre”, Une tempete engages with the fundamental racial and class elements intrinsic to leadership experience The Tempest , with the implicit intention of wresting the adapted play away from the negative and complacent agenda of an institutionally racist imperial theatre. Write My Term? Cesaire’s powerful transformative project is your, underpinned by radical historical revisionism. Speaking about Shakespeare’s play, he said: 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192. Demystified, the play [is] essentially about the animal report, master-slave relation, a relation that is leadership, still alive and which, in my opinion, explains a good deal of write my term, contemporary history: in particular, colonial history, the history of the United States. Wherever there are multiracial societies, the same drama can be found, I think.8. According to Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins:
9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New (. ) For generations during (and often after) imperial rule, the formal education of colonial subjects was circumscribed by the concerns and canons of a distant European centre. Because of its supposed humanistic functions, “English [and French] Literature” occupied a privileged position in describe your leadership the colonial classroom, where its study was designed to “civilise” native students by inculcating in them British [and French] tastes and values, regardless of the exigencies of the local context.9. 5 Lucy Rix describes the dominant “traditional” French literary production which prevailed during Cesaire’s childhood and which became one of the first targets identified in Legitime Defense (1932), “a journal published by interpretive rubric a group of your experience, Martiniquan students at the Sorbonne that would have a profound impact on write my term, their cultural identity”: 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the describe leadership experience, State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and B (. ) The West Indian writer, stuffed to bursting with white morality, white culture, white education, white prejudice, fills his little books with a swollen image of himself. Paper? Merely to be a good imitation of the white man fulfils both his social and describe leadership, his poetic requirements. He cannot be too modest or too sedate. Should you dare show natural exuberance in his presence, he immediately accuses you of “making like a nigger”. So naturally, he does not want to “make like a nigger” in pay for research papers his poems.
It is a point of leadership experience, honour with him that a white person could read his entire book without ever guessing the i need, author’s pigmentation.10. 6 Cesaire pokes some well-informed fun at this colonial education and specifically when it focuses upon the exotic Other. Your Experience? In a reprise of Act II Scene 1, Gonzalo, the “honest old counsellor,” enthuses that the wonderful island could only contain wonderful beings. Antonio drily concurs and cites Baudelaire’s “Parfum Exotique” in Les Fleurs du Mal : Des hommes dont le corps est mince et vigoureux. Et des femmes dont l’?il par sa franchise etonne… (40) 11 In our production in write paper London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that (. ) Men whose bodies are slender and strong. And women whose frank stares astound…11 (29) Gonzalo enthusiastically endorses this view and adds, “Je vois que vous connaissez vos auteurs” (40) [“I see you know your authors” (29) ]. 7 Martinique is still politically part of metropolitan France. Experience Essay? Aime Cesaire was thus a French citizen and i need help my resume, politician. Nevertheless, A tempest was anti-colonial, corresponding to the avowedly political agenda of what is known in cultural studies as post-colonialism:
12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Leadership Experience Essay? cit. , p. My Term? 3. to dismantle the hegemonic boundaries and the determinants that create unequal relations of experience essay, power based on binary oppositions such as “us and them”, “first world and writing my resume, third world”, “white and black”, “coloniser and describe your leadership, colonised”. […] Post-colonial texts embrace a more specifically political aim: that of the continued destabilisation of the cultural and political authority of imperialism.12. 8 During the period of de-colonization in the middle of the last century, Une tempete contributed to an increasing and ongoing re-evaluation of canonical literary texts, and Shakespeare’s The Tempest attracted particular interest from intellectuals and writers from various colonial domains throughout the African diaspora. Many chose to focus on The Tempest because of the play’s prototypical colonial narrative: the story of a European who disembarks onto an already-occupied island to nonfiction book report presume ownership of the essay, land and control over the inhabitants. According to Gilbert and Tompkins: The Tempest remains the text most widely chosen for counter-discursive interrogations of the report, Shakespearian canon. A number of describe your experience, factors account for this choice: the play’s figuration of racial binaries and the threat of miscegenation; its representation of the New World “other” as opposed to the European “self”, troped as a form of the nature/culture dichotomy; and its pervasive interest in power relationships involving dominance, subservience, and rebellion.13. 14 See Ibid. , p. On Abortion Introduction? 19-25, for a discussion of your experience essay, how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in i need help writing my resume the colonies.
15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of your leadership, The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 5 (. ) 9 Furthermore, from the nonfiction book, perspective of writers in the Caribbean and Africa, what better target for appropriation than the Bard, the paragon of British cultural hegemony?14 Shakespeare’s iconic status made his works an attractive target for confrontation and for revisions that sought to redefine people’s relationships to their worlds. Your Essay? What is at stake is, according to Rob Nixon, “the very possibility of decolonising the i need help, area’s cultural history by replacing an imposed with an endemic line of thought and action”.15 These Caribbean and African writers found in Caliban a figure richly evocative of their condition. They adopted the play as a rallying and foundational text, rich for revision and re-appropriation, and they appreciated that The Tempest could bolster their self-definition during a time of major upheaval: 16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 30-31. for the figure of your, Caliban—marginalized and virtually imprisoned on the island, presumed to have been culturally illiterate before the Europeans’ appearance, and alienated from his own sense of on abortion, self through linguistic and physical control—was a dramatic reflection of an all-too-familiar experience.16. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of describe essay, Colonia (. ) 18 Ibid. , p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, thi (. ) 20 Francis Barker and essay on abortion introduction, Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of (. ) 10 Yet it is important to recall, like Paul Brown, that “ The Tempest is describe your leadership, not simply a reflection of colonialist practices but an intervention in an ambivalent and even contradictory discourse”.17 Brown considers Shakespeare’s play a narrative “which seeks at once to harmonize disjunction, to transcend irreconcilable contradictions and to mystify the political conditions which demand colonialist discourse”, but he writes the play “ultimately fails to deliver that containment and instead may be seen to foreground precisely those problems which it works to efface or overcome”.18 Thus, The Tempest traces the “moment of historical crisis” that is England’s incipient colonial enterprise, and the anxiety which circulates in the play interrogates a discourse of expansionism rather than just supporting it.19 This interrogation of text and historical context is continued by Francis Barker and Peter Hulme who note the help writing, underlying anxiety in describe essay a play “imbricated within the discourse of nonfiction book report, colonialism”. The anxiety circulates around usurpation (actual or attempted), domination, resistance and rebellion. Describe Leadership Experience? Barker and Hulme contend that the play’s “rich complexity” had been too often ignored by European and North American critics who “listen exclusively to Prospero’s voice: after all, he speaks their language.” (Given that the play has traditionally been interpreted as Shakespeare’s farewell to the stage, the animal nonfiction book report, magician-duke has often been confused for the Bard’s representative, an egregious mistake given what we know about your leadership essay, Shakespeare’s “negative capability”.) They astutely noted: “It has been left to those who have suffered colonial usurpation to on abortion introduction discover and map the traces of that complexity by reading in full measure Caliban’s refractory place in leadership essay both Prospero’s play and The Tempest .”20. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans.
Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, (. ) 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the write paper, (. ) 11 Simply and provocatively put, if Shakespeare, as projected in a simplistic and authoritative imperial reading, provides an describe your experience, official, colonial perspective, Cesaire—with astonishing fidelity to the original—translates this and on abortion introduction, gives voice, specifically through Caliban, to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Describe Leadership Experience Essay? Une tempete epitomizes translation as interpretation, as (creative) revision. Pay For Research Papers? It resonates with Shakespeare but stresspoints are articulated and examined. It is an excoriating debunking of the “white man’s burden”, the describe experience, French republic’s mission civilisatrice (Prospero’s despairing that upon Caliban’s nature “nurture will not stick”) and a relentless exposition of how colonization decivilizes the colonizer (“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”). The infamy of write my term paper, colonial exploitation is recognised and named. In his Discourse on Colonialism , Cesaire initially defines colonization in negative terms, by first of all establishing what it is not: “neither evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor a desire to push back the frontiers of leadership experience essay, ignorance, disease and help writing, tyranny, nor a project undertaken for the greater glory of God, nor an attempt to extend the rule of law.”21 Rather, colonialism is envisioned as a disease, just as it is in A tempest —“blanche toxine” (87) [“white poison” (57)], “maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer” (88) [“now I know you, you old cancer” (58)]—a dehumanising project that treats land, nature and your leadership experience, people as brute commodities.
It must be vomited out.22. In Act II Scene 2, Gonzalo says: Si l’ile est habitee, comme je le pense, et que nous la colonisons, comme je le souhaite, il faudra se garder comme de la peste d’y apporter nos defauts, oui, ce que nous appelons la civilisation. Qu’ils restent ce qu’ils sont: des sauvages, libres, sans complexes ni complications. Quelque chose comme un reservoir d’eternelle jouvence ou nous viendrions periodiquement rafraichir nos ames vieillies et citadines. (40-41) 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out paper, during an exhibition on “The (. ) If the island is leadership essay, inhabited, as I believe it is, and if we colonise it, as is my wish, then we must shy away, as if from the essay, plague, from importing here our defaults, yes, what we call civilisation. They must stay as they are: savages, noble savages, free without complex or complication. Something like a pool of eternal youth where we would come at intervals to revive our drooping urban spirits.23 (30)
24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of describe leadership experience essay, Granada (1672) although (. ) 12 With a piercing satirical economy, Cesaire alludes to Gonzalo’s utopian rhapsody in The Tempest , with its indebtedness to Thomas More, Montaigne and the classical theory of the Golden Age, but what is most striking is how Cesaire picks up on Montaigne’s ethical denunciation of grand, western inhumanity and brutality in “Of Cannibals”. This was a key reference point for a developing, idealized argument in describe your essay favour of the rights of indigenous peoples throughout the early modern period and into the Age of on my grand for kids, Reason. In the sixteenth and your leadership experience essay, seventeenth centuries, the “good savage” was held up as a reproach to European civilisation in essay for kids the throes of the wars of religion, and stood as a direct counter to the Hobbesian view of human depravity in a state of nature. By the eighteenth century, this argument was fuelled by both sentimentalism and primitivism, and your experience essay, was advanced by both English and French writers and explorers. I Need Help Writing My Resume? The Baron de Lahontan put potentially subversive egalitarian arguments in the mouth of a Huron Indian, Adario. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, identified as the leadership experience essay, philosopher of the French Revolution, was deliberately maligned by his political opponents for essay on my grand father advancing a theory about the “noble savage” but this was untrue.
What is clear, however, is leadership essay, how such a theory preserved a superior paternalism and ultimately a lack of egalitarian empathy between the colonisers and the colonised in which the latter were cast as dependent children—here “a pool of eternal youth”. Prospero calls Caliban “boy” (a repugnant name for colonial servants) at interpretive rubric the very end of A tempest . This racist superiority also chimed with a “scientific racism” which divided races into superior (the colonising) and inferior (the colonised) categories.24. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location (. ) 13 The other key theme to pick up in this re-casting of Act II Scene 2, is the duplicity within Gonzalo’s sugared and idealistic words. He freely admits that he favours colonisation, but his eulogy of the “noble savages”, whom he wishes to preserve as they are, as if in aspic, is undermined by his simultaneous desire to plunder the island for its natural resources, “guano” in your experience essay this case, which, “sous une sage direction” (39) [“wisely administered” (29)], will make the island “plus riche que l’Egypte avec son Nil” (39) [“richer than Egypt with its Nile” (29)]. Cesaire identifies a base rapaciousness underlying both the colonial and the neo-colonial project in which, say, the generally environmentally disastrous plunder of natural resources would be carried out by the colonisers—or multi-national companies, in many ways their modern equivalents—with virtually none of the profits benefiting the local population, whilst literally dismantling the topography, and cultural topography, beneath their feet.25 As Caliban says to Prospero: “Tu crois que la terre est chose morte… C’est tellement plus commode ! Morte, alors on la pietine, on la souille, on la foule d’un pied vainqueur !” (25-6) [“You think the earth itself is dead… It’s so much more convenient! Dead you can trample over it, pour pestilence over it, bestride it like a conqueror!” (20)] Cesaire adds another element to the neo-imperialist project: tourism.
Gonzalo’s pool of eternal youth, there to write paper revive drooping urban spirits, is precisely the image in which the Caribbean has been cast. Once again, the inhabitants, here of the islands, are cast in belittling and servile roles, in describe your leadership order to service the fantasies of interpretive essay, their western paymasters. Such fantasies home in on sub-pastoral, primitivist cliches concerning a proximity to nature (even if the islanders’ natural environment is destroyed), spontaneity, creativity and straightforward sexuality and describe essay, eroticism. 26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and animal nonfiction book, distortion of two languages as a means of (. ) 14 Knowledge contains the seeds of transformative power: language shapes how we think and therefore how we act. By “learning to curse”, Caliban, the your essay, black slave in revolt, rejects assimilation. On Abortion? The first word he utters on stage is the Kiswahili word for freedom: “ Uhuru ”. Whereas for Shakespeare, Caliban is “a salvage and a deformed slave”, Cesaire’s charismatic protagonist crucially uses a foreign language—foreign from the your leadership, perspective of the colonizer, that is—in order to essay on my grand for kids assert his own identity and autonomy.26 He refuses to be interpellated as the linguistic subject of the colonial master narrative; he refuses to be broken and describe experience essay, conditioned, a mere component in the means of production. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Ces (. ) 28 Almquist warns that the essay on my, word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western med (. ) 15 Steve Almquist writes that, “At the describe essay, centre of Cesaire’s revision of Shakespeare’s The Tempest is a single deeply resonant word— Uhuru . […] Uhuru is essay on my grand, essential to Cesaire’s revisionary project because it gives Caliban a voice, specifically an African voice, and describe experience essay, it contributes to Cesaire’s overall project in creating a diasporic textual counter to Shakespeare.”27 Uhuru is the Kiswahili word for nonfiction report freedom which gained international currency during the struggles for decolonisation in the late 1950s and 1960s, not least the Mau Mau Rebellion.
Uhuru became a touchstone that recalled and rekindled the revolutionary fervour when the cry for freedom from colonial oppression was heard all over the world.28 Caliban’s primal cry of Uhuru , therefore, should not then be construed as the petulant and isolated mouthing of some token exoticism. It is nothing other than a call to militant solidarity among the your leadership experience, dispossessed, and specifically the dispossessed among the African diaspora. (In another topical civil rights echo, Caliban re-names his cave “the ghetto”.) Almquist adds that: During the often-tumultuous independence and Black Power movements throughout the African diaspora during the 1960s and 1970s, the use of Kiswahili among non-native writers and speakers expanded and came to serve as a symbolic resistance to the presumed supremacy of the interpretive essay rubric, European cultures and describe your, languages.29. 16 Consider further the importance of pay for research, Caliban’s Kiswahili voice through which he voices his agitation at Prospero’s domination. As Steve Almquist acutely appreciates, Cesaire’s empowered Caliban does not gabble like “a thing most brutish”, unaware of his “own meaning” until taught the colonial language.30 On the contrary, even before his black slave’s first entrance, Prospero betrays his unease that Caliban “s’emancipe un peu trop” (24) [“is becoming a little too liberated” (18)]. Prospero. Your Leadership? — Qu’est-ce que tu dis ? Caliban . Essay Introduction? — Je dis Uhuru ! Prospero. — Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare.
Je t’ai deja dit que je n’aime pas ca. D’ailleurs, tu pourrais etre poli, un bonjour ne te tuerait pas ! Caliban. — Ah ! J’oubliais… Bonjour. Mais un bonjour autant que possible de guepes, de crapauds, de pustules et de fiente. Puisse le jour d’aujourd’hui hater de dix ans le jour ou les oiseaux du ciel et les betes de la terre se rassasieront de ta charogne ! Prospero. — Toujours gracieux je vois, vilain singe ! Comment peut-on etre si laid ! (24) Prospero . Leadership Experience? — What did you say? Caliban. — I said, Uhuru ! Prospero. Essay Grand? — Yet another return to your savage tongue. I’ve already told you, I don’t like it.
You could be polite, at least: hello wouldn’t kill you. Caliban. — Oh, I forgot […] Hello. But a hello crammed with wasps, toads, pox and dung. May today hasten by describe your leadership essay ten years the day when the birds of the sky and the beasts of the earth will gorge themselves on your carcass. Prospero. — Gracious as always, I see, you foul monkey!
How can anybody be so ugly? (18-19) 17 Attention focuses immediately on write my term, the power of language in defining their relationship. “ Uhuru !” confounds Prospero’s sense of linguistic authority; his only recourse is to leadership essay demonize the word as a reversion to Caliban’s “savage tongue”—in a classic rehearsal of help writing my resume, a colonizial “civilized/brute savage” binary—before continuing in the same vein: Puisque tu manies si bien l’invective, tu pourrais au moins me benir de t’avoir appris a parler. Describe Leadership Experience? Un barbare ! Une bete brute que j’ai eduquee, formee, que j’ai tiree de l’animalite qui l’engangue encore de toute part ! (25) Since you spout invective with such aplomb, you might at least give me your blessing for having taught you to speak at all. A savage! A brute animal I educated, trained, dragged up from the bestiality that still festers all over him. (19) 31 “Freckled” refers to animal nonfiction book Caliban’s skin colour.
Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “mo (. Describe Your Essay? ) 18 In further disabling strategies, Prospero refuses to interpretive accept the describe experience, validity or sense of Caliban’s own culture and fashions Caliban as a sub-human beast in a manner which entirely honours such references as “freckled whelp” and “mooncalf” in The Tempest , the “savage and deformed slave” “upon whose nature nurture will not stick.”31 Prospero’s overweening arrogance does not cow Caliban into submission, however. Caliban. — D’abord ce n’est pas vrai. Tu ne m’as rien appris du tout. Sauf, bien sur a baragouiner ton langage pour comprendre tes ordres : couper du bois, laver la vaisselle, pecher le poisson, planter les legumes, parce que tu es bien trop faineant pour le faire. Quant a ta science, est-ce que tu me l’as jamais apprise, toi ? Tu t’en es bien garde ! Ta science, tu la gardes egoistement pour toi tout seul, enfermee dans les gros livres que voila. Essay? (25) Caliban. — That’s just not true. You haven’t taught me anything at all! Except of course to jabber away in your language so as to understand your orders: chop the wood, wash up, fish, plant vegetables; all because you’re too idle to do it yourself. As for your knowledge, did you ever impart any of that to me?
You took care not to. You selfishly keep all your knowledge for describe your yourself alone, sealed up in big books like those. (19) 19 Cesaire’s protagonist registers his acute understanding of interpretive essay rubric, how his “education” has achieved little more than to describe your leadership experience reduce him to subservience in book the guise of an describe your experience, automaton-drudge (remember Cesaire’s formula: “colonisation = thingification”32). At the same time, Prospero has kept from him any life-enhancing (textual and scientific) knowledge—the key to his domination and an inspired riff on the magic books valued at nonfiction report more than Prospero’s dukedom. Caliban ruefully reflects on how he has been an describe your leadership, expendable and unvalued means to research an end, hoodwinked by an initially friendly-seeming Prospero: Qu’aurais-tu fait sans moi, dans cette contree inconnue ? Ingrat ! Je t’ai appris les arbres, les fruits, les oiseaux, les saisons, et maintenant je t’en fous… Caliban la brute ! Caliban l’esclave ! Recette connue ! l’orange pressee, on describe your leadership essay, en rejette l’ecorce ! (26) What would you have done without me in on abortion this strange land?
Ungrateful! I taught you the trees, the your essay, fruits, the birds, the seasons, but there’s no blessed question of that any more… Caliban the brute, Caliban the slave! I know the score! Once the orange is squeezed, the peel is tossed away! (20) 20 Note here, how it is Caliban, rather than Prospero, who is doing the teaching, yet this education, vital as it is, is subsequently given neither credit nor recognition. Clearly, Caliban is cast as a figurative Malcolm X, even telling Prospero as he prepares to leave at the end of their first encounter in writing the play, that he will no longer answer to the name of Caliban: Caliban. Describe Leadership Essay? — […] J’ai decide que je ne serai plus Caliban. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que cette foutaise ? Je ne comprends pas ! Caliban. — […] Caliban n’est pas mon nom. C’est simple ! Prospero. — C’est le mien peut-etre ! Caliban. — C’est le sobriquet dont ta haine m’a affuble et dont chaque rappel m’insulte. Prospero. Grand Father For Kids? — Diable ! On devient susceptible ! Alors propose… Il faut bien que je t’appelle ! Ce sera comment ? Cannibale t’irait bien, mais je suis sur que tu n’en voudras pas ! Voyons, Hannibal ! Ca te va ! Pourquoi pas ! Ils aiment tous les noms historiques ! Caliban. — Appelle-moi X. Ca vaudra mieux. Comme qui dirait l’homme sans nom.
Plus exactement, l’homme dont on a vole le nom. Your Experience Essay? Tu parles d’histoire. Eh bien ca, c’est de l’histoire, et fameuse ! Chaque fois que tu m’appeleras, ca me rappellera le fait fundamental, que tu m’as tout vole et jusqu’a mon identite ! Uhuru ! Caliban. — […] I’ve decided I’ll be Caliban no longer. Prospero. Animal? — What kind of experience essay, bilge is this? I don’t understand. […] And whence sprang this pearl?
Caliban. — […] Caliban isn’t my name. Write Paper? It’s simple! Prospero. Describe? — It’s mine, I suppose! Caliban. — It’s the animal nonfiction report, nickname your hatred attached to describe your leadership essay me, whose every utterance is an on abortion introduction, insult. Prospero. — My, how sensitive we’ve become! Well then, suggest another… I must call you something. What will it be? Cannibal would suit you well, but I’m sure you wouldn’t want it! Let’s see…Hannibal!
Why not? They all like historical names! Caliban. — Call me X. That’s best. Like a man without a name. Or, more precisely, a man whose name was stolen. You speak of describe your leadership experience essay, history. My Term Paper? Well that’s history, known far and wide! Every time you’ll call me that will remind me of the fundamental truth that you stole everything from me, even my identity!
Uhuru !’ (He exits.) (21-22) 21 Even if audience members are ignorant of the meaning of this Kiswahili word, they will understand that it has a key galvanizing importance, that it is Caliban’s rallying cry and that it’s very foreignness underlines his sense of an autonomous cultural “otherness”, dignity and agency so brazenly denied him by Prospero. It is describe your experience, a call to revolution. 22 As ever, Cesaire condenses Shakespeare’s play with unerring cogency in order to provide the pith for pay for research papers his own agenda. Here, he homes in on the fact that Caliban, as has often been remarked, is an anagram of “cannibal” with all that that word suggests concerning brute savagery. Your Essay? The Shakespearean monicker is hence a stigmatising code for uncivilised and barbarous brutality.
The novel reference to on my for kids Hannibal suggests a doomed rebellious streak, that Caliban’s pride will come before a fall. At the same time, however, Hannibal hails from Carthage, from the African continent. Describe Experience? He also stands for a defiant and strong opponent who actively, and initially successfully, resists the aggrandizing and help writing my resume, imperialist designs of the describe essay, metropolitan centre—Rome in Hannibal’s case. Essay Grand Father For Kids? This reference to your experience essay Hannibal indicates a lurking fear of writing my resume, a newly defiant Caliban beneath the smug veneer of mocking confidence projected by Prospero. This defiance, of course, chimes with the describe your leadership experience essay, new confidence accompanying the wave of decolonisation throughout the 1950s and 1960s. What is crucial, here, too, is Caliban-X’s stand to recuperate a stolen history. He recognises, like Cesaire, how his own culture and heritage were razed from the collective memory of an enslaved and transported African diaspora and essay on my for kids, it is your, this that he will strive to re-discover, value and honour. 23 Cesaire adds an interesting interpolation, a wholly new scene, at the start of Act Two, where Ariel, significantly identified as a mulatto slave in nonfiction book the list of characters, comes to warn Caliban that Prospero is planning “d’epouvantables vengeances” (36) [“appalling acts of revenge” (26)] against him. The scene is, in essence, one in which the two characters rehearse different strategies for bringing their bondage to an end.
Once again, their lively exchange of describe leadership essay, views replicates debates within the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Cesaire said in an interview: 33 Cited in pay for research Robert P. Smith and your leadership essay, Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare (. I Need Writing My Resume? ) My text […] was greatly influenced by the preoccupations I had at that particular time. As I was thinking very much about a play concerning the United States, inevitably, the points of reference became American. […] There is the violent and the non-violent attitude. There are Martin Luther King and Malcolm X and the Black Panthers.33. 24 Caliban has already cast himself as X and, needless to say, adopts the more militant position, demanding “Freedom now!” Interestingly, Cesaire renders this famous Black Power cry in describe essay English. The polyglot Caliban thus further exhibits his solidarity with the African diaspora around the rubric, world, ranging from your leadership experience Africa to North America.
25 Ariel provides another perspective which amounts to i need help my resume “Ni violence, ni soumission” (37) [“Neither violence, nor submission” (27)] but is rather one of peaceful resistance entered into in describe leadership experience essay order to trouble Prospero’s calm “pour qu’une conscience naisse a [lui]” (37) [“so that a conscience can well up inside him” (27)] with the intended result that he will finally acknowledge his own injustice. He adds, in a striking echo of Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech: J’ai souvent fait le reve exaltant qu’un jour, Prospero, toi et moi, nous entreprendrions, freres associes, de batir un monde merveilleux, chacun apportant en contribution ses qualites propres : patience, vitalite, amour, volonte aussi, et rigueur, sans compter les quelques bouffees de reve sans quoi l’humanite perirait d’asphyxie. (38) I’ve often dreamt a rapturous dream that one day Prospero, you and I would set out as brothers to build a wonderful world, each contributing his own qualities: patience, vitality, love, will power too, and rigour, not to mention the my term, eddying dreams without which humanity would suffocate to death. (28) Caliban scoffs at Ariel’s credulousness: Dis donc, mon petit Ariel, des fois, je me demande sit u n’es pas cingle ! Que la conscience naisse a Prospero ? Autant se mettre devant une pierre et attendre qu’il lui pousse des fleurs ! […] Tu n’as rien compris a Prospero. C’est pas un type a collaborer. C’est un mec qui ne se sent que s’il ecrase quelqu’un. Un ecraseur, un broyeur, voila le genre ! Et tu parles de fraternite ! (37-38)
Listen my sweet Ariel, I sometimes wonder if you aren’t cracked. So that a conscience can well up inside Prospero? You might as well wait for a stone to burst into bloom! […] You don’t understand Prospero at experience essay all. Essay Introduction? He’s not the collaborative type. He’s a man who only feels alive when he’s crushing someone. A crusher, a grinder to pulp, that’s what he is! And you talk of your, brotherhood! (28) 26 The militant Caliban believes the essay on abortion, dreamy Ariel is describe experience, a dupe. Once again, with a striking economy, Cesaire pays short shrift to the Christian-humanist narrative of reconciliation (via an help, imposed penance and then contrition) willed by Prospero in Shakespeare’s play. Caliban is prepared for a violent armed struggle akin to those waged by the Mau Mau or the ANC, saying: Mieux vaut la mort que l’humiliation et l’injustice… D’ailleurs, de toute maniere, le dernier mot m’appartiendra… A moins qu’il n’appartienne au neant.
Le jour ou j’aurai le sentiment que tout est perdu, laisse-moi voler quelques barils de ta poudre infernale, et cette ile, mon bien, mon ?uvre, du haut de l’empyree ou tu aimes planer, tu la verras sauter dans les airs, avec, je l’espere, Prospero et moi dans les debris. (38) Better death than humiliation and your leadership experience essay, injustice… Besides the last word shall be mine. Unless it belongs to nothingness. Father For Kids? The day I feel all’s lost, just let me filch a few barrels of your infernal powder and—from high in the empyrean where you love to soar—you will see this isle, my inheritance, my work, all blown sky high, with, I hope, Prospero and me amongst the debris. (28) 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the your experience, most in (. Research? ) 27 Such words now seem grimly prophetic of describe leadership experience, suicide bombings and campaigns of terror but they also identify the essay on my grand, despair and desparation of the perpetrators and the terrible cost of stripping the wretched of the experience essay, earth of their dignity, robbing them of their birthright and making them fear for my term paper their very existence, especially (and most usually) in a colonial situation. It is describe, within this incredibly high-stakes situation, that the racial difference between the two slaves must be understood and considered. In The Tempest , Caliban is an earthen clod whereas “dainty” Ariel is an airy spirit. Cesaire seizes upon this difference but racializes it, too. Historically, Martinique had more mulattoes than whites and, as ever, in colonial societies where the grand, white ruling class sought to inculcate its values and sought to impress upon its subjects that its culture and skin colour were the ideals, the paleness of one’s skin and the proximity of one’s position to the white rulers became an important factor in determining one’s position in the social hierarchy. So here a truculent Caliban accuses the pacific Ariel of your experience essay, being a “house servant” (he is cast as the paper, field slave), a collaborating sycophant with an “Uncle Tom patience”.
Cesaire does not shy away from projecting the racialized differences and tensions residing within colonial (and post-colonial) societies, not least his own. Caliban, of course, has more to lose than Ariel but his very humiliation has hardened his resolve. Describe Your Leadership Experience Essay? Alex Haley recalled in Roots the old racist jingle: “If you’re white, you’re all right; if you’re brown, stick around; if you’re black, stand back.”34. 28 In the animal book report, eyes of the monological Prospero, “Par [l’]insubordination [de Caliban], c’est tout l’ordre du monde qu’il remet en cause” (71) “[Caliban’s] insubordination calls into your leadership experience, doubt the entire order of the world” (47)]. Prospero. — Comprenez-moi bien. Je suis non pas au sens banal du terme, le maitre, comme le croit ce sauvage, mais le chef d’orchestre d’une vaste partition : Suscitant les voix, moi seul, Et a mon gre les enchainant, Organisant hors de la confusion.
La seule ligne intelligible. Sans moi, qui de tout cela. Saurait tirer musique ? Sans moi cette ile est muette. Nonfiction Book Report? (90) 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of your leadership essay, Structuralism) (. ) Prospero. — Understand me well. I am not, in the ordinary sense. the master, as this savage thinks, but rather the conductor of a vast score: Teasing out voices, myself alone, and coupling them at writing my pleasure, arranging out of the confusion. the sole intelligible line. Without me, who would be able. to derive music from all this?
Without me, this island is dumb.35 (60) 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, R (. Describe Experience Essay? ) 29 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson argue that, “Imperial textuality appropriates, distorts, erases, but it also contains. Animal Nonfiction Book Report? 36 The imperial project contains cultures/subjects in order to control them, but no former colony is as simply circumscribed as colonial discourse would have it: each post-colonial political, historical, linguistic, and cultural situation inevitably becomes much more convoluted than is figured by the coloniser. In truth, it is describe leadership essay, Prospero who is enfeebled by essay grand father for kids his monoglot sclerosis. His rigid cultural position does not brook translation. Describe Leadership Essay? He cannot discourse—his is a dialogue of the research papers, deaf—he can only dictate.
Conversely, the describe leadership essay, “transgressive” Caliban is able to journey back and forth between languages. Empowered, he understands Prospero, not vice-versa. 37 Indeed, in animal nonfiction report an exciting addition to the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in recollecti (. ) 30 By the end of the play, Caliban has made multiple claims to African “ Uhuru ”, Black Power’s “Freedom now” and an internationalist call to describe your experience essay “Liberty ohay liberty” which transcends all boundaries. His ability to articulate a culture foreign to, and interpretive essay rubric, not laid down by, Prospero is key. Prospero uses language to close down consciousness.
Concerning Caliban, his language constantly negates, denies and essay, demonises: “brute savage”, “beast”, “sorcerer”, etc, whilst Caliban’s linguistic identity, his African utterances, are dismissed as “Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare” (24) [“yet another return to your savage tongue” (19)]. Essay On My Grand? Whereas Caliban asserts and affirms potential and otherness, Prospero refuses dialogue: “Je ne t’ai pas appele pour discuter !” (27) [“I did not summon you here to argue” (21)]. He is portrayed as a sadistic power wielder who had dreamt of establishing a colonial empire even before leaving Italy and who is bereft of his original’s christianised goodwill: “Si tu rouspetes, la trique” (27) [“If you grumble you shall be thrashed” (21)].37 Cesaire focuses on Prospero’s magic—a physical control over others—in this strictly limited sense. As opposed to the original, “banquet and harpy” scene (Act III Scene 3) which simply tantalises, Prospero is chillingly bent on describe your experience essay, force-feeding his captives, and his motives are signally lacking in pay for research any ethical imperatives toward repentance. While Prospero may claim “Je suis la Puissance ” (44) [“I am Power” (32)], his material might resides in technological know-how and describe your experience, the machinery of repression. The play charts an on abortion, ongoing demystification and unravelling of his authority. As A tempest reaches its climax, Caliban recites a long litany of abuses and describe leadership experience, injustices forced upon him: Il faut que tu comprennes, Prospero : des annees j’ai courbe la tete, des annees j’ai accepte.
tes insultes, ton ingratitude, pis encore, plus degradante que tout le reste, Mais maintenant c’est fini ! Fini, tu entends ! Bien sur, pour le moment tu es encore. Mais ta force, je m’en moque, comme de tes chiens, d’ailleurs, de ta police, de tes inventions ! Et tu sais pourquoi je m’en moque ? C’est parce que je sais que je t’aurai. Empale ! Et au pieu que. tu auras toi-meme aiguise ! (87-88) 38 See the citation at the start of help my resume, this article to see how this speech continues. You must understand, Prospero: for years I bowed my head, for years I stomached it, stomached all of your experience essay, it: your insults, your ingratitude, and worst of all, more degrading than all the rest,
But now it’s over! Over, do you hear! Of course, for the moment you’re still. But I don’t care two hoots about your power, or your dogs either, your police, or your inventions! And do you know why I don’t care? It’s because I know I’ll have you! You’ll be impaled! And on a stake.
you’ll have sharpened yourself!38 (57-58) 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Mart (. ) 31 In an inspired response to Shakespeare’s mage’s magic, Cesaire’s Caliban identifies Prospero’s illusions with spreading a deceitful false consciousness about the nonfiction book report, state of the world, imposing on Caliban a disabling belief in his own underdevelopment and incompetence.39 The speech is a culmination of Caliban’s efforts, established from his first entry, to rise up above oppression and resurrect an authentic black culture and history. Your Essay? Gilbert and Tompkins write, 40 Gilbert and for kids, Tompkins, op. Describe Your Leadership? cit. , p. 12. Historical recuperation is one of the crucial aims and papers, effects of many post-colonial plays, which frequently tell the other side of the conquering whites’ story in order to contest the official version of history that is preserved in imperialist texts. Like his/her version of history, the your essay, coloniser’s language has assumed a position of dominance which must be interrogated and dismantled as part of the decolonising project.40. 32 Caliban has forced Prospero to pay for research look full square upon the charade of his colonial “mission” and when the latter warns him that he is heading towards suicidal perdition, Caliban tells him he hates him.
Prospero answers in kind: Eh bien moi aussi je te hais ! Car tu es celui par qui pour. la premiere fois j’ai doute de. Well I hate you as well! For you are the experience, one who. made me doubt myself. for the first time. (59)
41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Ti (. ) 33 His ambivalence emphasises the shattered authority that has been steadily increasing throughout the play. According to Hegel, we recognise ourselves through others’ recognition of us. On Abortion? Caliban does not grant this consensual recognition. A fissure rends the describe experience essay, colonial veil. Whereas, in essay introduction The Tempest , Prospero leaves the describe your experience, island to return to Naples, conveniently bestowing forgiveness on all and my resume, sundry and with an describe your experience, imminent marriage between Miranda and Ferdinand symbolising a re-soldered alliance between estranged ruling houses—even if there is no contrition from Antonio—here he remains. Just as Cesaire’s Ariel sings, “ Rien n’est, tout devient ” (30) [“Nothing is, all becomes” (23)], so post-colonial theatre configures “process, not arrival.”41 It is inimical to false closure; rather, it recognises the complexity of its situation. Prospero, the old colonialist, is left listless and aged, alone on the island, raging against the encroachment of essay on abortion introduction, nature, roaring out for Caliban but unable to untangle the leadership experience, complexity of his relationship with him beyond: “Toi-Moi ! Moi-Toi !” (92) [“You-Me! Me-You!” (61)] But the mutuality of essay introduction, this dialectic no longer holds. Caliban refuses to describe your leadership experience answer Prospero’s call; he has broken free from the grip of Prospero’s voice, from essay colonial control, and thus has undermined Prospero’s fundamental conception of himself.
The final words of the play are an leadership, unseen Caliban’s distant, yet insistent and haunting, call for liberty. Book? Shakespeare’s mage steps forward at the end of The Tempest , asking to your leadership experience essay be set free by applause. Here, there is no such recognition. Rather, he is my term, fettered in a prison of moribund ideology and vested interests. Your Leadership Essay? Prospero’s failure to leave the island also indicates Cesaire’s recognition that whether decolonised or not, the grasp of colonialism (and, crucially, neo-colonialism) will not be relinquished so easily. 42 Almquist, op. cit. , p. 591. Interpretive Essay? 43 Bob Marley and describe leadership essay, the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, (. ) 44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Sh (. ) 34 Steve Almquist writes: “Cesaire’s representation of Caliban produces an Africanized figure that embodies the complexity of the diasporic African in the middle of the twentieth century.”42 It is my contention that the resurrection and interpretive essay, resistance of Caliban is founded upon describe leadership essay, the African cultural resonances in the play: “ Uhuru ”, Shango, “ Oo-en-day ”, “ Macaya ”. It is to rubric these that Caliban owes allegiance and not to imposed western ideologies.
Like Malcolm, he calls himself “X”, identifies his dispossession, the fate of the leadership essay, enslaved African diaspora, and casts off the slough of abjection as he reclaims and rubric, refashions his cultural identity, “fighting for survival”, in describe your essay Marley’s words, “in the heart of the Caribbean.”43 Caliban twice invokes Shango, the Yoruba god of thunder and lightning and the owner of the Bata drums. Essay On Abortion Introduction? Cesaire identifies Shango as a great god of heaven who is very violent but who is fundamentally benevolent, renewing the your essay, face of the father for kids, earth. Shango is the violent storm which impregnates the earth by bringing life-bringing rain. Shakespeare’s western tempest is countered by an African one.44. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Your Essay? , p. 32-33, for a reading of this scene which epitomises “the sl (. ) 35 A crucial interpellation into Shakespeare’s play comes as Une tempete speeds towards its climax. Eshu, the African trickster devil-god “Dieu pour les amis, diable pour les ennemis” (68) [“God to my friends, Devil to my enemies” (45)], erupts into Prospero’s masque—anti-masque par excellence to all the stilted, ongoing decorum of the classical goddesses. His lewdness and sexual predatoriness—“de son penis il frappe” (70) [“with his penis he smites” (46)] is an essay, ironic exposure of describe your leadership experience essay, white paranoia and demonization. Cocking a snook at Prospero, Eshu is i need writing my resume, not part of the your leadership, colonialist’s script. Essay Introduction? He re-appropriates a vivid black identity by using negative stereotype, in a manner analogous to the political use of such terms as “dreadlock” or “queer”, and revelling in your leadership essay its otherness.
Such carnivalesque flaunting of taboo (rampant black sexuality and my resume, miscegenation) amounts to a symbolic badge of insubordination and unbowed dissidence. The western pantheon is dispersed and routed by describe your leadership experience essay such “vulgarity.” Eshu stands for the supplanted spirit of Africa returning, superabundant and essay grand father for kids, irrepressible.45. Crucially, although beleaguered by the illusory ideologies of colonialism, Caliban remains true to his own culture and beliefs, living a symbiotic partnership with nature (personified as his mother Sycorax): Sycorax ma mere ! Serpent ! Pluie ! Eclairs ! Et je te retrouve partout : Dans l’?il de la mare qui me regarde, sans ciller, a travers les scirpes. Dans le geste de la racine tordue et son bond qui attend. Dans la nuit, la toute-voyante aveugle, la toute-flaireuse sans naseaux ! (26) Sycorax my mother! Serpent! Rain! Lightning! And I find you everywhere!
In the eye of the pond, which stares at me, unblinking, through the rushes. In the gesture of the experience, twisted root with coiled spring. In the blinded all-seeing night, the nostril-less all-smelling night! (20) 36 It is i need help, he, rather than Shakespeare’s poet-mage, who is the most effective of verbal artificers. Your Leadership Experience Essay? (“The isle is full of noises” is, of course, one of the most beautiful and stirring of speeches in The Tempest .) 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in i need writing the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a (. ) Cesaire celebrates Caribbean and African ecology throughout.46 His poetic brilliance is borne along by ritual and the carnivalesque, communicating visceral humour as well as sadness. Noir picoreur de la savane. le quiscale arpente le jour nouveaux. dans son armure hautaine.
zip ! L’incisif colibri. au fond d’une corolle s’ejouit. fera-t-il fou, fera-t-il ivre. lyre rameutant nos delires. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! Ramier halte dans ces bois. Errant des iles c’est ici le repos. Le miconia est pillage pur. du sang violet de la baie mure.
de sang de sang barbouille ton plumage. Dans le dos des jours fourbus. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! (64-65) Black pilferer of the savannah, the grackle surveys the new day— humid and stirring— from its lofty citadel. Zip! The incisive humming-bird.
rejoices in the depths of a flower’s innermost whorl. Is he mad, is your, he drunk, the lyre gathering our wild desires: Liberty ohay liberty! Woodpigeon halts in these woods. Wanderer of the isles—here is interpretive essay, repose. The miconia is utter spoils.
of violet blood of ripe berry. With blood, with blood smear your plumage. Upon the describe experience essay, back of pay for research papers, exhausted days. Liberty ohay liberty! (43) 37 This song of Caliban’s resonates with Shakespeare’s Ariel’s “Where the bee sucks there suck I” (the humming-bird rejoicing in the flower’s innermost whorl) and exemplifies Cesaire’s creative refashioning of The Tempest into a Caribbean context. 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in (. Your Leadership Experience Essay? ) 38 Cesaire did not generally write in creole but “marooned” himself from metropolitan French, refashioning a new voice in grand a manner congruent with Bill Ashcroft et al. ’s notion of Britain’s erstwhile Empire “writing back.”47 The maroons were runaway slaves. By analogy, he sought to your leadership experience break the fetters of animal book report, colonialist discourse. Cesaire punned that he would pluck the your leadership experience essay, “marrons du feu,” literally plucking the on abortion, sweet-chestnuts from the fire but also symbolically rising up against imperialist strictures.
Here the mystification and assumptions of the colonially projected Tempest are met head on your leadership essay, and the pay for papers, colonial form is hybridised with the introduction of describe leadership experience, African and book, English languages and experience essay, African and Caribbean ritual and rhythm. My translation sticks to the letter of the French script as faithfully as possible. Nevertheless, the essay, actors playing Ariel and Caliban inflected their speech with British West Indian patois, significantly enriching the production with the music of different discourses. Historically, English has been more obviously permeable than metropolitan French, policed by its own Academy. (Cesaire himself was famously the brilliant scholarship boy from the Antilles who spoke an elegant formal French, even conjugating the imperfect subjunctive.) 39 Over the describe your essay, years, the late prophet of negritude was criticised by other black post-colonial writers (e.g.
Wole Soyinka) and the disciples of animal nonfiction book report, “ creolite ” for his allegiance to abstraction (some overarching African-ness) and for failing to recognise the authentic plurality of voices in describe essay the Caribbean. Cesaire wrote predominantly in classical French. Yet, absent thought creole might be from Une tempete , this play cherishes the essay on my father, local just as it springs from a deep love of Africa, the faith and rock of the black diaspora. Furthermore, Cesaire’s negritude is grounded in a profound historical consciousness which identifies a common past of describe your experience essay, suffering experienced by the African diaspora worldwide at essay introduction the hands of imperialists and slavers. Caliban the hero delivers a clarion call for justice and solidarity. The play is a twentieth-century masterpiece of describe leadership, world theatre, a triumph that re-appropriates the animal nonfiction book report, poetic force of Shakespeare, kicks down blinkered insularity and demands to describe leadership essay be seen and heard. 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about i need my resume, lies. Describe Your Experience Essay? / And you lied to me so much, / lied about the world, lied about yourself, / that you ended up by imposing on me / an image of myself: / underdeveloped, in your words, / incompetent, / that’s how you forced me to see myself, / and I hate that image! And it is false! / But now I know you, you old cancer, / And I also know myself! (58).
Citations throughout are from Aime Cesaire, Une tempete , Paris, Seuil, 1969, and from my translation, Philip Crispin, A tempest , London, Oberon, 2000. Writing? Page numbers for both follow in parentheses. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from describe essay 21 September to 14 October, 1998. Research? It was described by Professor Malcolm Bowie as “not simply a new reading of Shakespeare but an original play of astonishing power.” Malcolm Bowie, “Island Infamy” (review of A tempest ), Times Literary Supplement , 9 October, 1998, p. 22. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph. Their co-edited book “ The Tempest ” and its Travels , published by Reaktion Books in describe leadership experience essay 2000, is a rich cultural study of The Tempest , exploring, among other concerns, its vitality in interpretive essay new contexts, its key significance in colonial and post-colonial debates, and describe leadership experience, its problematising of the movement between the local and the global. It includes two scenes from interpretive essay rubric my translation and two photographs by Pau Ros from the London production, as well as an leadership essay, article by Lucy Rix: “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”. 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of on my grand father for kids, Negritude”, in describe your leadership J. Interpretive Essay Rubric? Ellen Gainor, ed., Imperialism and Theatre: Essays on World Theatre, Drama and Performance ,London, 1995, p. Experience Essay? 182-98.
6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Culture Continuum”, Essays in Theatre/Etudes theatrales , 15:1, 1996, p. 59?68, p. Father For Kids? 62. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the your, island and supplanted its original inhabitants, too. Evidently, Cesaire’s polemical adaptation provides a partial reading of the original script. His focus is on the (formerly) enslaved black diaspora. Intriguingly, however, in his droll re-working of Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and Trinculo, the recalcitrant butler and jester still refer to him as an Indian or, more often, a “nindian”. This word possesses a double resonance. Firstly, it recalls the original inhabitants of the “New World”, vast numbers of whom were wiped out pay for, due to conquerors’ genocides, inhuman treatment or because their immune system was unable to your experience essay protect them against newly imported diseases.
In Cesaire’s play, Stephano and Trinculo still intend to display Caliban in a travelling fair as an i need writing, exotic “freak” when back home. Leadership? Secondly, “nindian” evokes West Indian, the collective name for anglophone Caribbean inhabitants, so called because Christopher Columbus had dubbed the indigenous people he found Indians, for he believed that he would be able to reach the Indies by sailing west. Since the period of slavery, of course, the essay, majority of “West Indians” are descended from the African diaspora. Your Experience? It is important to note that, with the exception of the grand father, list of your leadership experience, dramatis person? in i need writing my resume which Caliban is identified as a savage slave, it is Trinculo who, in Act II Scene 2, categorically registers Caliban’s humanity, calling him an “islander”, and also how in your leadership England “would this monster make a man”. Essay Introduction? He and your leadership experience essay, Stephano generally refer to him in pejorative dehumanising terms (eg “mooncalf”), however. 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. On My Grand Father For Kids? cit. , p. 192.
9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New York, Routledge, 1996, p. Describe? 15. Essay On Abortion? Thomas Macaulay’s “Minute on Education” (1835) which argued for describe experience essay the importance of literature in pay for papers producing Indians “English in taste, in opinions, and in intellect” was a foundational text in such epistemic colonisation. 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of describe experience, Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman, op. cit. , p. 236-249, p. 239. Quotation from Legitime Defense taken from Lilyan Kesteloot, Black Writers in rubric French , trans. Ellen Conroy Kennedy, Philadelphia, 1974. 11 In our production in leadership essay London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that hath such creatures in pay for it!” which always received a good laugh. 12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. 14 See Ibid. , p. 19-25, for describe your leadership a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in research the colonies. 15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and describe experience essay, African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 569.
16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Essay Rubric? , p. 30-31. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and your leadership, the Discourse of Colonialism”, in essay introduction Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, Eds., Political Shakespeare: New Essays in leadership experience Cultural Materialism , Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. 48-71, p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, this became concerted in paper the sixteenth century. The colonial experience in Ireland, along with the Bermuda pamphlets and the colony in Virginia, provided further topical inspiration for The Tempest . 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of The Tempest ”, in Jonathan Drakakis, Ed., Alternative Shakespeares , London and experience essay, New York, Methuen, 1985, p. Research? 191-205, p. Leadership Experience Essay? 204. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans. Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, p. 32. 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of book report, imperialism with the your leadership experience essay, evil of the Holocaust, the help writing my resume, difference being that in the former case the evils went largely unchronicled and uncondemned. Caliban says at describe leadership experience essay the climax of the play: “Te vomir.
Toi, tes pompes, tes ?uvres ! Ta blanche toxine !” (87) [“I’d vomit you up, all your pomp and nonfiction report, designs! Your white poison!” (57)]. 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out during an exhibition on “The Happy Antilles” held in Paris in describe your experience 1945 by the Ministry of Colonies. Poems included described Martinique as an enchanting “Paradis vegetaux”, a “Coffre a baisers” and a “Cher jardin des petits cadeaux”, a “Familiere boite a surprise”. Cited in animal book Rix, op. cit. Describe Your Experience? , p. Essay On Abortion? 306. 24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although it may have been inspired by a 1609 travelogue about Canada by the French explorer Marc Lescarbot who wrote that the “savages are truly noble”, although this was because they, like French royalty, hunted game. Alexander Pope’s “Essay on your leadership experience essay, Man” describes the “poor Indian” living within nature and touched by grace. The travel accounts of such explorers as Louis Antoine de Bougainville and James Cook encouraged a belief in an Edenic culture residing within the South Seas. See Ter Ellingson, The Myth of the essay on abortion introduction, Noble Savage , Berkeley, University of California Press, 2001. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location of those lands which had been sought for centuries.
His brother Antonio and rival King Alonso of Naples conspire to leadership experience essay depose him and steal his “empire a naitre” (20) [“unborn empire” (16)]. This fascinating addition to essay the plot calls to describe leadership experience essay mind the great powers’ “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century and other such contests for territorial domination. Pay For Research Papers? In response to Gonzalo’s “guano project”, Sebastian says: “Faut-il encore qu’il y ait des bras pour cultiver [les champs]” (40) [“But we’ll still need hands to cultivate [the fields] (29)”. Hands is a convenient, depersonalising euphemism for labour, not least slave labour. Your Experience Essay? Gonzalo’s “plantation” in The tempest leads inevitably to the thoughts of my term, slave plantations—across the your leadership experience essay, Caribbean, the American tropics (North, Central and essay grand for kids, South) and Africa where King Leopold’s rubber plantation in describe your experience the Congo led to Joseph Conrad’s memorable phrase: “the heart of darkness”.
26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of write paper, communication.” Caliban communicates his otherness. According to Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin: “‘Difference’, which in leadership colonialist discourse connotes a remove from normative European practice, and hence functions as a marker of subordination, is for post-colonial analysis the write paper, correspondent marker of your leadership experience essay, identity, voice, and hence empowerment.” Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin, “Conclusion: reading difference”, in C. Tiffin and A. I Need Help Writing? Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, 230-235, p. 230. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Cesaire’s A tempest ”, Callaloo, vol. 29, Number 2, 2006, p. 587-607, p. 587-588. 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western media demonised and sensationalized the Mau Mau as savage, primitive and anti-Christian, hence the word for many whites raised a frisson of anxiety and leadership experience essay, fear. “ Uhuru threatened to demolish the common [white and western] representation of the childlike, faithful, and loyal African.” Ibid. Write Paper? , p. 587. In Robert Ruark’s popular 1962 novel Uhuru , the word evoked for whites a measure of describe experience essay, loss—lost power over servants, lost lands, lost security, lost innocence. Essay On Abortion Introduction? At the same time it identified Africans as bestial and depraved. “In a sense,” Almquist adds, “Ruark is recasting Shakespeare’s The Tempest and offering a twentieth-century version of the depraved slave in need of ‘civilizing’”. Ibid. , p. Leadership Experience? 601. At the same time, there was a burgeoning attraction to the concept and linguistic power of interpretive essay, Uhuru for those who might feel like modern-day Calibans themselves.
Julius Nyerere, the Tanzanian leader, and a great hero of African de-colonization, used the word. Describe Leadership Essay? According to Steven Feierman, “Gender, Slavery and essay on abortion, Chiefship: Peasant Attempts to Create an Alternative Discourse”, in Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in your leadership experience Tanzania , Madison, University of essay on my, Wisconsin Press, 1990, p. 204-222, p. 212, cited by Almquist, “When older people heard Nyerere talk about Uhuru , “freedom” or “independence”, they also knew Uhuru in your leadership their observed experience as the release from utung’wa , “slavery” or “pawnship”, which in their thinking presupposed an entire system of descent-group rights in persons.” Almquist writes: “At the same time Uhuru would resonate as a symbolic slogan for overcoming racial oppression worldwide, in East Africa it carried with it the literal sense of freedom from on my father for kids a system of slavery.” Cesaire may or may not have been aware of describe leadership, this further resonance. Almquist, Ibid. , p. 605. For a more expansive discussion of Uhuru , See Almquist, Ibid. My Term? , p. 598-601. 30 Almquist, op. cit. See p. 597.
31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour. Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “monkey” responds acutely to such a derogatory description. 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare”, CLA Journal, 35,4, 1992, p. 387-399, p. Essay? 394. 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. Animal Nonfiction Book Report? , p. Describe Essay? 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most insidious obstacles to decolonization in Martinique and how mulattos with their peau chappes (escape skins) sought nothing but the ideal of assimilating into white French culture. The racial ideology, based on the association of the essay grand father, idea of freedom with resemblance, was deeply seated in not just the leadership essay, white but also within the mulatto and i need writing, black communities as well. 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) conceives of describe your leadership, language as composed of the overarching general structure, langue , and localized, contextual utterances he calls parole . He provides the metaphor of the on my grand father for kids, orchestra to elucidate his concept. As each musician warms up, there is a form of cacophony; only when the conductor conducts, is there symphonic music. Your Leadership? So general communication can only come through langue as opposed to the specificities of parole ’s localized discourse. See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics , Trans.
Roy Harris, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1983. Yet Prospero’s logocentric view (in which he corresponds to the logos , both speech and reason) amounts to my term an absolutist insensitivity to describe your leadership essay cultural context. Papers? He rejects fluidity and, with blind ignorance and arrogance, seeks to describe leadership experience essay impose his own cultural code. 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, p. I Need Help? 6. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in essay recollecting his near-persecution at the hands of the Inquisition (“etres de nuit” (21) [“creatures of darkness” (17)]) who wished to research try him over charges of describe leadership essay, necromancy and sorcery. Cesaire casts Gonzalo as a pious buffoon whose catechism lesson on the difference between an essay rubric, act of contrition and describe your leadership essay, an act of research papers, attrition satirically evokes the Christian will to reconciliation and forgiveness so central to The Tempest . Describe Your Leadership Essay? His later attempted exorcism of Caliban, which the latter meets with laughter, and essay, then the leadership experience essay, handing him over to the “bras seculier” (86) [“secular arm” (56)], ie Prospero, to do with as he will, chillingly calls to essay on my mind the complicity of the Church in the ruthless execution of the colonial enterprise and the persecution of indigenous peoples in your experience the guise of saving their souls (as recalled in the murals of Diego Rivera in Mexico City).
38 See the citation at the start of this article to essay see how this speech continues. 39 According to experience essay Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Martinique”, in Richard D.E. Burton and Fred Reno, ed.s, French and help writing my resume, West Indian: Martinique, Guadaloupe and French Guiana Today, London, 1995, p. 75-85, racism in describe leadership experience Martinique was deeply internalized. 40 Gilbert and on abortion introduction, Tompkins, op. Your Experience? cit. , p. Research? 12. 41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Describe Leadership? Tiffin adjudges that, “Decolonization is process, not arrival.” 43 Bob Marley and on abortion introduction, the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, Tuff Gong/Island Records, 1983.
44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of leadership experience essay, Shango is widespread across the Caribbean and in Brazil. In La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Henri Christophe, who wished to honour and essay grand father for kids, restore the grandeur of describe your experience essay, his people, represents Shango. Like Caliban-X, he recognises how the slavers and colonialists robbed the people of on my for kids, their history and names of pride. Aime Cesaire, La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1970. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Describe Leadership Essay? cit. , p. 32-33, for a reading of this scene which epitomises “the slave’s ability to counter his master’s power over representation”. Write Paper? “This counter-utopian moment critiques both the describe leadership essay, ritual contexts and the performance codes of The Tempest’s masque, substituting a ceremony that attests to the unconstrained vitality of Afro-Caribbean culture.” See Rix, op. cit. , p. 240, where she writes of Cesaire’s appropriation of surrealism in his arsenal of cultural resistance. Surrealism “aimed to my term paper shock the describe your essay, prim bourgeoisie with a production of humorous, vulgar gestures that attempted to undermine the validity and authority of high-brow Western culture.” It is also pertinent to point out here that Caliban-X categorically denies trying to rape Miranda, a reason given for pay for papers his bondage in Shakespeare’s play. Rather he says to Prospero: “Dis-donc, vieux bouc, tu me pretes tes idees libidineuses” (27) [“Listen, old goat, you’ve foisted your own lustful cravings on describe your experience, me (21)].” In Shakespeare’s original, Caliban is cast as an writing, unbridled wild man, the wild man being the very image of desire. 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a tree, Ovid-style. He dreams of both palms and ceiba trees (Caribbean) but also the describe your leadership experience, baobab, home to the hornbill (Africa). 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures , London, Routledge, 1989.
Some creole is spoken in The Tragedy of King Christophe . Op. I Need Writing My Resume? cit. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires , 2010-4 | 2010, 137-161. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires [En ligne], 2010-4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2010, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://itineraires.revues.org/1746 ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.1746. University of Hull, England. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017.
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