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a report writing Centre for Academic Success. A report is use and misuse of mobile, a systematic, well organised document which defines and about culture, analyses a subject or problem, and which may include: the record of use and misuse phone a sequence of events. interpretation of the essay, significance of these events or facts. Use And Misuse Of Mobile Phone? evaluation of the facts or results of essay format research presented. Misuse Phone Essay? discussion of the outcomes of essays a decision or course of action. Use And? Reports must always be: Various courses require you to what basic of a good write reports (as opposed to of mobile essay essays), notably business and scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of what a report should look like, so it is important that you check with your course tutors and course documentation as to on william james the report format and content expected. Misuse? In addition, there is at times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and what basic of a good, “assignments” are, so again check within your department. Phone Essay? Much of the essay abstract format, advice given in misuse of mobile phone essay Guide 1.01, How to creating write an essay, also applies to use and misuse of mobile essay reports. Creating Hook? Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the topic, question or case, that you know what the purpose of the report is, and essay, who it is being written for.

The clearer these things are in your mind, the easier the essay about different, report will be to use and phone write and a literature, the more effective it will be. Use And Of Mobile Phone? When you are researching, planning and eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the what basic essay, main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in misuse of mobile phone writing it: is james, it to use and of mobile phone essay inform; to what of a argue; to persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to see in the report and use and misuse of mobile phone essay, what will they do with it? You first need to decide your basic framework. With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and start to group these together. You may find the racial and ethnic stereotypes essay, Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Start to misuse essay divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and continually ask yourself if everything is abstract format, relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. Of Mobile? From your prior knowledge (from reading and essays james, lectures), you should be able to use and phone essay put together a fairly basic structure.

You will now be able to plan your research. Ask yourself what you need to find out, maybe in essay the form of questions that need to be answered, then approach your reading from essay this starting point. If you have specific information to look for, it will make your reading easier and basic of a good essay, less time consuming. Use And Misuse Essay? (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Try not to gather too much information. And Ethnic Stereotypes Essay? Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is misuse phone essay, not 100% relevant.

When you’re making notes, always try to what are the basic features good summarise the use and misuse of mobile phone essay, main points as concisely as possible. Remember to make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in order to be able to creating essay correctly reference these. Make a record of the research methods you used. Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and misuse, sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Renato Renner Thesis? Below are the possible components of use and misuse of mobile phone essay a report, in what are the features of a essay the order in misuse of mobile phone which they would appear. Check within your department which of chris 1998 doing review these you should include. This should normally include the title, your name and use and of mobile essay, the name of the tutor to whom it is being submitted, date of submission, your course/department, and catalog, if applicable, the use and misuse phone essay, name of the phd thesis catalog, person and/or organisation who has commissioned the misuse of mobile essay, report.

Avoid “fancy” fonts and effects and don’t include any clipart. Racial And Ethnic Stereotypes Essay? Acknowledgements (usually just in long reports) A list of use and of mobile phone people and different, organisations both within and outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Contents page (always included in misuse of mobile phone essay reports of 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the sections and james, sub-sections of the report. Don’t forget to use and of mobile phone essay put the page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the main index. Chris Hart 1998 Doing Review? Make sure that the use and of mobile phone essay, headings in this list correspond exactly with those in creating essay your main body. It is of mobile essay, best to essay about different do your list of use and of mobile essay contents right at the end. Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the task; your specific objective and creating hook, purpose of writing. Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is a vital process to go through in use and misuse of mobile phone your planning. If it is essay, group work, who exactly is responsible for misuse of mobile essay what? How long have you got?

What is racial stereotypes essay, your task timescale? Why are you writing the report? What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the use and, report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to see? Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the information was gathered. Are The Basic Of A Essay? Materials and methods (included if applicable) Similar to essay procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. The following advice comes from Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in creating longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is a very brief outline of the report to give the potential reader a general idea of what it’s about. A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in separate section) main conclusions and use and misuse of mobile phone essay, recommendations. On William? Introduction (always included)

This should show that you have fully understood the task/brief and that you are going to use and misuse phone essay cover everything required. Hart 1998 Doing A Literature Review? Indicate the basic structure of the report. You should include just a little background/context and indicate the reasons for writing the report. Misuse Of Mobile? You may include your terms of essay abstract reference and use and of mobile, procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. About Culture Different? Your introduction will often give an of mobile essay, indication of the conclusion to the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the substance of your report. The structure will vary according to phd thesis the nature of the material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to clearly indicate the misuse of mobile, different sections (unlike an essay). A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate. It is renato, not sufficient to simply describe a situation. Misuse Phone? Your tutor will be looking for essay analysis and for a critical approach, when appropriate.

Charts, diagrams and tables can be used to reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an use and phone, appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). Essay Abstract Format? Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section. Use And Of Mobile Essay? Results (possibly included in scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the past tense) and and ethnic stereotypes, would normally include statistics, tables or graphs. Use And Misuse Phone? Your conclusion should draw out the implications of your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. Don’t include any new material here. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on basic essay, logically from misuse phone essay your conclusion and phd thesis, be specific, measurable and use and of mobile phone essay, achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by suggesting action to be taken. A “statement of cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications.

Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is detailed documentation of essay abstract points you outline in your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is supplementary information which you consider to be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to use and phone include in your main body, but which still should be of interest to your reader. Phd Thesis? Each appendix should be referred to use and misuse of mobile essay in your text. Essays James? You should not include something as an appendix if it is not discussed in use and misuse essay the main body. This is a list giving the essay about culture, full details of use and all the sources to basic features of a essay which you have made reference within your text. By far the most common method in use at Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Use And Of Mobile Essay? Bibliography (sometimes included) This is racial essay, either a separate list of use and of mobile phone sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of references.

Check in your department what you are expected to use. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the report includes a lot of are the basic features of a specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader. Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and use and misuse of mobile phone, colloquial language. Write in fairly short sentences. Essays On William? Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences). Most of use and misuse essay your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in your conclusion or recommendations to include more personal language. Be extra careful with verb tenses. Renner Thesis? Grammar, spelling and punctuation. Of Mobile? Links to further resources on essays james, writing reports. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for use and phone essay Academic Success.

City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at chris 1998 doing review, Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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Use and misuse of mobile phone essay

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ots business plan The OTS will continue to serve as a thought-leader for emerging traffic safety issues, funding results-oriented and innovative programs to help us accomplish our vision of helping to misuse of mobile essay, save lives. OTS is receptive to new ideas. We encourage our current grantees, and those organizations with which we have not worked in the past, to bring us their best ideas for solving traffic safety challenges in their communities. We strive to essay abstract format, be customer friendly in all of our programs and work hard to streamline processes and eliminate duplication. Many of the strategies listed below are identified in California's SHSP.

Future plans to use and misuse, improve traffic safety in California include: Alcohol and Other Drugs In 2012, OTS again identified and targeted California’s “Top 50 DUI Cities” and funded these cities to conduct additional DUI checkpoints in 2012. As a result, the “Top 50 Cities” plan to essays james, conduct 598 DUI checkpoints in 2012. (SHSP Action 1.1) Utilizing OTS crash rankings to identify cities with disproportionate numbers of traffic collisions, OTS Regional Coordinators and Law Enforcement Liaisons will contact city representatives to use and essay, encourage submittal of a grant proposal. Phd Thesis Catalog. (SHSP Action 1.1) Fund 14 county probation departments to use and, target repeat DUI offenders who violate probation terms or who fail to appear in court. Funded strategies include intensive supervision, unannounced home contacts and searches, surveillance operations, highly publicized warrant service operations, alcohol and drug testing, and the distribution of culture “Hot Sheets” to local law enforcement agencies. (SHSP Action 1.3) Fund a statewide DUI Checkpoint Program for local law enforcement agencies. To promote sustained enforcement, state and local law enforcement agencies collectively serving at least 50 percent of California’s population or serving geographic subdivisions that account for at least 50 percent of use and of mobile California’s alcohol-related fatalities will conduct checkpoints not less than quarterly. Racial Stereotypes Essay. (SHSP Action 1.1) Fund countywide and misuse phone regional DUI Avoid programs in 40 counties involving 556 law enforcement agencies and CHP to conduct enforcement and media campaigns during holiday periods. OTS and MADD will sponsor regional DUI seminars recognizing top DUI enforcement officers in renato renner thesis each county. Use And Misuse Of Mobile Essay. (SHSP Action 1.1) Fund 40 “Live DUI Courts” and 15 “Live DUI Sentencings” in California high schools providing students the what are the essay, opportunity to see up close the consequences of driving under the use and of mobile, influence to individual drivers, crash victims and culture different their own local community. (SHSP Action 6.5) Fund 150 “Every 15 Minutes” programs, a two-day program that focuses on high school junior and seniors and challenges them to think about the consequences of drinking, personal safety and the responsibility of making mature decisions when lives are involved. (SHSP Action 6.5) Launch a new statewide “peer-to-peer” program: Teens in the Driver Seat. San Joaquin and Sonoma counties are using a “staggered sentencing” model with their DUI courts. The “staggered sentencing model” requires accountability among offenders and presents an alternative form of punishment and treatment where consequences are clearly defined and agreed upon with the phone essay, judge. “Staggered sentencing” is likely best-suited for cases with repeat offenders because of the level of court involvement in overseeing the defendant’s progress to recovery.

Judge Richard Vlavianos devised the renato renner, model for “staggered sentencing” in his court in San Joaquin County and will begin teaching this model to other judges at the National Judicial College. Use And Essay. The newly developed three-year performance-based TSRP Strategic Plan will have a heavy emphasis on drug impaired driving. Law enforcement officers will be trained to better detect and investigate drug impaired drivers. Prosecutors will be trained to try cases involving drugged drivers. Essay. Both of these objectives will be accomplished by presenting two day courses that include the seven drug categories in the DRE curriculum (CNS Depressants, CNS Stimulants, Narcotic Analgesics, Cannabis, Dissociative Anesthetics, Inhalants and Hallucinogens).

The training will also include trial tactics for prosecutors so they can effectively deal with their own witnesses and defense experts. We will be presenting two to misuse, four classes each year, increasing the number of classes to six to eight per year by 2014. The Vehicular Homicide Seminar in 2012 will include an expanded portion on what features, drug-impaired drivers. Past seminars only had two hours devoted to drugs, but in 2012 it will be a minimum of four hours. In 2013 the seminar will be replaced with a three and one-half day seminar devoted exclusively to investigating and prosecuting drug impaired drivers. In 2014 we will return to the vehicular homicide format and essay do the drug training again in 2015. Format. Alternating vehicular homicide and drug training will better equip law enforcement and prosecutors to all the tools they need to use and misuse phone, effectively investigate and prosecute drug cases. Racial And Ethnic Essay. Distracted Driving Continue to serve as co-lead with CHP on Challenge Area 17 Reduce Distracted Driving. Use And Phone. (SHSP CA 17) Fund a statewide media campaign to change social norms. (SHSP CA 17.01)

Fund a Statewide Local Law Enforcement Mini Grant Program - Zero Tolerance Against Hand-Held Cell Phone Use and Texting. (SHSP CA 17.02) Conduct the basic of a good, second annual statewide cell phone/texting observational surveys using the National Occupant Protection User Survey (NOPUS) methodology. (SHSP CA 17.03) Continue and of mobile phone create media partnerships to air Distracted Driving PSAs, present local and racial national stories, and announce zero tolerance cell phone and texting enforcement. Collaborate with Network of phone essay Employers for Traffic Safety and the National Safety Council to promote and encourage the adoption of essays on william a model cell phone policy for public and private organizations. Drug-Impaired Driving Fund alcohol wet lab and use and essay field certification training for POST DRE Academies. Increase the number of law enforcement officers who are trained and certified as DRE’s as well as encouraging DRE participation in enforcement operations. Increase the number of established field certification sites and the number of POST academies offering DRE classes statewide. Develop and conduct the first annual nighttime weekend “voluntary” roadside survey of alcohol and essay abstract drug use by drivers.

The survey, the misuse essay, first by any state, will mirror the methodology used by NHTSA in their 2007 national survey. Fund CHP to provide training to a minimum of phd thesis 200 officers in the Basic Standardized Field Sobriety Testing (SFST) course, 250 officers in the DRE course, 300 officers in the Advanced Roadside Impaired Driving Enforcement (ARIDE) course (SHSP Action 1.19), and 100 educational professionals in the DITEP course. Fund Orange County District Attorney’s Office to of mobile phone essay, facilitate DRE training to 100 officers from the various agencies within the county. Additionally, two prosecutor positions will be funded at 50 percent each to work solely on and prosecute drugged-driving cases. Meet with key stakeholders to determine the feasibility of developing standard protocols or procedures for drug testing laboratories to use in phd thesis catalog identifying drugs that impair driving.

Fund DMV to misuse phone essay, determine whether the prevalence of marijuana involvement increased among California fatal crash-involved drivers after the passage of Proposition 215, after adjusting to the extent possible for confounding associated with better testing of crash-involved drivers. The analyses will also be replicated in the other 14 states with medical marijuana laws to strengthen the causal argument that any prevalence increases are indeed associated with these laws. Abstract. The degree of use and misuse of mobile regulation and/or ease of access to marijuana across states will be used to establish whether there is a dose-response relationship between access to marijuana and prevalence among crash-involved drivers. Emergency Medical Services Fund regional EMS programs to ensure rural communities have access to the latest 'state-of-the-art' rescue and extrication equipment. Regions will conduct assessments of their area to renner, determine the needs and provide for the best use of funded equipment.

Motorcycle Safety Fund focused public awareness and enforcement campaigns by CHP in areas with highest number of fatal and injury motorcycle crashes. Public awareness will include “Share the Road” messaging for motorists, promoting the use of proper helmets and other safety gear, as well as continuing to encourage riders to take advantage of the California Motorcyclist Safety Program training opportunities. Phone. (SHSP Action 12.08 and 12.09) Fund motorcycle safety enforcement operations which include public awareness media efforts in what are the features of a essay grants to local law enforcement agencies, including motorcycle-specific messaging in general traffic safety and DUI media outreach. (SHSP Action 12.08) Fund a grant to essay, collect and compile additional data at motorcycle crashes via a supplement to the CHP-555. (SHSP Action 12.06) Fund a grant to conduct a survey of California drivers’ and motorcycle riders’ knowledge, opinions and behaviors related to motorcycle lane sharing/lane splitting. (SHSP Action pending) Occupant Protection/Bicycle And Pedestrian Safety Using Section 2011 funds, OTS will promote California’s new booster seat safety law which requires children under age 8 (there are exceptions for those 4’9” but younger than 8) to ride in a safety seat or booster, in the back seat of a motor vehicle. A press release will be issued in early December and questions and answers will be posted to the OTS website. OTS is working with the racial and ethnic stereotypes, CHP, California Department of Public Health, and child passenger safety advocates to develop educational materials on the new law. These materials will include citation-sized cards for law enforcement officers and hand outs for misuse of mobile essay parents, hospitals, daycare facilities, and schools and be available by January 1, 2012. Fund, at “no cost” to cities and counties, “Pedestrian Safety Assessments” (PSA) conducted by engineers with the University of California, Berkeley. PSA’s help improve pedestrian safety within California communities, as the PSA’s enable cities to systematically identify pedestrian safety issues/problems and effective remedial options.

Improved pedestrian safety and improved pedestrian infrastructure in turn can lead to essay, enhanced walkability and economic vitality of communities. Fourteen PSA’s are planned for FFY 2011. Misuse Phone. (SHSP Action 8.4) Fund safety helmets and child safety seats to culture, parents and families in need. At the same time, OTS will ensure parents receiving this life-saving equipment have the training necessary to correctly use the safety device. Fund grants that support underserved communities. Misuse. The risk of being injured or killed in a traffic crash is disproportionately high for members of certain groups as defined by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and phd thesis cultural practices. Latinos, African-Americans, and Native Americans are among the misuse phone, most severely affected.

Understanding the factors that contribute to these risks is difficult, in part because data that would identify victims as members of these groups is difficult to find. Stay abreast of all the latest technological innovations and think creatively about countermeasures to confront potential traffic safety problems, including the use of evidence-based technologies such as vehicle speed feedback signs, flashing beacons at school crosswalks, in-roadway warning lights at crosswalks and countdown pedestrian signals. (SHSP Action 8.2) Older Driver Safety Fund the University of California, San Diego to improve driving safety in and ethnic essay older adults through interventions addressing Age-Related Driving Disorders (ARDDs) and train law enforcement, health professionals, and students with a broader understanding of misuse of mobile phone essay older driver sensitivities and abstract format impairments. These interventions will include health professional education and training. Misuse Phone. Driving is an important means of mobility and independence for older adults. However, as seniors age they often experience health and functional impairments that interfere with their ability to good essay, drive safely. If left unaddressed, these problems pose a risk of misuse phone essay driving-related injury not only to the seniors themselves, but also to their families and to others who share the road with them. Fund the CHP to implement a public awareness and education campaign focusing on senior traffic safety/mobility through the use of multi-disciplinary community-based collaboration groups. These groups will assess the issues and make recommendations to address the needs of the senior driving community and will include members from public and private organizations including law enforcement, health and phd thesis aging professionals, transportation agency representatives, and other interested stakeholders. Traffic Records In January 2011, a team of use and misuse essay national experts conducted an OTS and NHTSA sponsored Traffic Records Assessment of California’s state level traffic records systems. The assessment, in conjunction with the final report of a Federal Highways Administration sponsored Peer to Peer conference held late in 2010, is being used to establish a baseline and essay abstract format as an aid in the strategic planning process of California’s long term strategic plan by the Traffic Records Coordination Committee.

In early 2011, OTS and members of the misuse essay, Traffic Records Coordination Committee will be participating in a Federal Highways Administration Crash Data Improvement Plan (CDIP) review panel as part of the continuing effort to develop and refine the what are the features of a, long term traffic records strategic plan for California. Continue outreach efforts to both urban and rural counties to help them improve safety, data collection, access, and analysis by continuing to fund traffic collision database and GIS mapping systems. OTS staff will assess the use of countywide traffic collision analysis database and GIS mapping programs and facilitate efforts to add additional countywide programs through OTS grants. Misuse. Continue to embrace automated programs that produce timesaving and phd thesis catalog operational efficiencies, as part of our effort to phone essay, utilize technological advances to conduct business and save lives. For example, OTS is continuing to fund a project with the CHP that will deploy Handheld Citation Devices and e-Citation commercial off-the-shelf software to all CHP Area Offices for electronic generation of citations and electronic transmission of racial stereotypes citations to the California Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) for misuse of mobile essay applicable County Court jurisdictions Continue to support the California Department of Public Health’s effort to further refine the recently completed Crash Medical Outcomes Data project as necessary and the launch the online query data file from the 2007 linkage. For example, The EDRS motor vehicle death reporting supplement is done and will soon be available to coroners throughout the state. Continue to support the EMSA in their efforts to increase statewide participation from local EMS agencies in the recently completed updated CEMSIS that has been designed to receive both EMS and trauma data electronically from each of the 31 local EMS agencies. Racial Essay. The process is in place to revise QI indicators that will be programmed into CEMSIS for end-user use all which is in compliance with the federal data collections systems: National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) and the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Injured patient data will continue to be linked with other data systems to assist state and local efforts in injury prevention related to traffic safety. OTS will continue to fund the CHP in their on-going project to design and develop a web based data entry screen to phone essay, enable smaller allied agencies, with a limited number of collision reports, to enter the are the of a, collision report directly into the AACR database hosted at the CHP.

This project will allow for timely, statewide, online submission of traffic collision reports to misuse essay, SWITRS by CHP and allied agencies. Essay. (SHSP Action 16.1) Research is one of the keys to development of successful strategies to use and phone essay, reduce fatal and injury collisions. Currently in California, SWITRS is the primary source of collision data used by public and private researchers. In order to improve the quality, timeliness and accuracy of the collected crash data, OTS has funded a project that will revise and improve the California Automated Reporting System (CARS) and SWITRS applications, and eliminate the phd thesis catalog, redundant manual entry of collision data into multiple systems. An improved data warehouse will be developed for SWITRS to improve the use and phone, ability to report and extract statistical data. To implement OTS eGrants, a web-based electronic grants management system that will allow agencies to apply for grants, submit claims and QPRs and generally manage their grants through a web-based interface. In FFY 2011, OTS accepted more than 420 FFY 2012 grant applications through eGrants and will begin accepting FFY 2013 applications through eGrants in stereotypes January 2012. The implementation has encountered a number of delays over the last 12 months, but OTS anticipates being able to begin managing most aspects of misuse of mobile phone essay FFY 2012 grants through eGrants part way through the 2012 calendar year. Essay. To redesign the OTS website, including migrating to the new state web template and adding more search options to phone, the OTS Rankings to allow visitors to more easily navigate the site and find the data they need. Continue working closely with the federal government to ensure California receives its fair share of james federal funding. Develop and use and misuse implement a federal transparency reporting process.

Continue the Performance Improvement Initiative to streamline the grant application and reporting processes. OTS will look towards conducting as much business as possible over the Internet. Using the Internet as a tool can streamline processes and save valuable time and efforts. Thesis. Continue to update the OTS Intranet content to use as a valuable resource tool for use and misuse of mobile phone OTS staff. Essay Abstract. Utilize existing staff to conduct internal audit and mapping of use and essay processes to identify and stereotypes essay implement new efficiencies. Use And Misuse Of Mobile Essay. Continue to promote the OTS Employee Recognition Program (ERP) to reward employees for their commitment to racial, superior performance. Peer group elections are conducted to select new Peer Recognition Committee members annually. The Awards Program Coordinator will survey staff to gain feedback on enhancing the program. Spotlight traffic safety programs pioneered or uniquely adapted within California. Effectively communicate the societal benefits garnered from targeting traffic safety practices to local and diverse communities.

Develop and implement broad-based and targeted public education programs that not only enlighten, but inspire Californians to engage in prudent traffic safety practices. These efforts will also include campaign specific (e.g., DUI, seat belts, inattention/distracted driving, and teens) advertising, earned media, events and training. Phone. Spotlight California’s traffic safety successes and innovative grant programs, strategically linking successful programs and focusing on key program areas that make an are the, easily demonstrated difference. Develop practices and personnel within the of mobile essay, grantee frameworks to racial, carry the public education and use and misuse of mobile essay promotion messages to the local and renato thesis grassroots level. This will further augment and personalize the use and of mobile, broader OTS messages.

Conduct comprehensive public awareness campaigns, relying heavily on the media, to promote the “Next Generation - Click it or Ticket” seat belt enforcement effort in renner thesis November and May, the holiday DUI Crackdown, and use and misuse of mobile phone the National Distracted Driving Awareness Month in April. During the national mobilization periods, OTS will promote NHTSA’s slogan “Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over” and the “Report Drunk Drivers Call 911” message. Continue to strategically expand approaches that utilize social media and catalog non-traditional communication venues to reach target audiences that are moving away from use and misuse those that have been used in the past. Use the phd thesis catalog, results of the misuse of mobile phone, third annual Traffic Safety Intercept Survey to facilitate internal planning and phd thesis externally influence reporting, discussion, public awareness, public education and, eventually, social norming on the areas covered. In addition to the ongoing and updated marketing and public awareness efforts and misuse of mobile essay campaigns, OTS will commit substantial funding to on william james, a year-round outdoor advertising effort to keep campaign messages before California drivers and passengers as they travel the state’s roadways. Conduct basic public information, media relations, and use and of mobile essay marketing training for grantees to help them more successfully promote their local messages, events, operations and activities. Address: 2208 Kausen Drive, Suite 300, Elk Grove, CA 95758.

Public Information Inquiries: (916) 509-3030 | Fax (916) 509-3055.

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Spm Essay About Friend Essays and Research Papers. Friends A friend is someone who knows the song in your heart, and can sing it back to you when you have forgotten the words. Use And Misuse? . Essay About? Good morning to the panel of honourable judges, teachers and friends . On this fine morning, I would like to misuse of mobile talk about “ Friends ”. On this planet, who can’t live without friends ? Everyone. We need our peers to live our lives, to catalog joke around, and to help us with our mischievous plots. Who would dare to use and misuse of mobile tell an adult about renato our plans? Friendship is a blessing, and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Miley Cyrus 682 Words | 3 Pages. SPM Essay Directed Writing Year 2011/ 2012 Informal Letters Writing Letters the Right Way! This week we will take a . look at use and essay letter writing. Generally, students are taught to write two types of letters – formal letters and informal letters. Abstract Format? Informal letters are easier to write in terms of format, language and tone.

These letters are sometimes called social or friendly letters. Examples of informal letters include letters to family members and friends . Misuse? When writing an informal letter. Eating , Essay , Formal system 323 Words | 3 Pages. military might, coupled with its stunning beauty and renner breathtaking architecture will be the envy of use and phone other cities for many millennia to come. My . friends and I pack our belongings into what are the basic of a our bags and use and misuse of mobile prepare to depart to what are the basic essay our destination. Misuse Phone? The pier was only a short train ride away and soon we were on a cruiser streaming towards the Capitol. My friends and I chatted animatedly on phd thesis catalog, board the cruiser. Some of us took the opportunity to enjoy the fresh air and salt spray. While it is only a short.

Capital , Kuala Lumpur 1758 Words | 5 Pages. ? Friends Essay by of mobile, Mitchell Scott Topic: What friendship means to me Friendship is a relationship that is needed in a society of . ours. With a demanding society where if you have no friends , it can be a tough time for you. Friendship is much more than just hanging around with your mates; it allows living to essay abstract format be much more comfortable. Friendship is extremely underrated in a society of ours; we rely on our friends to have good times.

Sometimes you can’t imagine life without those who care for use and of mobile phone essay, you. Comfort, Texas , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1072 Words | 3 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner. One of the most popular television shows in history, Friends , is a great . television show to study the phd thesis catalog economic situation of a show, and how the economics of the show have affected the television industry. In this essay I will explore the phone essay economic situation of Friends , and how it was a financially successful show. Essay? Friends first premiered in 1994, using the typical Pilot episode in misuse of mobile phone, order to win over their audience. In this episode the six. Episode , Film , Friends 1902 Words | 5 Pages. Types of Friends Essay Life without a friend is like death without a witness. -Spanish Proverb. We all have . friends , different people have different tastes and temperaments and hence make different types of renato thesis friends . They tend to bond with some and stay away from some. With time and growing trust, some people get really close to use and of mobile phone each other and remain true friends . They stand up for each other in times of need and essay provide full support when you lose confidence in yourself.

However, every friend is not. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1390 Words | 3 Pages. About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is use and misuse of mobile phone essay, a popular topic on renner, the Continuous Writing section and misuse of mobile phone students should . Racial? take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Misuse Phone Essay? Many people think that writing a story is phd thesis catalog, a difficult task, but believe me, it is much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point. Use And Misuse Of Mobile? Therefore, you are free to voice out everything that is in your mind. A narrative essay is a piece of essays on william writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages.

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3 iii. How The Topic Influenced me and why I Find It Significant………………………………………. 3 iv. Weakness …………………………………………………………………….4 Conclusion………………………………………………….4 References………………………………………………. 5 About “The Father of use and misuse phone Scientific Management”: Fredrick W. Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (was. Cengage Learning , Frederick Winslow Taylor , Lillian Moller Gilbreth 1267 Words | 5 Pages. ?Though written in essay abstract, the 17th century romantic era, Why So Pale is a reflection of the Middle Age chivalry love scene, where love or affection of a man for his . lover is marked by extreme devotion and misuse of mobile phone sacrifice. Essay? The poem is built round the two friends , one a lover and the other advising the male lover. The adviser bases his opinion and advice on his observation. He first observes the pale and use and misuse phone essay wan looks of a lover, which he feels instead of arousing positive attitude from his lover would deter her.

Love , Lyric poetry , Meter 828 Words | 3 Pages. education where he then attended Plato’s Academy, the finest school in renato renner thesis, Athens. Aristotle created a very close relationship with Plato and his academy. . Aristotle did not take over Plato’s position because of the Aristotle felt differently about some of Plato’s statements about philosophy (Kenny, 2012). Misuse? In 338 B.C Aristotle returned home to Macedonia to start teaching the young Alexander the Great. After Alexander had conquered Greece in 335 B.C Aristotle returned to Athens, and with Alexander’s permission.

Alexander the Great , Aristotle , Greece 821 Words | 3 Pages. Proficient students for college level courses. The course integrates reading, writing, speaking, listening comprehension, and grammar as well as the writing . Phd Thesis Catalog? process, organization, grammar and mechanics, and sentence structure. Students will produce three essays and several paragraphs. The content of the course focuses on American culture and issues facing new immigrants. The course is designed for misuse essay, Limited English Proficient students at Cincinnati State who are enrolled in phd thesis catalog, a pre-tech or degree program. Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages. highest swimming pool, as well as the numbers belonging to components of the tower, which co-implemented by misuse of mobile phone, about 12 thousand workers and . engineers since its inception in essay culture different, 2004 [5]. The cost of the building about $ 1.5 billion with a total built area of use and phone essay 526,760 square meters, divided into 171 870 square meters of housing units and 27,870 square meters of of a good office space. 124 hundred floors with about 1044 apartments, it was said that 90% of the use and misuse phone essay sale, despite the impact of global financial crisis on the. Burj Khalifa , Dubai , Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan 1180 Words | 4 Pages.

stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is essay, often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the misuse news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . Essay About? This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. Use And Phone Essay? It is not easy to think of catalog how to make someone want to read an misuse phone essay essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to make. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. yUNIVERSIDAD DE SAN CARLOS DE GUATEMALA ESCUELA DE APRENDIZAJE DE LENGUAS “CALUSAC” COURSE: PRETOEFL III TEACHER: JULIA FLORES . “ ESSAY ABOUT THE STORY OF STUFF” NAME: Julio Cesar Perez Perez ID: 2508994 DATE. Earth , Economics , English-language films 755 Words | 3 Pages. Feel Strongly About Essay Autosaved. ?Lyn Nguyen Feel Strongly About Essay Mar. 25, 2014 Mr.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Misuse Phone! Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and essays on william james, teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is misuse phone, typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. On William James! Turning in use and of mobile the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the what features essay events are set. Use And Of Mobile! Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the good essay book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the use and misuse of mobile phone book better by asking them to essay format think about misuse of mobile phone, its meaning and renner, the plot.

Teachers may also hand out worksheets for use and phone essay students to complete in racial essay class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Use And Phone Essay! Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of phd thesis assignment for elementary school classes.

These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and use and misuse essay, show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for and ethnic stereotypes teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.

The other elements on use and misuse of mobile phone essay, a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Essay Format! Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the misuse phone essay major events in phd thesis the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why.

A simple form may also just ask the students to of mobile phone essay describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the james climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word.

Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the of mobile phone essay students to essay abstract address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book.

Difference Between The Book Report Types. Phone Essay! The short book report form is handed out by what are the basic features of a good essay, the teacher and use and misuse phone essay, can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the essays on william james answers in a few short sentences. Use And Misuse Of Mobile! Some templates may include activities to racial and ethnic essay make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Phone! Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report.

Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to catalog weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the of mobile essay book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review.

Summarize the book without giving away the essay plot or the ending. Use And Of Mobile Phone Essay! Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. Renner! There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Use And! Interview one of the characters. Create an essay format imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and use and of mobile, what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article.

Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in stereotypes your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is misuse of mobile essay, just the first stage of the report, but it is the and ethnic stereotypes essay most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the use and misuse phone essay report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to essay get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in phone the report.

Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for are the basic features of a points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and use and misuse essay, suggestions for changing the report before final submission. About! Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Phone! Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc.

Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Are The Of A Essay! Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. Essay! If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time.

Your final draft is ready to print out renato renner, when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. Use And Phone! That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Culture Different! Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on use and of mobile essay, the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to on william use. There is no need to use valuable time in misuse essay creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form.

Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. On William! Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by of mobile, following a few of these tips. About Culture Different! Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started.

Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and use and misuse phone, how they liked the book. Both students and abstract format, teachers can find a lot of phone templates to use.

Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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Dec 18, 2017 Use and misuse of mobile phone essay,

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Cricothyrotomy training increases adherence to the ASA difficult airway algorithm in a simulated crisis: a randomized controlled trial. Non-adherence to airway guidelines in a ‘cannot intubate–cannot oxygenate’ (CICO) crisis situation is associated with adverse patient outcomes. This study investigated the use and misuse effects of hands-on training in cricothyrotomy on adherence to essay format the American Society of Anesthesiologists difficult airway algorithm (ASA-DAA) during a simulated CICO scenario. A total of 21 postgraduate second-year anesthesia residents completed a pre-test teaching session during which they reviewed the ASA-DAA, became familiarized with the Melker cricothyrotomy kit, and watched a video on cricothyrotomy. Participants were randomized to either the intervention ‘Trained’ group ( n = 10) (taught and practiced cricothyrotomy) or the control ‘Non-Trained’ group ( n = 11) (no extra training). After two to use and misuse phone three weeks, performances of the groups were assessed in a simulated CICO scenario.

The primary outcome measure was major deviation from the ASA-DAA. Secondary outcome measures were (1) performance of the renato renner four categories of non-technical behaviours using the validated Anaesthetists’ Non-Technical Skills scale (ANTS) and (2) time to perform specific tasks. Significantly more non-trained than trained participants (6/11 vs 0/10, P = 0.012) committed at least one major ASA-DAA deviation, including failure to insert an oral airway, failure to call for help, bypassing the laryngeal mask airway, and use and misuse of mobile phone essay, attempting fibreoptic intubation. ANTS scores for all four categories of behaviours, however, were similar between the groups. Trained participants called for help faster [26 (2) vs 63 (48) sec, P = 0.012] but delayed opening of the cricothyrotomy kit [130 (50) vs 74 (36) sec, P = 0.014]. Hands-on training in renner thesis cricothyrotomy resulted in fewer major ASA-DAA deviations in a simulated CICO scenario. Training in cricothyrotomy may play an important role in complying with the ASA-DAA in a CICO situation but does not appear to affect non-technical behaviours such as decision-making.

Kong Eric You-Ten designed and conducted part of the study, analyzed the data, drafted the manuscript, and approved the final version for publication. M. Dylan Bould conducted part of the study, analyzed the of mobile phone data, and reviewed the manuscript. Zeev Friedman designed the study, analyzed the essay abstract format data, and reviewed the manuscript. Nicole Riem and essay, Devin Sydor were raters for acquisition of data and phd thesis catalog, reviewed the manuscript. Sylvain Boet analyzed the use and misuse essay data and revised it critically for important intellectual content. La formation a la cricothyrotomie ameliore l’observance a l’algorithme de gestion des voies respiratoires difficiles de l’ASA dans une crise simulee: essai randomise controle. La non-observance des lignes directrices concernant la gestion des voies respiratoires dans une situation de crise « Intubation impossible – oxygenation impossible » (CICO) est associee a des consequences nefastes pour les patients. Cette etude a analyse les effets d’une formation pratique a la cricothyrotomie sur l’observance de l’algorithme de l’American Society of Anesthesiologists pour la gestion des voies respiratoires difficiles (ASA-DAA) au cours d’un scenario de CICO simule.

Un total de 21 residents en anesthesie de deuxieme annee a suivi une session d’enseignement pretest au cours de laquelle ils ont etudie l’ASA-DAA, se sont familiarises avec la trousse de cricothyrotomie de Melker et ont regarde une video sur la cricothyrotomie. Racial Stereotypes Essay! Les participants ont ete randomises en deux groupes : le groupe d’intervention « forme » ( n = 10) (ayant appris et pratique la cricothyrotomie) et le groupe temoin « non forme » ( n = 11) (sans formation supplementaire). Apres deux a trois semaines, la performance des groupes a ete evaluee au moyen d’un scenario de CICO simule. Of Mobile Phone! La mesure servant de critere d’evaluation principal etait un ecart majeur par rapport aux directives de l’ASA-DAA. Les mesures servant de criteres d’evaluation secondaires etaient (1) la realisation des quatre categories de comportements non techniques utilisant l’echelle validee ANTS de competences non techniques des anesthesiologistes et (2) le temps necessaire a la realisation de taches specifiques. Un nombre significativement plus important de participants non formes que de participants formes (6/11 contre 0/10, P = 0,012) ont commis au moins un ecart majeur a l’ASA-DAA, y compris l’echec d’insertion d’une voie respiratoire orale, l’absence d’appel a l’aide, la non-utilisation du masque larynge d’intubation (MLI) et la tentative d’intubation avec fibre optique.

Les scores de l’ANTS pour les quatre categories de comportements ont cependant ete semblables entre les groupes. Les participants formes ont plus rapidement appele a l’aide (26 [2] contre 63 [48] sec, P = 0,012) mais ont retarde l’ouverture de la trousse de cricothyrotomie (130 [50] contre 74 [36] sec, P = 0,014). La formation pratique a la cricothyrotomie a entraine moins d’ecarts majeurs par rapport aux lignes directrices de l’ASA-DAA dans un scenario de CICO simule. La formation a la cricothyrotomie peut jouer un role important dans l’observance de l’ASA-DAA dans une situation de CICO, mais ne semble pas affecter les comportements non techniques, tels que la prise de decision. Airway complications are one of the leading causes of essay abstract format, anesthesia-related morbidity and misuse, mortality.

1 , 2 The first difficult airway management algorithm to improve clinical outcomes was introduced by racial and ethnic stereotypes essay the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) in 1993. It is use and of mobile, thought to have contributed to a significant decrease in airway-related adverse events during anesthesia induction. 3 Airway management guidelines have been systematically developed to assist in what features of a making appropriate decisions. Misuse Phone! Although they are not intended to be standards or absolute requirements, they do provide a systematic approach to difficult airway management. 3 - 5. Unanticipated difficult airways remain a challenge in anesthesia because their predictors are not 100% accurate. 1 , 2 An unanticipated difficult intubation can lead to a ‘cannot intubate–cannot oxygenate’ (CICO) airway crisis. When faced with this life-threatening crisis, an james emergency cricothyrotomy is the final option.

3 - 5 Cricothyrotomy is not a routine or common procedure, 6 and a decline in the need for emergency surgical airways due to improvements in airway management has resulted in a lack of clinical experience and decreased exposure to this life-saving technique. 7 Reluctance to perform cricothyrotomy and phone essay, non-adherence to airway guidelines have been associated with hypoxic brain injury and death during clinical CICO situations. Catalog! 8 , 9 Although the choices of use and misuse phone, technique and devices have been clearly addressed, less attention has been focused on the underlying cause(s) of non-adherence to airway guidelines when managing a CICO crisis. Adherence to on william airway management guidelines in airway emergencies involves prompt and appropriate decisive actions that can improve patient outcomes. 10 , 11 Taking decisive action involves the cognitive process of decision-making. For anesthesia, decision-making generally falls into use and of mobile phone, the category of ‘human factors’ or, more specifically, ‘non-technical skills or behaviours. 12 Good decision-making is culture different, one of the main non-technical behaviours required for crisis management. Although technical and non-technical attributes are usually taught and assessed separately, several studies have demonstrated that technical skills performance and non-technical behavioural performance are positively associated. 13 , 14 Although these findings provide empirical evidence to suggest that these two sets of of mobile phone essay, attributes are interrelated, those authors did not evaluate the nature of this relationship or the influence of technical skills training on non-technical behaviours. Understanding how these two skill sets interact could have broad implications for are the basic of a good essay clinical performance in airway crisis management. One can assume that technical competence in cricothyrotomy may have an impact on adherence to the airway guidelines as a result of good decision-making in a difficult airway situation such as CICO.

Indeed, the Fourth National Audit Project on airway complications in anesthesia emphasized the importance of cricothyrotomy technical skill and non-technical behaviours when managing CICO situations. 15. The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to determine whether training in cricothyrotomy technical skill has an impact on adherence to phone essay the ASA difficult airway algorithm (ASA-DAA) and non-technical behaviours. Essay! We hypothesized that hands-on cricothyrotomy training would enhance adherence to the ASA-DAA as a result of improved decision-making. Flow chart of use and essay, study. Participants were randomized into one of two groups using a computer algorithm: the ‘Non-Trained’ (control) group ( n = 11) or the ‘Trained’ (intervention) group ( n = 10). What Features Good! A staff anesthesiologist, blinded to use and misuse phone group allocation, taught all participants in a 60- to 90-min pre-test teaching session that included a didactic review of the ASA-DAA, 16 familiarization with the uncuffed 3.5 mm internal diameter Melker cricothyrotomy kit (Cook Medical Inc., IN, USA), and exposure to a 20-min instructional video (Cook Medical Inc., IN, USA) on performing cricothyrotomy on a human cadaver using the Melker kit. Essay Abstract Format! Teaching sessions were conducted in use and misuse phone groups of one to and ethnic stereotypes essay three participants depending on the availability of the residents.

The Melker kit was chosen because the residents were familiar with the misuse essay Seldinger technique used during its placement. 17. Hands-on training of cricothyrotomy skills. Following the pre-test teaching session, the essay Non-Trained group received no further training and did not practice the technical skills associated with cricothyrotomy performance. The Trained group received hands-on training by a second, unblinded staff anesthesiologist who was instructed to teach only the technical skills needed to perform cricothyrotomy.

During hands-on training, the instructor did not teach or discuss the phone essay ASA-DAA, other airway technical skills, or airway management strategies. Participants were taught and practiced cricothyrotomy using the renato Melker kit on a low-fidelity plastic model, as described in our previous study. 18 This model consists of a 10-cm corrugated plastic tube with a slit opening covered with tape to imitate the use and misuse of mobile essay cricothyroid membrane. The tube was covered with a silicone membrane that has the texture of skin and mimics the trachea. Participants practiced the procedure a minimum of five times on the model until they achieved plateau performance, as defined by Wong et al . What Are The Basic Features Of A Good! 19 Cricothyrotomy was then performed on a human cadaver to demonstrate their skill acquisition, which was confirmed by dissecting the cadaver’s neck to identify correct placement of the airway device. 18 The duration of the hands-on training session was 60 min. Two to three weeks later, each participant completed a simulated CICO scenario on a high-fidelity Simman ® mannequin (Laerdal Medical Canada Ltd, ON, Canada). Use And Misuse Phone! The simulation scenarios took place in a mock operating room, where actors played the scripted roles of an operating room nurse and a respiratory therapist, respectively. Each performance was video-recorded. The simulation room was equipped with basic airway devices. They included McIntosh laryngoscope blades sizes 3 and 4, a Miller laryngoscope blade, a gum elastic bougie, and sizes 3-5 laryngeal mask airways (LMAs).

A video-laryngoscope (Glidescope ® ) and/or the difficult airway cart were brought in basic features of a good essay upon request. Misuse Of Mobile! The airway cart carried a fibreoptic bronchoscope and the Melker cricothyrotomy kit. Prior to activating the scenario, each participant was oriented to different the simulation room and the equipment. Misuse Of Mobile Phone Essay! The participant acted the essays on william james role of a senior anesthesia resident who was taking over a case from a staff anesthesiologist. Prior to induction of general anesthesia, the staff anesthesiologist was called to attend elsewhere, and the participant was instructed to proceed with the misuse phone essay general anesthesia. The ‘surgeon’ was scrubbed and essay different, was imagined to be outside the operating room. A nurse actor was present at induction of anesthesia, and a respiration therapist actor was available upon request. Of Mobile Phone! After completion of the scenario each participant was debriefed on his or her performance. *Scenario A: mScenario A. ¶No. of essay abstract, previous simulation sessions. *Ratio of number of participants in use and of mobile Scenario A: mScenario A. Mean (SD) duration of CICO situation was similar in racial and ethnic Scenario A and modified (mScenario) A [197 (74) vs 209 (86) sec, P = 0.752] ¶Each participant in both groups had one to two previous sessions in misuse of mobile phone simulation prior to the study.

We noted that participants involved in Scenario A (five Non-Trained and renato, four Trained) bag-mask ventilated the of mobile phone essay mannequin for a prolonged period after the first failed intubation (i.e., during the “cannot intubate– can oxygenate” period). What Are The Basic Features Of A Essay! It delayed progression of the use and scenario to the second intubation attempt and culture, subsequent CICO situation. To avoid this delay, Scenario A was modified to use and exclude the “cannot intubate- can oxygenate” situation (becoming ‘mScenario A’). This change was acceptable because each participant’s performance was rated only during management of the CICO crisis. The subsequent cohort of 12 participants who completed mScenario A involved six Non-Trained and six Trained residents (Table 1 ). The general anesthesia protocol and surgical scenario were the same as in racial essay Scenario A, except that the use and phone essay CICO situation was now encountered after the first failed laryngoscopic intubation event (caused by phd thesis a grade IV view and inadequate mask ventilation), leading to severe hypoxia with 70% oxygen saturation. The conclusion of mScenario A was identical to that of Scenario A. Misuse Phone Essay! The CICO crisis was identical in the two scenarios. Only the phd thesis CICO crisis was analyzed in use and misuse the videos. The CICO crisis was defined as the interval during which the oxygen saturation declined from 97% to 92% until completion of the scenario, just prior to performing the neck incision. Because the CICO crises in Scenario A and mScenario A were identical, the outcomes for each of the groups were pooled (Table 1 ). The primary outcome measure was the number of essay, participants who committed major deviations from the ASA-DAA.

16 The deviations included (1) failure to insert an of mobile phone essay oral airway; (2) failure to call for help; (3) bypassing the essay LMA; and (4) attempted fibreoptic intubation. A secondary outcome measure was the performance rating of the four categories of non-technical behaviours using the previously validated Anaesthetists’ Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scale 12 ( Appendix ) by two independent raters blinded to phone group allocation. Each of the four ANTS categories—task management, teamwork, situation awareness, decision-making—was scored on a one to essays on william four scale (four being the highest and one the lowest). The total ANTS score was the sum of the scores for each behaviour category. The other secondary outcome measures were the time intervals between four specific procedural tasks: calling for use and misuse phone help; inserting a LMA; opening the cricothyrotomy kit; preparing to puncture the are the features good essay cricothyroid membrane (i.e., ‘cricothyrotomy’).

We demonstrated in a previous study that there was at least a 50% improvement in performance following formal training in cricothyrotomy. 18 In the present study, we assumed a 50% difference in the number of of mobile, participants committing at least a major deviation from the ASA-DAA between the Non-Trained and essay abstract, Trained groups. We calculated that this difference would require 11 participants in each group (5% alpha and 80% power). With an estimated attrition rate of use and misuse of mobile phone, 15%, we recruited 13 participants per group. Primary outcome measures were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.

Secondary outcome measures were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. About Culture! Participant characteristics were analyzed using the use and of mobile phone Mann-Whitney test for ordinal data and Fisher’s exact test for nominal data. Inter-rater reliability between the two independent raters was evaluated using the racial and ethnic stereotypes intra-class correlation coefficient for the ANTS scores. Parametric data are presented as the mean (SD). A statistical difference of P 0.05 was considered to indicate significance in all analyses. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS System 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., NC, USA). Participants committing major deviations from the ASA-DAA. Failure to insert oral airway. Failure to call for help.

Bypassed laryngeal mask. Attempted fibreoptic intubation. One major deviation. Two major deviations. Three major deviations. ¶At least one major deviation. †Values are number ( n ) and use and misuse phone essay, percentage (%) of participant(s) per group and % mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) ¶The sum of the abstract format number of use and misuse of mobile phone, participants who committed one, two, and three major deviations. *P 0.05 is considered significant.

ASA-DAA = American Society of Anesthesiologists difficult airway algorithm. Time intervals between procedural tasks in phd thesis catalog a CICO scenario. Oxygen desaturation ‡ to calling for help. Calling for help to of mobile LMA insertion. LMA insertion to opening Melker kit. Kit opening to basic of a essay cricothyrotomy † Values are mean time (SD) in s, and use and phone, mean difference (MD); 95% confidence intervals (CI) ‡Oxygen desaturation from 97% to 92% # Mean of this task was calculated based on renato, ten participants due to one failure to of mobile phone call for on william james help. §Mean of this task was calculated based on use and, eight participants due to one failure to are the basic good call for help and of mobile phone, two bypassed LMA insertion.

?Mean of this task was calculated based on nine participants due to phd thesis catalog two bypassed LMA insertion. †Cricothyrotomy was defined as just prior to puncturing the use and of mobile phone cricothyroid membrane of the mannequin. * P 0.05 is considered significant. CICO = ’cannot intubate–cannot oxygenate’; LMA = laryngeal mask airway. Anaesthetists’ Non-Technical Skills scores between Non-Trained and Trained groups. # ANTS category skills. Values are mean score (SD) and essays james, mean difference (MD); 95% confidence intervals (CI) #ANTS scores were rated on a scale of 1-4 (4, highest and 1, lowest) †Total ANTS scores are the sum of the use and phone essay scores for each category skill.

* P 0.05 is essay about, considered significant. ANTS = Anaesthetists’ Non-Technical Skills. We demonstrated that hands-on training in cricothyrotomy results in greater adherence to the ASA-DAA in essay a simulated CICO scenario. Despite prior pre-test review of the ASA-DAA, familiarization with the Melker cricothyrotomy kit, and watching a video on cricothyrotomy, only the participants who were not trained and james, did not practice (i.e., the Non-Trained group) the technical skill of misuse, cricothyrotomy committed major deviations of the ASA-DAA. Non-technical behaviours, however, were similar in the Trained and Non-Trained groups. These findings suggest that hands-on training in cricothyrotomy may play a role in adherence to airway guidelines in a CICO airway emergency, but it does not seem to essay about culture different affect non-technical behaviours such as decision-making. Our study showed that participants with extra hands-on training in cricothyrotomy did not commit major deviations of the ASA-DAA. Use And Of Mobile Essay! This finding suggests that hands-on cricothyrotomy technical skill training can lead to increased adherence to the ASA-DAA. Our findings are in agreement with those of essay format, Kuduvalli et al ., who demonstrated greater adherence to the Difficult Airway Society guidelines during a simulated CICO scenario after hands-on training in various airway technical skills. Use And Phone! 20 Hubert and thesis, colleagues also showed that simulation and misuse essay, airway technical skill training significantly improves anesthesia residents’ compliance with difficult airway guidelines. Thesis! 21 On the other hand, technical skill uncertainty in internal medicine residents resulted in use and misuse of mobile phone essay delays to indicated medical decisions and in and ethnic some cases compromised patient outcomes.

22 Our study not only reinforces the importance of hands-on training for improving technical skills, 18 - 22 it demonstrates that it may enhance adherence to airway guidelines in a simulated CICO scenario. Because of the misuse phone extra training in cricothyrotomy, participants in the Trained group may have anticipated the CICO situation in the test scenario and essay abstract, mentally rehearsed its management. Mental rehearsal has been shown to use and of mobile be an effective form of learning because mentally simulating an action activates the same neural representation as the actual action. 23 Mental rehearsal improves technical healthcare skills for phd thesis performing various basic surgical tasks and simulated cricothyrotomy. 24 Mental rehearsal of misuse essay, a CICO situation during hands-on practice by the Trained group could have led to what basic their enhanced adherence to use and misuse essay the ASA-DAA. Although there is limited evidence to suggest a positive correlation between technical skill and on william james, non-technical behaviours, 13 , 14 we did not find that cricothyrotomy technical skill had a direct effect on non-technical behaviours.

That is, there were no differences in ANTS scores between groups for of mobile the four behavioural categories, including decision-making, which implies that hands-on training does not affect non-technical behaviours. A plausible explanation for this finding is catalog, that rating the four skill categories using ANTS may not have the granularity to capture specific non-technical behaviours. 15 The four behavioural categories were subdivided into 15 element behaviours ( Appendix ). Rating the element behaviours of use and misuse, ‘providing and maintaining standards’ and ‘balancing risks and selecting options’ under ‘decision-making’ may have better captured differences in essay abstract format specific non-technical behaviours between the groups. A future study on whether rating the element behaviours captures the direct impact of technical skills on misuse phone essay, non-technical behaviours merits further research. It is concerning that three residents in the Non-Trained group attempted fibreoptic intubation during significant hypoxia with an oxygen saturation of 70%. This observation is consistent with a survey by Rosenstock et al ., who reported that just under half of anesthesia residents would perform fibreoptic intubation in a CICO situation.

25 This technique is not recommended in a CICO crisis because it puts patients at even greater risk, is and ethnic essay, time consuming, and misuse phone, requires high skill proficiency. 26 Case reviews of patients who have died or suffered hypoxic brain injuries in clinical CICO situations have identified persistent intubation as one of the major determinants. 8 , 9 These determinants are affected by several factors, including the external context (e.g., the environment and patient characteristics) and the internal context (e.g., the operator’s own attributes). 8 Our findings complement those of what are the basic good essay, previous studies that showed that a lack of training in use and of mobile a crucial technical skill (i.e., cricothyrotomy) may also be a contributing factor. Interestingly, although both groups sought help, the Non-Trained group called for help faster than the Trained group (Table 3 ). Essays James! Seeking help early is recommended in all CICO algorithms and use and misuse essay, implies that the on william james former group seemed more willing to call for help sooner. Use And Misuse Of Mobile Phone! It is possible that the Non-Trained participants lacked the confidence to manage the CICO scenario. They had not received hands-on cricothyrotomy training and, as a result, sought help sooner. They also took almost twice as long to request opening of the Melker cricothyrotomy kit after failed LMA ventilation. Performing a cricothyrotomy without proper hands-on training can lead to essays on william james failure and serious injuries that compromise patient safety. 8 Alternatively, hands-on training may have made the Trained group overconfident and delayed their calls for help. Overconfidence is use and of mobile phone essay, a source of are the basic features good essay, medical errors that can adversely affect patient outcomes.

27 Although hands-on training in use and misuse of mobile phone cricothyrotomy has been shown to maintain skill competence, 17 - 19 our findings suggest that it may also be detrimental to patient care by causing a delay in essay calling for help. It is therefore important to misuse phone emphasize to racial and ethnic stereotypes essay junior anesthesia trainees during airway management training that calling for help early is appropriate. Our decision to modify the scenario is use and misuse of mobile, a possible confounding factor that may have affected participants’ performance. Participants in renner Scenario A might have anticipated the development of a CICO scenario and mentally rehearsed management strategies during the “ can oxygenate” period. In contrast, participants in use and misuse the modified scenario (mScenario A) had little time to prepare mentally because the “cannot intubate– can oxygenate” situation was removed from the scenario and the CICO situation occurred immediately after the catalog first failed intubation attempt. Use And Phone Essay! This source of bias, however, did not appear to affect performance in the two scenarios. Although several participants in the Trained group (four in catalog Scenario A and six in mScenario A; Table 1 ) were involved in misuse essay each scenario, none deviated from the ASA-DAA. A major deviation was committed by at about, least one Non-Trained participant (five in Scenario A and misuse essay, six in mScenario A; Table 1 ) involved in each scenario. Several limitations of essay, this study warrant comment.

First, the misuse small sample size limits the generalizability of our results. We recruited only PGY2 residents into the study to minimize the effects of a higher residency training level on features good essay, performance outcomes. Studies that have assessed crisis management performance of use and of mobile phone, anesthesia trainees at different residency levels have shown that higher residency training is phd thesis, associated with faster correct decision-making and earlier resolution of the critical event. 28 , 29 Second, the hands-on training in use and phone cricothyrotomy of the Trained group resulted in more time exposed to airway training, which may have improved adherence to abstract format the ASA-DAA. Extra time in education research remains a learning confounder and is difficult to eradicate. Also, learning over the course of the hands-on training could arguably affect performance when managing the CICO scenario.

To minimize this potential bias, hands-on training in cricothyrotomy was focused strictly on procedural skills. There was no discussion of the use and of mobile phone ASA-DAA, other airway technical skills, or airway management strategies. A third limitation is that the hands-on training instructor could not be blinded to about group allocation because only the participants randomized to the Trained group received hands-on training. The instructor was given strict instructions, however, to teach only the technical skills of cricothyrotomy using the Melker kit. A fourth limitation may relate to the artificial (i.e., plastic) characteristics of the mannequin. Tongue and pharyngeal swelling was induced in the mannequin to create a grade IV view, and it is possible that some participants in the Non-Trained group bypassed an oral airway and/or an misuse LMA because of the essays james reduced space in the mannequin’s mouth. This is a possibility because we did not establish the reasons for these inactions during the debriefing. Finally, our difficult airway cart did not offer all the airway adjuncts listed in use and of mobile phone essay the ASA-DAA. A jet ventilator was not available, and this technique combined with needle cricothyrotomy may have been a preferred choice of residents in essays on william james the Non-Trained group.

Absence of this option may have caused these residents to alter their decisions and thus deviate from the ASA-DAA. Use And Misuse Phone Essay! We chose not to provide this option because of its inefficiency and high failure rate in patients and animal models. 15 , 17. In summary, subjecting junior anesthesia residents to hands-on training in cricothyrotomy technical skills decreased deviations from the ASA-DAA airway algorithm in a simulated CICO scenario. It did not appear to affect non-technical behaviours, however, including decision making. Our findings suggest a possible role for hands-on training in cricothyrotomy to improve adherence to airway guidelines in a CICO airway emergency. We thank the following authors for their contributions: Dr.

Michael Wylie, Ph.D. for the use of human cadavers; Dr. Devan Chandra, M.D., M.Ed. for scheduling the participants; Dr. Naveed Siddiqui, M.D. and Dr. Cristian Arzola, M.D. for each conducting one pre-test teaching session; Dr. Vern Naik, M.D., M.Ed. for catalog the initial design of the use and of mobile essay study; and what are the basic essay, Mr. Roger Chow, B.Sc. for technical support in simulation sessions. This work was supported in of mobile part by research grants from the Ontario Physicians’ Service Incorporation Foundation, The University of Toronto Innovation Fund in thesis Education, and the Ontario Network of Excellence in Simulation for Clinical Teaching and Learning, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

SB was supported by the Department of Anaesthesiology of The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). Appendix: Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scale 12. Planning and preparing. Providing and maintaining standards. Identifying and utilizing resources. Coordinating activities with team members. Using authority and assertiveness. Recognizing and understanding. Balancing risks and selecting options. Performance was of a consistently high standard, enhancing patient safety; it could be used as a positive example for others. Performance was of a satisfactory standard but could be improved.

Performance indicated cause for concern; considerable improvement is needed. Performance endangered or potentially endangered patient safety; serious remediation is required. Kong Eric You-Ten 1 Email author M. Dylan Bould 2 Zeev Friedman 1 Nicole Riem 3 Devin Sydor 4 Sylvain Boet 5 1. Department of use and phone essay, Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management, Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Toronto Canada 2. Phd Thesis! Department of Anesthesia, Children’s Hospital of use and misuse essay, Eastern Ontario, Academy for Innovation in Medical Education University of Ottawa Ottawa Canada 3. Department of Anesthesia, Kantonsspital Baselland University of Basel Liestal Switzerland 4. Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine Queen’s University, Kingston General Hospital Kingston Canada 5. Department of Anesthesia, The Ottawa Hospital, Academy for stereotypes Innovation in Medical Education University of use and misuse essay, Ottawa Ottawa Canada. Published in abstract format cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

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