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luthers 93 thesis The indulgence being marketed by Tetzel distressed Luther because he saw it as misinforming lay people (i.e., non-clerics) about crucial aspects of God's plan for redeeming fallen humanity - about, in other words, the whole purpose of history, and about the nature (specifically, the Will) of God. To be misinformed in essay, essentials about the nature of God means that what one ends up obeying is a false image of God. Dissertations Communications. This constitutes a mortal sin (see the note to Thesis 2), and leads (if not corrected) to essay en betoog, damnation. Specifically, Albert's indulgence (as represented by Tetzel) encroached on the sacrament of sports paper penance. The numbers to essay en betoog, the left (in red) refer to the respective theses that comprise the document as a whole. In the note to Thesis 6, you will find some suggestions about how to think of the organizational strategy Luther follows in listing his first 52 theses. [References to WH are to Matthews and Platt, editors, The Western Humanities , 3rd Ed. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1993.
These need updating, since this text is now in at least its 5th edition.] 1. Poenitentiam agite: Do penance. Penitence here means sincerely repenting (detesting, deploring) one's sins, and resolving not to return to them in the future. 2. Getting Phd Thesis. This word: refers to the Christ's word in the saying quoted in the previous thesis, and in particular to the term penitence ( poenitintia ). Sacramental penance : the sacrament of essay en betoog penance consisted of four elements: confession of one's sins before a priest, sincere contrition (regret) for them, satisfaction imposed by the priest, and absolution (remission of the sins in question, or pardon). Luther confines himself to online cheap, citing here the two elements of action (confession and satisfaction) that were to be carried out by the penitent (the person undergoing or receiving the sacrament). The term satisfaction refers to penalties imposed by the priest to discharge the debt of punishment owed for the sins in question. En Betoog. (When carried out, these satisfy or fulfill the justice of God. [Compare the language of the honor code regulating duels among the European aristocracy: an insult to one's honor requires satisfaction, and the insultee acquires the right to choose what that shall be, within the limits of the prevailing code.]) See WH 217218 for economics paper a capsule description of the medieval sacrament of penance. (For a far more detailed discussion, covering medieval doctrines as well as the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church in the wake of essay en betoog its response [in the Council of online Trent] to the Protestant Reformation, consult the en betoog, article on The Sacrament of Penance in The Catholic Encyclopedia .) Two categories of sin are recognized. Case. Mortal sins involve turning away from the eternal good, or God. Essay. (The breach of Faith committed by Adam and Eve in the Garden constituted mortal sin. Question. So did what Cain did to Abel.) The punishment due for turning away from the eternal good is eternal punishment, or damnation. Venial sins occur when a person turns inordinately to a mutable good a good subject to change, because, being created, it exists in time. Essay. (Such goods are thus also called temporal or earthly goods.) Orthodox teaching holds that every created being as such is good, inasmuch as it is the creature of God. But aside from the buy essays online, fact that some created beings (angels and human beings) can sin, any created being, not being God Himself, requires to be loved just in the way i.e., in the degree and circumstances that God ordains.
A love of any temporal being that goes beyond the intensity or occasions willed by God is thus said to be inordinate. Such sin incurs a debt of temporal punishment (a term that you will see often in the theses to follow). The priest (via his ordination by a bishop appointed in turn by the pope) is a designated representative of the pope. (We meet here the general concept of vicars and vicarage, which will become a focus of essay en betoog even more fundamental dispute when Luther a few years later comes to attack the even more fundamental notion that the pope is Christ's own designated vicar.) Hence when a priest administering the sacrament of penance imposes satisfaction on the penitent, he is acting on behalf of the pope. This explains why Luther speaks interchangeably of phd thesis published penalties. Essay En Betoog. imposed by [the pope's] own authority (Thesis 5), or of those imposed by himself (Thesis 20), or of penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of blockbuster case human appointment (Thesis 34). 3. Can you see the connection with asceticism here, and in Thesis 4? (Of course there are ascetics and ascetics!
Remember, Pelagius was an ascetic, too. In what points of doctrine would Luther and Pelagius part company?) 5. Remittance - like satisfaction - is a term that comes from the world of the balance sheet, of debits and essay credits. Both guilt and punishment due are conceived as debts that must be paid. When a debt is either paid off (by the question critique, debtor or someone who does surety for him) or forgiven, it is no longer due. When the creditor or injured party signifies (directly or through his authorized agent) that the essay, debt is no longer due, he is said to remit the sin. (The term remit comes from the Latin word meaning to send back. The custom persists in buy essays online cheap, banking today: when you pay off your house mortgage, the bank will give back to you the en betoog, loan certificate, now marked paid, along with the deed to the property, both of which it kept in its physical possession until you paid off your debt.) The canons here (and in Thesis 23) are rules established in analysis blockbuster, Canon Law (the law governing the administration of essay Church affairs) for guiding priests in assigning satisfaction in strategic analysis case, administering penance. They amount to a schedule of penalties for different offenses, according to the seriousness of the sin, as determined by various factors they specify. (As such, they are somewhat analogous to essay, the sentencing guidelines for judges, under criminal law in the US today.) 6. Orthodox teaching makes a distinction not only between sins of various degree (mortal and venial) but between the guilt attaching to a sin (sometimes referred to simply as the sin itself) and the penalties attaching to it (the punishments due because of it). The damned, it is held (for example), repent the punishment they suffer for dissertations in marketing communications their sins but, being confirmed in sin, are not displeased by essay their sin itself (since their wills eternally now reaffirm and assert it). Debts consisting of punishment due for sin are understood as payable by getting your phd thesis the sinner who incurred them. Essay. The debt of guilt (the debt of sin per se ) is not.
It can be discharged only when one of two things occurs: either it is either forgiven (by God the Father) or it is taken on and paid off by another (the Son) whose wealth is in marketing communications, sufficiently great to do so. (Can you see the en betoog, connection to economics, what is referred to in Thesis 33). Essay En Betoog. Theses 5 and 6 together turn on this distinction. (So does Thesis 76, later on.) When the pope (represented in the priest) dispenses absolution -- remission of sin (more precisely, of the guilt attaching to sin) -- as part of the sports, sacrament of penance, he does not (according to Theses 6 76) actually effect it himself. Rather he discloses to essay, the penitent what God has done (remitting of blockbuster case study guilt). It is, then, only penalties attaching to en betoog, sin that the pope himself (whether directly or through his representatives, i.e., priests) can remit. Communications. Any indulgences purporting to remit the guilt attaching to sin (the sin itself, so-called) are simply fraudulent. Moreover, within the category of penalties, it is essay en betoog, only those that have been prescribed by canon law or that he had the authority to strategic blockbuster, impose in the first place and did indeed go on to impose (again, whether directly or through the priesthood) that he can remit.
All other penalties are remittable only by God. And among these other penalties are those referred to by Christ in essay en betoog, the quotation in Thesis 1, and described again in Thesis 4. Since this true inward repentance that consists in hatred of buy essays cheap self for having committed the sin continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven, it continues to be suffered by souls in purgatory. Conclusion: these penalties of en betoog sin -- the remorse suffered by souls in purgatory on dissertations in marketing their way to en betoog, heaven -- are outside the power of the pope to remit. Any indulgences purporting to essay question critique, remit the suffering of souls in essay en betoog, purgatory (penalties for sin being experienced by them, namely, their remorse for having committed them) are likewise fraudulent. But even among the living, this sort of penalty for sin cannot be remitted by phd thesis the pope -- for Christ has commanded us to undergo it as long as we live (Thesis 1). Any indulgence that purports to relieve us of being heartily sorrow for our wrongs is likewise fraudulent. Worse, it encourages us to violate Christ's express command. (And, since the pope, as the Vicar of Christ on earth, enjoins us to obey Christ's commands, remission of these penalties for sin is essay en betoog, outside his power as pope.) What remains are those penalties imposed by the pope or the canon law, in the context of the sacrament of penance, as administered by priests. [This is the language of Theses 5 and 20. Thesis 34 uses the formula appointed by getting your phd thesis man (since the pope and the priests are not God) to describe sacramental satisfaction -- i.e., penalties of the sort the priest declares the penitant to owe).] Coming at this category from still another point of view, authorities described them as temporal punishment. (See the note to Thesis 2.) Referentially, these terms are all synonyms: that is, they identify the same class of individual things. Their difference lies only in the fact that they pick up these things by different handles, approaching them from different angles, i.e., via different relationships they have with other things. Theses 7-8 focus on Tetzel's claim that the indulgence he was selling was issued by the pope and had the power to remit guilt for sins. Luther circles back to this theme later on, in Theses 75-76.
Theses 8-29 focus on Tetzel's claim that that indulgence was issued by the pope and had the power to remit the penalties owed by souls in purgatory. Theses 30-52 focus on the risks, in Tetzel's behavior, for the people who are induced to buy his indulgences -- i.e., the misunderstandings about justification that are perpetrated among the living. (In passing -- Theses 35-37 -- his remarks touch again on en betoog the absurdity of destructors essay Tetzel's claims about the purgatory.) The emphasis is upon the peril these misunderstandings pose for the soul of the naive clientele. In Theses 30-40, the chief emphasis here is the necessity, for sinners, of a proper understanding of the requirement for genuine contrition , and the way in which indiscriminate peddling of indulgences implicitly preaches the contrary. In Theses 41-46, the emphasis shifts the risks that lie in presenting purchase of essay en betoog pardons as instances of good works, when, in their effect on the soul, or what they signify about the condition of the blockbuster study, soul, is far inferior to essay en betoog, what is accomplished by works of charity. Thesis 52 sums up this line of attack. [??Thesis 47: does it fit in this organizational scheme? Or does it belong with Theses 48-51??] From this point on, Luther's organizational strategy loosens even further.
For one thing, it is clear that he likes to return to certain themes within new contexts. Moreover, as we have already seen, he sometimes takes the your, opportunity to tuck in theses (for example, Theses 50-51) that are marginal to the logical categorization that defines the main line of essay development at the moment (Theses 30-49 + 52). Sometime the stimulus for doing this seems to essay critique, be that Luther has entered upon a certain rhetorical device (e.g., the repetition of an opening formula, like Christians are to be taught that . ) which carries its own power of essay en betoog suggestion for what could be usefully included at a given moment. After Thesis 52 , there does not seem to be a definite overall pattern of organization at work, although there are clearly stretches within which Luther is focusing on a particular theme (e.g., what are the essay, true Treasures of the Church? [ Theses 56-68 ]) or a rhetorical turn (e.g., Theses 81-91 , where the move is to essay en betoog, point out how the pardons being sold by buy essays cheap Tetzel bring the pope into disrepute with the essay, laity by buy essays online stimulating them to sarcastic impieties that nevertheless seem plausible on the false assumption that the pope supports the sale of such pardons). 7. The priest is God's vicar insofar as the pope is the essay, Vicar of analysis blockbuster Christ and the priest is a vicar of the pope.
See note 5 above. Thesis 7 says, then, that remission of essay en betoog guilt, though it is done only by God, is something God has for his own reasons chosen to do only for those who submit themselves to the Church, and, as part of analysis blockbuster doing this, participate in the sacraments (here, specifically, the essay, sacrament of penance, though communion is essay question, also a part of what is comprehended here). In other words, there is no salvation outside the Church. Essay En Betoog. (Cf. Thesis 38.) Later, Luther doesn't abolish the priesthood. Rather, he declares the dissertations, doctrine of the priesthood of all believers. (He will, however, declare that penance is not, properly considered, a sacrament.) 20. Essay. Plenary remission means full remission. (In Thesis 23 the synonymous formula entire remission is used.) Luther concedes the power of the Pope to remit all penalties of only the restricted class of temporal penalties imposed in the sacrament of penance or due under the canons of governing the assignment of your phd thesis satisfactions in penance (in the en betoog, case of sins committed but not yet dealt with by receiving the sacrament of sports economics research paper penance).
22. Neither other penalties (for example, those actually due for souls in essay en betoog, purgatory) nor guilt attaching to sins (even venial sins Thesis 76) are within the power of the economics, Pope to remit. But all indulgences are issued by essay the Pope. Therefore indulgences can be effective in remitting either the economics research, suffering of souls in purgatory or the guilt itself attaching to sin. Hence the claims Tetzel is making for essay the indulgence he is peddling in the Pope's name is fraudulent (Thesis 24). People are being induced to believe these claims at the peril of their soul (Thesis 32). For the doctrine of purgatory , and sports economics research its connection with the medieval system of penance, see WH 218 (paragraph 3). Purgatory is the place (or state) in essay, which souls who die in destructors theme essay, God's grace may expiate venial sins or satisfy divine justice for the temporal punishment still due for remitted mortal sin. Essay. The term comes from the past participle of the Latin verb purgare , which means to purge (to purify by getting rid of sports economics paper defilement). How does Luther stand with respect to the bull Salvator Noster (1476)?
Note that Luther's tactic in the Ninety-five Theses is to assume that the Pope is unaware of the essay, doctrinal errors being preached in his name by a mad servant, who is betraying his master. The Pope is being offered the opportunity to repudiate Tetzel's behavior. Compare the implicit characterization given of the Pope's personal dispositions in Thesis 50. 23. Note that Luther concedes here that it is possible for some rare individuals to pass directly to heaven. But he does not go so far here as to claim what the Church had long insisted on, namely, that the saints die in a state of excess of essay question merit, which then passes into the Treasury of Merit, out of which merits can be drawn to substitute for the temporal penalties that would otherwise be due for sin. How does this re-definition of the concept of saint square with the particular theory of the Treasury of Merit set forth in Pope Clement VI's bull Unigenitus (1343)? On the other hand, are we really authorized to attribute to Luther at this moment such a re-definition of the concept of saint as just described? Consider Thesis 58. 27.
One of the jingles attributed to en betoog, Tetzel went like this. (The rhymes, incidentally, are basically the analysis, same in German and essay English.) As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, The soul from Purgatory springs. 32. Letters of essay critique pardon are the documents certifying the granting of an en betoog, indulgence. (See also Thesis 52.) In this Thesis, is Luther accusing Tetzel and his customers of committing venial, or mortal, sins? 33. The inestimable gift of God by which man is essay question, reconciled to God is the essay, divine grace conveyed in the blood of Christ shed in the Crucifixion. 35. By now you should be imagining for yourself what kind of buy essays sales pitch Tetzel relied on in convincing people to pay good money to essay en betoog, get souls out of purgatory.
Whose souls would he be pointing to? How would he paint them? A confessional license would exempt the holder from the necessity for confession. Why would Luther insist that confession is an essential element in the process by strategic case which one achieves justification? 36. Compunction is a synonym for contrition, regret, repentance. (See note on penitence at Thesis 1.) Why does Luther insist that this is an essential element in the process of justification? 42. Along what lines could a case be made that contributing to the Church (and receiving an essay en betoog, indulgence) is in itself a work of mercy? (What, supposedly, would the Church be using the contribution to support? [What is the divinely ordained purpose of the Church in the first place, according to traditional doctrine? What is its role in history ?]) 43. Does it strike you here that Luther (writing on this particular occasion, at this particular phase in his thinking) seems to be according a positive value to at least some items in the category of works ? What do you understand to be Luther's ultimate position on the value and effect of works in destructors theme, the salvational scheme?
Is this Thesis inconsistent with that position, or can it be construed in a fashion that can be made to square with that position? 50. Here we find a claim that must have resonated strongly with those who resented the flow of capital from the en betoog, German North to Italy. 52-56. Here Luther lays out a theory of what constitutes the Treasury of the Church. How does it compare with the theory elaborated by Clement VI in the bull Unigenitus (1343)?
62. Notice that it is not clear in the Ninety-five Theses themselves what a crucial role Thesis 62 will play in future Lutheran theology: Luther does not explicitly spell out the implications. But, retrospectively, can you see how this claim was destined to become the central bombshell in the breach between Luther and the Church of Rome? 65. What does Luther mean here by the phrase men of riches? Is he referring to people with lots of money and property? How would you explain your answer in the context, for example, of the thesis that follows this one, #66? 83. What does Luther consider mistaken about the practice of performing funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased (masses for the dead celebrated on question critique the anniversaries of the death of the person in question)? What is the purpose of these ceremonies? (What is prayed for in them?)
In what sense is it a confidence game to accept money for performing such services? (Is the issue of essay en betoog simony also at stake here, i.e., separately and distinctly?) 86. Does the tone here strike you as completely consistent with that in Thesis 50? 93. If we read this thesis carefully in the context of #92, which immediately precedes it, and which is couched in grammatically parallel form, what are we to understand as the sense of the dissertations, included claim that there is no cross? 94.-95. Can you see how Luther has crafted his conclusion to collaborate with Theses 1-4 at the very beginning, to form a frame for the rest? Does Luther think it is correct and spiritually healthy for a person to en betoog, seek to escape just punishment? (What evidence can you give for your answer?) What is the proper attitude to take towards the suffering that results from Original Sin? What elements of it are we under an obligation to resist? What elements of it are we under an obligation to communications, accept even to affirm? The force of essay your answer will come home to you to blockbuster case study, the degree that you explicitly recall for yourself what the effects of Original Sin are, according to the theology we constructed in the spirit of Augustine upon the Genesis account of the Fall of Mankind.
Go to the Home Page for English 233 (Introduction to Western Humanities: Baroque Enlightenment). Suggestions are welcome. Please send your comments to [email protected] . Contents copyright © 1997 by Lyman A. Baker. Permission is granted for non-commercial educational use; all other rights reserved.
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The Exquisite Repulsion of essay, “American Horror Story”: An Essay on Abjection. An African-American albino. A 200 year old woman who looks 45. A vagina that destroys all that enters it. A MINOTAUR. This is the stuff of abjection, and American Horror Story: Coven is overflowing with it. You hear that word — abject — and think of analysis, something done horribly, wretchedly.
In Coven ’s premiere, the Supreme Witch, Fiona (Jessica Lange) tells her daughter, Cordelia (Sarah Paulson) that her running of the witch academy has been an “abject failure”; ten minutes later, the essay en betoog, tour guide of Madame Lalaurie’s home calls it a site of online cheap, “abject horror.” It connotes a depth of something we don’t usually reach. But I want to talk about a slightly different connotation to en betoog, see if we can get to why American Horror Story treads the knife-edge between feminism and misogyny — and why so many of us can’t stop watching it. Abjection is more than just a depth of experience: it’s a theory of grossness, of confusion, of what we must reject in order to live. Stick with me here. Dissertations Communications? The theory of abjection is most famously pronounced in the work of Julia Kristeva, who, in Powers of en betoog, Horror: An Essay on Abjection , theorized the role of the abject in the building of both society and the psyche.
Abjection includes that which is dirty — feces, decay, etc. — but also that which crosses borders and confuses. The Judaic Tribes of the Hebrew Bible created laws concerning what was and wasn’t abject so that they wouldn’t die out: people naturally wanted to do things like have sex with their wives when the wives were on their periods, but when you’re living in the desert, as these Judaic Tribes were, you just can’t get yourself clean enough. Accessing the abject would be to strategic blockbuster case, risk disease and, ultimately, death. So what do you do? You make a woman’s menstrual cycle into something dirty and essay shameful — and write laws (still on the biblical books) that send that woman to a hut while menstruating. Eating pork was made abject because pigs were likely to pass along diseases — and essay question critique kill off the en betoog, tribe. Incest was made abject because sleeping with your family members would result in genetically deformed children — and case eventually kill off the essay en betoog, tribe. Homosexuality was made abject, because if you didn’t have sex that could make babies, you’d kill off the tribe.
By labeling certain things as gross, the tribe — and society — was able to survive. For Kristeva, the abject applies to that which makes one retch, but it is also, on a deeper level, “what disturbs identity, system, order. What does not respect borders, positions, rules. The in-between, the ambiguous, the composite.” These things disrupt the dissertations communications, Symbolic, meaning they disrupt the way that language works: if you see something that looks like a tree, you expect it to en betoog, be a tree. That’s how order works, how we get through everyday without going crazy. A thing is getting phd thesis what its sign — and the way our culture understands that sign — says it should be. But the en betoog, abject messes with that: you see the muscular, shirtless chest of a man and you think “man.” But then you look up and sports economics research see the head of an ox, and you think “animal.” Even if we have a name for essay en betoog, it in our symbolic (“minotaur”) it’s still compromising order. Men behave one way; animals behave another — what can you expect from this thing? The minotaur is a pretty straightforward example, but society also rejects things that are much more subtly confusing: the question, androgynous, the confusingly mixed-race. Essay En Betoog? Even if you, yourself, think that you’re okay with these sorts of ambiguities, you can recognize that society isn’t, as manifest in everything from the census form to the development of slurs used to denigrate and separate that sort of ambiguity as dangerous, unacceptable, not me. Historically, the abject – refuse, corpses, blood – is what must be pushed aside, rejected, and labeled as Other in strategic analysis blockbuster case order to essay en betoog, live.
Literally: reject this stuff or you die. Modernity has made bacteria much less of a problem, but the deep fear and distrust of the theme, abject remains. Rejecting the abject becomes a means of en betoog, shoring up identity: by clearly labeling what I am not , I receive a clear understanding of case study, what I am . By rejecting gender ambiguity, you solidify your own lack of gender ambiguity…. or so the essay en betoog, psychological process goes. But it’s never that simple. The abject is at once an object of fascination and of repugnance. Strategic Analysis? It draws in as it repels, seduces as it disgusts. It “fascinates desire,” but must, ultimately, be rejected. We want to see a corpse, not because we’re weird, but because a body should mean life — and here it doesn’t.
It confuses meaning, sure, but that’s gross and engrossing. So in order to make sure that no one will succumb to the temptation of hanging out with corpses, you’ve got to label corpses, and essay people who are fascinated by them, as disgusting and weird. Thus the abject is thoroughly shadowed with shame. Trespass into the abject must not only be a societal violation, but a moral one as well. Desire for online cheap, the chaotic, the border-breaking, the Other, is constructed as an offense to essay en betoog, God or common morality. Analysis? To be clear, there’s nothing about the abject that is a priori immoral: things, people, objects become abject through complex psychological processes. Some of essay, this is bound up in the physical — I’m sure an evolutionary biologist could explain to you why feces smell “bad” to us — but a lot of it is ideological and, as such, erases its traces. Transgender people aren’t gross; they’re confusing to our conservative symbolic order and destructors therefore constructed as abject, unnatural. We cloak confusion in the language of repulsion. Visual art provides the perfect opportunity to feed the attraction to the abject while simultaneously satisfying the need to reject it.
As film theorist Barbara Creed explains, you willingly go to a horror film to get “the shit scared out of essay, you” — just think about that wording. The abject is destructors essay explored right in essay en betoog front of you, but it’s distanced enough that you don’t have to fear being absorbed by it. It’s voyeurism, only theme essay you’re looking at essay the abject. The main horror genres are all magnifications of the published, abject: the vampire movie is essay en betoog all about gender ambiguity and drinking blood; the zombie movie is buy essays about the animated corpse; the essay, “meat” movie (Creed’s perfect word, not mine) is about humans who eat humans ( Night of the Living Dead , The Hills Have Eyes ). Over the course of the film, you also get to watch as abjection is vanquished, usually by the protagonist, with whom we, as audience members, subconsciously align ourselves. Phd Thesis Published? In so doing, we vanquish abjection, leaving the theater secure in the knowledge that we are not them . Over the essay, last two seasons, AHS has revelled in economics research paper the abject.
Sex with ghosts, stillborn babies, a housekeeper who looks one way for men and en betoog another for women, a nun possessed by the devil, sadist Nazi doctors, mutilated yet still living bodies, alien impregnations — and that’s just the first two seasons. The show has “an uncanny ability to provoke pure disgust,” according to Molly Lambert. “How many other shows can boast that they make viewers need to throw up?” Some of these storylines, especially the focus on the Nazis and the Nuns, highlight recurring abject fascinations. We return to stories of sports paper, Nazis and corrupt church officials, at least in part, because they’re so compellingly contradictory — the doctor who destroys; the steward of God who punishes. That contradiction — that confusion — is what makes us return to essay, them again and again, but it’s also incredibly reassuring. By labeling even the relatively recent history as abject, we distance it from ourselves. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Study? They were this way; we are not. Coven has two main focuses of abjection: slavery and the monstrous feminine. In the first ten minutes, we see abominations of human flesh, the work of the sadistic Madame Lalaurie (Kathy Bates).
She turns one human body inside out; on en betoog another, she places the head of a beast. So far, so abject. Communications? But she’s able to do these things because of the primary abjection of en betoog, racism: if you label an entire race as part animal, part man, part savage, part civilized, if you label that race as abject , then society will sanction the enslavement and othering of that race. In this way, racism — and slavery — becomes moral. But Lalaurie took that compunction too far.
In her desire to explore the abject, she herself became abject, which is why a mob stormed her house and, at least according to the narrative of question, Coven , hung her entire family. As for essay, Lalaurie, she became an embodiment of abjection: the corpse that breathes and never ages. Destructors Theme Essay? It’s no coincidence that all who cross her path once she emerges from the en betoog, ground, nearly 200 years later, remark on the putrid smell. Women have long been a source of abjection: they’re the keepers of the menstrual blood; they’re selfish with their babies, trying to keep them from entering into subjectivity, always trying to getting your, get them to stay and hang out in the pre-symbolic, pre-language, forever bound to their doting mothers. In tales of abjection, the abject feminine manifests as the sprawling abyss — the mother who threatens to consume, to castrate, to make others into essay, the gaping hole that is their lack. Creed points to analysis, examples of essay, this all-consuming feminine in buy essays cheap Alien , but I always think of the massive vagina dentata of Star Wars (the sarlacc — thanks, Google Image Search), so eager to consume Luke, Han, and Chewbacca, the very embodiments of righteous masculinity. In Coven , that’s Zoe (Taissa Farmiga), who may look meek and non-threatening on the surface — just like a doting mother would! — but whose inner void (re: murderous vagina) threatens to consume not just your penis, but your entire life. But the abject feminine doesn’t have to be represented as a lack or void. Per Freud, the fear of that lack is manifested in a substitute fetish object — usually some sort of substitute phallus — that distracts you from essay en betoog, her lack. Online? Medusa is the essay en betoog, example par excellence , the powerful, potentially castrating female with her glorious penis-like hair. Analysis Blockbuster Case? But witches also take this role: there’s a reason we draw them with pointy hats and en betoog protuberant noses.
The witches in Coven don’t wear black hats. Dissertations? They have normal, frankly beautiful noses. Essay En Betoog? But they are castrating bitches, that’s for sure. Fiona destroys or incapacitates all men who stand in her way. Cordelia has a husband of some sort, but the narrative suggests that she’s also bad at her witchy job.
The only man who lives at the school has his tongue cut out ; Madison (Emma Roberts) avenges the men who gang-raped her by flipping their bus…with her finger. Research Paper? When a man questions Queenie’s (Gabourey Sidibe) authority and essay insults her, she effectively submerges his arm in hot oil. Two men kill crocodiles with big pistols; Misty (Lily Rabe) has the crocodiles eat them. Strategic Study? Patriarchal authority figures who attempt to interfere — such as the policemen who visit in episode two — have their memories and, as such, the potential to wield any sort of power, wiped clean. Essay En Betoog? And don’t get me started on the Frankenstein man Madison and in marketing Zoe make out of dismembered body parts. The witches are dangerous — they’re abject — because they threaten order.
But it’s a very specific sort of order, namely, patriarchal order. To be a bitch, to practice “bitchcraft,” is a particular demonstration of female power, at once magnetic and repulsive. Just think of how we wield that word: as a means of policing behavior (“God, stop being such a bitch”). But “bitch” can also be recuperated and celebrated; to declare oneself a “bad bitch,” for example, is to revel in and acknowledge the essay, transgression of behavioral norms. A bitch like Fiona — single, independent, powerful — is so threatening (and/or attractive) because she’s seemingly dismissed the role patriarchy has set forth for her. In almost all forms of art, the monstrous feminine must be vanquished. She sticks around for getting, awhile, letting us gaze upon and be fascinated by essay en betoog, her, but her death is an absolute necessity if patriarchal order is to be restored. But things aren’t so simple in American Horror Story . It offers the basic abject pleasures of the horror genre, but it refuses to essay question critique, cooperate with the processes that call for essay en betoog, the ultimate rejection of getting your, those pleasures. It screws with the processes that sustain the essay en betoog, symbolic order — with the “Law of the Father,” as Jacques Lacan would put it, with patriarchy . It’s easy to see why Ryan Murphy — an openly gay man whose work has been systematically denigrated by Hollywood — would be invested in this project, and theme essay would collaborate with middle-aged women who have been similarly thrust aside.
In fact, Murphy’s oeuvre could be viewed as a sustained muddling of the lines that divide good and bad, high and low, queer and straight, campy and sincere, quality and pulp. Essay? As Willa Paskin points out, amidst the vaunted, masculine anti-heros of the sports economics, so-called “third golden age,” AHS is an amalgamation of essay en betoog, “undervalued genres, often dismissed as pulp” — horror flicks, women’s pictures, soaps, camp. But it looks great — the opening sequence alone is a study in aesthetic complexity — and boasts the same qualities that typify “quality” television (the auteurist showrunner; expensive production values; Hollywood actors; narrative complexity). American Horror Story disregards hierarchies. Online? It signifies as one thing and is another. It is, in other words, abject as hell. Which is precisely why it inspires the reactions it does: it’s addictive yet embarrassing; you love and hate it, can’t decide if it’s sympathetic or predatory, misogynistic or feminist. Fiona is a shameless ball-buster, but she’s also terrified by her own aging body, beholden to societal understandings of what “beauty” and essay “vitality” look like. Even as the “Supreme,” her power only question critique extends so far: she can decimate men, but she can’t decimate patriarchal ideology.
Those sorts of nuanced contradictions function as AHS ’s narrative engine: it feeds on them, explores and explodes them. In other texts and en betoog societal interactions, abjection is deployed as a tool of clarity — a way to strategic analysis case, delineate, to essay, categorize, to shore up identity and classification, to de-abjectify the self. Getting Published? American Horror Story does the essay en betoog, opposite: abjection begets abjection. Critique? You watch, and you might know that you’re not a witch, but you don’t know much else, either about the world or what you’re watching. It’s an exquisitely repulsive, wholly addictive place to be.
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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. “This is the end…” Actually, just the beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the en betoog, film but didn’t say much about it. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and question critique, brilliant – use of essay en betoog sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is “The End” by The Doors. Why a song about the end at the beginning of the film? Because it indicates the end of Captain Willard’s illusions about the war, and sports research, the end of America’s illusions as well.
The film was made in 1979, four years after the Vietnam War ended, and it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of “malaise” in the country. The United States had lost a war for the first time in its history; it’s technological prowess and superiority had been bested by a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and the message would have been quite different. I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the en betoog, norm for movie soundtracks. Blockbuster Case? This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of essay his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of sound to indicate character subjectivity” (236). They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of study Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to essay, us what Willard is thinking, in all it surreal contours.
We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of getting your phd thesis published a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades – the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. En Betoog? ). These are sounds that Willard is hearing. Getting Your Phd Thesis? The fact that the en betoog, sound is essay distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the essay, snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to get into the head of characters is the voice-over. As you know, there is plenty of that in Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the buy essays cheap, unconventional use of en betoog this device in the film: “Saigon. In Marketing? Shit. Essay? . . . Still in Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the dissertations, music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to the jungle. Like a lot of soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is lost and unmotivated without it. It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and plot, but for essay en betoog taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of destructors essay war. This is the en betoog, famous scene where the phd thesis, cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to the Stone Age,” destroying a village in en betoog, order to save it.
He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: “The Ride of the Valkyries,” from online, a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an essay, intertextual reference to [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge. Moreover, the online, choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the sound of essay children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. Strategic Blockbuster Case? The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of dread.
The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to empathy for the villagers. En Betoog? Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in buy essays cheap, the position of the attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the war on the “home-front,” with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the essay en betoog, film is also part of a larger sound design in the film, in in marketing, which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the essay en betoog, raid, and the sound of strategic analysis case study a cow being lifted by essay en betoog, a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is not bad sound design. Theme? The noise is an inescapable part of modern, mechanized war.
In the first half of the film, the essay en betoog, audience is encouraged to identify the noise with modern American society, and the quiet with rural Vietnam. It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). In regards to sound in films, if it’s soft and hard to hear, it’s important. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in theme essay, Apocalypse Now by focusing on a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. Essay? This is a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in essay critique, the private quarters of a general, and is given his mission to essay, kill Colonel Kurtz. First, there’s the dissertations in marketing communications, background music in the scene (which you really have to listen for). It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music.
It defines the general and the scene, in essay en betoog, contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy – or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to trust anyone over 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the general’s soft hands and buy essays cheap, fancy eating utensils, not to mention the delicacies they are eating during the scene. In this scene, we also hear Col. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. It’s significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. It’s even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of a madman. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to hear. Essay? We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in class. The “silent partner,” unlike the other two men, is cheap wearing civilian clothes.
He is most likely CIA. He does have one line, and it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to do to essay en betoog, kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the CIA officer basically issues the order to economics, WIllard to kill Kurtz. Essay? In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in strategic analysis blockbuster study, “mufti” (civilian clothes). This is Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by essay en betoog, the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is bombastic in getting phd thesis, his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA – the en betoog, “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in the Temple of strategic Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on the soundtrack used to define different characters and different scenes . There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in every scene.
The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for essay en betoog different scenes. If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the online cheap, boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is softer, more “Asian” in tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the en betoog, boat crew is on the river. I also have to point out the brilliant and devastating use of sound in the scene where Clean dies. You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and essay question, it continues on the soundtrack as the crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the exception of Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and come back to en betoog, us in one piece, while the dead, shot Clean lies on getting your phd thesis published the deck of the boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of silence in the second half of the film.
The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is set in en betoog, war-zones and much of the second half is set in Kurtz’s compound in the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because it’s noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and essay, his temple, are relatively quiet). Rather, as in the scene in essay, the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides. Dissertations In Marketing? There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace. He is en betoog also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by destructors theme, Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to essay en betoog, articulate things the way Kurtz can. “I wish I had the words…” he says at one point. Dissertations? But inarticulation is also one of Kurtz’s preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is en betoog ‘necessary’ to those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence.
In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. These are the flies that are feeding on paper the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. Essay? The silence can’t block out the flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. You would never be able to hear the sports economics research paper, flies during the battle scenes in the film. Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the dead and dying in essay, the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in economics research, the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the essay en betoog, quiet in essay, the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful. It is part of Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it.
That’s why the people are so quiet there. It’s one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of people there on the dock and the shore, but none of them utters a sound. En Betoog? In fact, they scatter when the quiet is disturbed by the boat’s siren. They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd. Willard is the new chief, the question, new tyrant.
Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the en betoog, horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in the quiet that the horror manifests itself. That is, the film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out a person’s inner demons, not the bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones. War is also represented – or cloaked – by quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to strategic study, Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind. Never again will war be known only by the sounds of explosions.
It will also be known by the softer sounds of essay en betoog implosions, of minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in theme, Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is essay en betoog a story about a psychopathic serial killer. I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and analysis blockbuster case, a critical disaster. Powell was practically “blacklisted” in essay en betoog, movies for years afterward. The purpose of my blog entry was to figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. Phd Thesis? I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on essay en betoog right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera.
I do want to buy essays online, write something on Psycho , by itself, in relation to what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Essay? Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is coded as male. Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an indication of power or control within the movie. Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s.
essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in which men have the power to actively look upon passive female bodies. In Marketing? Women became objectified objects, symbols of en betoog castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in theme essay, this by allowing women to always be on display for the male viewer. Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of essay en betoog film are male, and not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulvey’s idea about the male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in Hitchcock’s films. Simply put, the study, Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of view in Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). En Betoog? This is not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is Mulvey’s textbook example of the Male Gaze at work. Getting Your Published? Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in en betoog, other films by Hitchcock.
This includes Psycho . Destructors? (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in essay, terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of getting your phd thesis published these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to en betoog, indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is essay question critique prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on women that make up so much of essay our entertainment today. . . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of ‘masochists’. Cheap? Rape and en betoog, violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in buy essays online, the films – the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of her anarchic desires – but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. Essay? (17). But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater.
The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about research paper, Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and wrote a study of Hitchcock’s The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of “the male gaze” that is associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over en betoog, feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an theme, object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over essay en betoog, woman by turning her into mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. Buy Essays Cheap? . . . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the en betoog, contrary. Dissertations Communications? But the basis of my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Let’s call it the “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the course, is a term quite similar to “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what he’s doing.
Hitchcock doesn’t leer at women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the machinery of misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is en betoog often on display in Psycho . And she is often watched by men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the online, Bates Motel she is being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the essay, way to in marketing, Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. En Betoog? The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in their voyeuristic qualities, with the cop intently watching Marion from across the destructors theme, street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. In the opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and en betoog, Sam are having their tryst. But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to it.
He is self-aware about it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it. Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the subject of essay question critique a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by the script and the representation of the characters.
A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of Marion’s activities, we . . En Betoog? . feel he is being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in the crime also. The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the getting your, sunglasses, the film viewer never really takes on the point of view of the en betoog, police officer in analysis case study, this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing.
That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of view. This is another example of how Hitchcock is self-aware in Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene. Spachis describes the scene: The parlor room in en betoog, which they have lunch is filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the essay, action of capture and en betoog, the bird’s all-seeing point of strategic analysis blockbuster view on essay en betoog its prey. Norman’s declaration to dissertations, Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an ‘eagle-eye’ view of essay en betoog Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of Norman’s Male Gaze. But the Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the strategic analysis blockbuster case study, scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Carr writes: After Marion leaves the parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the camera zooming in on his eye.
This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for a shower, and when the camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an en betoog, objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in profile nearing closer to economics research paper, the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism.
We are both shocked at essay his invasion of her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Cheap? Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of Norman’s arousal and the manifestation of his desire from behind a wall – forever kept apart from essay en betoog, any possible sexual gratification. Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of strategic case study scene, and find pleasure in essay en betoog, it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the essay, fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on essay Marion in a bedroom.
We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). Essay? The extraordinary close-up of Norman’s eye, filling the essay en betoog, screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and question, Marion’s hotel room, the tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of essay en betoog Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in various stages of buy essays online dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall. Essay? During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. We didn’t notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on cheap Norman’s point of view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is no longer innocent. We are aware of en betoog what it means now. Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in dissertations in marketing communications, the guise of his mother attacks Marion with a knife.
Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the Male Gaze, and en betoog, see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and screams, goes so far as to theme essay, visualize the essay en betoog, violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”. Online Cheap? It is an onscreen manifestation of the male’s desire to en betoog, “rape” the female, and Marion’s murder (in which the audience is forced to, at blockbuster times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is en betoog tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on essay question her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is essay en betoog “an opportunity for the presumed male audience to see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on screen. Destructors Theme? This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975). . . . If this scene was in essay en betoog, reverse (as in, the online cheap, camera viewpoint was from Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.”
Spachis notes all the “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in essay en betoog, the scene: the shower-head, the drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of destructors theme a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to en betoog, see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. To a very great extent the violence is phd thesis implied, though we certainly have no sense of essay censorship. Sports Paper? In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and essay en betoog, the desire not to see a brutal murder. Essay? But Hitchcock won’t give us the one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of en betoog Hitchcock making the viewer pay for his or her desire by forcing the him or her to your phd thesis, witness a murder. It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of desire. Hitchcock is self-aware about watching in the shower scene, and if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too. He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the essay en betoog, way men, in particular, objectify women when watching films.
The basic premise of what I’m arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about question, it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the experience of watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and essay, invisible. But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is theme self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course.
University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988). Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at essay You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (there’s also an essay, at the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to sports research, know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates. It is an example of how timing in essay en betoog, the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cuts, is significant.
At the beginning of the scene, the cheap, timing and essay, the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the timing changes to communications, show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and en betoog, disturbing. The second instance of online cheap editing in essay en betoog, Psycho mentioned in the textbook is the short sequence that shows the murder of the blockbuster study, private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. En Betoog? This is an example of collage – encouraging “the audience to economics research paper, compare and contrast the essay, cinematographic qualities of each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193). The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in destructors essay, the stair landing on en betoog the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of strategic blockbuster study Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs. The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to essay, explain the significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the contrast between the long shot and the close-up of the big head as the knife came down on him.
It was like music, you see, the high shot with the online cheap, violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of this quote, that it “suggests how the essay en betoog, director was acutely aware of the dissertations communications, way abrupt changes in camera positioning can evoke an emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and essay, cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the other formal film elements we’ve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in getting your phd thesis, the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to essay en betoog, juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.
Hitchcock was also interested in distancing, and disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in phd thesis, terms of cinematography, the essay en betoog, shot of Arbogast falling down the stairs is distinctive. It is an example of the “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at online cheap the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is optically confusing and essay en betoog, causes discomfort and misapprehension in the audience. Communications? (We see the same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at essay en betoog the beginning of the film, which is actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into theme essay the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is en betoog implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to say about the intrusive camera in this scene, in another post.
Then I showed you an example of an eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the phd thesis, money, or not. Throughout the scene, the essay en betoog, editing shows Marion glancing nervously at question critique the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to take the money; and this sets up the most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the en betoog, audience as to getting your phd thesis, the true direction of the plot, becoming a “red herring”). Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the essay, stolen money. Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by in marketing communications, quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of a rain-drenched road. Once Marion decides to stop her car at the side of the road to sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and the policeman in sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in essay en betoog, an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the paper, fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an essay en betoog, ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in the shot; and then, to emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the camera cuts to shots of the police car in the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up).
Let me add that, as the camera usually has a point of view, the editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to take on Norman’s crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by theme, now quite common in horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the scene where Norman is watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to Norman, the money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the shot/reverse slows down. Instead of creating suspense by speeding up the cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in essay en betoog, the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to sink. Destructors? In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in essay en betoog, the scene.
One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in this sequence is essay that the sinking of the car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the essay en betoog, swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. Published? While the final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and Lila (Marion’s sister) go to the Bates motel to investigate. We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for essay en betoog time, and cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.
Bates in getting your published, the house. This, like much of the editing in the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the interesting things about the cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of killing Marion to steal the $40,000, Lila – by way of many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and insanity. That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of things, just by closely observing the details in Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Essay? Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine! Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Highlights.
With it’s use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the cinematography of getting phd thesis published Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the essay, reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for strategic blockbuster the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon some of the essay en betoog, more innovative uses of cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the cheap, beginning of the en betoog, film, this is one of the more striking shots in the film. Using the broken snow globe that the critique, dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the essay, reflection of a nurse entering the room. It is a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death.
2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27). This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at essay critique the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the buildings at Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the en betoog, case in the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane). Both are used to communicate power. Note also the grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the strategic case study, look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58).
I discussed this shot in class. Though it is made to look like one long crane shot, it is really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welles’s Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15). At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in New York city. We then have a montage of different newspaper headlines and essay, the older Thatcher’s response to them; in the final instance of this, there is analysis blockbuster case study a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of essay en betoog Kane and Thatcher at blockbuster case Kane’s Inquirer office.
During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in essay en betoog, the shot. He begins, once again, by towering over Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. Research? I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in this scene in Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and editing. En Betoog? We see, reflected in a window, the logo of economics research paper Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon Kane, Leland, and Bernstein. The camera zooms in on a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the ten journalists now work for Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is essay one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing. Buy Essays Online Cheap? Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window.
As is often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in Citizen Kane , the en betoog, figures in the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in getting your published, the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from a cigar and it covers over essay en betoog, the figure of online cheap Kane in the window. Here the en betoog, camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). The scene in which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from question, Leland’s point of view, and then from Susan’s point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to essay en betoog, two lowly stagehands high above the action, as Susan sings. One holds his nose to indicate what he (and Leland and just about everybody besides Kane) thinks about Susan’s singing. When it comes time for Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from behind the stage. So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the wings (Susan), to indicate two different points of view.
From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from sports economics research paper, high above the en betoog, stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the getting your phd thesis, stage lights are replaced by Kane). This is essay en betoog certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is due more to editing than cinematography. 7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). Near the end of the your phd thesis published, film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is a lot of interesting camera work.
First, there is the en betoog, eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of a reflection ad infinitum of communications Kane . This summarizes not only Paul’s view of Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the essay, very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by essay question, saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. This brings us back to the idea, suggested by the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and en betoog, zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of in marketing these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on essay en betoog the fire. This suggests the transience of things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at the end of his life:
And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of getting Kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the essay, decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of buy essays online Maryland. Citizen Kane and essay en betoog, Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of dissertations fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and en betoog, closer to strategic, xanadu. snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and essay, thatcher (movement foreground to background, low and high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists)
Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of shot susan from cheap, audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of opera house (shot now from backstage, showing change to susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to essay, objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles. Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of essay question critique H. En Betoog? G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane —highly unusual at a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and dissertations in marketing communications, offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget.
He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over budget. This time he didn’t. Essay? The film was released according to Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the getting phd thesis, work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the resources of the studio – the first American mainstream art film” (50). The Ballad of en betoog Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst.
Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to destroy the dissertations communications, film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to buy the film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. En Betoog? He initiated a campaign in strategic blockbuster study, his newspapers demonizing the film and Welles. Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and refused to publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of en betoog “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of destructors theme essay Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only essay en betoog, after which it was hailed by critics as one of the getting published, best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on the look-out for essay en betoog “Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of getting phd thesis film art within the artistic constraints imposed by essay, the studio system.
The studio ‘factory’ was seen to getting your published, have produced its auteurs against the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles. In the history of essay en betoog Hollywood film, Welles is considered by essay question critique, some a tragic figure, an artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in en betoog, previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welles’s producers at essay RKO cut an hour out of the film and tacked on a happy ending. They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed.
This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the beginning of the end of Welles’s Hollywood career. Essay En Betoog? He made most of his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for published critical thinking and progress as the New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in essay, Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and getting phd thesis, a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at all) in 1941.
Instead, the Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the essay, Academy voters want to destructors essay, send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and en betoog, solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in your published, Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for television syndication – and particularly after French critics got a hold of it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of critics’ lists. According to en betoog, the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to the second spot in the poll. Theme? It was bested by Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is what the British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of essay en betoog deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in sports research, focus) and abstracted camera angles, the essay en betoog, non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.
Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the blockbuster, film goes “after the dark heart of the American dream.” And here is what BFI says about en betoog, Vertigo : This classic from the master of suspense was so poorly received upon release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of economics research paper male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the essay en betoog, traps of desire. A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to dizzying heights by Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. Some critics see dark forces at work. Essay? For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking:
The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in essay en betoog, 2002, when the blogosphere was still in online, diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of essay communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever. That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired.
University of Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in the Sight and published, Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, “Film in Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. “The Mark of Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48.
Stanley Kubrick and essay en betoog, his Conspiratorial Interpreters. According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. Essay Question Critique? But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the last 40 years.” Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations. There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in the supposed faked moon landing of 1969. He bases his interpretation, in essay, part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in economics paper, Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further:
As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on the room’s key: ROOM No 237. Essay? “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them,” Weidner says. “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on the key, the tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of a coincidence.) One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullman’s office. According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on the hotel. She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to getting, contain the monster. As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in the film. Essay En Betoog? She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film. Her evidence is quite circumstantial but it is your published not a stretch to say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the en betoog, minotaur and your, the labyrinth in the film.
Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the essay, ski poster that Kearns focuses on destructors essay also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an essay en betoog, academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the theme essay, Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Essay En Betoog? Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the Holocaust. “That typewriter, that German. typewriter – which by the way changes color in the course of the film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is your published terribly, terribly important as a referent to en betoog, that particular historical event.” This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny).
It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for your what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in essay en betoog, production) in The Shining . For instance, there is in marketing a chair that disappears in one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to parody the horror genre. Essay En Betoog? Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and economics research paper, Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse.
Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of essay BIll Blakemore, an sports economics research paper, ABC News reporter. Watercutter doesn’t say much about Blakemore’s larger theory that the film is en betoog about the genocide of Native Americans. In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Blakemore sees the destructors theme essay, traces of Native Americans all throughout the film (and there is essay quite a bit of sports Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in en betoog, one scene, on Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film – which is somehow evidence for destructors the presence of Native Americans – and essay en betoog, claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is full of Native American designs.
Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing. In the art deco design of the online, carpet in room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in geometric form with round curves – the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . Essay En Betoog? . . Sort of like the essay critique, picture of down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the cut in Ascher’s documentary. Most of his ideas are contained in an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of en betoog his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the sports, one where he claims that there is essay en betoog something meaningful in the river of blood, and the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in in marketing communications, the photograph that we see at essay en betoog the end of the film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to theme, advances in technology. She writes:
There was no internet when The Shining was released and en betoog, it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for obsessive watching and online, re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of en betoog theories online is only something that’s been around in economics, the latter part of the film’s history. We can only essay, guess what kind of theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at getting published anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and essay en betoog, backwards to their heart’s content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the kind of in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of times. “It’s not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about essay question, Room 237 at essay en betoog Grantland . Buy Essays Cheap? “It’s a matter of noticing things that the director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention.” Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know.
Rodney has pointed out that the photograph at the end is essay played almost like a big reveal of ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Case? If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is essay en betoog also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and there’s a reason,” says Kirk. “That is a jumping off point for a lot of blockbuster case people. . . . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . . . there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and en betoog, no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is what I call argument by mise-en-scene. It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an accident. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.
The Shining is a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesn’t list the one I discovered: in the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the sports economics research, ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the en betoog, incident occurred three years before). “The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!”
So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to strategic analysis, cover up the essay, fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to online cheap, be distracted from the fact that he messed up on essay en betoog the Grady daughters, the your published, prop left in the river of blood shot, the changed typewriter, the missing chair, the essay en betoog, missing Dopey, the theme essay, floor plan of the hotel, and the changed room number. How else to explain a film that is about the essay, Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in strategic analysis blockbuster case study, the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself. Essay En Betoog? And we have only scratched the surface of essay all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. It’s only essay en betoog, a matter of time before someone links The Shining to essay, the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and essay, the Mayan Apocalypse.
I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of blood. Prepare yourself. . . . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Vary. “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).