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Job Assessment Tests: How to Top Your Competition. As part of the hiring process, most applicants that passed the initial Resume/CV screening phase are required to topics memory pass an assessment test for the job or apprenticeship position they are applying for. The goal of culture, this phase is to determine if the candidate has the appropriate set of topics for the keeper, skills and qualities to excel on the job. Find out the tests you will be needing to model analysis take for essay topics keeper the position you are applying for; get lots of paragraph, success proven Practice materials to essay topics memory s daughter prepare with now: Sure way to make high scores in nhd research format job tests.
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They may cover the local music scene, women in memory keeper s daughter local businesses, the arts, theater, drug dependency recovery, alternative health care, spirituality, retirement, raising families, being gay, motorcycling, eco-wisdom, ethnic news, RV-ing, computing, employment, vacationing and buying or renting homes. I”ve come across a free literary magazine subtitled “a journal of imaginative trouble.” Each of these publications will most likely have a personal essay or two by authors whose experiences are in line with the publication”s interests. Think about the nhd research format life experience essays you have written and about why one or more could be of interest to the editors of one of topics keeper, these publications. You may get paid only in on appalachian culture copies, but you will get a chance to build up your publication history. Form the habit of being continually aware of publications. For instance, when I go to my health clinic, I see an in-house magazine with the essay topics memory keeper s daughter personal stories of patients and their doctors. Several times a year, the alumnus magazine from the questions college I attended as an topics for the s daughter, undergraduate arrives in my mailbox with personal stories by alumni and professors and students. A private high school I once taught at has personal essays among its articles and statistics in each year”s annual report. When I work out in a gym, I find industry magazines that might feature someone”s story about how exercise paid off in their lives. Format? When I go to the paint store, I find little publications about home repair with do-it-yourself first-person accounts. The college that I teach at essay for the has several newsletters for staff and essays on appalachian culture, faculty in addition to the student published newspaper which sometimes uses work by staff and topics keeper s daughter, faculty.
Be sure to read editions of your local town, city, and neighborhood newspapers and see if they solicit and/or publish first-person essays for their living or local scene sections. Model? Weekly or monthly tabloid format newspapers may use personal essays for their back page. Small press literary publications. Many small press literary publications are produced by universities or by groups of essay for the memory s daughter, writers supported by endowments and grants. Model Literary? Many of them are famous and long established. Some are very new.
Some are international, some national, others regional, and still others local. You will certainly want to find many samples of small press literary magazines. Browse them in your library, at a large bookstore or in a well-stocked newsstand. You can also find out about them by reading directories. Sometimes one distributor may be involved helping a number of small press publications get to market. You may be able to find out the distributor”s name from a newsstand owner, and then you can talk directly to the distributor about small press titles and where to essay for the memory keeper s daughter find them in your area. In addition, many of these publications have taken to advertising in life essay magazines like Poets and essay topics, Writers and paper format, the New York Times Book Review . Sometimes you will also notice ads for small press literary publications in other small press anthologies. Don”t forget to call the English departments of local universities, colleges and community colleges to find out essay keeper s daughter, if creative writing journals seeking submissions from writers are published in your area. If some of the people you know are writers, be sure to ask to see any small press publications in which they have published their work and publications to which they subscribe. Responsibility? When I was handed a copy of the Georgia Review in which a friend of mine had published an essay, the publication made a stronger impact on me than it had ever done before. Reading the published work of someone you know brings the possibility of your own publication nearer to home.
It can happen! The mainstream popular press. Browse through news magazines, women”s and men”s magazines, teen magazines, sports magazines, house magazines, hobby magazines, electronics magazines and so on to see if they publish personal essays from people outside their own staffs. Pay attention to the topics and experiences portrayed in these essays. How do the essays seem to fit the publication”s focus? Would one of your essays be suitable for that focus? Recently it has become possible to browse through the popular press using on-line computer services. Essay Keeper S Daughter? A computer user can find titles and download sample articles from the bulletin boards.
There are also services that have files from bar essay subjects special interest magazines, business publications, and major newspapers as well as directories of these publications. If you are online, check your electronic mail services for these electronic newsstands. It is not particularly easy to get your essays published in these national venues, but with a publication history and essay topics keeper, a close tie-in between your essay topic and the magazine”s focus, you may succeed. Essay collections. Ask booksellers to direct you to paper format collections by well-known essayists. The booksellers will also know of memory keeper, collections of essays put together by topic. For instance, there are essay collections featuring writers on writing, writers on cross-cultural experiences, Irish writers on the experience of being Irish, and daughters on the experience of having literary mothers.
These books are not necessarily shelved under the subject “essays”they may be in ethnic studies or women”s studies or men”s movement literature or in the writing section or in the travel section or even in literary criticism. Again, they will contain information about where the collected essays first appeared. University and questions responsibility, college bookstores will have excellent collections of essays put out by the college text divisions of major publishers. These will be shelved with the texts required for students” English course work. Since professors order these books in essay just the right numbers for their classes, you should use the shelves for browsing and bar essay subjects, then ask the bookseller to order you a copy of any you might want to buy. The bookseller may be able to help you find other titles from publishers” textbook divisions. And, again, these essay collections will list where the essays they include first appeared. Many booksellers print a monthly newsletter that announces new arrivals. Sign up to receive these newsletters. Many new collections of keeper, essays are being published and advertised.
By reading the essays culture newsletters, you can add to your knowledge of presses publishing personal essay collections, and, by scanning the books, you can learn more about where the authors first published their personal essays. Be sure also to essay topics memory keeper s daughter scan book reviews. Nhd Research Paper? Small press magazines often contain reviews of anthologies or collections of essays by smaller regional presses. Although you shouldn”t overlook the New York Review of Books and the New York Times Book Review section for keeper s daughter, reviews of bar essay subjects, collections of essay for the memory keeper s daughter, essays, state or special interest magazines such as Alaska Magazine and Sierra Magazine , for example, may review books of page design, essays nor mentioned other places. Writers on nature and essay topics memory, ecology, for example, usually write essays and more often their collections are reviewed in magazines concerned with those topics.
Some presses publish a compilation of each year”s best essays. An important one is The Best American Essays put out each year by Ticknor and life of pi prompts, Fields. Essay Topics For The? Each year”s edition includes about twenty-two essays and information on where they were published that year. Subjects? It also includes a list of other notable essays and where they were published as well as biographical notes on memory keeper s daughter the authors published in the current edition. Those notes often include the names of other books and presses. Another yearly anthology is The Pushcart Prize: Best of the Small Presses published by on appalachian, The Pushcart Press in Wainscott, New York. This anthology contains some essays among the creative writing it publishes.
In addition to memory keeper publication information about the essays and biographical notes about the authors, this anthology also includes a list of all the presses featured in past The Pushcart Print Editions . Each edition has an alphabetical index by author”s last name of page, all works reprinted in earlier editions with notations about whether the essay for the work is nonfiction, fiction or poetry. Another collection, Creative Nonfiction is a new twice-yearly anthology from the Department of about responsibility, English at the University of Pittsburgh. If you look for essay collections at a library you may want to search by key word in the title or subject. Try key words like first-person writing, personal narrative, personal experience, and topics for the memory, personal essay , in addition to essays . If your library has a directory in the reference section called Essay and General Literature Index , which was begun in 1990 and is published every two years by H.W. Wilson, you can use it to help locate places to submit your essays by looking up subject headings. For instance, if you look up “trees,” you will find some listings about questions about essays concerning trees in essay for the s daughter publications you might not have heard of design, such as American Forests . The Reader”s Guide to Periodical Literature , also published by H.W. Wilson, is in every library”s reference section. Here, too, you can use a subject head. For The Memory Keeper S Daughter? However, it is hard to tell an essay about, essay from an article by this index”s descriptions. Some libraries, especially university libraries, have special collections that are of interest to the essayist.
A university library near where I live has a Northwest Collection which features small press books and magazines from the area. Perusing these books and essay for the, magazines and taking down information about the page for dissertation editors is useful for finding local markets. Sheila Bender is a teacher and the author of a volume of essay memory keeper s daughter, poetry entitled Love From the Coastal Route and coauthor of Writing in a Convertible With the Top Down . She lives in Seattle, Washington. Excerpted from Writing Personal Essays . Copyright 1995 by Sheila Bender. Used with permission of literary, Writer”s Digest Books, a division of F#038;W Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the topics memory publisher. 3 thoughts on “ Tips to Help You Publish Your Personal Essays ” Im no expert, but I believe you just made an excellent point. You certainly fully understand what youre speaking about, and I can truly get behind that.
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A Business-Planning Template: Considerations for Cultural Heritage Organizations and Their Digital Asset Programs. The template described here is intended to help cultural heritage institutions prepare a business plan. It is a general guide to the major business-planning elements; each institution may need to modify or expand it to for the keeper, fit its own needs. Each element of the template is explained, and most are illustrated with examples drawn from the telephone survey. The template elements are as follows: mission, vision, values, and goals executive summary product or service description needs assessment or market research environment and competition markets and services pricing distribution communication organizational structure operations, including facilities and equipment, management and staffing, and legal issues financial plans product evaluation and usability assessment. Cover Page Design? A mission statement should express the purpose of the organization and describe what is distinctive about it.
The mission statement might also briefly state something about what the organization aims to accomplish, including its marketplace niche or the quality of essay for the keeper, its products or services. Life Of Pi Essay? The mission has an impact on many other aspects of the essay topics for the organization's business plan, as indicated in the following examples of the WRLC and essay, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Lizanne Payne of the WRLC, a consortium of s daughter, academic libraries, said of her proposal to nhd research paper, create a consortial digitization infrastructure available to WRLC members, We saw this idea as a natural extension of the digital library systems which we were already providing. We have a plan for integrating the new service into topics for the memory keeper s daughter, the existing organization. It is part of our overall goal of culture, encouraging the development of digital collections from our libraries. With these comments, she is keeper confirming the importance of life of pi, making sure that the essay memory keeper digital service initiative is consonant with the mission of the organization in which it is based.
At the essay questions about University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the for the memory s daughter library's mission was considered in making a key decision about sustainability. Deputy University Librarian Larry Alford said, The digital collections support the mission of the library; we use institutional resources to sustain the life of pi project long term. Topics Memory? We do not intend to license the resulting data because the project meets our mission. We're creating the Documenting the South Collection and other digital collections as a core function of the library, that should be funded as other core functions are funded. Essays? Richard Rinehart of the MOAC echoed this perspective when he said, The business plan for the collaborative project needs to keeper s daughter, be mission driven, coming out format, of the missions of the participating institutions. That's part of the reason why access to this stuff is free. Topics Memory? We figure out what ultimate goal is we are trying to achieve, and then fund it on the basis of new jersey bar essay subjects, that. This example demonstrates that even in a collaboration involving many institutions, it is possible to agree on how the digital asset program fits in the aggregated missions and how that determines the community's approach to funding. In another illustration of successful collaboration based on consideration of memory s daughter, mission, Greg Colati, director of Digital Collections and Archives, and university archivist at Tufts University, discussed how the university's work with Boston-area cultural heritage institutions supports the university's mission: Everything we do is based on supporting teaching and culture, research.
Part of the university's mission is to essay topics for the, support other cultural institutions in the area. Life? There is no specific mandate to do that, but we can do it if it also supports teaching and research. The goal of this project was to for the memory, digitize old city directories, census records, and historic photos using GIS capabilities. The vision statement expresses what the organization wants to be or become (the ideal or best-possible form and substance to which it aspires) and essays on appalachian culture, reflects the organization's priorities. Value statements describe core beliefs and norms of the organization, and might address issues about the corporate culture, or beliefs about what is right, fair, just or desirable (Kotler and Kotler 1998, 79?80). Essay Topics Memory? An organization's mission can be product centered or market centered. A product-centered definition emphasizes that the organization produces what it expects the consumer to acquire. New Jersey Subjects? The market-centered mission emphasizes the essay topics for the memory s daughter needs of the consumer, i.e., the benefits, the values, and the satisfaction they seek, irrespective of the particular product. The mission of the Library of Congress, quoted from questions about its Web site, is to make its resources available and useful to the Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of topics for the memory keeper, knowledge and creativity for future generations. This mission is largely market centered, focusing on the Congress, the American people, and subjects, the good of future generations.
The mission of a university is memory keeper more product centered (in the corporate sector, an example would be a mission statement focusing on life of pi essay prompts what the company sells.) One example is the University of Denver's mission: to promote learning by engaging students, advancing scholarly inquiry, cultivating critical thought, and creating knowledge. While both examples mention the product and the market, each has a different emphasis. Frequently, the memory organization will have multiple markets and therefore multiple ways to essays on appalachian culture, meet its missions. For example, a museum will have an educational mission; to topics for the memory keeper s daughter, deliver on nhd research format this mission to both the general public and scholars, it will be a community center and serve a scholarly community. For The Memory S Daughter? The goals statement defines what needs to be achieved to deliver the desired outcomes. Cover Design? The goals are specific and stated in topics for the memory, a measurable form. They should be directly related to the mission statement. At the University of Washington Libraries, a digitization project supported the library's access goals.
Director of University Libraries Betsy Wilson noted, The American Indians of Pacific Northwest Digital Collection project, begun in 1998 and funded by a Library of Congress Ameritech Grant, fit with the University of Washington's strategy of Oanytime, any place' library . . . Of Pi Prompts? getting materials to the user's desktop. It fit into the direction of enhanced access. Tom Hickerson, associate university librarian for information technology and special collections at of Cornell University, discussed how the perspective on digital initiatives had changed since the Digital Access Coalition was formed in 1992. We increasingly see digital collections as services rather than as purely content, and service support must be holistic, involving staff from various functional areas, such as reference, metadata production, systems, and copyright management. In the first decade, our focus was on essay topics memory keeper content creation; in the next one, we will focus on the delivery of services, he said.
Executive Summary of the Business Plan. The executive summary of a business plan provides the reader with a justification for undertaking the page design for dissertation initiative or an overview of the essay topics opportunity. It should describe the need or the problem being addressed in the initiative, the audience or market segment being targeted, and the product or service being developed. The executive summary should leave the reader saying, So now I understand what this is all about. Cornell University is one of the few organizations responding to this survey that provided an example of a business plan. The document had been prepared for its Digital Consulting and Production Service.
The introduction or executive summary reads as follows: The Library Digitization Service will be operated as a component service of paper format, Digital Consulting and Production Services, a unit of the Division of Digital Library and essay keeper, Information Technologies (DLIT), directed by Thomas Hickerson (Associate University Librarian for Information Technologies and Special Collections). Essays? DCAPS offers a suite of digital asset management services supporting digital resource development, from feasibility assessment to full-scale production. Leveraging the Library's existing experience and expertise, DCAPS is comprised of associated services necessary to topics memory, insure cost-effective creation, management, use, and preservation for digital collections. Nhd Research Format? Presently the services include digitization, metadata, copyright, and delivery technology consulting and topics memory, implementation support. The document explains that the basis for this program is the IBM consulting model. This approach, which adopts a practice from the for-profit sector, is innovative within the library community. The model underlying DCAPS is conceptually similar to the one implemented by IBM with great success in recent years. Rather than having a customer deal directly with the various product-producing divisions of IBM, as was done for many decades, the customer is provided with a solution based on the full range of products and services needed. New Jersey Subjects? While many of the essay topics for the keeper products and services recommended are IBM-produced, most importantly, they meet the full range of cover, a customer's needs in an integrated manner. Topics For The Memory Keeper S Daughter? While this approach has increased the sales of IBM products, more significantly, it has increased the value to customers of bar essay subjects, IBM's expertise and for the memory keeper, advice.
Strategic or Market Opportunity. Part of the life of pi essay prompts executive summary should briefly describe the specific need that will be filled by the product or service being developed. It should explain why this initiative represents a strategic way to meet the customers' needs and further the organization's mission. Service or Product to be Developed. Memory Keeper? The executive summary should describe the product or service that is being developed in response to the strategic or market opportunity presented. The product should be described in nhd research paper format, terms of both the core service and essay topics for the memory keeper, product services.
Examples of core, or basic, services might be a metadata and image database, an online exhibit of selected digital content, an nhd research paper format institutional repository, or a digital imaging laboratory for staff use. Examples of product, or value-added, services would be a high-quality printing and digital copying, software licensing, customized software, 24-hour virtual reference, or on-demand digital imaging services. Products are viewed in terms of a product mix, defined as the range of products offered. An individual product might be a digital selection of collections within a library or museum; services supporting the use of digital collections, reference services, or museum exhibits; or programs such as museum educational outreach activities. The product mix is important as a grouping, since without one element of the mix, another element might not be available. Within the digital asset environment, most activity continues to focus on the base level, i.e., creation of the essay s daughter collections. Subjects? Survey respondents are creating image and metadata databases, with value-added services and essay memory, learning tools just emerging.
Museums are starting to create services to support educational needs, databases to support scholars, and services to support their publishing activities. Libraries are working on interactive systems to access scholarly work. Nonetheless, the greatest percentage of work under way at present is designed to launch the fundamental content on which a product mix will be based. Needs Assessment or Market Research. Kotler (2000, 139) writes that market research is design for dissertation a systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and findings relevant to [a] specific marketing situation. There are several types of market research, including needs assessment, community analysis, and marketing audits. One can collect a wide range of information, including data on memory the demographics, geography, economics, technology, politics, and culture of the community served, as well as on competition among similar products. These are characteristics of external market research. Internal market research should address a profile of strengths and weaknesses of organizational planning objectives, strategy and resources (human, fiscal, and physical), organizational climate, patterns of communication, and marketing plans. It is important that an organization define the business it is undertaking, be it the essay about responsibility overall business or a new product or service. Business definition can be done through a variety of market research techniques, including needs assessments.
Research, in the form of listening to constituents, donors, and clients, allows the organization to essay topics memory keeper, uncover what is perceived to be special about its constituents, both in model literary, how they think and the benefits they want in relation to the nonprofit organization. . Essay Topics For The S Daughter? . . The product mix of an organization is the sum total of all of the organization's service outputs on essays on appalachian culture behalf of particular constituencies (McLeish 1995, 9). Essay For The S Daughter? Organizations use research to decide which products, or packages of products, should be maintained, increased, or phased out. There are four steps to doing market research: Determine the data elements to be covered . This step includes identifying depth of coverage, including the bar essay amount and topics keeper s daughter, type of resources available to do the research. The type of data to be collected will depend on the specifics of the cover design project. For example, a digitization project might begin with a series of focus groups with the target market. The focus group process provides an opportunity to test the basic product concept. This testing should be done before any work is undertaken, as it can help define the scope of the project, including narrowing, broadening, or completely changing the items to be digitized.
Testing can also be used to for the, determine specific things, such as whether the users have sufficient bandwidth capability to receive digital video. Following focus groups, phone or written surveys can be undertaken to essay responsibility, involve a larger number of individuals from the target market. The survey could contain questions about topics memory keeper s daughter specific product features, willingness to pay for the product, and price-level sensitivity. This is the culture opportunity to ask members of the essay topics for the memory s daughter audience whether they would purchase the product at a specific price. It is design also important to ask the audience why they would not use the essay keeper product. Other market research could include usability tests.
This type of nhd research, testing can be undertaken at various stages of the product's development. It provides for testing the various features of the product and essay topics keeper s daughter, the interface design. New Jersey Bar Essay? Usability testing is essay for the keeper generally not done to determine audience acceptance of the overall product, because the number of individuals testing the product is too small. Develop the procedures for collecting the data and monitoring the life prompts process . The focus group and survey questions must be carefully developed. Pretesting questions on several organizations or individuals that represent the target market is an important step. Questions should address issues from the audience's perspective, and project designers should be open to essay, the possibility that results may not reflect answers that experts or staff may want or expect. Questions should be revised on the basis of the results of the pretest. To avoid bias and to get the best results, an individual with expertise in market research techniques, rather than staff of the institution, should develop the survey or conduct the focus group. Collect and analyze the data . For Dissertation? Market research is of two types: primary and topics s daughter, secondary.
Primary research includes customer studies, such as interviews regarding their current needs, demographics, and why they use or do not use a particular library or museum service. Market research can also be used to bar essay subjects, assess customer interest in essay topics for the s daughter, a new product or service. Secondary research provides information that others have gathered about a diverse range of customers that is then customized to the specific research needs of the organization. It is standard practice to prompts, conduct secondary research first. Competitor research may have to be purchased or obtained through subscription online services. Prepare reports and present the results . A market research consultant or the staff undertaking the market research should present a summary of the data and some conclusions. Essay Memory Keeper S Daughter? It is important to look not only for desired results but also for questions about responsibility, unanticipated feedback. Are the market responses different than anticipated? Do customers want the product delivered in a different way? Do they want an interpretive exhibit approach rather than a database approach? Is the price of the product or service too high?
Is there evidence that the customer wants a different product entirely? For example, do they want high-quality prints when you were not planning to offer prints at all? Or do they want TIFF images delivered via e-mail? Environmental scans, Delphi techniques, and scenario planning are market research techniques developed in the last decade. The Delphi method, developed by the RAND Corporation, is for the s daughter a structured method of group communication to deal with complex problems. The process includes three features: anonymity, iteration and controlled feedback, and statistical group response (Weingand 1998, 66?67). Scenario planning was first used in design for dissertation, the 1960s by the military and essay topics, is now used widely to avoid planning based on a single set of assumptions. The scenario method of planning allows an organization to essay about, explore questions starting with What if . . . (Weingand 1998, 85?95) and can allow participants to explore best and essay topics for the memory, worst cases, as well as a range of options or solutions for current or future situations. Market research allows an organization to. assess new and essay questions, emerging opportunities furnish information for short- and long-term marketing plans obtain information to essay topics, solve problems know which decisions have been correct and cover design, which ones are in need of change develop promotional and public relation appeals assess where the organization stands as it relates to competitors. Topics S Daughter? Oya Rieger, coordinator of the management team of of pi prompts, Cornell University's Digital Consulting and Production Services (DCAPS), reported that while DCAPS did not undertake any systematic market research for its campus library digitization services, its involvement in the Unified Services Working Group greatly expanded its understanding of faculty needs. Cochaired by essay topics for the, the Cornell Library and Cornell Information Technologies, the design campuswide group has representation from the Office of Information Technology (OIT), Center for Learning and memory s daughter, Teaching, School for Continuing Education, Communication and Marketing Services, and eCornell.
The working group is exploring how to rationalize service access for faculty interested in using various information technologies to enhance learning and teaching. Design For Dissertation? The goal is to provide faculty with systematic assistance in essay s daughter, identifying resources and services in support of their projects. As a part of the Mellon-funded Models for Academic Support (MAS) 2010 project, the on appalachian library has recently completed a survey to determine needs of New York libraries, museums, archives, and historical societies in order to assess the feasibility of developing a fee-based service. The MAS 2010 team is getting ready to administer a campuswide survey to assess the digital asset creation and management needs of the essay topics for the memory keeper s daughter Cornell community. Information about the MAS 2010 project can be found at http://www.library.cornell.edu/MAS/. Specific ways to learn more include. Format? mail surveys, which are relatively inexpensive but have a low return rate and are the least reliable option phone interviews, which provide immediate information but limit the amount of information gained from the recipient, since the interviewee will be reluctant to spend too much time on the phone personal interviews, which can provide extensive information but are the most expensive option. Market research can also fit into essay for the memory keeper s daughter, a fund-raising operation. In March 1999, The National Gallery of London, which has a much-admired development office, advertised a position as head of on appalachian, marketing. Essay Topics For The S Daughter? The National Gallery isn't short of visitors, but will need good data about its visitors, whether individual or corporate.
Without data feeding into the fund-raising department, it is hard to prove the Oreach' and hence the essays value of a partnership with the Gallery (Runyard and French 1999, 267). One challenge for a marketing effort is to take measure of the overall environment in which cultural heritage organizations exist. More than a decade ago, United States customers were described as demanding, inquisitive, discriminating, and no longer content with planned obsolescence, no longer willing to tolerate products that break down. Topics Memory S Daughter? They are insisting on high quality goods that save time, energy, and calories; preserve the environment (Rice, 1990). For Dissertation? Will the donors, volunteers, and clients of cultural heritage organizations exhibit some of these same characteristics? These changes in audiences mean that a cultural heritage institution must discard preconceived notions of audience and constantly monitor its constituents in order to topics for the memory s daughter, match services and culture, programs with evolving needs and topics keeper s daughter, desires. The library or museum must know more about its constituents as they change.
Market research provides those opportunities. For the American Indians of Pacific Northwest Digital Collections project, led by the University of Washington, Betsy Wilson noted, We did informal market research, we asked [questions of] our advisory team made up of historians, tribal leaders, librarians and students. They helped with the grant proposal. . Model? . . We thought we knew how to do it. Topics Keeper? Cultural heritage organizations must understand the environment in model literary essay, which they are operating. The word environment includes political, economic, technological, and competitive factors. Essay Topics For The Keeper S Daughter? The organization must understand how its constituency views it.
Publicly funded organizations must understand how the voters and legislators view them. Organizations with donors must understand how their donors view them. One must evaluate one's own programs and where they fit within the essay questions about responsibility competitive marketplace, deciding which to keep and which to eliminate, even if the products or services are offered free of charge. Thinking about topics for the memory s daughter competition is an important part of business planning, and the organization might do well to think in terms of dollars. Any organization trying to gain a portion of consumer dollars, philanthropic or otherwise, has competition (McLeish 1995, 31).
As part of strategic planning, the organization needs to ask a series of essay about, questions related to the competition, even if there is no profit-based motive. Essay Memory Keeper? As Richard Rinehart of the MOAC confesses about the environment surrounding museum collaboration, There is an inherent competition for glory and cover page, resources among institutions that must attract visitors' leisure time and ticket income, as well as scarce public funding. Basic knowledge about the environment and competition also includes the answers to questions such as these: If there are sales involved in the product or service, what is the total marketwide sales volume? In dollars? In units? How many customers does each competitor have, and what percentage of the keeper market do they have? What are the sales-volume trends?
Who are the major competitors? Do they charge fees? Who will the future competitors be? What are the competitors' strengths? Weaknesses? What are the competitors' strategies to succeed? What are yours? What technological trends affect cultural heritage institutions? What are the competitors' main modes of promotion? When customer behavior changes, how will institution change?
What are demographic trends affecting the new jersey bar essay museum and library environments (e.g., an essay for the aging population, changing view of libraries by the Internet generation)? What are key financial measures in the museum or library market (e.g., local, state, and federal government funding; changing levels and cover for dissertation, patterns of fund raising and donations)? Answers to these questions will create a picture of the essay topics s daughter competitive environment and essay, provide information that can be used to develop an action plan. Essay For The Memory Keeper? The Nebraska Historical Society reported visiting a major national commercial digital imaging service as part of its research for creating its own service. The research allowed the society to learn about such things as the technology used, the pricing strategy, and the quality control program of the vendor. It determined that it could not only build a service for its own institution but also offer the service to design for dissertation, area libraries and museums. Market research would assist in assessing appropriateness of price levels, product features and functionality, customer support, and other aspects of its service.
On the basis of market research or needs assessment, a cultural heritage organization can define the service provided and the market in which it will operate, define the for the s daughter scope of its competitive environment, and expand or limit its offerings or the number of new jersey bar essay, constituencies it will serve. Market segmentation is the process of essay topics memory keeper, dividing customers into groups with unique characteristics and needs. On the basis of these data, specific marketing strategies can be developed. Levels of market segmentation include undifferentiated or mass marketing, segment marketing, niche marketing, local marketing, and individualized marketing (Kotler 2000, 256?259). Design? Mass marketing, or undifferentiated marketing, treats the entire marketplace the same. Many cultural heritage institutions take this approach to marketing.
The academic library may initially think it offers the same services to all markets; however, further investigation may reveal that it does segment. For example, the library offers a different level of services to faculty and graduate students than it does to high school students. Segment marketing distinguishes among populations, often by offering an array of products designed to meet differing needs. Alternatively, tailor-made messages may be sent for marketing the same services to different segments. The prime tool for this approach is a rich database of marketing information that can be accessed for a variety of essay for the s daughter, services. Niche marketing, or concentrated strategy, focuses on servicing only a few markets. Paper Format? An example might be a children's museum, which would focus its services on children, parents, and educators. The result would be to attract a strong following, investing in that clientele and developing a product offering that is essay topics keeper s daughter appealing to them. Paper Format? There is keeper a highly defined audience, and the institution has highly defined goals for reaching that audience. Geographic, or local, marketing may aim at specific neighborhoods. For a local history museum or historical society, this may be a very effective approach.
Walk-in services might also be promoted with this type of marketing, for instance, through promotional flyers directed to specific zip codes. Individual marketing can include mass customization through interactive, Web-based technologies, but it can also open an organization to individual feedback and two-way communication about products and services. Nonprofit groups compete with each other in roughly four areas: programmatic or technical superiority, quality of programs or products, better support services, and price. All four bear further examination (McLeish 1995, 79). Format? Marketing strategy will need to essay s daughter, be designed to best place the organization in its competitive market, and market research will identify the cover page design for dissertation specific needs of these markets. Repositioning or repurposing an existing product can expand its life by topics for the keeper s daughter, introducing it to a new market segment. Identifying the specific market segment will also allow the organization to determine the size of the market and determine the technological requirements, such as bandwidth and computer capacity.
For instance, if a collection is to be useful to essays culture, the home-school audience, limited access to topics keeper s daughter, broadband for home users has to be considered in determining the best way to page design, present large-image files. Richard Rinehart noted that when developing new content there is usually a new market involved, but that the MOAC project did not emphasize development of essay memory, new markets early on. The California Digital Library was created in response to user demand, users being students and faculty of the format University of California, so MOAC already has the target audience; we just brought a different supply side to meet the demand. Within the MOAC project, there were some new audiences, art and anthropology faculty, but there was no systematic means of identify new audiences/markets early on. Most business textbooks have extensive sections on pricing, including many examples that may be useful for nonprofit organizations. Essay S Daughter? To determine whether to bar essay, develop a product or service, one must determine the cost of creating it. Essay Memory Keeper? A decision is also needed on whether the product should be made available at no cost to the constituency or whether a fee should be charged. In the life of pi for-profit environment, the memory keeper cost of development is known and the price is determined as a matter of course. Cultural heritage organizations frequently offer the product or service at no cost as part of their public purpose; as a result, they do not use financial management systems to determine the total cost of page for dissertation, developing and providing the product.
Ideally, business planning should include information on the full cost of providing products and services, even if the organization decides not to recover that cost. The types of for the memory, cost data collected should include both direct and indirect costs, as illustrated in the following chart. Some projects develop cost models by dividing total costs by the number of digital images or objects generated for the product or service. While this may be a relatively easy method of nhd research, cost assessment, it is not fully accurate. Instead, the organization should take an approach that includes not only the expenses just noted but also capital expenses.
Hardware and software must be depreciated over a period of time that generally extends beyond the topics for the s daughter timeframe for essay, a single project. When amortized, project costs will vary. For The? Other questions to nhd research paper, ask include the following: Is the initial investment intended to be used for other projects? Was product research included in the overall cost? Have staff costs been appropriately allocated to the project? Are staffing costs higher than anticipated because of the for the memory keeper s daughter learning curve or delays in the product development? (This will drive up project and product cost and could have an cover design for dissertation impact on the cost per topics memory item if the simple calculation method noted above is used.) Cultural heritage organizations with a great deal of experience in creating digital projects and nhd research, services are keenly aware of how quickly the overall formula for establishing cost can change. John Wilkin of the University of Michigan observed, We're always looking at our costs. We develop and refine the cost models on a monthly basis, looking at the unit costs and keeper s daughter, the trends. Another formula for pricing is brief but thorough: Price= Image +Service+Product+Overhead+Profit+Risk (Bangs 2002, 73). Costs are associated with all elements of this intriguing formula. It addresses program costs such as marketing and advertising (image), costs related to creation and delivery of the services provided, and costs related to the indirect or overhead of of pi essay prompts, operating the organization providing the service.
It includes a profit margin. Finally, the costs of taking the risk to offer the service and of the potential lost opportunity are included in this formula. When determining pricing, one must consider marketplace conditions, not solely the cost of essay for the memory s daughter, producing the product. These conditions include the competitive environment, what the competition is charging, what the customer will pay, and an approach to cost recovery over time. Perceived value may play a role in setting pricing, and if the of pi essay perceived value is very high, the actual cost of creating the essay memory keeper s daughter product may not be highly related to pricing strategy. Some organizations may establish a low price and sell a high quantity of a product. This approach is generally successful only when the product has become a commodity and there are few remaining competitors. Cultural heritage institutions, with their unique physical collections and environment, will not evolve to a point where products become commodities and there are few competitors remaining in the field.
It is, however, possible that digitization services, such as high-quality print, could be a commodity offered by only a few competitors. The marketing literature generally discusses distribution in terms of physical place. Essays? However, most digital asset management products or services provided by cultural heritage organizations are distributed through their institutional Web sites, and essay for the memory keeper s daughter, the traditional image of the library or the museum as a building alone has become outdated. The library that seeks to foster an image of being essential to the community and on the cutting edge of information provision cannot afford to be tied exclusively to yesterday's paradigm of service -(Weingand 1998, 113). In addition to essay questions responsibility, the institution's Web site, several other distribution strategies may be considered, including partnerships with for-profit organizations, collaborative initiatives such as the AMICO or the essay topics keeper s daughter CDP, and partnerships in on appalachian, which one partner is responsible for essay topics for the, distribution. The University of Virginia has an interesting partnership with ProQuest Information and Learning Limited (formerly Chadwyck-Healey) under which ProQuest Information distributes the licensed version of the bar essay subjects university's Early American Fiction collections. ProQuest Information is responsible for sales, publicity, development of promotional materials, determination of the marketplace, and distribution of the licensed product. S Daughter? The University of Virginia distributes the product free of charge to its faculty and students and to those of other academic institutions in questions about responsibility, the state through the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA). Nontraditional partnerships such as this one are emerging in the digital environment but are still rare. Distribution channels are responsible for getting the product to essay topics for the keeper, the marketplace.
Questions to consider include: Where is the best place to sell the product? Will audiences find the product without an aggressive distribution channel, or must such a channel be created? What barriers to distribution might exist, including technological barriers, such as bandwidth capacity, and barriers to penetration into rural communities and developing nations? Most organizations are taking a relatively passive approach to product sales—offering online ordering of prints or digital copies of images from their Web sites. More-complicated product licensing programs, marketing initiatives, sales programs, and conference exhibit schedules are emerging. Paper? Sales, while integral to a business plan, is essay keeper not a topic addressed in bar essay subjects, this paper. There is ample literature on establishing a sales program, but there are few examples in the cultural heritage community of sales as the primary basis of sustainability. When the topic of sales is present in the business plan, it should be approached with sensitivity to essay topics for the memory s daughter, the values and mission of the essay about organization. Before an organization can determine which communication or promotional tools to memory, use, it has to have an image or message for a product, service, experience, or organization to analysis, promote (Kotler and Kotler 1998, 219). Essay Topics For The Keeper S Daughter? It must be something the user will respond to, find appealing, want to purchase, or participate in.
Today's marketing experts talk about brand image or brand identity . These are shortcuts to attract attention and build familiarity, trust, or expectation of benefit. An effective image works like a funnel, directing a flow of attention and regularly bringing consumers to an organization's . . . On Appalachian Culture? corner whenever the for the keeper s daughter consumer has a need for that type of product or service (Kotler and Kotler 1998, 219). Brand image or identity is a visual symbol or logo or a message conveyed through a slogan or tag line. There is more to a communication plan than branding. A full communication plan includes a range of promotional strategies and activities targeted to a specific audience and has a specific set of messages based on the benefits to be derived by those users, as defined by the needs assessment and market research or needs assessment. There are four basic tool sets of a promotion plan: advertising, which includes print and broadcast ads, mailings, catalogs, newsletters, brochures, posters, billboards, symbols and logos, and other print products public relations, including press kits, speeches, seminars, annual reports, sponsorships, publications, lobbying, and new jersey bar essay, media relations direct marketing, such as direct mail, telemarketing, integrated direct marketing, and database marketing sales promotion, including gifts and premiums, discounts, gift shops, redemption coupons, and tickets. It is commonly thought that the refrain from Field of essay for the keeper s daughter, Dreams , If you will build it, they will come holds true for all digital assets, and that making something available through a Web site represents effective and adequate marketing. More can be done with a Web site to nhd research paper, enhance a communication plan. An Internet marketing plan can include anything from naming the product with the Internet in essay for the memory, mind—for example the essay about responsibility Colorado Virtual Library—to using e-mail alerts (selectively, of course) to do digital publications (Bayne 1997). Essay For The? Many of page design, these communication tools could be more extensively used by libraries and museums, and could be built into a promotional plan for essay for the s daughter, digital asset products and essays on appalachian culture, services. This is something many libraries and essay for the keeper, museums simply neglect.
Even the MOAC project did not put significant resources into marketing, We had a good plan for developing the content, but we haven't successfully reached out to let the professional community know that it's available to them. We had a built-in audience; marketing to analysis, them was overlooked in topics memory s daughter, the early stages, commented Rinehart of MOAC. A specific response is desired by the promotional product and should be spelled out in the communication plan. A timeframe for page, each activity should also be noted in for the memory keeper s daughter, the plan. The communication plan has an impact on the budget, and each component of the plan is subjects likely to have associated expenses, such as advertising costs. Organizational structure can have a substantial impact on a variety of sustainability issues. The way in which digital activity fits into the organization, and communicates with it, directly affects the likelihood of ongoing success. The efficiency of the organizational map for the digital service or program can also affect staffing, equipment, marketing, and other business elements. Essay Memory Keeper? When there is a separate unit, it is essential to questions about, define the role of the unit and its collaborators within the organization as a whole.
The model adopted at the University of essay for the memory, Michigan is just one example of how central funding for new jersey bar essay subjects, a part of the unit's operation can be augmented through projects or partnerships. The unit's business plan is essay for the memory keeper s daughter based on several sources of funding, each of which is appropriate for the organizational plan. At the University of Washington, the position of the digital initiative unit in the library has changed, reflecting changing needs. Model Literary? The unit began as a SWAT team of five people who guided projects across different parts of the library, worked on technical and metadata standards, managed fiscal aspects of projects, watched for essay topics memory keeper, emerging technology, and trained staff. Paper? However, there was a strong desire to ensure that this group be recognized and essay topics for the, integrated across the library system. We learned that we needed a centralized unit to model literary analysis essay, steer the digitizing work within the library, said Betsy Wilson.
This model fit the needs of keeper s daughter, a single institution in model, a partnership relationship with other organizations. In contrast, the MOAC took a highly decentralized approach to organization. The CDL Online Archive of California (OAC) provided the technical infrastructure for essay memory keeper, the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) Finding Aids project that the essays 11 participating museums used for their project. The goal of the initial grant was to see whether museums throughout California could create an integrated, online collection of finding aids for the museum collections, sharing the OAC infrastructure and adapting the topics for the memory EAD finding aid environment to museums. Cover Page Design For Dissertation? An IMLS grant was awarded to the CDL, and minigrants were awarded to the museums. The 11 museums created digital images and finding aids and submitted the data to the OAC. Rinehart, project manager for MOAC, notes, One of the biggest findings is that we spent a lot of time figuring out how museums could contribute content to one central portal [OAC.
Later we began] to enable museums to become more capable at creating digital stuff and sharing it. [We needed to] show [that] each museum can share its information in more than one portal, instead of focusing exclusively on the centralized portal [OAC]. We looked back up the chain at each individual institution and asked, OWhat can we do to help them?' The focus on individual museums is further exemplified by Rinehart's comments on outsourcing: Each individual museum was responsible for digitizing its own content. Some outsourced and some didn't. Individual institutions made their own [staffing] decisions; only topics for the s daughter, one museum hired someone just for essay questions responsibility, the project. Essay Topics For The Memory? On the topic of budgets, Rinehart explained, It's up to the museum; each came up with its own budget. And, finally, regarding sustainability: Museums that are part of the cover University of California system will receive some support from the system; the CDL will have to pay for more server storage, tools, etc. Museums are now on their own in terms of budgeting; each museum will decide that.
So many other projects have spun off the MOAC; other grants have been developed. The organization of the CDP, like that of the MOAC, is decentralized, yet the program provides centralized services such as training and memory keeper, consulting services, along with infrastructure, such as regional digital imaging labs and essay, a centralized metadata database. CDP Executive Director Liz Bishoff notes, I concur with Rinehart's comments on the need to put more emphasis on essay memory what individual institutions need. We need to put effort on what the individual institution needs, figure out questions, what they need, and memory keeper s daughter, decide what standards they can afford to produce. Every program or service needs physical space. This includes space for staff, equipment, and nhd research paper, storage of supplies, both for the initial product or service development and for ongoing operations. Because space must be budgeted for, detailed information about space requirements must be provided and decisions made as to whether existing space can be used, whether it must be rented or remodeled, or whether construction must be undertaken. We had to find room in special collections to house two cameras and the staff for digitizing books that could not be removed from special collections, noted Karin Wittenborg of the University of Virginia. Special consideration must be given to the resources that are being digitized from museums and libraries. Their fragile nature may preclude shipping them to vendors or even moving them to different parts of the building or campus.
If rental space is required, brokerage fees and moving costs must be included. The business plan must specify all required equipment, including furniture and computer technology, and whether it is to be purchased or leased. Depending on the cost, the equipment may be amortized over a period of years. The organization's finance and information technology departments should be consulted regarding the recommended amortization periods. Telecommunications, general computing, digital imaging, and digital rights management software should be included in the equipment required, as should user authentication and digital watermarking software, if it will be used. Digital asset management programs depend heavily on planning for appropriate technology. Issues to essay for the keeper, be considered in the business plan include technology costs related to standards compliance; interoperability with partners or national activities; migration of operating systems and hardware platforms, data migration, and preservation; and life of pi prompts, authentication.
Larry Alford of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill reported, We . . . migrate data, back up data, and provide sufficient staff to maintain the service. That comes out topics, of the library's operating funds and is part of a business plan for sustainability that does not include generating revenue. Other institutions are likely to decide that the costs of such infrastructure should be offset by essay, revenue of some kind. Memory Keeper S Daughter? The business plan must address the new jersey staffing needed to complete the project, including the for the s daughter degree of needed technical capacity and managerial competence. It should indicate who would be the project director and make certain that this person has the responsibility and authority for subjects, completion of the project.
The plan should include brief descriptions of other key management positions and essay for the memory keeper s daughter, personnel requirements. It should indicate what positions are new hires and what individuals will be reassigned from existing positions. Some activities are best outsourced and should be indicated as such. Nhd Research? Staffing is a major expense for cultural heritage institutions. Topics S Daughter? The budget documents should include not only salary but also fringe benefits for permanent and model, temporary staff associated with both the development and memory s daughter, ongoing support of the literary analysis product or service. At the WRLC, the need for expert staff drove members to support a central service. Lizanne Payne recalled, One of topics for the keeper, our obstacles was the of pi prompts need for staff expertise in each library. It seemed to make more sense to develop that expertise centrally—to have a few centrally located staff with expertise— rather than assuming that each library would develop staff with metadata and essay topics memory keeper, scanning expertise.
It seemed like a logical place for the consortial organization to start, since some of the libraries had already started digitization but not on a large scale. New Jersey Subjects? The decision to create a shared infrastructure helped the member libraries avoid considerable expense. Similar arrangements, wherein members contribute different kinds of staff expertise, are evident at the University of Washington and in topics for the s daughter, other projects described on the CDP Web site. 7. In the cover page design University of essay memory keeper s daughter, Southern California Digital Library Program, Marianne Afifi reported, we're finding a need to track what people are doing. We're having to become more formalized, take a project management approach. Before we start, we'll do an analysis of whose time is going to be involved and how much. We do a better job of tracking resources—money, time, etc. It helps us to prioritize projects. Almost every project noted that a full-time project manager was needed.
Wittenborg at the University of Virginia commented, It would have helped to have a project manager assigned to the project full-time from the beginning and to have one department responsible for the whole project from the outset. Hiring a full-time digitization coordinator to be responsible for the imaging schedule and quality control helped to improve the efficiency of the project. We should have incorporated staff turnover into essay questions about responsibility, the time we budgeted to complete the essay keeper s daughter digitization project. By its nature, a digitization project or service is likely to have copyright and intellectual property issues associated with it that other projects undertaken by nhd research paper, cultural heritage institutions do not face. Keeper? Laura Gasaway, a leading copyright expert, articulates several reasons for creating a university copyright ownership policy, and many of these apply to digitization projects (Gasaway 2002). In general, copyright is designed to encourage research, scholarship, and the creation of new knowledge.
The policy should. protect the institution's interests protect the faculty, archivists, curators, and librarians or other -creators deal with issues before disputes arise. Specific issues to be addressed in a higher education setting would include the following: work-for-hire considerations, a particularly important issue for museum photographers, library and new jersey bar essay subjects, museum Web designers, exhibit designers, and education resource creators deeds of gifts that ensure the institution has the rights needed to undertake the digital asset presentation activities copyright for educational programs, including the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act and best practices related to library reserves; copyright permission procedures; and special issues in for the memory s daughter, the copyright arena, such as those related to music and other performances the Native American Graves Repatriation Act, a key issue for most museums. Generally, a copyright policy is developed by a team, including faculty members or curators, librarians or archivists, board members, and essays, legal counsel. Legal counsel experienced with copyright and intellectual property rights and, in particular, with fair-use issues, is preferable. Few, if any, certainties can be found in essay keeper s daughter, the area of subjects, copyright and fair use, although guidance is essay topics for the memory available and case law is emerging slowly. If a cultural heritage organization is format participating in topics memory, a collaborative initiative, there are additional legal issues.
Further, there are different considerations 8 for managing digital versions of published and unpublished resources. Another expert on rights and fair use is Georgia Harper, who has mounted an extensive set of policy and instructional pages on the University of Texas Web site. Many of culture, these are extremely helpful for all kinds of organizations with a public mission. Although the advice and briefings were prepared for a higher education environment, museums and other cultural heritage organizations would benefit from the information available in Harper's publication Crash Course in Copyright (Harper 2001). While the business plan is not intended to articulate every element of a rights management plan, it should address aspects of essay topics memory keeper, intellectual property, copyright, and other legal issues that entail risk and cost. Essay? If a cultural heritage institution is considering creating a digital resource to sell, it is particularly critical to know about rights. While intellectual property law changes frequently, the basic principles are outlined by Lesley Ellen Harris, a media copyright attorney, in her book Digital Property (1998). More information on rights issues specifically related to digital assets can be found in chapter IV of the NINCH Guide to essay topics for the keeper s daughter, Good Practice (2002). Two concise guides to nhd research format, the decision-making process related to public domain resources are available from Laura Gasaway's Web site (Gasaway 2003) and from the Michigan Library Consortium (2003). Many museums and libraries are incorporating their digital initiatives into their operating budgets. Institutions should consider developing a separate financial plan for the digital asset management program.
The financial plan provides decision makers with a better understanding of the true costs of topics for the s daughter, digitization. It also provides the type of financial information needed to support a grant application. Should the organization decide to nhd research, develop fee-based services, some of the information required for pricing those services will be available in this plan. The financial component of the business plan covers a three- to five-year period and has revenue and expense components. The revenue component includes all revenue streams. For example, a library could be offering a consulting and training service that is one revenue stream, software service that is another business, licensing of digital assets as another business, and keeper s daughter, grants and donations as another revenue stream. Projections for years beyond those covered in the plan are usually based on historical trends; however, with new products, estimates have to essays on appalachian, be based on market research, discussions with customers or potential customers, and contracts. Topics Memory Keeper? Inflation needs to be built in, as do price increases. On the expense side, all costs associated with the above-noted components are reflected, along with salaries and fringe benefits, equipment, facilities, legal and accounting activities, production costs (where outsourced), promotion costs (printing of brochures, Web site design and development), sales costs, and exhibit costs. The costs of content creation should also be included.
It is important that a nonprofit organization budget for future development and equipment replacement. Jill Koelling of the Nebraska Historical Society reported that their budget office has done a thorough job of budget planning. The budget shows revenue and expense with excess revenue over expense allowing for equipment replacement. Product Evaluation and Usability Assessment. Evaluation is an important component of a business plan, and about responsibility, it should be done on a regular basis. Use is one important measurement for many digital product and service programs. Essay Topics? Karin Wittenborg noted, Our measures of success for the Early American Fiction product are based mainly on usage data of the page design for dissertation materials from the Electronic Text Center site and on the income from ProQuest licensing royalties. Evaluation of the program or service's effectiveness must be done from the essay topics for the memory s daughter perspective of constituents, including funders and users. Many interviewees reported that they rely on page for dissertation usability labs to test their Web sites. The University of Washington Libraries staff reported that they have a nice usability lab and essay for the keeper, run everything through it, testing the interface. Product usability is a critical component of product development and should be used during various stages of product development, including product design, prototyping, and testing.
Customer-satisfaction surveys are effective tools to evaluate current or new users of a product or service, board members, and staff. Some can be done using the Internet, and some are done on-site, using point-of-use survey instruments. The Denver Museum of Nature and Science's Kris Haglund reported that the museum conducts a set of evaluations of the final product with focus groups representing various market segments (teachers, lifelong learners, the general public). Institutions should consider what of their existing infrastructure can be used to evaluate a digital initiative, rather than reinvent the wheel. Literary Essay? 8 See the wide range of papers and resources available through the NINCH Copyright Town Meeting series and the resources associated with the Digital Copyright Workshops.
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essay of experience In this research, we have conceptually defined experience quality as the customers’ emotional judgment about an entire experience with an elaborately designed service setting. We have undertaken multiple phases in conceptualizing and for the memory keeper s daughter, measuring the concept of experience quality. Keywords: customer experience; experience quality; customer services; service experience; experiential marketing Introduction Consumption experiences have become increasingly important for customers and are considered. person. From experience a person is able to bar essay subjects relate to the difference between “matters of fact” and “relation of ideas”. With relation of ideas, we assume that everything is memory s daughter a constant. Individual’s plan their lives around various times of the day, such as the fact that 5:00pm always comes before 6:00pm.The theory of time can be contradicted because of daylight savings, time zone changes or leap year. With the idea of matters of fact, one must prove through experience that things are true. With experience, there are distinctions depending on what sort of existence one takes mathematical entities to have, and how we know about them.  Emotional experience Main article: Emotion Humans can rationalize falling in (and out) of love as emotional experience. Societies which lack institutional arranged marriages can call on nhd research format emotional experience in individuals to influence mate-selection. The concept of topics for the memory, emotional experience also appears in the notion of emotional.
could do work experience and culture, it got to a point when I didn't mind cleaning floors. As soon as my mum got home I got her to s daughter drive me around to the places I rang up but when I got there they were closed or said that were not interested in giving out a placement. I didn't care where I worked now so I went into any shop and asked if they did work experience and if so I would be able to work there, but almost all of them said that they do work experience but they are full. California. Email: [email protected] com. altar call experience with God–a heart-pounding, barely breathing, intense moment with God. —Rev. Steven Usry, Harvest Point United Methodist Church, McDonough, GA‡ 1. Introduction: Religious Experience in Mass Culture Less than twenty years ago, it was common for essay questions responsibility, believers to criticize the topics, many ways in which mass culture in cover page for dissertation the United States misrepresented or ignored religious experience.1 The few portrayals of religious people as then existed on. Music as an Aesthetic Experience Essay. practicalities because it is highly improbably to enjoy something purely for itself if it is looked at with the potential of something else in mind. Topics For The Keeper. Another condition to the aesthetic attitude is adopting a sympathetic awareness, a willingness to experience all types of music because no style is life of pi superior to essay for the keeper s daughter another.
In the chapter on Perception in Lewis Rowell's Thinking about Music, he discusses traditional problems of aesthetics for responsibility, the listener. Although Rowell and Funes discuss similar ideas. Experience Machine Objection Essay. the principle of utility to recognize the fact, that some kinds of pleasure are more desirable than others.” (Mill 455) Pleasures or happiness are both subjective internal first person phenomenona as they are measured by our feelings of essay memory keeper s daughter, what we experience as pleasure. Pleasure can be seen on a qualitative basis as well as a quantitative basis although Mill believes that the best estimation of pleasures should depend mainly on the quantity alone. To determine which of life of pi essay prompts, two pleasures is more desirable. Essay on Examination of the Slave Experience. Nevertheless, most slaves had established and topics for the memory s daughter, participated in literary analysis a subculture separate from any other in topics memory keeper s daughter the United States at that time. One might argue that it was from the realm of essays on appalachian culture, this subculture and essay keeper, fundamental beliefs, derived from the horrible experiences of slavery, that provided African Americans the strength necessary to hold their heads high and look beyond their immediate condition.
Religion was the essays on appalachian, essence of the newly emerging African American subculture. Borrowed from the fiery revivalism. Experience on Public Speaking Essay. audience then I will have the mindset when I am on stage that people from the audience are not judging me. Lastly, I think that I will be able to get up in front of people and give a speech without getting extremely nervous. I haven’t had much experience with speaking in front of big groups but hopefully by the end of this semester I will be very good at it without having any nervous feelings if someone asked me to give a public. It has taught my husband and I many lessons and values that have brought us closer together and essay topics keeper, our love stronger.
Life Changing Experience 4 Our marriage began on a warm sunny day. Driving to the courthouse, I could feel my heart pounding so hard as though it was going to beat right out of my chest. It felt like butterflies fluttering over a breezy meadow. Life Of Pi Prompts. The closer the time got for us to say our sacred vows to each other; my heart felt like a rose blooming endlessly. Environmental Teaching Experience Essay. from the education. Although I feel this experience went well, there is always room for improvement. Topics Memory. I believe the openness and readiness of page, my individuals to learn helped the topics for the memory, experience to of pi prompts go very well. I think it also went well due to for the memory keeper s daughter the fact my pamphlet seemed to be in simple terms.
The pamphlet also seemed to capture the attention of the dad when he saw the picture I had on my pamphlet of the little baby surrounded by smoke. I believe the experience may have been improved if I knew a little. I feel that volunteering is an important task for me, but also to model my family because we can pass on our experience to our next generation. There is nothing better than having a kind heart and passing it on. A negative aspect I saw while volunteering was that there are not enough people volunteering. If only there would have been more people volunteering, then so much more people could have been helped.
And if more people can be help, then the essay for the memory keeper s daughter, suffering on earth can be ease. The big problem is nhd research that. parted lips [,]” and “…keen and bright…” eyes invite this act of essay topics s daughter, sexual temperament. By the of pi essay prompts, end of essay for the keeper, this seemingly sexual experience, Mrs. Mallard’s “[…]pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warm[s] and relax[s] every inch of her body” are similar to that of post-coitus. Her “[…] body and soul [was] free [at last]!” (Chopin 553). When Mrs.
Mallard’s rejuvenating experience comes to a close, she finally “[…] opens the door to her sister’s importunities [.]” They began to walk downstairs to join. to be separated from essay responsibility, their mother at essay for the keeper s daughter, such a young age. Now that I am older, I realize that it was all for a good reason as I am the person I am today because of that journey and experience at that point in my life. On Appalachian Culture. Please as you are sharing my story as well as your own with anyone, always remember, that your life experiences are. Essay on Innocence and essay for the memory, Experience. health. They became famished, and their health was slowly deteriorating with every meal that they skipped, and nhd research paper, every disease acquired. As a result, we see how at essay memory keeper s daughter, such a young age the boys life was corrupted and new jersey, how they had to experience things that most people don’t experience in a lifetime. would also like to topics for the s daughter travel around the model literary, world but the essay topics for the s daughter, cost will be so expensive that I could not afford it.
If I could make more money I could also donate more to charity. The third reason that I want to do MBA in Washington, DC is to model essay learn new experiences. Because Vietnam is a poor country, I want to go to America to receive an essay topics memory MBA and paper, see how the world works. Then later I can go back to Vietnam and see things with different eyes. My first trip out of Asia was this summer when I went to Europe. Related Learning Experiences Essay. parents for essay keeper s daughter, their understanding and support, providing our financial needs and guiding us as always. We would like to extend our deepest gratitude to the following: * To Dean Mary Ann D. Valenzuela, RN, MAN for giving us a permission to experience this Family Health Nursing. * To Editha Mantaos-Vicente, RN for new jersey bar essay subjects, sharing her thoughts and for the keeper s daughter, ideas to improve our knowledge for model literary essay, this case study. * To Ria Lou R.Casi, RM, RN, our Clinical Instructor for guiding and helping us all throughout our.
feel destroyed. Every aspect of my life is disappointing. Topics Keeper S Daughter. Now that you see how a lovely feeling happens to turn into a group of model analysis essay, emotional disasters. Do you understand what love can do to essay topics s daughter someone? Maybe you understand or maybe you don’t.
Everyone experiences love in. Essay on Classification of Psychic Experiences. commonly refer to as ghosts. Sometimes, telepathy is as simple as knowing what a person is going to cover for dissertation say before that person says it, or thinking a thought that is expressed by someone else, out loud, word-for-word. Many people commonly have this experience, myself included. For The. Telepathy can mean knowing who is calling you on essay the telephone or what is in the mail.
Telepathy is an art that can be practiced and improved, but it is usually shunned due to fear of the unknown. I practice a different form. amazing trip. Although being in our dorms was much fun, we spent most of our time in our study groups, which were organized by the teachers. For The Memory. Everyone in my group had a unique personality, which made the trip an exciting and wonderful experience. Essays On Appalachian Culture. Out of essay topics for the memory s daughter, all of the activities, the two that I enjoyed the most were the tide pools and shark lab. One of the bar essay, main reasons I remember the topics for the memory s daughter, tide pool lab is that our guide, Kelly, told us to questions gather around the essay for the keeper s daughter, crab and lobster tank. She told us that. A Memorable Experience in Photography Essay. scared he did not know what to essays do.
After it was all over essay topics memory keeper he just sat their in midst of all the destruction and cried. After he got his emotions together, he helped in cleaning up one of the most disastrous events in United States history. This experience has been a emotional one for me. In my eyes my grandfather was a hero and Robert Capa helps me recollect that image in that one picture. This picture was not directly related to the event, but it brings back the memories of the day my grandfather. Essay Robert Nozick’s Experience Machine. would choose the experience machine over real life.
Taking this into account, Nozick reasons in the following way: 1. (Premise) The experience machine provides us with a life of maximal happiness and cover design for dissertation, pleasure, but minimal authenticity and reality. 2. (Premise) Real existence provides us with a life of maximal authenticity, but in all likelihood only a modest degree of s daughter, happiness and pleasure. 3. Analysis Essay. (Premise) Most people would choose real life over for the memory s daughter life in the experience machine. Essay on essays on appalachian culture American Experience in Huck Finn. This was one of the most prominent experiences of America in the 19th century. Topics For The Keeper. Many whites disagreed with slavery, but if it did not affect their lives, as they were not necessarily the culprit or the victim, they just went on cover living their lives. Topics For The S Daughter. The most common feature of model essay, this novel is movement. While this was crucial in developing the irony that was the southern response to slavery, it is topics s daughter also important in itself. Bar Essay Subjects. In this novel, the main characters are always going somewhere, leaving a.
Essay about Study of for the memory keeper, Religious Experience. ). It is from this intersubjectivity that meaning is derived. (Kapstein, 272-275.) Furthermore, if meaning can be derived, communication shared, and apprehension obtained by the individual and the collective, those experiences cannot be pinned ineffable. New Jersey Bar Essay Subjects. To be ineffable an experience must be fully and completely ineffable, “devoid of propositional content: it must be ineffable through and through” (Kapstein, 267). Topics Memory S Daughter. Interestingly, neither author explores a religious text in their discussion as a supporting. Classical Conditioning Learning Experience Essay. it is a food a color or even a certain smell I can trace that back to a classical conditioning experience with my mother. My parents were divorced when I was very young and lived with my mother all my younger life. Of Pi Essay Prompts. I can now see by observing the types of topics keeper, dislikes and likes that my father has versus the likes and dislikes that I have and I know immediately that it was a conditioned learning experiences set forth by my mother. As part of model essay, another example, my father loves sour kraut on his hot dogs, again? I am forever in love with his answer, a life well-lived experience. Topics For The Keeper S Daughter. He encouraged the readers to life of pi get out of their comfort zone to for the memory keeper experience new people, horizons, settings, and life of pi essay prompts, perspectives that consider more important than career or life itself.
He also stated about making amazing friends at essay for the keeper, school that we would go their weddings or those who will come to ours. We will be amazed on how 2 years of nhd research paper, time can be a life altering experience not only from professional perspective but also personal. Every. Essay about essay topics for the keeper Informal Learning Experience. The operant conditioning can also be applied to this informal learning experience in a similar manner. The operant here is walking down a dark street. This can be explained as if I walk down a dark street I will be mugged or may see somebody being mugged hence I would relate dark streets with mugging and become scared of darkness altogether. In the operand conditioning fear of the darkness would be an unintended response i.e. if I would not walk down a dark street, I would not have to be in any such.
My Experience in English Composition Essay. encourage the students to excel. Paper. As far as enthusiasm, he had a good personality, a positive attitude, a smile on for the memory s daughter his face, and was able to effectively communicate to the level of of pi, his audience. Essay For The Memory. I was captivated by these teaching characteristics. The experience I gained as a result of the instructor is subjects that he influenced me to take composition by the heart and topics for the keeper s daughter, be meticulous with the writing process. The hand-chosen homework assignments were given with directions to read particular illustrative stories. Early Life Experience and Potential Essay. useful framework for culture, encompassing the diversity of wellbeing concepts. This framework distinguishes between notions of having a good life (material welfare and essay topics keeper s daughter, standards of living), living a good life (values and ideals), and locating one’s life (experience and subjectively).
Bradshaw, Hoelscher and Richardson (2007, p.135) put it this way; wellbeing can be defined as the realisation of children’s rights and design for dissertation, the fulfilness of the topics memory keeper s daughter, opportunity for every child to be all she or he can be in the light. My Service Learning Experiences Essay. going to their rooms with snacks and drinks. A favorite nostalgic country music and variety TV show was shown in the resident lounge which housed a big screen TV as well as a large glass birdhouse with exotic birds. The smells varied throughout my experience from freshly baked cake to the fetid smell of some rooms to a distinctive “hospital smell” in other rooms.
What kind of tasks did you do while serving? During “happy hour,” I would assist in going to residents’ rooms and essays culture, offering snacks and. My First Experience With Death Essay. person for not crying over my dead grandpa. But I could not cry, I felt nothing. Essay Topics Memory. I also felt guilty because I thought my anger towards him was why he died.
Perhaps if I had been kind towards him he would still be alive. Life Of Pi Essay. When I look back on this experience today I do not feel guilty for essay topics for the keeper, not grieving after the essay questions about, death of my grandpa. I understand that my age and lack of contact with him prevented me from topics keeper s daughter, feeling a loss. In a way it was good because I did not have to go through that loss at model literary, such a young. My Most Interesting Experience Essay. at us.Ana and I looked each other and we too laughed.Fortunately,my parents bought some breakfast for us as they knew that we would be starving.We took the essay, food and quickly ate them in a dining room.It was very funny,interesting and memorable experiences I ever had in nhd research format my life.I guessed next time I must take up cooking lesson,then I would not be starving. The Unique Experience of Women Slaves Essay. that house slaves received preferential treatment, however Keckley was a prime example that even house slaves and those close to the head family were severely punished for memory keeper, their accidents.
In the life of Maumer Juno she had a slightly different experience, she talked about her fondness for her mistress and how she was treated by essay responsibility her. Topics. Her treatment was something not many slaves could expect. Women slaves that had the ill-fated misfortune of catching the wandering eye of their master had to develop. The Royal Music World Experience Essay. Being a well-taught student of music theory in the school, I was eager to share my own learning experiences with more students, and so I asked to of pi prompts be a summer music teacher. As summer appeared to be a period of calm and essay topics keeper s daughter, peace, with a majority of the students on vacation, I needed to do other things to fulfill my one hundred and twenty hours. So, I ended up as an new jersey subjects office assistant, eager to help with any heavy workload. Topics Memory Keeper S Daughter. For the first few weeks my role was confined to an office worker. Consequently. month passed, I was comfortable enough to leave the house, go to the store, etc. Now seven months later, I am feeling like myself again.
What have I learned from this? Obviously to be more careful when I cross the street. Now, how has this experience changed me? It has in model analysis many ways. I feel lucky to be alive. I know that if I had been just a couple steps farther up, I might not be here today. That thought will stay with me forever. I do not fight with my mother as much anymore and I try.
Essay about for the A Life Changing Experience. habits was an interesting pastime, the true wonder was cultural sharing on for dissertation a greater scale. In short cultures were exhibited and shared on a large scale, as well as differences and similarities were found. These exhibitions were an incredible experience. The presentations were beautifully done, and exposed true slices of coveted cultures in a sharing atmosphere. The sharing of essay topics keeper s daughter, culture reached beyond these performances. Friendships were created that transcended and thrived on cultural variation. Reflection of Handicap Access Experience Essay. body is on appalachian not supposed to stretch that way. Once I finally applied the soap I noticed the sink was at eye level with me, which meant my hands were above my chest and I again had to essay keeper s daughter awkwardly stretch to bar essay clean them.
The other extremely frustrating experience that I had was how much ice was on the handicap accessible things, but cleared on stairs for topics for the keeper s daughter, able bodied individuals. I was so irked that no one cleared the huge amounts of ice that appeared on all of the ramps I encountered. The ramp connected. Analysis of Customer#x27;s Service Experience at Savannah Mall Shops. tell more people about the essay questions about responsibility, unpleasant experience (i.e. poor service is damaging to the business).
Efficient customer service is good for the business and it result in increased profit and maintaining competitive advantage. Topics For The Keeper S Daughter. 5. The problem statement: The problem is how customers’ service experiences are managed at essay responsibility, Savannah Mall Shops. 5.1 Sub-problems: • Customers’ personal and objective perceptions. • Pre and essay for the memory keeper, post purchase customers’ experiences. Nhd Research. • Skills of staff on customer care. Madness as Religious Experience - Allen Ginsberg Essay. such as James,2 Bateson,8 not alone in this beUef.
Other writers Jung,4 Laing,6 to Anton the for the, concern definition and Grant8 have to support evidence the life of pi essay prompts, also offered Bowers,7 Perry,6 can be a reUgious that madness most contention experience. Unfortunately, mental health practitioners have closed their eyes to this insight, because they have failed to perceive the fuU developmental of madness range of the process have simply viewed each point along the way as an end product and, instead, I recreated. Working Experience Is More Important Than Education Essay. reason that knowing how to do a job through work experience is the better option is because the person learns how to complete the job for real (Investopedia, 2011). Anyone can learn how the process of fixing a car should work according to a book however, it takes real skill to topics for the keeper be able to model analysis do so in practice because there are so many variables that you need to be able to understand and topics for the memory s daughter, react to. A book can't teach you those things. Through work experience, someone will learn how to cover design do the things they will. Nozick#x27;s Experience Machine and Hedonism Essay examples.
He is right to believe that humans would choose not to step into essay topics for the memory keeper s daughter the machine because they want to model essay actually do things not just have an experience of it (Timmons, 123). Topics Memory. Having the experience is not akin to actually doing the activity. An experience would be like a memory or a dream, a hollow version of reality. Humans should have the choice to make their own decisions, to become unique individuals, to attain knowledge through learning and to make connections with each other in the form of friendships. A Career in Fashion Industry: Personal Experience Essay. opportunities for serious scholarly investigation in fashion. Not wanting completely to disregard my prior experience and skills that I acquired thus far, I pursued a certificate in Fashion Image Consulting. My background in fashion was greatly strengthened as I took a variety of classes covering multiple disciplines in fashion, completing the essays on appalachian, program with a cumulative GPA of 3.692. My recent experiences in the field of fashion occurred throughout the topics for the s daughter, duration of the certificate program. Most notably,
Ethnographic Research Paper: Latino-American Immigration Experience. language. His capacity for effective communication was bound to the confines of the Spanish language. He shares his experience, “I felt alone. I couldn’t, well I say: Good Morning, How are you; that was it you know. Questions About. Even if somebody talked to me you know I was like a clam you know. I couldn’t, I didn’t, I didn’t want it, those things you know”(p. 1, l. 23-25). Mr.
Raya’s experience stresses the separation from the American community felt by the Latino immigrants described in s daughter the Chavez study. He. The Most Formative Experience in My Life Essay. comparing my past memories with my upcoming career everything was turning clearer. This experience helped me become a stronger person and also helped me realize that’s not important what others think of me. Because what matters at the end is of pi essay how I feel about myself. This life experience made me see that I needed a change in my life. Nevertheless this change of career meant more than it seems. This life experience shaped my persona into someone stronger, who is not afraid of changes.
Implementing the Balanced Scorecard in Greece: a Software Firm#x27;s Experience. all perspectives, management can control the strategy implementation process, not just to realise short-term ?nancial outcomes but also to develop long-term competitive capabilities. Essay Topics Keeper. In this paper we develop a speci?c BSC model, and present the experiences from its implementation aided by a university project team at a large software development company in Greece. In the last few years, Greek economic performance has been characterised by strong growth of essay, productivity and remarkable progress towards. Essay about My Experience as a Kiva Fellow. important to ensure that LAPO was following the correct procedures and processes in granting these loans. The experience transformed me and essay topics for the keeper, I’m so glad that was my first job experience following graduation at university. Subjects. I gained a firsthand understanding of microfinance, very good quality experience and learned a tremendous amount about Nigeria’s culture which, prior to this experience was not known to me even as a citizen. Based on my.
Personal Experience Aiding the Actor#x27;s Development of Theatrical Character. and soul have the capacity, once accessed to spark all inspiration. The human condition also has the essay topics keeper, aptitude for negative action and disbelief in cover design for dissertation itself. This is truly destructive to the imagination. Keith Johnstone believes that a negative experience with a teacher as a child can turn an imaginative person into an unimaginative person very quickly, leaving that person with little or no belief in them self. At school any spontaneous act was likely to essay topics for the keeper s daughter get me into trouble. I learned never.
The Production of Knowledge Through Lived Experiences Essay. malignant disease corroding its very heart…” and that, “We must be united in the effort to make an for dissertation America in which our people can find happiness.” The racial discrimination that Bulosan recalls in his personal story empowered Bulosan to turn his lived experience of being a Filipino American into a Filipino American production of knowledge. Even though America wasn’t what he had thought it was all out to be, Bulosan was still. Essay on experiences of topics for the memory s daughter, nurses grief after patient death. Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline and Academic Search Premier. The systematic search on these three databases was limited from of pi essay, 2008-2013 in topics memory keeper s daughter order to present a current description of the concept. This included the word grief; nursing staff; experience and death of new jersey bar essay, patient. The article that was used included the ones relevant to the title of the concept being analyzed.
English was the primary language being searched in all the literature. The concept analysis was organized using a principle-based. William Blake, Innocence vs. Essay For The Memory Keeper S Daughter. Experience Essay. One of the texts written in his Songs of Experience books is more of a dark poem. Not only is child labor physically exhausting on a boy between the life of pi essay, ages of six to twelve, but because of this text there is this idea of essay memory keeper s daughter, irony.
With this irony of new jersey bar essay, this poem, if you look at each country itself (as a whole), how many child labor laws are there? Majority of the human population on Earth have developed these types of laws for children to benefit them because of something along the line of the essay, text The Chimney.
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essays by burgmen Wild Strawberries captures the topics for the, thoughtful and analysis compassionate side of Ingmar Bergman rarely seen in his films. It is the essay for the memory s daughter, story of an aging man's introspective journey on design, the meaning of his life, and inevitability of death. Professor Isak Borg (Victor Sjostrom) is compiling his memoirs in preparation for an honorary degree that he is to receive for 50 years of medical practice. After an incomprehensible nightmare, he impulsively changes his travel plans, and essay topics for the memory decides to on appalachian drive to Lund with his daughter-in-law, Marianne (Ingrid Thulin). For The S Daughter? Marianne is separated from culture, his son, Evald (Gunnar Bjornstrand), but decides to go home and reconcile with him. The road to Lund is essay topics for the memory keeper, a reluctant path that takes Professor Borg through his youth: the family's summer cottage, the town he served as a physician, and his mother's house. He meets a young hitchhiker named Sara (Bibi Andersson) who reminds him of first love.
He rescues a stranded, verbally abusive husband and his suffering wife, who undoubtedly reflect his cruelty to his late wife. In the course of essay, their journey, he confronts his past failures, and reconciles with his life, and mortality. Acquarello 1997. For The Keeper S Daughter? All rights reserved. [The Virgin Spring] Acquarello 2002. All rights reserved.
Sasom i en spegel, 1961. [Through a Glass Darkly] Four people emerge from the austere horizon, heading for the shore of a seemingly desolate island: a successful writer, David (Gunnar Bjornstrand), his adolescent son, Minus (Lars Passgard), his fragile daughter, Karin (Harriet Andersson), and Karin's husband, Martin (Max von Sydow). Surrounded by new jersey subjects her family, Karin is brought to the remote island in order to facilitate her recuperation from a nervous breakdown. But it is soon evident that her family is so consumed by their own frailties and self-absorption that they are impotent to prevent a psychotic relapse. David studies her with a clinical detachment of a psychological experiment. Martin's medical training proves ineffectual as he attempts to alleviate her anguish by consenting to her delusions. Minus is preoccupied with his own sexual awakening, and sees Karin as a convenient insight into the female psyche.
Like most Bergman films, Through a Glass Darkly is a portrait of essay topics for the memory keeper s daughter, loneliness and alienation. Note the essay responsibility, perfectly framed, shattering scene where David cries uncontrollably upon realizing how distant he and his children have grown. Topics Memory S Daughter? Another is Minus' plea to literary God as he retrieves a blanket for Karin. As in essay memory s daughter, Krzysztof Kieslowski's Red, emotional honesty is revealed in moments of isolation. Acquarello 1999. All rights reserved. [The Communicants/Winter Light] The order of mass is methodically performed before a dwindling congregation: a school teacher, Marta (Ingrid Thulin), a troubled parishioner, Jonas Persson (Max von Sydow) and Jonas' wife, Karin (Gunnel Lindblom). But the ritual no longer holds any significance for its messenger, pastor Tomas (Gunnar Bjornstrand), who has a crisis of faith. Note several framed shots of a fevered, anguished Tomas juxtaposed against a sculpture of the Crucifixion.
Distant and cruel to the woman who loves him (symbolically, Marta's skin condition is a literal rejection of the flesh), he is passionless and mechanical. When an angst ridden, suicidal Jonas seeks guidance on essays, a perceived imminent nuclear holocaust, doubting Tomas can only offer his own uncertainty, and essay topics memory keeper s daughter cannot save him. Acquarello 1999. All rights reserved. Three passengers suffocate in the sweltering heat of a confining train cabin, traveling through a foreign country, seemingly on the brink of subjects, war: a fragile translator, Esther (Ingrid Thulin), her sister Anna (Gunnel Lindblom), and Anna's son Johan (Jorgen Lindstrom). Suffering from a bronchial attack, Esther checks into a hotel room, with Anna and topics for the keeper s daughter Johan occupying the adjoining suite. Soon, Esther's excessive attachment proves too stifling for the sensual Anna, who leaves them and nhd research paper format goes to a night club. The bedridden Esther indulges herself with cigarettes and alcohol, attempting to suppress her pain. Johan is left to his own devises and explores the near desolate hotel, encountering a kind, elderly hotel manager, and a dwarf carnival troupe. Distant at topics memory keeper, first towards his ailing aunt, Johan inevitably develops an prompts understanding towards her, drawn together by their mutual love for essay topics for the s daughter, Anna and sense of abandonment.
The following day, still unable to new jersey bar essay travel, Esther gives Johan a letter containing a list of for the keeper s daughter, helpful translations for their journey, and she is left behind. Acquarello 1999. Model? All rights reserved. Persona is arguably Ingmar Bergman's most challenging and experimental film. Elisabeth Vogler (Liv Ullman) is an accomplished stage actress who, in the middle of performing Elektra , ceases to speak. Topics Memory? Sister Alma (Bibi Andersson), the young nurse assigned to care for her, learns that there is nothing physically or even psychologically wrong with Elisabeth - she has simply, consciously decided not to culture speak. Alma (the name, not accidentally, is the Spanish word for soul) describes her initial impressions of Elisabeth as gentle and childlike, but with strict eyes. She takes Elisabeth to the attending physician's remote summer house to facilitate her recuperation. At first, the s daughter, two seem ideally suited: a talkative, candid, and inexperienced nurse, and cover design a sophisticated, enigmatic, and silent patient. They take long walks, bask in the sun, and read together.
It is obvious that their isolation has cultivated a sense of intimacy between them, albeit one-sided. But it is a curious attachment. At first, Alma attempts to topics fill the void of Elisabeth's silence. She talks incessantly about her life, unburdening her soul to the seemingly attentive patient. But soon, it is obvious that Elisabeth's interest is more than mere politeness or voyeuristic curiosity. She is, in fact, willing her identity - the facade she created as Elisabeth Vogler - to the mentally weaker Alma.
Elisabeth's struggle for absolute transference - the format, proverbial battle for the soul - is a means of further divorcing herself from the pain of her own existence. Persona is a provocative, highly cerebral, and artistically complex depiction of human frailty, cruelty, and identity. Bergman uses minimal composition and extremely tight close-ups to topics s daughter illustrate the of pi, theme of psychological deconstruction. Note the prevalent use of single camera shots throughout the duration of a scene. The lack of camera movement forces us to study the characters' faces. Persona , after all, as the title suggests, is not about who the person actually is, but the different identities, or facades, that the person projects. Figuratively, Elisabeth Vogler, having played the role of celebrity, wife, and essay s daughter mother, has decided to abandon her persona and walk off the stage.
A variation on the idea of new jersey bar essay, duality provides an essential ingredient to the plot development. The themes of experience, children, and romantic relationships take on very different meanings for the two women. Alma seems to covet what Elisabeth has, but she has deliberately chosen other paths. Note the monologue that is shown twice: one showing a close-up of Alma, and the other of Elisabeth. Essay Topics For The Keeper S Daughter? It is a scene about regret, frustration, and denial. The effect illustrates how different, and yet similar, these two women are. and how cruel and destructive the human will can be. Acquarello 1998. Responsibility? All rights reserved. Viskningar och rop, 1972.
[Cries and Whispers] Cries and Whispers is a powerful, richly textured exploration of the essay topics memory keeper s daughter, human soul. The story is set on for dissertation, a remote country house, stripped from the distractions of the outside world (the only guest is an essay topics memory attending physician). Essay About? Agnes (Harriet Andersson) is a terminally ill woman who is cared for by her two sisters: Karin (Ingrid Thulin), repressed and domineering, and essay memory keeper s daughter Maria (Liv Ullman), sensual and indecisive. However, her only new jersey bar essay, source of comfort is the devoted, nurturing maid, Anna (Kari Sylwan). As with other Bergman films, most notably Autumn Sonata, the film is a heartbreaking portrait of essay topics for the memory keeper, pain and regret, of things left unsaid and undone, until it is too late. Agnes's slow, agonizing death is shattering, especially as she futilely struggles to reconcile the sisters, as her languid, convulsive frame strains each breath. Unable to analysis essay reunite her sisters, her tortured soul can only grieve in incoherent gasps.
Similar to Leo Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Ilych , death confers a profound revelation whose meaning escapes the survivors. Cries and Whispers is a beautifully devastating story of isolation, communication, love, and death. Ingmar Bergman resisted using color as a novelty. His use of essay topics for the memory s daughter, color in life of pi essay, the film is precise and deliberate. Contrast the pale, muted landscape to the rich, deep colors inside the house. The color red, featured prominently in the film (as in essay keeper, Krzysztof Kieslowski's Red) is used to create a multifaceted visual theme. The effect is one of immersion: a soul foundering in the corporal life blood, a stifling, forced intimacy arising from absence and isolation, and a body slowly consumed by illness. Cries and Whispers is questions, a remarkable film of intoxicating beauty and essay topics for the keeper s daughter extraordinary depth, a sublime work of art from a true master.
Acquarello 1997. All rights reserved. Autumn Sonata is a provocative, moving, and intensely honest film about the complexity of familial relationships. Eva (Liv Ullman), a timid and reserved wife of a country parson, invites her mother, Charlotte (Ingrid Bergman), to stay with her after a seven year separation. Charlotte is a concert pianist, whose career has dictated prolonged separations from her family. Having recently experienced the death of questions about, her husband, Charlotte is for the memory keeper, eager to rekindle her relationship with her daughter. However, their congenial reunion is short-lived, as Eva begins to confront her mother's alienated affection. If the exquisite craftsmanship of the essays, great Ingmar Bergman is insufficient reason to watch this film, then consider the tour-de-force performances of Liv Ullman and the legendary Ingrid Bergman. Note the understated power of essay topics for the memory s daughter, a piano scene where the inhibited Eva, longing for approbation, plays a Chopin prelude (I can see at least ten different expressions on Ullman's face as she hits some clinkers during the piece, and equally as many on model literary analysis essay, Bergman's face as she tries not to betray the idea that she realizes how badly her daughter is topics for the memory s daughter, playing). Prompts? Then, as Charlotte takes her confident place in essay topics for the memory keeper, front of the piano, a revelation comes over Eva's countenance, as she finds the void of her mother's absence in the animated keys of the piano.
It is nhd research, impossible to describe the tenuous, emotionally charged scene that is at the heart of this film. It is an essay for the memory keeper exploration of cover for dissertation, guilt, regret, and pain. To trivialize this eviscerating exchange as wordy (as I have seen in some misguided reviews) is unfair. It is a verbal catharsis - the inevitable release of harbored frustration and anger - punctuated with the hesitance of a daughter who deeply loves her mother, but sometimes cannot accept her faults. S Daughter? The scene, and indeed the film itself, speaks volumes about the need for acceptance and connection.
Bergman, as in nhd research, Cries and Whispers, uses thematic colors that suffuse the film. In Autumn Sonata , the color palette is appropriately fall: pale greens, pumpkin orange, muted yellows, and earth tones. For The Memory Keeper S Daughter? Note the for dissertation, colors of the parsonage, the wardrobe, and the season in which the film takes place. The theme is especially suited to the story of a mother in the twilight of her career . and life (Ms. Essay Topics Keeper? Bergman was battling cancer when the film was made), seeking to find reconciliation and closure. It also creates an atmosphere that is warm and inviting, a woman coming home at literary analysis essay, the end of her journey.
It is, however, a journey that has only begun. Acquarello 1998. Essay Memory Keeper S Daughter? All rights reserved. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten, 1980. [From the Life of Marionettes] In a garishly decorated basement room of a tawdry, erotic cabaret, amidst the ambient pulsating, rhythmic drone of risqué music, an impassive prostitute nicknamed Ka (Rita Russek) embraces a solemn and diffident client, Peter Egermann (Robert Atzorn), caressing his face through the motions of sleep. The seemingly tender moment soon inexplicably turns to aggression when Peter violently reaches for Ka's throat and bar essay begins to choke her - a ferocious impulse that culminates with her brutal and unconscionable murder and violation. The film then proceeds in black and white as Peter's psychiatrist, Professor Mogens Jensen (Martin Benrath), is summoned to appear before the police investigation board and essay for the memory keeper s daughter provide a deposition on his encounter with Peter on the dawn after the murder, prompted by the patient's cryptic early morning telephone call to his private residence. Jensen reveals that Peter had sought treatment after being haunted by dreams of murdering his loving, but unfaithful wife Katarina (Christine Buchegger). However, the façade of Jensen's impartiality and professionalism is soon stripped away when, after expediting the already suspicious Peter's departure with a trivialized excuse for a subsequent patient appointment, he invites Katarina to his home office for a late afternoon rendezvous.
Gradually, the seemingly irreconcilable relationships in analysis essay, Peter's tormented life are revealed through temporal fragments of inquiries and conversations with his adulterous wife Katerina; her business partner Tim (Walter Schmidinger), an essay memory keeper insecure, aging homosexual who harbors an unrequited attraction towards the melancholic Peter; and Peter's mother Cordelia Egermann (Lola Müthel), a renowned actress who revels in her delusion of essay questions responsibility, self-martyrdom after sacrificing her career for her children. Filmed during Ingmar Bergman's self-imposed exile in Germany after a protracted and essay topics keeper s daughter acrimonious dispute with Swedish authorities on charges of income tax evasion, From the Life of Marionettes is a challenging, visually hypnotic, and atypically voluptuous film that reflects Bergman's own personal struggle with alienation, estrangement, and questions psychological duress. Bergman visually contrasts the color-saturated sequences of the film's prologue and epilogue with the austere, high contrast black and white episodes that encapsulate the chronicled activities of the characters before and after the murder. The conflated, multi-perspective narrative structure of the interviews creates an interconnected - and seemingly inescapable - sense of hermetic insularity that reflects Peter's depression, ambivalence, and entrapment: Jensen's testimony on Peter's behavior after the murder that illustrates Peter's discovery of his wife's emotional betrayal; Peter's unsent letter to Jensen that alludes to his feelings of topics for the keeper s daughter, inadequacy through a sensual, yet turbulent dream about format, Katarina; Tim's admission of his subversive manipulation of the Egermanns relationship that reveals his own fears and desires. Interweaving reality and illusion, consciousness and dreams, and past and present, From the Life of Marionettes presents a provocative and haunting portrait of topics for the memory keeper s daughter, disconnection, repression, emotional violence, and questions about intimacy.