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art extended essays These subject guidelines should be read in conjunction with the point essay, Assessment Criteria. Letter The Trenches? An extended essay in point by point visual arts provides students with an s essay opportunity to point by point essay undertake research in one word essay an area of the visua I arts of particular interest to them. The outcome of the comparison point essay, research should be a coherent and structured piece of writing (with appropriate illustrations) that effectively addresses a particular issue or research question, appropriate to the visual arts (broadly defined also to include architecture, design and contemporary forms of visual culture). The research may be generated or inspired bythe students direct experience of artwork, craftwork or design, or interest in the work of a particular artist, style or period. This might be related to one word essay the student's own culture or another culture. Personal contact with artists, curators and by point essay so on is strongly encouraged, as is the an essay notes, use of point, local and/or primary sources. Best Creative? Absolute reliance on textbooks and the Internet is discouraged and no extended essay in visual arts should be based exclusively on comparison point by point such sources.

Textbooks should be consulted only creative writing mfa programs, insofar as they may stimulate original ideas, provide models of disciplined, structured and informed approaches, and essay encourage direct and s essay personal involvement with the comparison essay, essay topic. Choice of topic. Topics that are entirely dependent on summarizing general secondary sources (such as universal art history textbooks, and encyclopedias), and topics that are likely to malthus's essay lead to point an essay that is poem analysis thesis, essentially narrative or descriptive in point essay nature, should be avoided. Biographical studies of malthus's essay, artists must address a relevant issue or research question and arrive at a particular, and comparison point preferably personal, conclusion. Choosing a topic that covers many aspects of art history and/or a long period of time is analysis thesis, also unlikely to result in a successful essay. Restricting the comparison point by point essay, scope of the essay will help to ensure a clear focus and will provide opportunities for demonstrating detailed understanding and critical analysis. Best Creative Mfa Programs? The following examples of titles for visual arts extended essays are intended as guidance only.

The pairings illustrate that focused topics (indicated by the first title) should be encouraged rather than broad topics (indicated by the second title). Comparison Point By Point Essay? How did Wassily Kandinsky use colour? is better than The Bauhaus. An analysis of one word essay, African influences on Henry Moore is better than 20th-century British sculpture. 'What is the artistic significance of recent poles raised by the First Nations of Haida-Gwai? is point, better than 'The art of Native North American people. Klimt's use of an essay notes, gold is better than Sezession in Berlin. Robert Ntila's etching techniques: a critical investigation is better than Contemporary East African art. Comparison Essay? It may help if the student defines the topic chosen for study in the form of malthus's essay, a more specific research question, followed by a statement of intent that indicates which broad process is comparison point by point, going to be used in s essay answering the comparison point by point, question. In this way, the poem essay, approach to the topic chosen may be even further clarified. Essay? Some examples of this could include the letter from essay, following. Topic Cultural influences on Pablo Picasso's work. Comparison? Research question Picassm individual genius or cultural thief?

Approach An investigation of the extent to which selected images in Picasso's work may have been appropriated from other cultural sources. Topic The influence of Renaissance architecture in Montreal. S Essay? Research question Cathêdrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, Montreal:a replica of St Peter's, Rome? Approach An original investigation into point essay, the stylistic similarities in the architecture of college, these two buildings. Topic The impact of immigration on an artist's work. Research question What is the comparison point, impact of transcultural experience on the art of Gu Xiong? Approach An investigation into from the trenches, the effects of migration on a selected artist's. Treatment of the topic. It is comparison by point essay, essential that the topic chosen is clearly and introductions essays directly related to visual arts. If the connection is point by point essay, only incidental, students risk introducing material that is of only s essay, marginal relevance, and will confuse the inquiry and comparison point weaken the argument. Students should be encouraged to formulate a research question of personal interest and to draw on poem essay thesis a variety of sources to point by point support their arguments, such as textual analysis, study of original artworks or designed artifacts, and interviews with practitioners or authorities on malthus's essay the subject.

Students should be helped to comparison identify and choose appropriate sources, both primary and secondary, and appropriate methods of hamlet hubris essay, research. Comparison? Research questions that do not allow a systematic investigation that demonstrates critical artistic analysis and s essay detailed understanding are unlikely to be suitable. In some instances, it may become clear at comparison point by point an early stage in the research that too few sources are available to permit such an investigation. On Criticism? In such cases, a change of focus should be made. Point? The inclusion and pope on criticism discussion of point, appropriate visual reference material is creative mfa programs, of particular importance in visual arts extended essays. Such material must, however, be directly supportive of, and comparison by point essay relevant to, the malthus's essay, analysis/argument. Point? It should be neatly presented, properly acknowledged, and essay should appear in point the body of the essay, as close as possible to the first reference. In order to promote personal involvement in malthus's essay the extended essay, the comparison point by point, use of local and/or primary sources should be encouraged wherever possible. Alexander On Criticism Notes? However, it is appreciated that, in point certain situations, students may not necessarily have access to primary sources.

In such situations, reproductions, videos, films or photographs/Internet images of a high quality are considered acceptable sources. An argument should be well substantiated, with comments and conclusions supported by evidence that is relevant and well founded, not based simply on from essay the student's preconceptions. Essay? Students are expected to evaluate critically the resources consulted during the malthus's essay, process of writing the point, essay by asking themselves the best creative in california, following questions. Which sources are vital to the support of my ideas, opinions and assertions? Which sources do not contribute to the analysis? Many different approaches to the research question can be appropriate, for comparison point essay instance: use of malthus's essay, primary sources (artwork and artists) and comparison by point secondary sources (material about the visual arts) in s essay order to by point establish and appraise varying interpretations analysing sources (primary and secondary) in order to explore and writing explain particular aspects of the visual arts using primary source material for an analysis, with emphasis on by point essay a particular aspect of analysis, visual arts collecting and analysing reproductions of artwork, possibly leading to essay a comparison of similar or different images. Poem Analysis Thesis? Students should also demonstrate awareness of other issues surrounding the art studied. Do I show an awareness of the by point essay, value and limitations of the art I am studying through analysing its. origin and purpose? .Do I show a consistently good artistic understanding in setting the research question into context.

Relevant outcomes of this analysis should be integrated into best mfa programs in california, the student's argument. The argument should also be well substantiated: With what evidence do I support my comments and conclusions? Is this evidence relevant and comparison essay well founded, and not based simply on letter from the trenches essay my preconceptions? Finally, an comparison point by point extended essay in visual arts is a formal essay, so students must pay very careful attention to the requirements of the essay, assessment criteria. Frequent reference to by point essay the assessment criteria by both the supervisor and the student will help keep a sharper focus on the project. Introductions College? Interpreting the assessment criteria. Criterion A: research question. Comparison By Point? The research question can often be best defined in from the trenches essay the form of comparison point essay, a question.

It may, however, also be presented as a statement or proposition for discussion. Essays College? It must be: specific and sharply focused appropriate to comparison point essay the visual arts (broadly defined also to include architecture, design and introductions contemporary forms of point by point essay, visual culture) and not of hamlet, a trivial nature centred on point by point the visual arts and malthus's essay not on peripheral issues such as biography stated clearly early on in the essay. The introduction should explain succinctly the comparison point by point essay, significance of the introductions, topic, why it is worthy of comparison point essay, investigation, and how the research question relates to existing knowledge on letter essay the topic. The introduction should not be seen as an opportunity for padding out an essay with a lengthy account of an artists life, The range of resources available will be influenced by various factors, but above all by point the topic. Students should use in the first instance primary sources (artwork, exhibitions, architecture, interviews), with secondary sources (textbooks and the comments of other artists, critics, art historians) as evidential support. It is expected that visual material (sometimes including the alexander pope notes, student's own photographs) will be included and properly referenced. The proper planning of an essay should involve interrogating source material in comparison light of the research question, so that the views of other art scholars and artists are used to introductions support the students own argument, and not as a substitute for point by point essay that argument. It may thus be helpful for s essay a student to challenge a statement by an art scholar (historian or critic), in point reference to one word essay the art being studied, instead of comparison by point essay, simply agreeing with it, where there is evidence to support such a challenge. Hubris Essay? If students make use of Internet-based sources, they should do so critically and comparison essay circumspectly in full awareness of malthus's essay, their potential unreliability.

Criterion D: knowledge and understanding of the topic studied. Students should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the visual arts by discussing formal artistic aspects (for example, elements and comparison point principles of introductions essays, design) and comparison by point considering historical, social and cultural contexts. S Essay? Some of this knowledge and understanding should be based at comparison by point essay least partially on poem analysis thesis primary sources. By Point Essay? Criterion E: reasoned argument. Students should be aware of the need to one word essay give their essays the backbone of a developing argument in which the essay is grounded in point by point an understanding of the s essay, relevant and comparison point by point essay wider historical and sociocultural context. S Essay? Personal views should not simply be stated but need to comparison essay be supported by reasoned argument, often with reference to s essay illustrations, to persuade the reader of their validity. By Point Essay? Straightforward descriptive or narrative accounts that lack analysis (for example, a simple recounting of an hamlet essay artist's life) do not usually advance an argument and should be avoided. Good essays are those that have something interesting to communicate, where there is evidence of original thought, and where students are able to substantiate their ideas and opinions. Criterion F: application of analytical and evaluative skills appropriate to comparison the subject. There should be strong evidence of a thorough knowledge of the visual arts aspects of the topic, and the essay should successfully incorporate and discuss visual images. Criterion G: use of language appropriate to the subject.

There should be evidence of familiarity with, and one word essay the accurate and effective use of, visual arts terminology. Appropriate vocabulary must be used to describe historical periods, artistic styles and essay so on. Consistent is the key word here: the one word essay, conclusion should develop out of the comparison point essay, argument and not introduce new or extraneous matter. Alexander An Essay On Criticism Notes? It should not repeat the material of the point essay, introduction; rather, it should present a new synthesis in introductions light of the discussion. Point By Point Essay? Criterion I: formal presentation. This criterion relates to the extent to malthus's essay which the essay conforms to academic standards about the way in point by point which research papers should be presented. The presentation of essays that omit a bibliography, appropriate (and acknowledged) visual images, or that do not give references for quotations is deemed unacceptable (level 0). Essays that omit one of the required elementstitle page, table of contents, page numbers, visual referencesare deemed no better than satisfactory (maximum level 2), while essaysthat omit two of s essay, them are deemed poor at best (maximum level 1). Within the visual arts, the look as well as the craft of the essay is given consideration.

In visual arts essays, illustrations should appear in the body of the essay, as close as possible to point their first reference. The abstract is judged on the clarity with which it presents an s essay overview of the research and comparison the essay, not on the quality of the research question itself, nor on the quality of the argument or the conclusions. Criterion K: holistic judgment. Qualities that are rewarded under this criterion include the thesis, following. Intellectual initiative: Ways of demonstrating this in comparison point by point visual arts essays include the choice of topic and poem analysis research question, and comparison locating and using a wide range of sources, including some that may have been little used previously or generated for the study (for instance, transcripts of one word essay, interviews with artists and point by point essay collectors).

Insight and depth of understanding:These are most likely to hubris be demonstrated as a consequence of detailed research, reflection that is thorough and well informed, and point reasoned argument that consistently and from the trenches essay effectively addresses the research question. Creativity:In visual arts essays,this includes qualities such as new and inventive approaches to artistic analysis, new approaches to by point essay well-worn or popular topics, or attention to new topics and questions.

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Comparison point by point essay

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Le Laocoon de Lessing : deduction et induction. Laocoon, ou Sur les limites de la peinture et de la poesie, de Lessing, dont seule la premiere partie fut publiee en 1766, a fait l’objet des l’origine d’une reception tres « selective » en raison de sa structure compliquee. Ou bien on comparison by point se concentrait sur la critique de Winckelmann interprete du « cri », contre laquelle l’humanite de Philoctete (chez Sophocle) est reevaluee. One Word Essay? Ou bien l’on placait les « regles » et « principes » du chapitre XVI au centre de l’interet : c’est-a-dire la demarche « systematique » relative a l’ « espace » et au « temps », a la « simultaneite » et a la « succession », au « corps » et aux « actions ». By Point? Ces derniers temps s’est ajoute l’interet porte a la theorie des signes (peu originale) de Lessing, que l’on a interpretee dans le sens d’un systeme semiotique. Alexander Pope An Essay? Cependant, lorsqu’on analyse precisement la methode critique de Lessing, il apparait que celle-ci est dominee par la polarite de la deduction et de l’induction.

La comparaison deductive des arts (par exemple, dans les premieres esquisses de 1762-1763) est necessairement completee par une demarche inductive et empirique qui part de l’exemplum. By Point Essay? Ici, le « critique » Lessing montre les limites de l’autorite de Winckelmann. Malthus's Essay? Il polemique en meme temps contre la « peinture » poetique qui limite l’ « intellectualite » de la poesie. Comparison Point? Ce n’est pas un « systeme » qui gouverne le Laocoon de Lessing, mais – dans cette ?uvre de transition vers une esthetique de l’autonomie – un processus d’alternance entre deduction et induction. Lessings Laokoon oder uber die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie, von dem nur der Erste Teil erschien (1766), ist in alexander an essay seiner schwierigen Struktur von fruh an comparison point by point sehr « selektiv » rezipiert worden. An Essay On Criticism Notes? Entweder konzentrierte man sich auf die Kritik an point Winckelmanns Deutung des « Schreiens », der gegenuber der « menschliche » Philoktet (Sophokles) aufgewertet wird. Best Creative Writing Mfa Programs? Oder man stellte die « Regeln » und « Satze » aus Kapitel XVI in essay den Mittelpunkt : also den « systematischen » Ansatz, der sich auf « Raum » und « Zeit », « Simultaneitat » und « Konsekution », « Korper » und « Handlungen » bezieht. One Word Essay? Neuerdings kommt das Interesse an Lessings (durchaus unorigineller) Zeichentheorie hinzu, die man im Sinne einer systematischen Semiotik interpretiert. Comparison Point Essay? Wenn man jedoch Lessings kritisches Vorgehen genau analysiert, so zeigt sich, dass es durch die Polaritat von Deduktion und Induktion bestimmt ist. Analysis Thesis? Die deduktive Vergleichung der Kunste (so in comparison point essay den ersten Entwurfen von 1762-1763) wird notwendig durch einen induktiv-empirischen Ansatz komplettiert, der vom exemplum ausgeht.

Hier weist der « Kritiker » Lessing die Autoritat Winckelmanns in mfa programs ihre Grenzen. Comparison Point By Point Essay? Zugleich polemisiert er gegen das poetische « Malen », das die « Geistigkeit » der Poesie einschrankt. Letter Essay? Kein « System » bestimmt den Laokoon, sondern – im Ubergang zur Autonomieasthetik – ein prozesshafter Wechsel zwischen Deduktion und Induktion. Lessing’s Laocoon, or on by point the borders between painting and s essay poetry (only the comparison by point essay First Part was published, in one word essay 1766), in by point essay its difficult structure, has early been received in a rather « selective » way. One Word Essay? Some concentrated upon comparison point essay, Lessing’s criticism of the letter the trenches essay Winckelmannian interpretation of the comparison point by point « cry », against an essay notes, which « human » Philoctetes (Sophocles) gets a higher value.

Others put into essay the center what can be quoted from one word essay Chapter XVI : the by point essay « systematic » approach referring to letter from the trenches, « space » and by point essay « time », « simultaneity » and creative writing mfa programs « consecution », « bodies » and comparison essay « actions ». S Essay? During last decades interest increased in Lessing’s « theory of sign » (without originality), interpreted as systematic semiotics. However, looking more precisely on point by point Lessing’s critical proceedings you will find out alexander notes, a specific polarity of essay, deduction and alexander pope an essay on criticism induction. Comparison By Point? Deductive comparison of the letter from arts (as in point by point essay Lessing’s early schemes of writing mfa programs, 1762-1763) is point by point, necessarily completed by an inductive-empirical approach, starting from the best writing exemplum. By Point? Here, Lessing as a critic narrows down Winckelmann’s authority. Malthus's Essay? Along with this tendency he polemicizes against comparison essay, poetic e painting « which restricts the poem analysis thesis characteristic » spirituality « of point essay, poetry. Letter? Lessing’s Laocoon is comparison point essay, not dominated by letter essay, any » system « but is point by point, characterized – in from essay transition to comparison, Autonomieasthetik – by writing mfa programs in california, procedural change between deduction and comparison point essay induction. 1 Pour commencer, quelques phrases dans le francais de Lessing : 1 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Werke und Briefe, ed. Wilfried Barner en collab. The Trenches Essay? avec Klaus Bohen e. Comparison Point Essay? a., (. One Word Essay? ) 2 D’aller a l’encontre de ce gout manque, de combattre les jugements trop peu approfondis des Critiques, c’est la le dessein principale des discours suivants. Ils ne se sont formes qu’occasionnellement, e plus selon la suite de ma lecture, que selon le developpement methodique de principes generaux. Ce sont donc plutot des materiaux sans ordre pour en faire un livre, qu’un livre. Il y a quelques annees que j’en ai donne le commencement en Alemand.

Je vais le rediger de nouveau et d’en donner la suite en Francois, cette langue m’etant dans ces matieres tout au moins aussi familiere que l’autre1. 2 Le debut (p. By Point? 319) suit assez exactement le texte allemand de 1766. One Word Essay? Sur la finalite de cette traduc (. ) 3 Sur ce point et sur la suite du present article, nous renvoyons de maniere generale au commentaire (. Point Essay? ) 3 Ces cinq phrases de la conclusion2 d’une preface redigee en vue d’une version remaniee du Laocoon que Lessing projetait « quelques annees » apres l’original de 1766 supposent, d’une part de premieres reactions, y compris internationales, au traite qui avait fait sensation par sa nouveaute ; d’autre part, il n’etait sans doute pas entierement irrealiste de vouloir toucher un public elargi, voire europeen, grace a la langue francaise. S Essay? L’ensemble des discussions de la critique d’art n’etait-il pas, si l’on met a part Spence, Addison, Harris et quelques autres, mene en langue francaise, de Batteux et Du Bos au comte de Caylus et a maints autres auteurs jusqu’a Diderot3 ? On comprend de plus, des le debut de la citation, que le Laocoon n’entend pas developper des debats theoriques intemporels, mais une critique d’art d’intervention, la critique litteraire d’un certain « gout manque », non sur le mode indirect et avec un gant de velours, mais de maniere offensive, afin de « combattre les jugements trop peu approfondis des Critiques ». Comparison Essay? En troisieme lieu, on from the trenches essay percoit dans ces lignes une attitude legerement defensive, une sorte d’auto-apologie anticipee, consistant a presenter l’essai comme compose « occasionellement » suivant une « lecture » personnelle de Lessing, bien plus que « selon le developpement methodique de principes generaux ». 4 Choix de documents temoignant de cette reception in point essay DKV, vol. Best Writing? 5/2, p. Comparison Point By Point? 674-734. Creative Mfa Programs In California? 5 DKV, vol. By Point Essay? 5/2, p. Malthus's Essay? 15.

Traduction francaise de Courtin (1866), revue et corrigee, Lessing, Laocoon, (. Comparison Essay? ) 6 Il s'agit du Novus linguae et eruditionis Romanae thesaurus de Johann Mathias Gesner (1747-1748). 4 « Methodique », « principes generaux » — on poem essay thesis pourrait encore ajouter « systeme » pour definir les notions resumant l’orientation de l’auto-explication de Lessing et sa premiere reception, par exemple chez Christian Garve, indirectement aussi chez Winckelmann, puis surtout chez Herder, Riedel et d’autres encore4. Comparison By Point? Cette maniere, teintee de polemique, de se demarquer, nous en connaissons les autres facettes, dans l’avant-propos au Laocoon, par exemple, avec ces deux phrases acerees : « Nous autres Allemands ne manquons pas de livres a systeme ; deduire [deducere], en partant de quelques definitions et dans le plus bel ordre possible, tout ce que nous voulons, c’est a quoi nous nous entendons mieux que personne au monde. Alexander Pope An Essay Notes? »5 Puis, apres avoir mentionne le nom incontournable de Baumgarten (et ses Aesthetica), en precisant qu’il avait tire l’essentiel de ses exemples du dictionnaire de Gesner6, Lessing, fier de sa demarche empirique, promet que ses exemples « conserveront davantage la saveur de leur source ». Point By Point Essay? Bien des lecteurs contemporains et plus encore de lecteurs des siecles ulterieurs ont diversement apprecie ce gout des sources en trouvant dans le Laocoon tous ces details philologiques, souvent accumules, ces raisonnements fondes sur la critique des textes et l’etymologie, ces meganotes infrapaginales de plusieurs pages, et, finalement, cette interruption de la Premiere partie au beau milieu de questions de detail concernant l’Histoire de l’art de l’Antiquite de Winckelmann, dont Lessing ecrit qu’elle vient juste de paraitre. 7 Cette declaration, au Livre VIII de Poesie et verite (1812), qui se rapporte a l'epoque des etudes (. Writing? ) 8 Documents signales a la note 1, supra, p. Comparison Essay? 131. Poem Analysis Essay? 9 La traduction francaise (cf. Point By Point? n. S Essay? 2, supra, p. Point By Point? 132) dit, p. Pope Notes? 120 : « Essayons maintenant de proceder (. By Point? ) 10 Siegfried Seifert, Lessing-Bibliographie, Berlin — Weimar, 1973, p. S Essay? 640-656.

11 Hans Christoph Buch, Ut Pictura Poesis. Point? Die Beschreibungsliteratur und ihre Kritiker von Lessing b (. Creative Mfa Programs In California? ) 5 Ce ne sont certainement pas ces particularites du texte qui ont « enchante » le jeune Goethe et ses camarades, selon l’expression que l’on trouvera plus tard dans Poesie et verite 7 . Peu de textes de Lessing, et sans doute de toute cette periode, obligent aussi fortement que le Laocoon a parler d’une reception strictement selective. Comparison By Point Essay? C’est un probleme qui se situe a la surface du texte, mais qui determine aussi sa structure profonde, marquee par la polarite et la complementarite de la deduction et de l’induction. Malthus's Essay? Si l’on parcourt d’abord les premiers temoignages de la reception, on comparison point by point rencontre naturellement les lecteurs professionnels qui se plongent avec une curiosite impatiente dans les exempla de Lessing : le groupe sculpte du Laocoon, le Laocoon de Virgile, le Philoctete de Sophocle ou encore le Gladiateur Borghese — tels Herder, Garve, Riedel, et bien sur aussi Klotz et d’autres encore8. Best Creative Writing Mfa Programs In California? Mais dans les dictionnaires, comme celui de Sulzer, et dans les manuels, c’est bientot le chapitre XVI, avec ses « principes » et ses « regles », qui domine ce chapitre qui succede a une controverse avec Caylus (chap. Point Essay? XV) abruptement interrompue par la phrase devenue celebre : « Essayons maintenant de deduire la chose de ses causes premieres [c’est-a-dire des primae causae]. Best Mfa Programs? » 9 Nous rencontrons a nouveau la notion de deducere, chargee de signification. By Point Essay? Lorsque le Laocoon de Lessing devint au xix e siecle une lecture canonique de tous les lyceens (mais aussi naturellement des etudiants de bon nombre d’Ecoles des beaux-arts) et que furent composees pour cet usage des anthologies ad usum delphini, du genre de celles que recense la bibliographie lessingienne de Siegfried Seifert, publiee en 197310, le chapitre XVI ne manquait jamais (comme c’est le cas aujourd’hui dans les articles de dictionnaire), avec les fondements de la theorie semiotique et les « principes » qui fixent les « limites » separant les arts. S Essay? Et, troisieme element resultant des precedents : la condamnation de la « poesie peinture ». Comparison Point? Hans Christoph Buch, dans sa monographie Ut Pictura Poesis a retrace la posterite de ce verdict lourd de consequences, qui suscita bien des resistances, tout au long du xix e siecle et jusqu’a Georg Lukacs11. 12 Il est vrai que cette forme ne resulte pas d'un « plan », mais, elle aussi, de difficultes interne (. S Essay? ) 6 Le Laocoon de Lessing, ou plus exactement sa premiere partie, seule publiee, se prete a cette reception singuliere, hautement selective, par une structure du texte et de l’argumentation, qui ne se retrouve dans aucun autre des nombreux textes theoriques experimentaux du xviii e siecle : ni dans les Kreuzzuge des Philologen de Hamann, avec leurs esquisses fragmentaires, ni dans les digressions des Salons de Diderot.

Le texte le plus comparable est ici, ce n’est pas un hasard, la Dramaturgie de Hambourg, en tout cas par sa structure de livre completement asymetrique, commencant par le commentaire critique des pieces representees a Hambourg et atteignant son point culminant dans le tiers final, avec la grande exegese du chapitre sur la tragedie de la Poetique d’Aristote. Point By Point? En somme, un exemple classique de critique inductive12 ? 13 Vue d'ensemble concise dans l'article « Deduktion » de K. S Essay? Lorenz, in comparison by point Historisches Worterbuch der P (. One Word Essay? ) 14 Expose complet dans l'article « Induktion » de R. Point By Point? Ruzicka, S. Writing In California? Korner et H. Point By Point Essay? Freudenthal, in analysis essay thesis Histori (. Comparison By Point? ) 15 Ces centres d'interet etaient plus marques chez son ami et proche parent Mylius, prematurement dis (. Best Creative Writing Mfa Programs? ) 7 Dans le couple de notions deduction/induction, c’est la deduction qui, ancree dans l’histoire de la logique et de la syllogistique, en particulier de la mathematique, constitue l’element le moins problematique13. Point By Point? Deduire le particulier du general, la proposition speciale de la proposition generale, a dans certains cas ete conteste du point de vue des premisses et du mode de deduction. One Word Essay? Et Kant a delimite la deduction transcendantale par rapport a la deduction empirique du point de vue de l’acquisition de connaissances. Point By Point Essay? L’induction, inductio, en grec epagoge — deja chez Artistote — est profondement ancree dans les sciences empiriques, par exemple, pour l’ecole aristotelicienne, en physique, mais aussi dans la psychologie qui est aussi une science de l’homme14. Poem Analysis Essay? La legitimite methodologique de l’induction a frequemment ete contestee, voire recusee avec l’argument consistant a souligner l’impossibilite de l’induction dite integrale. Comparison Point Essay? J’en resterai a ces indications fort elliptiques et je me contenterai de rappeler que l’interet precoce de Lessing, dont les premieres publications dans la revue de Christlob Mylius, Der Naturforscher, remontent a 1747, pour les sciences de la nature, pour la botanique, la geologie, mais aussi la physique, les sciences de la terre et divers sujets, est un fait bien connu15. 16 Joachim Birke, « Der junge Lessing als Kritiker Gottscheds », in malthus's essay Euphorien 62 (1968), p. Comparison? 392-404. 17 Joachim Birke, « Der junge Lessing als Kritiker Gottscheds », in s essay Euphorien 62 (1968), p. By Point? 392-404.

18 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Werke, ed. Herbert G. One Word Essay? Gopfert, vol. Comparison By Point Essay? 4, Dramaturgische Schriften, ed. Alexander An Essay? Kar (. Comparison Point Essay? ) 19 Johann Christoph Gottsched, Sterbender Cato, 1731. 8 Sans qu’il soit possible de retracer ici plus longuement sa reflexion theorique, on best mfa programs est frappe par l’importance accordee par Lessing (qui est en cela caracteristique de la premiere epoque des Lumieres) aux donnees de l’experience, a l’empirie, dans l’observation de la nature, mais aussi dans la deconstruction des prejuges pour laquelle l’experience « particuliere » faite au contact d’un libre penseur ou d’un Juif se trouve plusieurs fois confrontee au prejuge « general ». By Point? C’est le principe qui regit les premieres comedies, de meme que les ecrits d’apologie16. Best Creative Mfa Programs In California? On a bien etudie les processus critiques dans lesquels Lessing, contre le dogmatisme deductif de la poetique de Gottsched17, encore dominante a cette epoque, soumet a l’examen certains procedes condamnes par Gottsched en analysant leurs « effets » : ainsi, dans le premier grand ecrit philologique et critique de Lessing, en 1749, 1’« apologie » de Plaute, un auteur decrie par Gottsched. Comparison Point By Point? Pour revenir a un domaine proche du Laocoon, celui de l’esthetique, je ne retiendrai qu’un exemple emprunte au registre du drame. S Essay? Dans l’avant-propos de 1756 a la traduction des drames de l’auteur anglais Jacob James) Thomson, Lessing porte un jugement sur ce qu’on rapporte de l’effet superbe produit par le contemporain de Thomson, George Lillo, avec la piece The London Merchant (1731) : « Pour donner mon opinion veritable a propos des regles : je prefererais infiniment avoir cree l’homme le plus informe, avec des jambes torses par-devant comme par-derriere, plutot que d’avoir fabrique la plus belle statue d’un Praxitele ; de meme je prefererais infiniment etre l’auteur du Marchand de Londres, plutot que celui de Caton mourant » 18 (c’est-a-dire de la piece exemplaire de Gottsched19, remplissant toutes les regles).

20 Dont on comparison by point trouve un bon resume dans Monika Fick, Lessing-Handbuch. Poem Essay Thesis? Leben — Werk — Wirkung, Stuttgart (. By Point Essay? ) 9 La comparaison avec Praxitele ne survient pas par hasard. One Word Essay? Lessing (des 1756 !) tient a enoncer un principe englobant la poesie et les arts plastiques. Point? La reference inductive a l’empirie, a l’effet superbe produit par la piece de Lillo, relativise toutes les « regles », toute notion de « conformite mecanique », selon les formules que Lessing emploie au meme endroit. The Trenches? Comme la recherche sur le Laocoon l’a constate depuis longtemps, c’est la theorie de la fable (dans les Abhandlungen uber die Fabel de 1759)20 qui donne lieu a la premiere discussion sur les limites des disciplines artistiques. Point By Point Essay? La fable qui, en racontant une histoire d’animaux, debouche sur une « lecon », sur un « precepte », sur une « connaissance imagee » (ici, Lessing est tres proche de la position de Gellert qui entendait « dire la verite a travers une image »), est un genre d’une grande variete. One Word Essay? Lessing defend le type concis, non descriptif, des fables d’Esope contre le type « bavard » des fables de La Fontaine, parvenues depuis longtemps a une celebrite universelle. Comparison Essay? Quant a l’allegorie, elle se voit assigner d’etroites limites. La encore, il apparait clairement que Lessing ne formule pas des theories abstraites, mais trace des lignes de demarcation polemiques.

Tout ce qui releve de la decoration, de la simple complaisance, tout ce qui fait diversion doit etre elimine au profit de 1’« action » qui est le c?ur de la fable « animaliere ». Writing In California? Indubitablement, la position defendue en 1766 est deja prefiguree par ces representations normatives de 1759. 10 Mais quel est le cheminement methodologique qui conduit finalement Lessing a ce texte si singulierement structure qui surprit le public de la foire de Paques en 1766 ? De ce cheminement meme resulte la structure. Comparison Point? Rappelons en une phrase que la soudaine metamorphose de notre critique et notoire auteur de theatre en « antiquaire » pratiquant le genre a la mode, ne s’explique pas seulement par le mouvement lance par Winckelmann (et les soucis materiels qui obligent Lessing a des travaux lucratifs), mais aussi par les etudes grecques poursuivies a Breslau a la suite du projet sur Sophocle. 21 Expose plus complet in from the trenches essay DKV, vol. Comparison Point By Point? 5/2, p. Letter The Trenches? 627-650. 11 Pour l’information sur les positions les plus actuelles en matiere d’esthetique (Locke, Harris, Dubos, etc.) le role de Moses Mendelssohn, de ses lettres Uber die Empfindungen (1755), et surtout de son traite Uber die Hauptgrundsatze der schonen Kunste und Wissenschaften (1757), fut primordial. Comparison By Point? Pourquoi Lessing n’a-t-il pas repris la reference a l’interpretation du Laocoon par Winckelmann dans l’essai de 1755 sur L’Imitation, reference qui lui etait donnee de facon claire dans une lettre de decembre 1756 ? La question reste sans reponse. In California? Peut-etre une lettre s’est-elle perdue.

Pour le reste, le fonds des manuscrits posthumes temoignant de la genese du Laocoon, pour ce qui concerne le probleme deduction/induction, est d’une richesse incomparable. Comparison By Point? Par souci de brievete, je ne mentionnerai que l’essentiel21. 22 Cf. n. Thesis? 3, supra, p. Essay? 131. One Word Essay? 23 Emil Grosse, « Uber Lessings Handschrift des Laokoon und den Nachla? zu demselben », in Archiv fur (. Comparison Essay? ) 24 Elisabeth Blakert, « Grenzbereiche der Edition : die Paralipomena zu Lessings Laokoon » , in editio (. Mfa Programs In California? ) 25 DKV, Bd. Comparison By Point? 5/2, p. Malthus's Essay? 209.

26 Ibid. 12 Malgre les divergences qui, depuis Hugo Blumner22 et Emil Grosse23, subsistent entre les reconstructions genetiques — la plus recente revision, menee a bien par Elisabeth Blakert (1999), confirme que le plus ancien manuscrit est celui qu’on appelle le Paralipomenon 3, de Breslau, certainement de l’automne 176324. Point Essay? Le Paralipomenon 1, auquel il faut sans doute donner une date plus ancienne25, commence en des termes pratiquement identiques, sans le ton tranchant, plutot sur le mode du tatonnement : « La ressemblance et la convergence de la poesie et de la peinture ont assez souvent ete abordees et traitees ; mais pas toujours avec la precision qui aurait permis de se premunir contre les mauvaises influences exercees sur l’une ou sur l’autre. Writing In California? »26 Le debut, pour ainsi dire doxographique, de l’« Avant-propos » ulterieur de 1766, est deja perceptible. Essay? Ainsi, nous avons affaire a un theme europeen charge d’histoire. Letter From? Mais ce theme n’est pas aborde d’un point de vue abstrait et purement theorique, mais dans le contexte de l’histoire des arts, avec le souci de critiquer des evolutions malencontreuses (cf. Comparison Point By Point Essay? la preface en francais, qui parle encore de « ce gout manque »). Mfa Programs In California? Et Lessing designe sur-le-champ les causes de cette depravation : en poesie, l’abus de descriptions (Schilderungssucht), en peinture la manie allegorisante (Allegoristerei). On voit bien ici le lien thematique avec les etudes sur la fable de 1759. 27 Textes aisement accessibles in point by point Moses Mendelssohn, Asthetische Schriften in alexander Auswahl, ed.

Otto F. Comparison? Be (. From? ) 28 Tzvetan Todorov, « Asthetik und Semiotik im 18. Comparison? Jahrhundert. Thesis? G. By Point Essay? E. The Trenches? Lessing : Lao-koon », in by point essay Das La (. Best Creative In California? ) 13 Deduction ou induction : meme si l’on place en tete le Paralipomenon 3, dans tous les cas l’expose passe rapidement a l’exposition concise des theses sur le caractere mimetique des arts et aux regles qui, selon les termes du Paralipomenon 1, « doivent etre deduites de la notion d’imitation-mimesis (Nachahmung) » (il s’agit donc de deducen). Point? Celles-ci resultent de la diversite des « moyens » (Mittel) mimetiques. Best Mfa Programs? Puis viennent, dans leur premiere formulation, la plupart de ces « propositions » (Satze), qui sont par la suite devenues celebres avec le chapitre XVI du Laocoon. Point By Point Essay? Ici nous rencontrons tres precocement aussi la notion de « signe naturel » et « arbitraire », telle que Mendelssohn l’avait developpee dans ses Hauptgrundsatze de 1757, prenant pour l’essentiel la suite des Reflexions critiques sur la poesie et la peinture de Du Bos (1719)27. S Essay? Dans cette premiere conception deductive, on point by point trouve donc deja les germes de ce que Tzvetan Todorov a mis en lumiere comme l’« originalite souvent meconnue » de Lessing dans le Laocoon : d’avoir ete le premier a etablir le lien entre deux lieux communs de son epoque : « Que l’art est imitation ; et que les signes de la poesie sont arbitraires. »28. 14 A l’intention de ceux qui ont sous les yeux surtout, voire exclusivement, le Laocoon dans sa version de 1766, il faut preciser que la premiere version du texte, tres vite apres la definition deductive et diacritique de la poesie et de la peinture, commente aussi certains exempta homeriques (extraits surtout de l’ Iliade), pour une part sous la forme d’une discussion critique de Polymetis de Spence (1744) et des Tableaux tires de l’Iliade du comte de Caylus (1757). One Word Essay? Et pour ce qui concerne « abus de description » critiquee au debut, il jette un regard sur les « faiblesses » du populaire James Thomson. 29 DKV, vol.

5/2, p. Comparison Point Essay? 217-252 (les notes de Mendelssohn et de Nicolai — comme dans les editions anteri (. Poem? ) 15 Non seulement la denonciation polemique des evolutions pernicieuses des arts, mais plus encore le lien argumentatif inhabituel avec un systeme de « regles » degagees par deduction ont de toute evidence semble perilleux a Lessing, qui a souhaite les soumettre a la discussion. Comparison Point By Point Essay? Ce genre de choses, il en parlait d’ordinaire avec des amis. Malthus's Essay? Et quand l’un d’entre eux n’etait pas sur place, on comparison essay echangeait des correspondances, comme naguere (en 1756-1757, alors que Lessing etait a Leipzig) avec Mendelssohn et Nicolai a propos du drame. Du fond de son isolement volontaire a Breslau (ou il n’y avait pas grand monde a qui parler, a part l’erudit recteur Klose) il experimenta une tierce formule. Alexander? Il envoya des parties de ses esquisses deductives, qui passaient rapidement aux exempla, a ses amis Nicolai et Mendelssohn a Berlin en leur demandant leurs commentaires. Comparison Point? Par chance, une serie de ces feuillets originaux a ete conservee29. One Word Essay? Pendant une visite de Lessing a Potsdam a l’automne 1763, des entretiens furent meme possibles et Lessing y fait allusion explicitement dans des esquisses posterieures. Comparison? Mendelssohn fut le commentateur le plus empresse et le plus stimulant. Best In California? Fait caracteristique, en particulier, il accepta comme allant de soi le discours semiotique de Lessing, alors que celui-ci avait d’ores et deja tire de ses ecrits esthetiques une part importante de ses connaissances sur le sujet, rectifiant des concepts, ajoutant des arguments supplementaires. 16 Cet etonnant processus de symphilosophein par ecrit entre Lessing, Nicolai et surtout Mendelssohn, dont je ne peux pas faire etat dans le cadre du present expose, se revele doublement important pour ma problematique. By Point? Il demontre la simultaneite et l’interpenetration d’une demarche philologique et humaniste de type ancien et de questionnements relevant du jugement esthetique (dans les passages consacres a Homere, dans le choix d’exemples comme Thersite, Helene, etc.), la nouvelle passion antiquaire a la mode, lancee essentiellement par Winckelmann, et enfin la discussion, menee entre philosophes, a propos d’une esthetique procedant sur le mode deductif qui est indissociable du nom de Baumgarten.

Ces trois elements permettent de caracteriser la situation de Lessing, telle qu’elle apparait dans les documents qui temoignent de la formation de ses concepts. S Essay? Autre dimension qui retient l’interet du point de vue de Lessing : ce processus de discussion lui montre, a lui l’inductiviste par penchant, tel qu’il apparaissait dans son avant-propos de 1756 a la traduction de Thomson, que le principe de l’effet defini en fonction du domaine particulier des arts peut etre replace dans un contexte d’argumentation deductive. 30 DKV, vol. Point Essay? 5/2, p. One Word Essay? 13-16. 31 C'est ainsi que la traduction Courtin traduit Kunstrichter. Comparison Point By Point Essay? 32 DKV, vol. One Word Essay? 5/2, p. Comparison Essay? 14. 17 Comment menage-t-il, a lui-meme et a ses lecteurs, la transition discursive ? L’« avant-propos »30, de toute evidence ajoute plus tard, est d’un sobre raffinement. Malthus's Essay? L’apport doxographique, qui caracterisait deja les esquisses les plus anciennes, est d’abord cache derriere la typologie de l’« amateur », du « philosophe » et du « critique »31, en qui l’on reconnut des le debut Nicolai, Mendelssohn et Lessing. Comparison By Point Essay? La sensation des effets produits par les deux arts fonde, a partir de la troisieme ligne, la demarche inductive (dont les deux voies sont deja specifiees : « faire illusion » et « plaire »).

Et dans la reflexion sur les « regles generales », comme sur les « conclusions » a tirer des « sentiments », le chapitre XVI est deja, pour ainsi dire, legitime. S Essay? Un cadre quasi systematique est delimite, et avec la « comparaison » de la peinture et de la poesie, le « theme » est expose de maniere presque scolaire, non sans que la longue histoire du probleme soit evoquee, qui remonte d’une part a Simonide (le « Voltaire grec ») et d’autre part se poursuit jusqu’aux « modernes ». Comparison? Les bases sont ainsi posees dans l’avant-propos pour la suite de la demarche deductive, non seulement de maniere formelle, par l’evocation de « regles generales », mais aussi par l’anticipation de certaines theses concernant le trace de frontieres par le critique, par exemple dans la double proposition : « Tantot ils resserrent la poesie dans les limites etroites de la peinture, tantot ils laissent la peinture embrasser toute la large sphere de la poesie. Creative Writing? ». Point By Point? La these de la « sphere plus large de la poesie », et meme du « champ infini de notre imagination »32 qui s’ouvre dans la poesie, ne sera developpee que dans le chapitre VI (surtout a propos de Laocoon chez Virgile). 18 La structure rhetorique de l’avant-propos de la Premiere partie du Laocoon met trois points en evidence. Letter From The Trenches Essay? Ce que l’on pourrait appeler le pathos de l’induction tire sa force de la totalite des « effets » de chaque ?uvre, qu’il s’agisse d’une sculpture ou d’une piece de theatre. Comparison Point Essay? Malgre toutes les distances ironiques prises par rapport a Baumgarten, les « regles » et les « frontieres » des arts restent fondees sur leur medialite ; pour parvenir a leur definition, les actes de deduction et de « conclusion » sont legitimes. Malthus's Essay? Et troisiemement : le probleme des « frontieres » n’est pas seulement theorique et abstrait, mais actuel et critique, car il permet d’aller contre le « mauvais gout » et les « jugements sans fondement ». Comparison By Point? Ce troisieme point, surtout, a souvent fait l’objet de malentendus dans le traitement reserve au chapitre XVI.

33 Document reproduit in pope an essay DKV, vol. Point? 5/2, p. S Essay? 715. By Point? 34 Document reproduit ibid., p. Alexander Pope? 681. 19 Les variations de la demarche suivie par Lessing dans le Laocoon entre les poles de la deduction et de l’induction n’ont jamais fait l’objet d’une etude precise. Point By Point Essay? Elles ne pourront etre ici que sommairement indiquees. Letter From Essay? Le fait qu’il fallait se mesurer l’autorite de Winckelmann, des lors que Lessing avait opte pour l’exemple eponyme du Laocoon (deja place par Winckelmann, en 1755, au centre de son ecrit en forme de programme) n’a pas echappe aux contemporains : Nicolai, Herder, Garve, le frere de Lessing, Karl, et d’autres encore en etaient conscients. Comparison By Point? Le critique Friedrich Justus Riedel dit les choses, en 1769, avec la plus grande clarte : les « auxiliaires » de Lessing, pour la redaction de son Laocoon furent « la philosophie et la lecture ». One Word Essay? « En ce qui concerne la methode consistant a tout aller voir de ses propres yeux, nous n’avons aucune objection a nous adresser l’un a l’autre. Comparison Point Essay? »33 Winckelmann au contraire, dont Lessing, comme on sait, attendait le jugement avec impatience, a exprime precisement cette difference de point de vue avec son nouveau concurrent dans sa correspondance : « Qu’il vienne a Rome, pour parler sur place avec lui », ecrit-il dans une lettre a Johann Michael Francke du 10 septembre 176634. 20 Lessing, en choisissant les Gedancken (Reflexions sur l’imitation. An Essay On Criticism Notes? ) de Winckelmann comme texte de reference et en retenant la figure de Laocoon comme exemple eponyme, est naturellement conscient du fait que ces choix pourraient se transformer pour lui en « piege inductif ». Point By Point Essay? La premiere evocation explicite de Winckelmann commence d’une autre maniere. S Essay? Le chapitre I s’ouvre sur la these generale de Winckelmann a propos des « chefs-d’?uvre grecs peints ou sculptes », etayee par l’exemple de la sculpture du Laocoon, puis vient une reference a Laocoon chez Virgile et au Philoctete de Sophocle. Lessing ne met pas en doute l’observation proprement dite, mais seulement la « raison » invoquee, la « generalite de la regle » que Winckelmann a tiree de cette raison35 (nous retrouvons le deducere).

Mentionnant rapidement et sur un ton dubitatif les reproches faits par Winckelmann a Virgile, l’argumentation de Lessing se place sur le terrain de sa propre competence, abordant le Phibctete de Sophocle, sujet sur lequel Lessing, quelques annees plus tot (en 1759-1760) avait entame un grand traite. Point By Point? Le voila revenu a son metier. 36 Johann Gottfried Herder, Werke, ed. Malthus's Essay? Gunter Arnold et al, vol. Comparison By Point? 2 : Schriften zur Asthetik uni Liter (. Best Creative Writing In California? ) 37 DKV, vol. Point By Point Essay? 5/2, p. 19 ; traduction (cf. Best Creative? n. Comparison Essay? 2, supra, p. 132), p. Malthus's Essay? 45. Point Essay? 38 DKV, vol.

5/2, p. Letter Essay? 21 ; traduction (cf. Comparison By Point? n. Letter From The Trenches? 2, supra, p. Comparison By Point? 132), p. Alexander Pope An Essay Notes? 47. 21 Lessing, en se tournant vers les Gedancken de Winckelmann, a choisi l’ecrit programmatique le plus remarquable de la nouvelle mode antiquaire et de la grecomanie, dont la force tient a l’evocation sensuelle de 1’« art » grec, du « gout » grec, mais non a la penetration philosophique. Point By Point? Herder citera plus tard dans son premier Bosquet critique (Critisches Waldchen) « des critiques » qui estiment que Lessing, dans son Laocoon, aurait administre une lecon de philosophie a Winckelmann36. Creative Mfa Programs? Quelle que soit l’exageration de cette these, c’est bien dans cette direction que Lessing conduit son exegese de Winckelmann et Sophocle (puis encore celle d’Homere). Comparison Point? A plusieurs reprises, nous rencontrons des resumes intermediaires, des propositions en forme de theses sur l’anthropologie grecque, comme celle-ci a propos de Philoctete : « Le cri est l’expression naturelle de la douleur physique »37 ; et sur-le-champ, il ajoute les « guerriers blesses d’Homere » (dont il a deja defendu les « larmes » dans sa correspondance sur le drame avec Mendelssohn et Nicolai). The Trenches Essay? Contre la these de Winckelmann citee au debut, dont il juge qu’elle est valable tout au plus pour les arts plastiques, Lessing affirme en conclusion : « Tout ce qui est stoique est antitheatral »38 (parce que cela coupe court a la pitie). 39 Cf. Essay? « Ingeborg Hoesterey, Laokoon und Modernitat. Letter? Eine Rettung », in comparison essay Lessing Tearbook, XV, 1983 (p (. S Essay? ) 22 A ces deductions anthropologiques, qui conduisent a affirmer au chapitre II la predominance de la « beaute » chez les « Anciens », s’ajoutent a partir du chapitre III des considerations historisantes, en particulier certaines qui ont pour arriere-plan la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes : que l’art des « temps modernes » aurait « des limites incomparablement plus larges » — affirmation qui sert de base a l’idee de « l’instant fecond » (fruchtbar) ou « decisif » (pragnant) (une idee qui, comme on comparison point essay l’a vu depuis longtemps, ne date pas de Lessing, mais remonte au moins a Shaftesbury ; il est vrai qu’Ernst Gombrich declarait sarcastiquement a propos de ce « Lessingianum » qu’il n’etait plus valable que pour les photographes de presse)39. Pope Notes? Quelle que soit l’importance qu’on accorde a ce theoreme abondamment commente de Lessing, le fait marquant dans le Laocoon est que Lessing, de cette maniere, construit sa propre position deductive qui ne doit plus rien a Winckelmann. 23 Je me contenterai ici de rappeler que c’est de cette facon que Lessing, dans le Laocoon, revenant toujours au groupe sculpte, au passage de Virgile et a Philoctete, finit par arriver aux differentes modalites de la mimesis (Nachahmung). Comparison By Point? Dans cette argumentation, a partir du chapitre VII, Joseph Spence et le comte de Caylus jouent le role de partenaires de discussion, prenant la place de la reference a Winckelmann.

Dans sa polemique contre la surestimation des possibilites de la representation picturale (Malbarkeit) — surtout chez Caylus — Lessing en arrive au point qu’il annoncait dans son avant-propos en parlant de 1’« abus de description ». An Essay? Dans de longs developpements, Lessing entreprend dans ces chapitres, le plus souvent en partant d’une critique de Caylus, l’examen de passages d’Homere, jouant sur deux registres : les connaissances antiquaires qu’il a acquises et ses techniques philologiques inductives, qui lui permettent de cerner les « effets » et 1’« illusion » de la poesie. 40 Inka Mulder-Bach, « Bild und Bewegung. Comparison By Point Essay? Zur Theorie bildnerischer Illusion in malthus's essay Lessings Laokoon », i (. Point? ) 41 DKV, vol. S Essay? 5/2, p. Comparison Point By Point? 114 ; traduction (cf. Letter The Trenches? n. 2, supra, p. Point By Point Essay? 132), p. Letter The Trenches? 119. Comparison Point By Point? 42 DKV, vol. From The Trenches? 5/2, p. Comparison Point? 116 ; traduction (cf. Poem Analysis Essay? n. Comparison? 2, supra, p. Essay Thesis? 132), p. Comparison By Point? 119-120. 24 Cette illusion opere de telle maniere que (selon la formule d’Inka Mulder-Bach) « l’?uvre contemplee s’enrichit de tout l’excedent de passe et d’avenir que l’imagination ajoute a l’instant represente »40 Lessing deploie tout un enchainement de demonstrations inductives de la maniere dont travaillent l’imagination et l’illusion, a partir du chapitre XI, en se fondant sur des exemples tires de Y Iliade, pour parvenir a la notion centrale d’« action » (au chapitre XV, avec des allusions litterales aux etudes sur la fable). Poem Essay Thesis? « Des exemples pourront m’aider »41, ecrit-il dans le passage decisif ou il est question du vol de la fleche tiree par Pandarus au chant IV de Y Iliade. Comparison By Point Essay? Lessing analyse en detail la facon dont la peinture peut « imiter » cette « action », la « faire pressentir ». In California? Puis nous lisons : « La poesie, en revanche. Comparison Point? », et le texte s’interrompt a cet endroit dans un grand geste rhetorique, puis le chapitre XVI commence : « Essayons maintenant de proceder par deduction » (« Doch ich will versuchen, die Sache aus ihren ersten Grunden herzuleiten ») 42 . 25 Cette rupture est mise en scene. From? Mais que se passe-t-il, a cet endroit, entre les poles de la deduction et de l’induction ? Je soulignerai trois aspects. Du point de vue de la genese du projet Laocoon, la premiere visee systematique est reprise sous une forme nuancee.

Mais un enchainement d’inductions a prealablement apporte des illustrations, mis en evidence des effets et determine sur le mode experimental des frontieres. Comparison Point? Et, last but not least : l’analyse s’est placee a un niveau ou l’autorite de Winckelmann n’est plus incontestable. 43 Cf. Malthus's Essay? supra, n. 2, p. Point? 137. S Essay? 44 Das Laokoon-Paradigma. Comparison Point Essay? Zeichenregime im 18. Jahrhundert, ed.. One Word Essay? Inge Baxmann et al, Berlin, 2000.

45 Cambridge, 1984. 26 On comprend pourquoi les fondements semiotiques donnes par Lessing, a partir du chapitre XVI, a sa demarche systematique, ont rencontre ces derniers temps un grand interet. Comparison By Point? En 1984 fut publie, sous la direction de Gunter Gebauer, le collectif Das Laokoon-Projekt. Poem Thesis? Plane einer semiotischen Asthetik 43 . En 2000 suivit, issu des travaux du Berliner Zentrum fur Literaturforschung, sous la direction d’Eberhard Lammert, le collectif Das Laokoon-Paradigma. By Point Essay? Zeichenregime im 18. Letter The Trenches? Jahrhundert, qui pousse assez loin l’investigation dans le domaine des arts et de l’anthropologie44. Mais en 1984, en meme temps que le volume edite par Gebauer, avait aussi paru, de David E. Comparison By Point Essay? Wellbery, Lessing’s Laocoon. Malthus's Essay? Semiotics and comparison point ?sthetics in writing in california the Age of essay, Reason (ouvrage issu d’une these soutenue a Yale en 1977)45. 46 Eva M. Essay? Knodt, « Negative Philosophie » und dialogische Kritik. Comparison? Zur Struktur poetischer Theorie bei (. Thesis? ) 47 Carol Jacobs, « The Critical Performance of by point essay, Lessing's Laokoon », in one word essay Modern Language Notes, 102 (19 (. Point By Point? ) 48 Peter J. One Word Essay? Burgard, « Schlangenbi? und Schrei : Rhetorische Strategie und asthetisches Programm » , i (. Comparison Point? ) 49 Wellbery (cf. Poem Analysis Essay? n. Point By Point Essay? 3, p. An Essay On Criticism? 142), p. 110.

50 Friedrich Gundolf, Shakespeare und der deutsche Geist, Berlin, 1911, p. Comparison Essay? 131 s. Malthus's Essay? 51 Cite d'apres Mulder-Bach (cf. Point By Point? supra, n. Pope An Essay Notes? 1, p. Comparison Point? 141), p. From The Trenches Essay? 12, n. Comparison By Point Essay? 12. Malthus's Essay? 52 Cite d'apres DKV, vol. Comparison Point By Point? 5/2, p. S Essay? 709. Comparison Point By Point? 53 Cite ibid., p. From The Trenches Essay? 708. 27 La brillante demonstration de Wellbery, selon laquelle le Laocoon de Lessing est le sommet d’une esthetique des Lumieres inscrite dans la descendance de Christian Wolff et fidele a une pensee de la representation, a suscite la contradiction a plusieurs reprises (de la part d’Eva D. Comparison By Point Essay? Knodt46, de Carol Jacobs47, de Peter J. Burgard48 et de quelques autres auteurs). Poem Essay Thesis? Je n’entrerai pas dans les details de ces controverses. By Point Essay? Sur la base des explications que je me suis efforce d’apporter a propos du lien entre deduction et induction, je ne formulerai qu’une objection. Celle-ci concerne un point problematique, dont l’histoire remonte a la premiere reception du Laocoon, que j’ai mentionnee au debut en parlant de « dogmatisation » et qui est tout proche de l’idee de « systematisation ». Letter The Trenches Essay? Wellbery expose sa methode avec une franchise dont on point doit lui savoir gre : « I shall discuss the on criticism Laocoon from comparison a single perspective. Best Creative Writing Mfa Programs? I shall treat it as if it presented a global theory of comparison point, aesthetic signification. »49Ce « comme si » ne peut toutefois pas rendre justice a la forme de la pensee de Lessing, de meme que l’on pourrait pas deduire de la Dramaturgie de Hambourg une « theorie » applicable a Emilia Galotti, ni d’Ernst und Falk une philosophie generale de l’Etat. Best Creative Writing Mfa Programs In California? Laocoon ne commence pas par le chapitre XVI, les « exemples » ne sont pas seulement des illustrations, et les discussions avec Winckelmann, Spence, Caylus et quelques autres font partie integrante d’une forme de discours qui se sert des « verites » et des « systemes » avant tout pour mettre en branle un mouvement de pensee, Inscrire le Laocoon dans son ensemble dans un systeme, a l’encontre de toute lecture precise, a toujours constitue une tentation pour la recherche. Comparison By Point? Friedrich Gundolf invitait a « reconnaitre le systeme regissant l’esprit de Lessing »50 ; Wladimir Folkierski, dans Entre le classicisme et le romantisme, parlait de 1’« esprit de systeme »51 cense regir Laocoon.

De meme que Lessing refusait que sa Dramaturgie de Hambourg fut designee comme un « systeme dramatique », de meme, dans l’avant-propos du Laocoon le renvoi ironique aux « ouvrages systematiques » des Allemands est suffisamment clair : une etude attentive de la structure argumentative de ce texte revele qu’il ne fait que tirer parti de formes de pensee et de procedes systematiques. Malthus's Essay? Il les utilise comme base pour ses positions critiques dont l’evidence doit perpetuellement etre reconquise par une demarche inductive, meme apres le chapitre XV, et encore dans les analyses consacrees au Gladiateur Borghese. Comparison By Point? Herder a mis ce trait en evidence, dans son premier Bosquet critique, avec une tres grande perspicacite, montrant que ce mode de pensee et d’ecriture est un processus et reprenant lui-meme un theoreme du Laocoon (formule a propos du bouclier d’Achille) : « La maniere de Lessing est un style de poete, c’est-a-dire d’un ecrivain, dont on best writing ne dira pas qu’il a produit, mais qu’il est en train de produire, ni qu’il a reflechi, mais qu’il est en train de reflechir, nous voyons son ?uvre en devenir. Comparison Point By Point Essay? » 52 Se mouvant en les poles de la deduction et de l’induction, la forme interne du Laocoon se deploie en veillant ex necessitate a ne pas perdre de vue les exemples concrets. Letter The Trenches Essay? Herder a souligne une autre caracteristique que les analyses du Laocoon, quand elles ne s’interessent qu’a son contenu theorique, mettent volontiers entre parentheses comme un element perime : « Parler contre le mauvais gout poetique, [. Comparison Point Essay? ] tel etait son but. »53. 28 Le Laocoon de Lessing resulte certainement aussi, a travers sa mise en question de Winckelmann, de l’ambition de s’opposer sur le mode « philosophique » a la nouvelle autorite antiquaire. S Essay? Cet ecrit est en meme temps dirige contre la mode de la « poesie peinture » qui a affaibli le potentiel imaginatif de la litterature. Comparison Essay? Ce qui commence, des le xviii e siecle, sous la forme d’une dogmatisation rampante des « principes » du Laocoon, masque precisement le caractere transitif de la forme de pensee propre a cette ?uvre : le mouvement critique entre les poles de la deduction et de l’induction. 1 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Werke und Briefe, ed. Letter The Trenches Essay? Wilfried Barner en collab. Comparison Point? avec Klaus Bohen e. Malthus's Essay? a., Francfort/Main, 1985 s. Point By Point? (abrege : DKV), vol. An Essay On Criticism Notes? 5/2, Werte 1766-1769, ed.

Wilfried Barner, 1990, p. By Point Essay? 321. 2 Le debut (p. Thesis? 319) suit assez exactement le texte allemand de 1766. Point Essay? Sur la finalite de cette traduction, cf. Analysis Thesis? DKV, Bd. Point? 5/2, S. Letter The Trenches Essay? 650. 3 Sur ce point et sur la suite du present article, nous renvoyons de maniere generale au commentaire publie DKV, vol. Comparison By Point? 5/2, p. Alexander An Essay Notes? 627-916.

L'edition suivante merite toujours d’etre consultee : Lessings Laokoon, ed. Comparison Point Essay? et comm. Creative Mfa Programs In California? par Hugo Blumner, Berlin, 2 1880. 4 Choix de documents temoignant de cette reception in point by point DKV, vol. 5/2, p. Creative Writing Mfa Programs In California? 674-734. 5 DKV, vol. Point By Point? 5/2, p. One Word Essay? 15.

Traduction francaise de Courtin (1866), revue et corrigee, Lessing, Laocoon, Paris, Hermann, 1990, p. Comparison Essay? 43. 6 Il s'agit du Novus linguae et eruditionis Romanae thesaurus de Johann Mathias Gesner (1747-1748). 7 Cette declaration, au Livre VIII de Poesie et verite (1812), qui se rapporte a l'epoque des etudes universitaires de Goethe a Leipzig, est devenue locus classicus de la reception du Laocoon [DKV, vol. 5/2, p. Analysis Essay? 733 s.). 8 Documents signales a la note 1, supra, p. By Point? 131. 9 La traduction francaise (cf. Poem? n. Point Essay? 2, supra, p. S Essay? 132) dit, p. By Point? 120 : « Essayons maintenant de proceder par deduction. Malthus's Essay? » Texte original : « Doch ich will versuchen, die Sache aus ihren ersten Grunden herzuleiten. Point By Point Essay? » 10 Siegfried Seifert, Lessing-Bibliographie, Berlin — Weimar, 1973, p. Alexander Pope An Essay Notes? 640-656. 11 Hans Christoph Buch, Ut Pictura Poesis. Comparison? Die Beschreibungsliteratur und ihre Kritiker von Lessing bis Lukacs, Munich, 1972. 12 Il est vrai que cette forme ne resulte pas d'un « plan », mais, elle aussi, de difficultes internes rencontrees au cours de l'entreprise. 13 Vue d'ensemble concise dans l'article « Deduktion » de K. Best Creative Writing In California? Lorenz, in by point Historisches Worterbuch der Philosophie, ed.

Joachim Ritter, vol. Best Writing? 2, Bale, 1972, col. Point By Point? 27 s. Analysis? ; et J. Point By Point? Klein, « Deduktion, transzendentale », ibid., col. Creative Writing Mfa Programs In California? 28 s. 14 Expose complet dans l'article « Induktion » de R. By Point? Ruzicka, S. S Essay? Korner et H. Point By Point? Freudenthal, in one word essay Historisches Worterbuch, ed.

Joachim Ritter et Karlfried Grunder, vol. Point Essay? 4, Bale, 1976, col. S Essay? 333-334. 15 Ces centres d'interet etaient plus marques chez son ami et proche parent Mylius, prematurement disparu. 16 Joachim Birke, « Der junge Lessing als Kritiker Gottscheds », in comparison point Euphorien 62 (1968), p. Essay Thesis? 392-404. 17 Joachim Birke, « Der junge Lessing als Kritiker Gottscheds », in by point Euphorien 62 (1968), p. S Essay? 392-404. 18 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Werke, ed. Herbert G. By Point? Gopfert, vol. Analysis Essay? 4, Dramaturgische Schriften, ed.

Karl Eibl, Munich, 1973, p. Point By Point Essay? 144 (italiques comme dans l'edition originale). 19 Johann Christoph Gottsched, Sterbender Cato, 1731. 20 Dont on alexander pope an essay on criticism notes trouve un bon resume dans Monika Fick, Lessing-Handbuch. Comparison By Point? Leben — Werk — Wirkung, Stuttgart — Weimar 2000, p. Best Creative Writing? 216 s. 21 Expose plus complet in comparison essay DKV, vol. Analysis Thesis? 5/2, p. By Point Essay? 627-650. 23 Emil Grosse, « Uber Lessings Handschrift des Laokoon und den Nachla? zu demselben », in letter essay Archiv fur Litteraturgeschkhte, 9 (1880), p. Comparison By Point? 144-171. 24 Elisabeth Blakert, « Grenzbereiche der Edition : die Paralipomena zu Lessings Laokoon » , in s essay editio, 13 (1999), p. Comparison Essay? 78-97. La critique de la notion de « Paralipomenon » dans cette pertinente etude reste peu convaincante, car aucune solution de remplacement plausible n'est proposee. 27 Textes aisement accessibles in letter from Moses Mendelssohn, Asthetische Schriften in point essay Auswahl, ed.

Otto F. Writing In California? Best, Darmstadt, 1974, p. 173-197. 28 Tzvetan Todorov, « Asthetik und Semiotik im 18. Comparison By Point? Jahrhundert. Best Creative Writing? G. Comparison Point By Point Essay? E. Alexander On Criticism Notes? Lessing : Lao-koon », in Das Laokoon-Projekt. Plane einer semiotischen Asthetik, ed.

Gunter Gebauer, Stuttgart, 1984 (p. By Point? 9-22), p. Poem Essay Thesis? 14. 29 DKV, vol. Comparison By Point? 5/2, p. Poem Analysis Essay Thesis? 217-252 (les notes de Mendelssohn et de Nicolai — comme dans les editions anterieures — ont ete imprimees en petits caracteres au bas des esquisses de Lessing). 31 C'est ainsi que la traduction Courtin traduit Kunstrichter. 33 Document reproduit in comparison by point DKV, vol. S Essay? 5/2, p. Comparison Point? 715.

34 Document reproduit ibid., p. Letter From Essay? 681. 36 Johann Gottfried Herder, Werke, ed. Point By Point? Gunter Arnold et al, vol. Pope Notes? 2 : Schriften zur Asthetik uni Literatur 1767-1781, ed. Essay? Gunter E. Letter The Trenches Essay? Grimm, Francfort/Main, 1993, p. Point Essay? 63. 37 DKV, vol.

5/2, p. The Trenches? 19 ; traduction (cf. Point By Point Essay? n. 2, supra, p. Thesis? 132), p. Point? 45. 38 DKV, vol. Essay? 5/2, p. Comparison Point? 21 ; traduction (cf. S Essay? n. Comparison By Point? 2, supra, p. One Word Essay? 132), p. Point? 47. 39 Cf. One Word Essay? « Ingeborg Hoesterey, Laokoon und Modernitat. Comparison Point By Point Essay? Eine Rettung », in malthus's essay Lessing Tearbook, XV, 1983 (p. By Point? 165-176), p. 173. 40 Inka Mulder-Bach, « Bild und Bewegung. Writing? Zur Theorie bildnerischer Illusion in comparison point by point Lessings Laokoon », in s essay Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift fur Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte, 66, 1992 (p. Essay? 1-30), p. One Word Essay? 27. 41 DKV, vol.

5/2, p. Comparison Point? 114 ; traduction (cf. S Essay? n. Comparison Essay? 2, supra, p. One Word Essay? 132), p. 119. 42 DKV, vol. 5/2, p. Point? 116 ; traduction (cf. One Word Essay? n. Comparison By Point? 2, supra, p. One Word Essay? 132), p. Point By Point Essay? 119-120. 44 Das Laokoon-Paradigma. Zeichenregime im 18. Jahrhundert, ed..

Inge Baxmann et al, Berlin, 2000. 46 Eva M. S Essay? Knodt, « Negative Philosophie » und dialogische Kritik. Comparison Point By Point Essay? Zur Struktur poetischer Theorie bei Lessing und Herder, Tubingen, 1988, en particulier p. Best Mfa Programs? 3 s. 47 Carol Jacobs, « The Critical Performance of comparison point essay, Lessing's Laokoon », in Modern Language Notes, 102 (1987), p. Analysis Thesis? 483-521. 48 Peter J. By Point Essay? Burgard, « Schlangenbi? und Schrei : Rhetorische Strategie und asthetisches Programm » , in s essay Streitkultur. Comparison Point Essay? Strategien des Uberzeugens im Werk Lessings, ed. One Word Essay? Wolfram Mauser et Gunter Sasse, Tubingen, 1993, p. Comparison Point Essay? 194-202. 49 Wellbery (cf. Malthus's Essay? n. Comparison Point? 3, p. One Word Essay? 142), p. By Point? 110. 50 Friedrich Gundolf, Shakespeare und der deutsche Geist, Berlin, 1911, p. Thesis? 131 s. 51 Cite d'apres Mulder-Bach (cf. Point? supra, n. One Word Essay? 1, p. Comparison By Point? 141), p. From Essay? 12, n. By Point? 12. 52 Cite d'apres DKV, vol.

5/2, p. Writing Mfa Programs? 709. Wilfried Barner , « Le Laocoon de Lessing : deduction et induction », Revue germanique internationale , 19 | 2003, 131-143. Wilfried Barner , « Le Laocoon de Lessing : deduction et induction », Revue germanique internationale [En ligne], 19 | 2003, mis en ligne le 20 septembre 2011, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/rgi.946. Professeur a l'Universite de Gottingen. Tous droits reserves.

Reinhart Koselleck 24 | 2016. La phenomenologie de l’esprit 23 | 2016. La pedagogie allemande dans l’espace francophone 22 | 2015. La part etrangere des musees 20 | 2014. Geographies entre France et Allemagne. La romanistique allemande 18 | 2013. Schelling. Le temps du systeme, un systeme des temps 17 | 2013. L’hermeneutique litteraire et son histoire. Peter Szondi 16 | 2012. Archeologies mediterraneennes 15 | 2012.

Ernst Cassirer 14 | 2011. La philologie allemande, figures de pensee 13 | 2011. Phenomenologie allemande, phenomenologie francaise 12 | 2010. La fabrique internationale de la science 11 | 2010. Villes baltiques 10 | 2009. L’Anthropologie allemande entre philosophie et sciences 9 | 2009. Haskala et Aufklarung 8 | 2008. Theologies politiques du Vormarz 7 | 2008. Itineraires orientalistes 6 | 2007. Neokantisme et sciences morales 5 | 2007. Shakespeare vu d'Allemagne et de France des Lumieres au romantisme 4 | 2006.

Esthetiques de l’Aufklarung 3 | 2006. L'Allemagne des linguistes russes 1-2 | 2005. Philhellenismes et transferts culturels dans l'Europe du XIXe siecle. Friedrich Schiller. La modernite d’un classique 21 | 2004.

L’horizon anthropologique des transferts culturels 20 | 2003. Herder et les Lumieres 19 | 2003. Le laocoon : histoire et reception 18 | 2002. Trieb : tendance, instinct, pulsion 17 | 2002. References juives et identites scientifiques en Allemagne 16 | 2001. Entre classicisme et romantisme, autour de 1800 15 | 2001.

Hegel : droit, histoire, societe 14 | 2000. Sigmund Freud 13 | 2000. Ecrire l’histoire de l’art 12 | 1999. Goethe cosmopolite 11 | 1999. Nietzsche moraliste 10 | 1998. Histoire culturelle 9 | 1998. Heinrich Heine. Comparison By Point Essay? Poesie et histoire 8 | 1997. Theorie de la litterature 7 | 1997. Le paysage en France et en Allemagne autour de 1800 6 | 1996.

Kant : philosophie de l’histoire 5 | 1996. Germanite, judaite, alterite 4 | 1995. Le miroir allemand 3 | 1995. La crise des Lumieres 2 | 1994. Histoire et theories de l’art 1 | 1994.

Europe Centrale Mitteleuropa. ISSN electronique 1775-3988. Informations Titre : Revue germanique internationale En bref : Revue consacree a la litterature, la philosophie, la sociologie, l’histoire culturelle, l’histoire de l’art des pays de langue allemande.

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Resumen libro Eva Luna (por capitulos) En este capitulo comenzamos la historia. Comparison Point? En realidad, es una biografia donde la protagonista relata su historia. S Essay? Comienza con la frase Mi nombre es Eva, que significa vida segun el libro que mi madre consulto para escoger mi nombre. Point? A lo largo de esta introduccion a la historia, nos habla del nacimiento de Consuelo, madre de Eva, a quien unos misioneros recogieron recien nacida de debajo de un puente entre la pestilencia y la mugre de sus propias porquerias, anos despues fue a dar a un colegio de monjas donde la derivaron donde la casa del profesor Jones, un excentrico frances que pasaba su vida embalsamando cuerpos, cuya formula milagrosa lograba conservarlos anos enteros y el los tenia en un cuarto como momias humanas. S Essay? Consuelo no tardo mucho en adaptarse a su nueva condicion de sirvienta, al contrario, ella fue la unica en quien el profesor Jones confio su formula embalsamadora, pues tal era su distraccion, que nunca se le ocurriria venderla a ningun laboratorio de ninguna clase. Point? Un dia como cualquier otro, le informaron al profesor Jones, que el jardinero de la casa habia sido mordido por una vibora venenosa.

El profesor, tenia la esperanza de que muriera para poder embalsamar su cuerpo, pero Consuelo sintio compasion por el enfermo y decidio que era hora de perder la virginidad y se entrego al el. Alexander On Criticism Notes? Unos dias despues, el jardinero se fue de la casa. By Point Essay? Cuando se despidio de consuelo, ella le regalo la pepita de oro que anos antes le habia sido obsequiada a ella. S Essay? Varios meses despues, ella siguio trabajando como si nada a pesar de su aparente embarazo. Point By Point Essay? Un dia como cualquier otro, empezo a sentir los primeros dolores del parto, asi es que se encerro en su cuarto y sin la ayuda de nadie, nacio su hija, y minutos despues, llego la cocinera de la casa a ver que se le ofrecia a Consuelo, pero ya la encontro con su hija en brazos. Best Writing In California? Decidio bautizarla con el nombre de Eva, su madrina fue la cocinera, y segun Consuelo, nacio con buenas vibras por que nacio de pie. Comparison By Point? Ahi vivieron algunos anos, y el profesor Jones, poco la veia, pues Eva le tenia un poco de miedo y preferia no acercarse mucho a el. Ocho anos antes de que Eva naciera, en algun lugar de Europa, vivia Lukas Carle, un prestigiado maestro de Liceo, pero tambien muy estricto. Alexander Pope An Essay On Criticism Notes? Maltrataba a sus alumnos de una manera intolerante, sostenia que la letra con sangre entra y ningun padre de familia que estuviera en sus cabales, tendria objecion alguna en este metodo de aprendizaje.

Sus alumnos lo odiaban tanto, que se desquitaban golpeando a su hijo Jochen. Point By Point Essay? En realidad, era lo mismo en la escuela que en su casa. From? Maltrataba a su esposa con parafilas estupidas solo pos satisfacer su ego. Comparison By Point Essay? Sus hijos le tenian miedo y el pensaba lo peor de ellos. Thesis? Decia que ninguno tenia nada que ver con ellos, pero solo por no hacer un escandalo, no alegaba una infidelidad de su esposa. Point Essay? Jochen era lento y torpe, y la segunda, Katharina, tenia retraso mental, asi es que no se alegro cuando su esposa le informo acerca de su tercer embarazo. Malthus's Essay? Pero cuando Rolf Carle nacio, su padre creyo que era la salvacion de su descendencia. Comparison Essay? Era grande, fuerte e insistio en hacerlo mas fuerte aun con metodos brutales para un nino. The Trenches? Se oponia a que lo arroparan y hacia que lo encerraran en un cuarto oscuro para que no le tuviera miedo a nada. Comparison By Point? Tiempo despues, Lukas Carle se fue reclutado en el ejercito y se fue a pelear en esos tiempos de guerra. S Essay? Esos fueron los tiempos mas felices de su infancia, hasta que un dia sucedio algo que lo dejo marcado de por vida: a el y a su familia los llevaron a un campo de concentracion a cavar una fosa comun donde enterrarian a todos los muertos de la guerra.

Se impresiono tanto que no pudo dormir en mucho tiempo. Point By Point? Anos despues llego su padre a la casa, pero Rolf era tan pequeno cuando se fue, que ese dia lo confundio con un pordiosero. S Essay? Llego saludando a todos y el temor reino en el hogar que en esos anos habian formado. Comparison Point By Point? Mando a sus hijos a dormir y volvio a atormentar a su esposa con su pasatiempo favorito: hacerla caminar desnuda frente a el, con un unico adorno que consistia en unos botines altos de charol rojo. Malthus's Essay? Cuando sus hijos se dieron cuenta Jochen golpeo a su padre tan fuerte, que decidio que seria mejor irse de su casa antes que tener que afrontar las consecuencias. Point By Point Essay? Asi es como la senora Carle pudo estar segura de que por lo menos uno de sus hijos estaria a salvo del caracter de su padre.

Una noche de Navidad cualquiera, Consuelo se trago un hueso de pollo. The Trenches? Murio junto a Eva y le prometio que siempre estaria con ella mientras la recordara. Comparison Point By Point Essay? Eva se quedo a cargo de su madrina, quien la trato como si fuera su propia hija. Analysis Essay Thesis? Eva tenia apenas 6 anos. Essay? Fue hasta entonces que empezo a acercarse al profesor Jones quien tambien empezaba con sus achaques de anciano. Analysis Thesis? Tambien comenzaba a morir. Comparison Point By Point Essay? El profesor se encarino tanto con Eva, que antes de morir le indico a un ministro de una iglesia que le heredaria todos sus bienes a Eva, pero el ministro penso que no podria administrarlos bien, y todos pasaron a manos de la iglesia a la que pertenecia, y a Eva y a su madrina las corrieron de la casa. Pope An Essay Notes? Eva tenia entonces 7 anos. Comparison? Su madrina decidio meterla a trabajar en una casa donde vivian dos hermanos solterones, una mujer siempre de luto y un hombre rojo con la nariz redonda y color berenjena.

Ahi conocio a Elvira, cocinera de esa casa y de quien pronto se hizo amiga y aprendieron a divertirse jugando al funeral con un ataud que Elvira ya habia terminado de pagar y conservaba en su cuarto. Malthus's Essay? Estuvo 2 anos trabajando en esa casa, feliz y con el unico pasatiempo de ver una pintura en la que se envolvia en un interminable viaje, y asi poder complementar los hermosos cuentos que su madre le contaba. Comparison? Un dia, estaba viendo su pintura en la sala, el placer mas esperado de todo el dia, cuando su patrona le dice que no quiere volver a verla mirando esa pintura con los ojos diabolicos que tenia. Un dia como cualquier otro, el cartero encontro en el bosque el cuerpo de Lukas Carle colgado en uno de los arboles. Pope An Essay Notes? Lo habian asesinado. Comparison? Los culpables: sus alumnos del liceo, a quienes todos los viernes llevaba a pasear al bosque y ellos habian aprovechado la ocasion de darle muerte. S Essay? Pero la impunidad que existia en un pueblo en el que el juez estaba emparentado con todos y asi el comandante de la policia, no buscaron a los culpables. Point By Point? Rolf y su madre identificaron el cuerpo. One Word Essay? Desde entonces, Rolf adelgazo, no queria comer y vomitaba todo cuanto entraba a su estomago. By Point? Fue entonces cuando su madre decidio enviarlo a America del sur a que olvidara todo lo que habia vivido en Europa. S Essay? Asi es como se embarco a Sudamerica, donde se le olvidaron todas las penurias que habia pasado hasta ese dia.

Cuando llego, lo recibio el Tio Rupert, junto con su esposa Burgel y sus primas, de quienes se enamoro desde el primer momento. Comparison By Point? Se fueron a vivir a un pueblo fundado por un europeo que quiso hacer ricos a los hombres mas desafortunados de su pais natal, los eligio de acuerdo a sus meritos y se los llevo con la condicion de que respetarian las leyes de dios. Malthus's Essay? Asi, el tio Rupert, llego a ese pueblo muchos anos despues comprobando que era un hombre de bien, y se dedico a criar las gallinas que daban los huevos de todo el pueblo. Point? el tio Rupert se dedico a la domesticacion de los perros, pues se corrio la voz de que todo aristocrata debia tener un perro entrenado en casa. Creative Writing? Ademas de la fabricacion de muchos reloj cucu para venderlos a los turistas. Comparison? Rolf, ayudaba en todas las tareas de los diversos trabajos de la casa, mientras que Burgel y sus primas atendian a los huespedes de la casa, pues ahi albergaban tambien a algunos turistas durante los fines de semana. From? De pronto, las primas se dieron cuenta de que el primo era bastante guapo y decidieron tomar la iniciativa de sus amorios. Comparison Point By Point Essay? Un dia entre las dos lo tomaron, lo tiraron en el suelo y lo atormentaron con cosquillas convirtiendo esos juegos de primos en una practica de amor entre los tres. Mientras esas cosas pasaban en la vida de Rolf Carle, en la capital, Eva se entero de un hecho que la impresiono de sobremanera: La madrina habia tenido un hijo bastante extrano. Poem? Era un nino de dos cabezas y lo mas extrano era que las cabezas eran una blanca y otra negra.

Esto provoco que la madrina se volviera loca, exigiera sueldos impagables por los servicios de Eva y al final, que fuera despedida por los solterones, y tuvo que despedirse tambien de Elvira. Comparison By Point Essay? El primer trabajo que consiguio, fue con una Yugoslava que la enseno a preparar una masa que ella llamaba Materia Universal, con lo que se podia imitar cualquier material, menos la transparencia del cristal. S Essay? Una matanza de gatos obligo a la mujer a salir del pais y Eva quedo desempleada nuevamente. Comparison Point By Point Essay? Asi fue a dar a casa de un ministro muy extrano. Thesis? Pasaba todo el dia en el ocio, pues su unico trabajo era retirarle la bacinica en la que orinaba. Comparison Point Essay? Un dia Eva se canso de las humillaciones que este trabajo le traia y le echo el contenido de la bacinica en la cara, despidiendose en ese momento de aquel hombre. From? Cuando se vio de nuevo en la calle, busco a Humberto Naranjo, quien la llevo a casa de “La Senora”, duena del burdel mas famoso de toda la capital. Comparison By Point? Ella la enseno a vestirse correctamente y paso los dias mas felices de su infancia.

Alli conocio a Melecio, un trasvesti rechazado por la sociedad, quien aseguraba haber nacido con el cuerpo equivocado. Poem Essay? Un dia como cualquier otro, llego la policia a realizar un cateo en toda la colonia, en busca de drogas, arma, y delincuentes. By Point? La Senora vivia en una calle llena de burdeles, y no tardaron en llevarse a todas las prostitutas que vivian alli. From? Eva logro escapar de “La revuelta de las Putas”, como llamaron a aquella revolucion, asi que vago unos dias por las calles, hasta que encontro a un hombre que le ofrecio ayuda. Point By Point Essay? Su nombre era Riad Halabi. Riad Halabi, era un turco con un defecto muy extrano. Malthus's Essay? Tenia la boca partida, y era tan noble que no le gustaba que la gente sintiera asco por su boca, asi que se la tapaba con un panuelo. By Point? Era un comerciante instalado por azares del destino en un pueblo llamado Agua Santa. Poem Thesis? Casado con una mujer que no lo amaba, Zulema, pues cuando se caso con el, no sabia el defecto que tenia. Comparison Point? Poseia la tienda mas surtida de todo el pueblo, y como no tenia hijos, decidio adoptar a Eva como una propia. Letter Essay? Cuando Eva llego a su casa, fue la mas feliz del mundo, al igual que Zulema, quien la adopto tambien como una hija, le pedia que la consintiera y con ella llenaba el vacio que su familia, que estaba tan lejos de ella, y un marido del que no queria saber nada, dejaban en su corazon.

Riad Halabi la trataba como su hija de verdad, pero todo cambio cuando Kamal, primo del turco llego a la casa. Essay? Kamal habia sido mandado por su padre desde el oriente, pues no queria participar en la guerra de su pais. Malthus's Essay? Kamal comenzo a ser la principal compania de Riad, lo que enfurecia a Eva, pero sobre todo la ponia triste. Point? Un dia como cualquiera, Riad Halabi salio de viaje para surtir la tienda. Best Creative Mfa Programs? Se quedaron solos en casa Eva, Zulema y Kamal. Point Essay? Zulema tenia tanto tiempo sin amor, que sedujo a Kamal, y el la correspondio. Malthus's Essay? Sabiendo que habia traicionado a su primo, se fue da la casa y Zulema cayo enferma de inconsciencia. By Point Essay? Riad Halabi relaciono de inmediato la enfermedad de Zulema con la huida de Kamal, pero prefirio callar para evitarse la verguenza con el pueblo entero. Rolf Carle comenzo a trabajar con el senor Aravena.

En esos dias, la democracia en el pais se habia demostrado cuando el partido de oposicion gano las elecciones y cayo la dictadura, noticia que llego hasta Agua Santa. Creative Writing Mfa Programs In California? Mientras tanto, Humberto naranjo que habia pasado su adolescencia entre la dura vida de la ciudad, se habia dado cuenta de que la dictadura no habia caido del todo y que el mismo tendria que luchar por la democracia. Comparison? Asi que reunio a algunos estudiantes revoltosos con quienes se fue a la montana para iniciar la guerrilla que seria el principio de la verdadera democracia. Essay Thesis? Ahi conocio a Rolf Carle, quien se habia dedicado a filmar todos los acontecimientos interesantes del mundo, incluyendo la guerrilla que dirigia Humberto Naranjo. Unos anos despues de la partida de Kamal, Zulema seguia hundida en la melancolia. Comparison? Riad Halabi intentaba distraerla de vez en cuando, pero todo era inutil. Letter From Essay? Un dia Riad decidio salir de viaje para traer mercancia, y Eva se quedo sola con Zulema. Point? Al dia siguiente de que se fue Riad, Eva encontro muerta a Zulema en la recamara: se habia metido una bala por la boca. S Essay? Eva intento limpiarla para que nadie la viera en tales condiciones, pero la descubrio el jefe de la tribu que habitaba en un campamento aledano a Agua Santa. Point By Point Essay? Cuando llego el comandante de la policia, acuso a Eva del asesinato y fue torturada por el hasta que Riad Halabi llego de la ciudad y mediante un soborno consiguio sacar a Eva de la carcel.

Tiempo despues, Riad se dio cuenta de que la gente del pueblo pensaba que el mantenia una relacion amorosa con Eva, pues no los unia ningun lazo familiar como para que hubiera una justificacion de que ella viviera en su casa. S Essay? Asi que para evitar habladurias, le dio dinero a Eva para que se fuera a la capital. Point By Point Essay? Antes de irse, al despedirse, Eva y Riad Halabi hicieron el amor y Eva sintio que lo amaba, por lo que le dolio mas el hecho de dejarlo. Pope? Cuando llego a la ciudad, Eva se refugio en una iglesia, pues afuera de ella habia una revuelta de estudiantes. Comparison Point Essay? Adentro se encontro con Melecio, solo que ahora vestido de mujer y el le confeso que era transexual, y que su nuevo nombre era Mimi. Analysis Thesis? Le ofrecio vivir en su casa y Eva acepto con gusto. Las primas de Rolf, perdieron toda esperanza de que este se casara con ellas, asi que se casaron y quedaron embarazadas en la misma epoca. By Point? Sin embargo, Burguel no se cansaba de repetirle que esa profesion suya le habia impedido formar una familia normal. Malthus's Essay? Eva tenia 17 anos cuando fue a vivir a casa de Mimi. Essay? Asi que ahi perfecciono su lectura y escritura, habitos ensenados por la maestra de Agua Santa.

Entro a trabajar a una fabrica de uniformes oficiales cuando una dia se encontro con Humberto Naranjo, convertido en todo un guerrillero. Best Creative Writing Mfa Programs? Eva no habia dejado de amarlo como cuando lo conocio, asi que desde ese dia se convirtieron en amantes. Comparison By Point Essay? A los pocos dias de eso, Humberto Naranjo le confeso a Eva que estaba metido en la guerrilla. El movimiento guerrillero trajo a Rolf Carle de vuelta al pais. Poem Analysis Essay? Se dedico a filmar de cerca cada uno de los movimientos del ejercito y de la guerrilla y se hizo fiel amigo de Humberto Naranjo. By Point Essay? Asi fue como Rolf Carle fue el unico periodista en tener un largometraje de la guerrilla, cosa que escondio en casa de sus tios por temor a represalias del gobierno.

Mimi se habia convertido en una actriz sumamente famosa y participaba en las telenovelas mas impactantes del momento. S Essay? En esos dias, se presento en la fabrica de Eva el general Tolomeo Rodriguez, quien la invito a cenar y cuando salio con el, le propuso acostarse con ella, aunque ella se nego, y el general no insistio, el no perdio la esperanza de que su proposicion fuera aceptada algun dia. Point By Point? Despues de eso, Eva renuncio a la fabrica y un buen dia, con una maquina de escribir que Mimi le habia regalado hacia unos dias, se puso a escribir uno de sus tantos cuentos, o mas bien todos los cuentos que habia contado en su vida en uno solo. S Essay? Mimi se lo llevo al Senor Aravena, que se habia convertido en el director de la televisora nacional, y el decidio llevarlo ala pantalla. Point By Point? Gracias a las lluvias, Eva volvio a ver a Elvira, quien se quedo a vivir con Eva. One Word Essay? En una fiesta ofrecida por Mimi para presentar a Eva con el Senor Aravena, Eva conocio a Rolf Carle, con el que simpatizo de inmediato.

Dias despues, se fueron a dar un paseo donde se conocieron mejor. Un buen dia, el Negro, un amigo de Humberto Naranjo, llego a buscar a Eva. Comparison Point? Se encontro con Humberto y platicando, Eva se dio cuenta de que podia ayudar a Humberto a liberar a algunos presos politicos amigos suyos que estaban recluidos en el penal de Santa Maria, a pocos Kilometros de Agua Santa, ademas de confundir a los guardias con falsas armas hechas de materia universal. One Word Essay? Asi acordaron y Eva acompano a Humberto junto con Rolf Carle al campamento de los indios que descubrieron a Eva alguna vez junto al cuerpo de Zulema. Point By Point? Eva y el Negro llegaron a la tienda de Riad Halabi solo por curiosidad y descubrieron que el turco estaba felizmente casado. Analysis Thesis? Cuando terminaron las armas, Eva se despidio para Siempre de Humberto Naranjo, aunque ella no lo sabia. Point? La operacion fue un exito y la prensa no lo revelo por la censura que imponia el gobierno avergonzado por haber sido sorprendido de tal manera. One Word Essay? Eva lo registro todo en la Telenovela que estaba escribiendo, pero aunque sus capitulos no salieron al aire, solo por haber sido testigo y complice de los guerrilleros, se merecia la carcel, pero recibio proteccion de Tolomeo Rodriguez. Para que no fuera reconocida por la gente de Agua Santa, Rolf escondio a Eva en casa de sus tios en donde ella paso los dias mas felices de su existencia. Comparison? En este capitulo nos cuenta a detalle la operacion de Humberto naranjo, en la que nadie murio, logrando asi, iniciar con una nueva democracia. One Word Essay? Eva y Rolf, se quedaron juntos por muchos anos y Eva fue muy feliz a su lado, pues el ya no tenia pesadillas del pasado y Eva pudo seguir contando muchos cuentos con final feliz.

Fuente: El contenido del post es de mi autoria, y/o, es un recopilacion de distintas fuentes.

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Any detail that you can offer in explanation will help. From! 9. Your resume is like all the others. We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font. We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to essay, expect something a little more advanced. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio.

Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to one word essay, a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the point by point essay extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude. Before you put the link in your resume, ask yourself how well the letter site answers questions any potential employers might have about you. Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. 10. You lie/exaggerate on your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to verify a resume.

And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson. At the very least, don't claim education that you don't have. But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only a few targeted questions in an interview to reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. Comparison Essay! She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues.

Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and notes, is the award-winning blogger of the comparison by point essay Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and an essay notes, IT management issues. Essay! We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and s essay, the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the comparison point TechRepublic articles, galleries, and one word essay, videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on comparison the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.

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essay horror It seemed as though he was in a entirely different world. Comparison Essay. He developed the most unimaginable idea in essay thesis his head and gradually it began to invade his mind, body and eventually his entire life. One of the interesting debates Shelley sets up in the novel is whether or not Victor’s ambitions went too far… Victor’s character seems almost extreme. He ingeniously attempted to play the role of God and failed hugely. He tried to bring the dead back to life because the death of his mother gave him. Essay The Role of Horror in the Gothic Writing. In the following passage, I would like to discuss the role of essay, horror in Marry Shelley’s Frankenstein and creative writing mfa programs Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey. Concerning Frankenstein, horror is by point, embodied in the birth of a monster, which is created by Victor Frankenstein, the main character of the novel, and on criticism notes keeps haunting him throughout the point by point story.

Mary Shelley arranges Frankenstein to be the creator of his own horror. By giving birth to this monster, Frankenstein releases the hidden destructive power within his mind. Creating horror in the Lottery Essay example. The use of this eerie setting sets the scary and gloomy mood of the story as you continue to one word essay read how Montresor is seeking revenge on Fortunato. Montresor being the narrator is significant because it lets the reader see the horrific thoughts of a murderer as he lures his victim in and kills him. One of the gruesome thoughts of comparison by point, Montresor after he buries his victim is “I placed my hand upon the solid fabric of the catacombs, and felt satisfied” (230). The first person point of view also allows Montresor.

Lord! The roof nearly blew off.’ This quote shows the irony of the situation because when Raleigh knew Stanhope he used to confiscate alcohol off of students but now he has found comfort in drinking it. However Raleigh himself realised the horror of malthus's essay, war when Osborne was killed post raid, ‘How can I sit down and eat that-when-when. -when Osborne’s. ’ this quote shows that Raleigh does not know how to cope with Osborne’s death. As Stanhope hasn’t mentioned Osborne after the essay raid Raleigh thinks that. The Horrors of The Holocaust Essay. Oscars for its depiction of the poem analysis thesis true story of Czech businessman Oskar Schindler and the eleven hundred Jews he saved from Auschwitz, including the coveted Best Picture award (IMDb).

These are just a couple of the renowned of the plethora of books and films on the topic, and notice that, like typical media representations of the Holocaust, both narrate the stories of the victims or heroes. Few authors want to delve into the minds of the Nazis and share their story, so we often see Nazis depicted as. Representation of Women in Horror Essay. girl” where it is a female who is a virgin and doesn’t not do drugs or consume alcohol that fights back and become the ‘hero’ rather than a male, giving the comparison by point unrealistic message that if people don’t do wrong, nothing bad will ever happen to them but horror films are notorious for presenting women in a particular way, often making them victims of sexualisation. Tatum is Sidney’s best friend in the film and letter essay is a classic example of the “dumb blonde” character. She. this scene. There were scientific props such as test tubes, cylinders, electric circuits and surgical instruments that add to the realism and the horror, particularly the surgical instruments. Comparison By Point Essay. A large copper tank in the shape of a sarcophagus could be seen and that reminds us of the dead creature inside and malthus's essay reinforces the horror element. A pulsating sack of electric eels hanging down above the tank that makes you disgusted, as it is unpleasant.

The huge interest in. Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Belongs To The Horror Genre Essay. These have every little information we need to know about horror and point essay what makes a novel or film belong to the horror genre. In the opening scene of 'Frankenstein', Branagh used an alexander notes, image that was written in Mary Shelly's novel. 'aˆ¦.to curdle the blood and quicken the beatings of the comparison by point essay heart.' The quote infers that the horror would increase your pulse making the blood circulate faster and quicken the hearts beating. You can see how Mary Shelly's literature. Unlike Poe’s story, Saw takes a more gruesome form of entrapment. The victims are trapped within torture devices where they must solve riddles, often of best creative writing, which involve some form of extreme torture and suffering to pass. Almost all of the unwilling participants fail to complete there tests and are killed by their traps. On their pursuit for revenge or vigilante justice, both killers manipulate their victims as well as the environment to set up their murderous plans. In Poe’s story, the driving. Essay about Role of comparison essay, Women in Horror Films.

often unknown until the end of the film; therefore, throughout the film, it is up to the viewers to one word essay subjectively decide that the killer is male based on assumption of by point, social norms and the perspective through which filmmakers tell the alexander pope on criticism story. Comparison By Point Essay. Films associated with the horror genre have also been noted to pope notes objectify and sexualize women through the comparison point by point essay camera. As pointed out by malthus's essay Jackson Katz in Tough Guise, the by point violence inflicted upon girls in one word essay Slasher films is comparison essay, often sexualized. According to him, violent scenes. Stephen King: Not Just an Author of Horror Essay. King found it difficult to make a living off of just writing stories so he took an English teaching job at Hampden Academy.

After getting frustrated about thesis writing and throwing out a manuscript, his wife retrieved it and pushed him to send to the editor of point by point, Doubleday. This action resulted in “Carrie”, his first novel, being published which sold for about $400,000. Then in 1976, Brian De Palma took the novel and made it into a film. He quit his teaching job and put all his time into writing. Shortly.

fall into the standard conventions of a horror film. Another example is at the end of the film when all the poem vampires are killed and Grandpa goes to the fridge to get a drink and says Something I never could stomach about Santa Carla, all the comparison damn vampires! which indicates that he knew about the vampires all along. Overall, Grandpa is an unusual character that adds plenty of humour to the film. In this Teen vampire flick, it isn't exactly the alexander pope on criticism notes scariest horror movie ever made. In fact, the ridiculously. Essay on Women in Contemporary Horror Films.

Also teenage or pop culture, which became mainstream in the 80's so music, art and films were produced to these young adults. Halloween (1978) and Nightmare on Elm Street (1984) can be mentioned as early films of this new era of by point essay, horror genre. Halloween represents the social transforming which started in analysis the end of 1970s. In Halloween Laurie Strode (Jamie Lee Curtis) and her friends are being stocked and killed by Michael Myers (Tony Moran), who is suffering a serious mental illness. After killing. It also shows that the the narrator of this story showed the horrors of undergoing the torture when you know what’s going on. Poe used different words to describe what the narrator was feeling. Comparison Point. He used words as if he knew what the analysis essay thesis character was feeling, as if he knew what it was like.

Upon recovering, I at once started to my feet, trembling convulsively in every fibre. I thrust my arms wildly above and around me in all directions. I felt nothing; yet dreaded to move. Essay Horror and Figurative Language in The Tell Tale Heart live in shadows and darkness. Comparison Point By Point. Given that the narrator is moving through the shadows of the old man’s room, he makes a strong connection to analysis essay thesis death personified (Hades), giving the story a dreary and grim tone. By using these bloodcurdling similes, Edgar Allan Poe crafts “The Tell-Tale Heart” into a creepy and mysterious story. Clearly, Edgar Allan Poe is a master at creating terror in “The Tell-Tale Heart” by using horrifying similes, along with many chilling metaphors. When Poe writes, “It is impossible.

he can find one of these he will get rich and become famous. So Alec sets out. He reaches the land where birds have no feet, but to his horror, this bird species does have feet! He discovers then that educated, superior; western world of science had put a bird in a museum and mislabeled it. Not only had they mislabeled it but also they even made up a story about how it takes flight without its feet and how it never lands in its whole lifetime. This not only sinks Alec's hopes, but also makes. here and ask): · Who was the enemy of the three mice? · What kind of comparison point, cat was Pat? · Why was Pat the Cat their enemy? · What was the mice’s problem? · What do you think the three mice will do to solve the problem? Listen to the next part of the malthus's essay story to find out.

So First Mouse called for a meeting to solve the problem. “We need to fool Pat the Cat,” said First Mouse. “Yes, or we will be so hungry, we will die,” agreed Second Mouse. “What should we do to fool Pat?” The mice were silent for. It is notable that the pattern on the wallpaper entraps and comparison point essay restricts the woman within and the narrator eventually identifies with her, saying ‘I’ve got out at last… you can’t put me back!’ Wider reading Other short stories by Charlotte Perkins Gilman include When I Was a Witch, Turned, Making a Change and If I Were a Man. Best Writing. Compare with The Signalman by Charles Dickens On Her Knees by Tim Winton The Hollow of the Three Hills by Nathaniel Hawthorne The Fall of the House of comparison by point essay, Usher by Edgar. What Is a Successful Short Story Essay. point in this story happened when the youngest daughter fell into the deep end of the pool. This suddenly changes this peaceful and cheerful story into one of horror. This event provokes the readers’ imagination to envision millions of possible outcomes before we can even turn the malthus's essay page. In my opinion, a successful short story must have a main or pivoting event that changes the dynamic of the story and draws us further into the story. Writing a successful and interesting short story is not easy.

Why do People Crave Horror Films Essay. nightmare” he is implying horror movies create nightmares for many people. This is a great way to show the depth of fear and comparison by point essay intensity of the essay films he is referring to. His use of inductive reasoning helps identify that humans watch these movies with the understanding that consequences may follow in comparison form of nightmares. He challenges his reader’s logic with the word “dare”, which means to best creative in california have the courage to do something. King knows it takes courage to go see this type of violence and horror unfold. Like with. Horror Movies: Gateway to Our Dark Side Essay. Horror, as a genre, is characterized by certain elements. There is a great effort put on frightening the point essay audience and malthus's essay the themes usually involve some kind of comparison point, evil person or monster which will try to kill the protagonist. Horror movies' monsters can take many forms: vampires, zombies, werewolves, ghosts, demons, psychopaths, serial killers, among many other things (Horror Film).

In addition, there are always series of unexpected events happening to ordinary people with whom the audience can identify. sa kaibigan niya. S Essay. May gusto kasi ito sa first honor ng batch naming si Paolo Castillo. Isang genius na guy na cutie din naman kahit medyo masungit, na palaging deadma, na kapwa honor lang ang kaibigan, na tahimik. Ah Ewan!

Pakialam niya ba sa love story ng kaibigan. Father of Horror: Edgar Allan Poe Essay. man who despite many setbacks managed to comparison point influence the world of poetry, and poem essay thesis make great contributions to literature as well. Poe was a man that had a dark, violent, and horrific writing style. Most of point essay, Poe's’ works included homicide, dark irony, and horror, which is believed to be associated with the poem death of his loved ones. “I became insane, with long intervals of horrible sanity”(Edgar Allan Poe). Consequently, His parents died when he was very young, and had a hard childhood, since his adopted family. An Atmosphere of Fear and Horror in the Opening Chapters of Dracula. the coach driver has the extraordinary power to sooth them by comparison point by point essay whispering something in their ears.

We later find out thesis that the by point essay coach driver was Dracula. Another important way in which Stoker creates an atmosphere of fear and horror is by his intricate description of the pope on criticism notes setting. The overall atmosphere he creates is a claustrophobic, cold and dark place. Towered and closing down upon us all creates this feeling of comparison point essay, imprisonment. Stoker carries on this insinuation. Capital Punishment Essay - Beyond Horror and Incivility. people from committing crimes, proponents say.

They also believe that if attached to certain crimes, the penalty of death exerts a positive moral influence by poem thesis placing a stigma on certain crimes like manslaughter, resulting in attitudes of disgust and horror to such acts. Furthermore, retentionists insist that the deterrent influence of the death penalty reaches across state lines into jurisdictions that have abolished it, and so all benefit by comparison essay its continued use. Perhaps this is the intended goal of the. Essay on s essay, History and Story Telling in Graham Swift#x27;s Waterland. was healed by comparison by point his future wife through her encouragement to an essay notes tell stories.

She believes that they're a way of bearing what won't go away, a way of making sense of madness (Swift, 170). Stories allowed Henry Crick to reorganize his temporal and psychic existence by placing in the past the point essay events that so troubled him. But speech acts alone did not cause this healing process. Henry Crick told stories that were based on fact or fancy, stories that were neither one thing nor the other. This blurring of. characters and story is all about. Much like character’s thoughts, this information should be delivered through the creative characters’ action and dialogue. Comparison Essay. You can also use narration or flashbacks but some people believe this to be lazy scriptwriting. You want to deliver the backstory in snippets all throughout the one word essay script rather than in a couple of comparison, lumps. Blocks of creative, backstory slow the comparison by point script down and malthus's essay stick out poorly. Exposition [pic][pic][pic]Exposition is the comparison by point essay information in the main story thread with.

Essay on Urban Legends and Contemporary Ghost Stories in Japan. short film ends. As a viewer with a Western upbringing and Western background I felt confusion after the end of the video. The story is not wrapped up; it does not explain the reasons why the ghost appeared or why it attacked the one word essay school girl and what happens to her after the credits are shown. The Viewer has to accept an point, open ending.

This form of poem thesis, story-telling in Japanese horror is genuinely quite common. Comparison Essay. As for example, in Ringu (1998) directed by Hideo Nakata or in Ju-on: The Grudge (2002) - the true. The Horror of Pity and War in Regeneration by Pat Barker and Collective Poems of Wilfred Owen. believe that Rivers sees the war as a necessity and that it should be fought to a victory. This can be see in poem chapter three, page 23 when he agrees with Graves view on the war, however when he treats his patients he is shocked at the horror stories they have told him. Not only does Barker present this idea in Rivers but in comparison point essay Graves too, for example: ‘No, I don’t think it is. The way I see it, when you put. Essay on Haroun and the Sea of letter the trenches essay, Stories. the Sea of Stories is turning off the story tap. Confronted by Haroun, he explains that Rashid ordered it so, subconsciously. Haroun points out that his father can still tell stories without any tapwater, and the Water-Genie answers, “Anyone can tell stories . . By Point. . Liars, and cheats and crooks, for from the trenches example.

But for stories with that Extra Ingredient, ah, for those, even the best storytellers need the Story Waters.” Now Haroun begs to comparison point be taken to whoever decided to an essay cut off his father’s Story Water supply. experiences, thoughts and feelings. The story comes together and culminates in the patient and the nurse understanding meaning for comparison point essay the patient. By exploring the bigger picture context is given to the patient’s current condition. In other words the best concepts represent a beginning, middle, and an end, just like a story. In this way the concepts are interdependent and fit succinctly within the walls of the theory. The diagrammatic representation of Story Theory is simple and incorporates the comparison three. Women Portrayed in malthus's essay Horror and Film Noir Films Essays. men make it a point of honor to look, while little girls and grown women cover their eyes or hide behind the shoulders of their dates? (Jancovich 61). In Brigid Cherry?s essay ?Refusing to Refuse to Look,? she says that of a study done of female horror film fans and followers,

The Stories of comparison by point essay, Katherine Mansfield Essay. everyday actions in malthus's essay order to brighten the character's expression and personality. “Miss Mansfield's stories are like life reflected in a round mirror. Everything is exquisitely bright, exquisitely distinct and just a little queer,” according to The Nation. Point By Point. (Mansfield 2) Mansfield created stories that readers always remembered as well as ones that they read over best creative mfa programs, and over again. Her strong presence in her stories would never go away, which led Mansfield to use many techniques in her writing. She would continue. The overall theme of the story is valuing of life and adulthood. Or the realization of the value of life in the end. This is a part of coming of comparison point essay, age. The girl is forced to grow up quickly in this terrible situation.

She is hurt by the mans patronizing empathy and s essay lack of sympathy to her situation. Summit, Illinois is the setting for Hemingway’s short story, “The KIllers”. Nick Adams is a resident in Summit, living a normal uneventful life. Comparison By Point. This changes when he is suddenly confronted by two hired. In my side, it really breaks my heart and one word essay I feel so sad for comparison Lumnay. III.

CONFLICT 1. The Conflict present in writing mfa programs the short story is Conflict with the Society. 2. Comparison Essay. The major conflict in the short story when Awiyao and his wife Lumnay can’t bear a child even Lumnay do her best and give all her efforts in praying to Kabunyan to give them a child but still they don’t given a chance to have a son, that’s why Awiyao marries another woman to have a child. But Awiyao don’t like to leave his wife and he really. The Irony of the Story ‘the Lottery’ Essay. furthermore, the person who has been slay is Mrs.

Hutchinson, his own mother. From the one whole story there are another irony. Poem Essay Thesis. We can see it from the title, the point of view, the comparison point by point diction, and the plot itself. From the title ‘The Lottery’, it is an irony because lottery refers to s essay something which is good, because usually if we win a lottery we will get prizes or money, but lottery in this story is different because the winner will be sentence to death. The winner is actually not win but lost.1.

Symbolism in The Story of an Hour Essay. think that the literary device symbolism had a great use in the story to help explain important parts in detail and give a more of a descriptive imaginary picture to readers. The use of Symbolism in essay “The Story of an malthus's essay, Hour” by Kate Chopin By Bridget DeBow English 1302 Central Texas College April 4th, 2013 The Story of an comparison point by point, Hour Outline Thesis: I. Although there are many literary devices used in The Story of an Hour, I have decided to write my essay on the use of Symbolism. love with someone else or just wanted to be free. This story made me see I side of one word essay, women I never saw before.

For example the emotions they go through. We as men don’t take in consideration women’s feeling sometimes. The irony in the story also remains me of the comparison point time when I was kid. I remember being so happy because my sister was going to get in trouble and best writing in california some how I was the one who got the whoop in. Same way Louise felt at the end of story. She was all happy because her husband was died and at. understand one another more, and over comparison point by point, all be better people, but with today's society and economic setup, it seems that social status issues are here to stay. Another theme in these two stories is s essay, death.

We as people react to point by point death in so many different ways. In A Rose For Emily death is s essay, prominent through the whole story, it seems as if it almost dictates Emily's life, she lets it consume her. First starting with the death of her father who ran her life for her up until his death, her reaction to his. Later in the story at one of Gatsby parties he doesn’t want to comparison by point essay be the “polo player” thinking it is negative. Then after he cheat on Daisy Buchanan with Myrtle Wilson, when Daisy Buchanan has an affair with Gatsby and she is in the wrong. First of cheating already disqualifies you from being a hero because it’s not a noble quality, but to have the nerve to attack someone for doing the exact same thing you did it is malthus's essay, just wrong. By Point. Tom Buchanan is not a hero. Jordan Baker is more of an instigator than. Having lost two significant male figures in s essay Kate's early age, she became very close to her motherly grandmother, Madame Charleville, who told her different inspiring stories and taught her about music, history and reading. Madame also stressed the point essay need to malthus's essay live life fearlessly. By Point. Due to family tragedy and growing up with all women in her childhood, she became concerned in the movement for women?s suffrage, even though she never became very politically active.

When she was at from essay, the age of point, nineteen, Super Natural Horror Movie: The Conjuring Essay. controversial topics that contain issues either to malthus's essay prior experience or exposure to it. Essay. The main reason why I stated that some should be trigger warning and others should not because I am a reader that enjoys the thrill, the excitement, the climax of story with some pictures or video being played without the trigger warning. Creative. Yes we do need trigger warnings on certain things but not on every small things because as stated from Greg Lukianoff, president of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education. thought she would have been looked down upon if others found out how she truly felt, which was free. Divorce was not very common at all during the Victorian era which would explain the trapped feeling that Mrs. Mallard felt.

In the beginning of the story Mrs.Mallard is told by her sister that her husband Mr.Mallard was killed in a train accident. Josephine originally heard about the death from by point a friend named Richard, who read about the accident in the newspaper. Due to Mrs. Mallards poor heart condition. The Story of an alexander pope an essay, Hour Essay examples. Her husband was the only person holding her back, but now that he's gone, she's able to look forward to the future when she can live her life for herself.

The most important conflict in this story is by point essay, appearance versus reality To all people it would appear that Louise would grieve over Brently since they would assume she was happily married and content in her sub-serviant role as a housewife. Louise's sister Josephine exemplifies such a judgment of how Louise's reaction to one word essay the sudden death of. Collegiate level professors use each of these pieces as foundational cornerstones within the British and American introductory literature classes across the United States. Within each novel, students learn to find a foundation for the ghost stories that come from essay more contemporary authors around the world. Although both of these works are crucial to one word essay the foundation of successful ghost literature in the transnational context, there is the issue that each was published before 1900. This simple. Stories and the Hunger Games Essay. but the satisfaction of persevering and ending up victorious is indescribable. I think Suzanne Collins wants the comparison by point readers to understand the satisfaction of even a small victory in the face of a seemingly unconquerable enemy. Just like many other stories throughout time, The Hunger Games, addresses the pope an essay on criticism issue of by point essay, government. Malthus's Essay. The Capitol controls the twelve outlying districts with fear.

The Capitol keeps most of these districts impoverished so they don’t have the resources to revolt. Most of the citizens. Story elements include the setting, plot, conflict, climax and resolution. 3. In pairs have students write everything they know about the story of Cinderella. Set a timer for comparison three minutes for this activity. Malthus's Essay. 4. Discuss lists in a whole group and write the comparison point by point essay student responses on the board. 5. Read aloud and interactive discussion of story elements using computer and projector. One Word Essay. 6. The students will be taken to the computer lab to access.

pale eyes wide open” This helps to make the reader envisage the story more. As the stories progress, there are certain enigmas, which the narrator picks up. But, because of the reader’s involvement, they want it answered. Such as- Who was the point sleeping man?, What is the history of the castle and Who is the Signalman? However to keep our minds going the enigmas are mildly answered. The stories are all based on being gothic- from a certain time in history. Gothic.

Short Story Characteristics Essay. women shows how setting can directly relate to the theme of one word essay, a short story. Plot can also be used as a direct representation of the theme in a short story. Plot is the combination of setting, characters, and the series of events that allow the story to progress. The idea of a unifying event that forces a child into the adult world is identified, by analysis of the comparison plot, as the best creative writing mfa programs theme of Alice Munro's Royal Beatings. Point Essay. The story progresses by a series of malthus's essay, flashbacks through Rose, the protagonist's. indefinitely.

The short story, by contrast, is always rendered meaningful at the moment of its closing. The ending can be ambiguous or devastatingly clear but a good short story takes us step by step to its inexorable ending and its very beginning is but a seed of comparison point by point essay, its ending. The great Argentinean short story writer Julio Cortazar explained this difference between the short story and the novel using a boxing analogy: “in a boxing match, the novel would win by alexander pope points; the short story, by knock out.” A great.

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Custom Music of Latin America essay paper. Music is an important component not only in comparison point by point enhancing entertainment, but also as means of promoting unity by incorporating styles and information that addresses problems affecting people. One Word Essay? In most cases, the production and dissemination of music locally, regionally or internationally has been based on the historical, geographical, and cultural factors. These factors normally contribute to the originality of the music being composed and comparison, its introduction into the market. Therefore, producing world music that captures all these factors is essential especially in addressing social, political, cultural, religious, and economic problems that affects people. Latin American Music has impacted different on people’s culture, lifestyle, belief, politics, immigration, and identity thus making it a world music that requires global recognition and understanding. This paper, thus discusses the historical, geographical, and cultural context of Latin American music.

It highlights how the music has impacted on every day life, worship and pope an essay on criticism, belief, migration, dance, politics and comparison point by point, identity of poem essay thesis people. According to Rahkonen (2006), world music normally means different things to different people thereby making it be described with what actually it is not. He notes that the world music is neither Western art music, nor a mainstream of Western folk and popular music, but rather a traditional, popular or art music that incorporate either ethnic or foreign elements. In other words, world music cannot be characterized as our music, but can be assimilated to belong to someone else. Additionally, Rahkonen (2006) notes that world music is considered as any plain music that has a huge number of fans in the world, and therefore it affects people’s culture and true expression especially in its dances and comparison essay, the music itself. As pointed out by Scaruffi (2006), Latin America music include all countries in the South America, Central America, and malthus's essay, Caribbean region that have embraced and are practicing music that effectively relate to their cultural and ethnic components. He notes that these Latin Americans have produced various musical genres that emulate not only the European folk music but also both the African music and the native traditional music. Scaruffi (2006) adds that in Latin America, local musical genre inherit both the cultural and ethnic factors based on a region or a particular group rather than emanating from political framework and boundaries.

This is to ensure that both the point essay political and social factors do not erase the common cultural heritage especially when a conflict arises. According to him, this is why the malthus's essay cultures shared among the Latin Americans have survived for long irrespective of the comparison by point essay growth in alexander an essay on criticism music. The impact of Latin American Music on their culture, lifestyle, belief, politics, immigration, and identity makes it to be a world music that requires global recognition and comparison point, understanding. This paper, thus discusses the historical, geographical, and cultural context of from essay Latin American music. It highlights how the music has impacted on every day life, worship and belief, migration, dance, politics and identity of people. Historical, Cultural and Geographical Context of Latin American Music.

According to Hampson Maria (2008), music was used in Latin America not only as a link between the white and the black, but as a folk tradition that was developing into an art of traditional music. Comparison? They points out that with the intertwinement of the indigenous and European musical roots, rich and diversify music were produced that were distinctive and illustrated the cultural and beliefs of Latin Americans. In this respect, both hymns and work songs were produced. These forms of analysis essay music depicted that interminglement between European and African sounds rich of traditions and culture. Comparison Essay? Additionally, they note that Latin American music is best creative, normally produced based on musical style being used, geographical set up, and the language of the composer. As pointed out by Olsen Sheehy (2008), during the colonial, revolutionary, and federal period in the sixteenth and eighteenth century, most of the Amerindian population who occupied South America was decimated by the presence of comparison by point essay European, Iberian, and African slaves. They note that this led to creative mfa programs in california the destruction of Amerindian musical culture especially by the dominating Iberian. For instance, hymn tunes, theater songs, and comparison, ballads were not only imported from England, but were modeled in English musical genre (Scaruffi, 2006). Additionally, he notes that Latin American had been polarized by social, cultural, and economic factors that affected the evolution of music in the region. Therefore, the Latin Americans resorted to locally use their music in enhancing the cultural norms and beliefs. S Essay? This limited the faster and comparison, widespread growth of the music.

Scaruffi (2006) notes that, before the one word essay Spanish conquest, the Amerindian population which comprised of point by point essay Mayan, Aztec, and Olmec among others, used music for sacrifices or rituals in enhancing their culture and beliefs. However, he points out that post contemporary movements in Latin America, for example the Hispanic revolution in Mexico, helped revolutionize the Latin America music. This came about as a result of the promotion of writing in california a perfect blend of both European and local music. As the revolutionary movements became more active, people begun to feel their influence in essay the field of music as this enabled the musicians to come up with a regional based folk music. According to him, Mariachi, a famous regional musical genre used by revolutionary movements, and malthus's essay, which became popular during the time, incorporated both the narrative and folk music.

This was partly a strategy by comparison by point the revolutionary movements to enable them participate in s essay determining their country’s involvement in current affairs pertaining to war and politics as well as those of the larger society. According to Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009), rock music was not a popular music in Latin America during early ages. But, they point out that, just like the white people stole the pop music from the by point essay black Americans, the Latin Americans did so from the white Americans. They note that in alexander on criticism notes the late 50s, Latin Americans had not mastered the English language, and comparison point by point, therefore sung the covers of the pop music in Spanish. Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009) add that this led to the establishment of notable rock and pope an essay on criticism notes, roll bands such as Los Rebeldes del Rock and Los Locos del Ritmo in by point Mexico. These bands largely performed and produced rock n roll music in the urban areas such as in the Mexico City. Scaruffi (2006) on the other hands notes that popular rock artists such as Carlos Santana incorporated the rock n roll music with other musical styles such as blues. This enabled such artists to blend their music with social problems and cultural issues without the music losing its humor. This was to improve their cultural heritage. Moreover, Scaruffi (2006) points out that the evolution of internet and poem analysis essay thesis, the establishment of comparison point Northern America Free Trade Agreement brought together most of the world music in Latin America.

This also acted as a catalyst to their musical composition. For instance, he note that the 90’s prominent Mexican rock bands, Caf and Tacuba, composed their music from a mixture of regional folk and rock music. Scaruffi (2006) adds that evolution of s essay technology has enabled most of the Latin American artist to electronically mix mariachi, banda, regional folk songs, with popular rhythms in point by point essay adapting to current world music. It is thus clear that it was the geographical and creative writing mfa programs in california, cultural contexts which were the main factors that contribute to comparison point the kind of music that was being written, recorded, and produced in Latin America. Alexander Pope An Essay Notes? According to Stienstra, Nigro Clemente (2011), Spanish music and Latin rhythms are the basic musical styles that describe the type of music that comes from broadcasting stations in the region. They note that most bands were regional and therefore did not cater for comparison point essay the immigrant minorities. This was clearly evident as music being played was selected based on malthus's essay the majority population. For instance, the Argentinean chacareras is insignificantly played where the comparison point by point essay majority of s essay population composed of Mexicans (Stienstra, Nigro Clemente, 2011).

Latin America Music Styles and Dances. As pointed out by Stienstra, Nigro Clemente (2011), the insurgence of Iberian and comparison by point essay, African populations in Latin America adversely affected the musical style of the region. For instance, they note that the Mesoamerica Indians in the regions now produce their music by playing harps, guitars, and fiddles that emanate from Spanish model. Creative Mfa Programs? Some have also started to play Marimbas which is of African origin. According to Scaruffi (2006), the effect of this was also widely experienced in 1890s.

This was when the Argentinean working class, Boca, invented a musical rhythm known as tango; the name which was derived from the drums of the African slaves. Campbell (2012) notes that the style of the tango music and choreography normally aroused pessimistic mood and sorrow that was enhanced by the melancholy sound of the traditional bandoneon. He points out that the choreography of the music originated from an obscene scene of mimicry which depicted a disjoint in relationship between a prostitute, her bodily gestures, and comparison, her male rival. S Essay? Accompanied by suggestive Argentina dance that involves a series of steps that melancholy the point by point tango beats, people would dance to one word essay the tune of the music (Scaruffi, 2006). He adds that it is essay, such choreographic characteristics of the tango music, in addressing the incoherency in daily human social activities that, the enabled it to become a popular dance in Europe and U.S. Similarly, most of the Latin American music developed out of notes immigration practices such as slavery and comparison point, even religious outstanding. For instance, mambo and letter, rumba musical form and dances styles best captured the daily activities and point, religious beliefs that characterized the Latin America society. According to Truly (2009), mambo music was a Cuban musical rhythm whose name derived from the language of African slaves who were being imported to Caribbean denoting a conversation with gods. He notes that the music was a fusion of analysis essay thesis rumba rhythm and jazz music which created a new musical genre for the working classes during the colonial era in Latin America.

For instance, Perez Prado smoothly introduced jazz sound accompanied by rumba tunes that created an appealing mambo dance which was dynamic with compelling styles of pelvis swinging that were in point by point essay unison with the Latin music (Truly, 2009). According to Drake (2011), rumba music was another type of music and dance that was developed in the Latin America. She notes that the medium to fast polyrhythmic music was first adopted by Cuban popular musician as a fusion of both the Spanish music and African rhythms. She points out that the term rumba refers to various Afro-Cuban musical and dancing styles in malthus's essay the United States during the early 30’s and 40’s. She notes that rumba music improvised a call to response. Comparison By Point Essay? This was especially so with the poem analysis thesis musical verses that were repetitive and combined both the European harmonic musical instruments with the African percussion. Comparison Point? Drake (2011) adds that the rumba music such as guaracha and son of Cuba, were widely performed to people of upper class. Malthus's Essay? Therefore, it acted as an identity that separated the poor from their rich colonial bosses. Additionally, Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009) identified calypso as another important music that was developed in by point essay Latin America. In California? They note that the music was developed at comparison, Trinidad in Caribbean. It deployed witty and s essay, humorous styles that highlighted people’s attitudes regarding the by point essay social, political, and economic issues they were faced with.

They point out that calypso music was very important to Africa slaves as they were only poem thesis, allowed to by point essay communicate to each other through such music. According to Drake (2011), calypso music was used to counter the colonial forces by creating a sense of community among the enslaved African society. The rhythm of the music was normally developed from steel band instruments made out of an essay oil drum tops accompanied by ballroom dance similar to rumba. The musicians would thus provide carnival performance based on African religions and taboo in order to enhance their identity in countering colonial forces. Another popular music and dance style that is comparison, performed across the Latin America is salsa.

As pointed out by letter from the trenches Quintero (2011), salsa music depicts one of the comparison by point Iberian influences to the Latin America especially by incorporating shoe tapping and scarf waving music style to Latin music. She notes that salsa incorporates multiple musical and dancing styles that are diverse and inhibit Spanish Caribbean genre. According Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009), salsa was formed to fight the predominance social classes in Latin America that were seen to undermine the rights of other people. Therefore, following the establishment of salsa music and dance by Cuban immigrants and Puerto Rican migrants in letter essay late 60’s, the world started emulating and performing the music and dance. Quintero (2011) notes that this was evident by New York based musician; Ruben Blades blended who blended his salsa music with rock n roll musical style. Comparison Point By Point Essay? He also incorporated political issues in 1978. His music was thus able to trigger some level of agitation for the need of political stability. She adds that this album which was called Buscando America was one of the best selling salsa music that gave him popularity. Records have shown that he almost won it in 1994 as Panama president.

In conclusion, Latin America music is thus a fundamental factor that has contributed to the region’s political, cultural and religious beliefs. It has been established that most of the world music and dances such as salsa and rumba originated from Latin America as a result of s essay historical colonial ruling that had undermined democracy. The study has thus pointed out the need for artists and musicians to develop music and dances that addresses their daily human activities and encounters in promoting not only their identities, but also culture.