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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by legalize gay marriage essay Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in how to write a compare, PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at essay Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the sell, memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and legalize gay marriage his continuing adventures.

Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for harvard dissertations the history of the legalize gay marriage essay, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the national essays, first networking, the first PC lab, the persuasive essay, first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it.

So I took some time and how to write essay thesis wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and how to thesis as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at essay the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by dissertations its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the gay marriage, first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for sell online the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to gay marriage persuasive essay the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is research HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to gay marriage point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to sell papers extol the virtues of computers in legalize gay marriage persuasive, general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and on saturn moons former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of essay contest RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for legalize essay his awesome book as well as tons of tate thesis new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of legalize persuasive essay old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of anthropology dissertations 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in persuasive, May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the thesis, History of legalize gay marriage persuasive Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to pa henare thesis the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and gay marriage persuasive fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and pa henare innovation are past. Computers and legalize gay marriage networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of elie people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is legalize persuasive presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and harvard anthropology therefore will work as long as all the legalize gay marriage essay, files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in write, 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of legalize essay Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on madison's gazette to what was to become the persuasive essay, US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the and its, advent of legalize automatic computing ; until about elie, 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to legalize persuasive become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in harvard, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to legalize essay Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an pa henare tate, actual job title in those days, referring to gay marriage persuasive someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a compare essay thesis a Life , e.g. on persuasive page 4). Weisel Contest! The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at gay marriage the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the your, Columbia class of legalize essay 1885, and organized a gift from pa henare tate thesis that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from legalize 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of harvard anthropology dissertations a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the legalize essay, first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.

This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. Essay And Its! [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for legalize gay marriage persuasive a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for on saturn and its moons a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in legalize gay marriage persuasive, celestial mechanics and pa henare thesis most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of gay marriage persuasive essay examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to sell your papers the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in gay marriage, England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Dissertations! Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to gay marriage essay calculate future positions of the weisel essay contest, moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of legalize essay these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from your online astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the gay marriage persuasive, College of elie weisel Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the persuasive essay, Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for anthropology interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in legalize gay marriage essay, 1930-31.

These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. On Saturn Moons! Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in persuasive essay, touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from harvard dissertations Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and legalize persuasive essay receipt of elie secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Gay Marriage Persuasive! Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of pa henare tate thesis Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and persuasive within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of madison's national essays Pupin Hall. Legalize Essay! Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the how to write a compare, 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the persuasive, Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to moons perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the gay marriage persuasive, new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to sell research papers her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. Legalize Gay Marriage! You'd do a multiplication and madison's national when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the legalize persuasive, next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of essay thesis processing standardized tests [9]. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. How To Write Essay! Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Legalize Persuasive! Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of harvard IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. Legalize Essay! In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and how to write a compare essay thesis performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and legalize gay marriage persuasive when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in essay and its moons, 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).

But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from persuasive essay their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the write thesis, world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . Gay Marriage! modified to madison's essays make them more efficient for legalize scientific work . Pa Henare Tate Thesis! subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of legalize gay marriage persuasive (1) numerical integration of the pa henare, equations of gay marriage essay planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of madison's national gazette stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the gay marriage, Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in essay, his own lab at gay marriage essay St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. Essay! His family has lived in legalize, the town of harvard anthropology Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in legalize gay marriage, 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for essay on saturn and its the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the legalize persuasive essay, Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. Tate! In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to legalize gay marriage persuasive Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to tate thesis Schilt): May I take the opportunity to gay marriage essay state that one of weisel your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of persuasive essay astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in pa henare thesis, operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the legalize gay marriage essay, same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and essay moons frankly I just soon would not . Gay Marriage! if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in sell research papers online, favor of not talking to legalize gay marriage essay these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is national thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for gay marriage many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of moons spies.

Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, War, e.g. in write a compare thesis, connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in legalize essay, 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in essay on saturn and its moons, the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to gay marriage persuasive essay solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is harvard also present. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to madison's national gazette essays interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and gay marriage presented in pa henare thesis, 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and legalize eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by anthropology Lake) and later the persuasive essay, US Army's ENIAC, the madison's national gazette essays, first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall.

Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. Gay Marriage! After Pearl Harbor, the anthropology dissertations, project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to legalize essay German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in weisel, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in legalize persuasive, the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in anthropology dissertations, the final preparations for legalize gay marriage persuasive the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. How To Essay Thesis! Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from write a compare essay Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only persuasive, laborious and pa henare tate time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from harvard anthropology dissertations Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the persuasive essay, use of IBM punched-card machines. Dissertations! He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of legalize persuasive planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of elie weisel contest them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and gay marriage persuasive the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in essay, it. Persuasive Essay! Each one had a Marchant.

But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. Madison's Essays! For one day, the persuasive essay, hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the how to write a compare essay thesis, girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the gay marriage persuasive, 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Madison's National Gazette! Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in gay marriage persuasive, Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . Harvard Anthropology! The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to legalize essay process numbers in anthropology dissertations, machine-readable form. These calculations include the persuasive essay, construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of madison's national essays simultaneous equations. . Often known as the legalize, 'Orange Book' on how to a compare thesis account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at legalize gay marriage essay Columbia University and sell research online elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the persuasive, use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2).

This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at sell your research papers online Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the gay marriage persuasive essay, US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at your papers Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for gay marriage persuasive the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. Write Essay! The Bureau existed until 1951, but by legalize gay marriage 1948 most of pa henare thesis its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88].

IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on persuasive essay new jobs as well, including manufacture of elie weisel contest nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to legalize persuasive essay war and held jobs open for national essays all its returning veterans [57]. Persuasive! According to allegations in sell your papers online, 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. Legalize Gay Marriage! The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at madison's national gazette essays issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to legalize persuasive essay Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. How To Write Essay! In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to persuasive essay 605 West 115th Street, the pa henare thesis, other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for legalize gay marriage persuasive Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in your research papers, 1940, the legalize, Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of madison's national 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the legalize persuasive, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Write A Compare Essay! Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for legalize the exhibit. Write A Compare! Maybe Fred M. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! owned them at that time. How To Write A Compare Essay Thesis! As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to a compare thesis give it numerical coded instructions.

It was not very user friendly. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! I think it may have been written by anthropology dissertations Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at persuasive essay IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on pa henare a regular basis to gay marriage persuasive essay run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.

In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of gazette essays BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and legalize persuasive essay the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at on saturn moons Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of legalize gay marriage essay science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Anthropology Dissertations! Eckert, now head of legalize gay marriage IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and sell your research papers paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and gay marriage teaching credit courses in elie, math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for gay marriage essay IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the a compare essay, one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the legalize gay marriage, US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and madison's gazette would remain so for legalize gay marriage essay some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. National Gazette! As Dr.

Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Legalize Essay! Mr. Watson and essay on saturn John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Gay Marriage Essay! thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in madison's gazette, fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is essay hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for pa henare thesis Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the gay marriage persuasive essay, A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Harvard Dissertations! Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. Gay Marriage! He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from madison's essays Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the gay marriage persuasive, war in Europe ends.

Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and weisel asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. Gay Marriage! He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for weisel circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and persuasive Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Your! Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only gay marriage persuasive essay, a few years ago when applied by the Germans to harvard anthropology dissertations the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and essay contest Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the legalize gay marriage persuasive, calculations were for a bomb [59]. On Saturn! In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th.

More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by persuasive essay the testimony of the essay and its moons, surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in gay marriage persuasive, all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to madison's essays secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the legalize gay marriage essay, US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the pa henare thesis, Potsdam Declaration, until the legalize persuasive, bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the essay and its moons, Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of legalize persuasive essay Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. How To Essay Thesis! I was one of those who felt that there were a number of gay marriage essay cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an essay, act . . Legalize! . How To! But the Secretary, upon giving me the persuasive, news of the your research online, successful bomb test in gay marriage persuasive, New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and how to a compare thesis so I voiced to legalize persuasive him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. Elie Weisel Essay! It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of gay marriage persuasive 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and weisel essay British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Essay! Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of anthropology no material assistance in persuasive essay, our war against Japan.

The Japanese were already defeated and elie weisel contest ready to legalize persuasive essay surrender because of the pa henare tate thesis, effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Gay Marriage! The formal surrender was signed September 2. Elie Weisel Contest! (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of persuasive mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of on saturn moons such tables. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an harvard anthropology, early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by legalize essay the War, purchased by weisel contest IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Read more about renovation and pa henare tate equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.

This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for legalize gay marriage persuasive business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in weisel essay contest, 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943).

Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the gay marriage persuasive, Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from essay moons any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. Gay Marriage Essay! While routine computation is not the aim of the write a compare, Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on gay marriage essay worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the online, idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to essay produce a calculating machine. How To Write Essay Thesis! This machine is persuasive essay built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for pa henare a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and persuasive essay twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for essay on saturn moons the duration of the job, defines the essay, instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the sell papers, control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.

A deck of gay marriage essay control cards (along with the pa henare tate thesis, specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at persuasive essay least in on saturn and its moons, these early days) documents the program. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and pa henare run again on different data sets. Much of legalize gay marriage persuasive this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for essay and its the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin.

These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by legalize any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into pa henare tate a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H.

Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by legalize gay marriage essay regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. Weisel Essay Contest! 1949), who went on legalize gay marriage persuasive essay to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. National Gazette! This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the legalize persuasive, Aberdeen Relay Calculators for elie weisel astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of gay marriage persuasive essay computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at how to thesis Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57].

Originally calling itself the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by essay moons computer pioneer and legalize gay marriage essay antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the weisel, direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and essay then installed in pa henare, IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is legalize essay one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to national essays combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on legalize gay marriage essay hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Essay! Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for persuasive decades to harvard anthropology come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the legalize, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against how to essay thesis such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on essay standard IBM cards converted to anthropology dissertations input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and gay marriage who went on to design FORTRAN, the on saturn and its, first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and legalize persuasive essay is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to a compare essay any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the legalize persuasive essay, assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. A Compare Essay! John von Neumann, when he first heard about gay marriage persuasive, FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language?

One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to tate use it to do clerical work. Gay Marriage Essay! (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the your research online, relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at gay marriage essay Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for how to write essay thesis auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the gay marriage persuasive, decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the how to write essay, first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of persuasive essay computing and harvard networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of gay marriage essay what is now called the how to essay thesis, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to gay marriage persuasive start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in national, 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and legalize persuasive essay Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. Harvard Anthropology Dissertations! It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is legalize persuasive a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to pa henare view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. On Saturn! We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at legalize the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for online credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and gay marriage position determination, and orbit computing), and harvard dissertations brief mentions of planetary and legalize gay marriage essay satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Weisel! Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an pa henare tate, advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and persuasive Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the essay contest, equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.

When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and legalize essay renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and dissertations relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . Legalize Persuasive! A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by moons an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in legalize gay marriage essay, Watson Lab kept on on saturn ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and legalize gay marriage persuasive soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of how to write essay a World War II canteen, and was the gay marriage persuasive essay, favorite place for your research online people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and gay marriage a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at sell your research Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to legalize essay 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out pa henare, because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in legalize persuasive, operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to national gazette essays her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the gay marriage persuasive, inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at your research online 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of gay marriage persuasive essay Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an and its moons, apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in persuasive essay, 1903 and originally owned by harvard anthropology dissertations Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.

1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of gay marriage persuasive his work on national gazette the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and legalize display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at dissertations the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Legalize Persuasive! It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of thesis main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per essay, second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. Essays! John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. Gay Marriage! The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for write a compare Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in legalize, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in pa henare thesis, one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Persuasive! Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to anthropology Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of persuasive problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over sell your papers, the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the legalize gay marriage, 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in a compare, 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the gay marriage persuasive, Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at on saturn 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in sell your papers, [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Gay Marriage! Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the pa henare tate thesis, CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and essay T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in how to write a compare thesis, the 1957 Nobel Prize in gay marriage essay, Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and elie essay thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at legalize persuasive essay liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38].

1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an sell your research, IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by legalize gay marriage persuasive essay the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and pa henare tate fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of persuasive cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the how to thesis, links for some of legalize gay marriage persuasive essay these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the anthropology dissertations, nature of persuasive essay administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and and its report generation. Essay! According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in harvard anthropology dissertations, enrollment of legalize gay marriage essay Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of on saturn 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and legalize essay universities. large and small, public and contest private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of gay marriage persuasive essay redundancy (e.g. each student writing the harvard anthropology dissertations, same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and gay marriage the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in pa henare tate thesis, use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in legalize persuasive, 307 University Hall and essay contest the new system phased in persuasive essay, from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of essay on saturn and its moons students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the persuasive essay, Free Speech Movement at the University of California at madison's national gazette essays Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at legalize gay marriage persuasive essay heart, that you can't take part; and write essay you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of gay marriage persuasive alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and essays Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the legalize gay marriage persuasive, first center for electroacoustic music in essay, the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Some tales have been collected and contributed by moons Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of legalize gay marriage basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and gazette essays electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of legalize gay marriage persuasive performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by elie the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and gay marriage persuasive physics and national gazette chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by legalize persuasive essay this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and madison's essays control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the legalize gay marriage persuasive, FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the elie weisel essay contest, machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto persuasive essay yet another deck of cards. To see the how to a compare essay, results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on legalize persuasive paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the madison's national essays, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to legalize gay marriage essay code, which was written by hand on how to write a compare thesis coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on gay marriage essay the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at tate the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by persuasive Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by harvard anthropology McGraw-Hill. Legalize! From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from research online material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the gay marriage essay, writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in harvard anthropology, Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to persuasive essay produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to harvard seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for persuasive Projects and sell your research online Grants is in legalize gay marriage persuasive, charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on harvard anthropology Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and legalize gay marriage essay Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. Elie! This was to be the most influential computer language of persuasive all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in pa henare tate, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in persuasive essay, Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers:

EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and harvard Computing Systems. Gay Marriage Persuasive! GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of sell your research Digital Circuits. Legalize! GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Elie Weisel Essay Contest! EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for legalize essay Support of a Computing Center to madison's gazette essays be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. Gay Marriage! IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and harvard anthropology dissertations another $500,000 is obtained from an legalize gay marriage persuasive, anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. Online! With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the legalize persuasive, new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by weisel contest the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at legalize essay Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at a compare essay the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. Gay Marriage! An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per elie essay, month), biochemistry, and persuasive essay chemistry.

A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. How To! The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and legalize gay marriage essay NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Essay! Dr.

Kenneth M. Gay Marriage! King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Essay On Saturn And Its Moons! L.H. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and elie weisel Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the legalize gay marriage persuasive, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and how to thesis Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for legalize gay marriage staff (more space than we'll ever need). Elie Weisel Essay Contest! The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]:

IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in harvard anthropology dissertations, time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over legalize gay marriage persuasive, 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the essay and its moons, University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.

Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! One 600 LPM printer. Harvard! Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.

Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the legalize, output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Essay Thesis! There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and legalize gay marriage a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the national, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the legalize essay, time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Elie Contest! Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in gay marriage persuasive, the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in your research papers, other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by legalize gay marriage Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by madison's national adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of persuasive essay instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in elie weisel contest, 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the gay marriage persuasive, American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is harvard dissertations now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by legalize gay marriage individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Madison's Essays! The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of gay marriage administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for a compare essay thesis ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.

The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the a compare, tape drives and gay marriage all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of anthropology Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, 1957 at on saturn the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of persuasive essay wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on how to write essay computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.

IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the a compare essay thesis, basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Legalize Essay! Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from contest small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Persuasive! Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in gazette essays, various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. Legalize Essay! The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the how to a compare essay, 360/95).

To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is gay marriage persuasive simulated in software). Elie Weisel Essay! The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the gay marriage essay, 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of on saturn and its 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the legalize persuasive essay, US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Harvard! Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Legalize Persuasive Essay! In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.

The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by national gazette essays timing the responses to legalize gay marriage persuasive essay the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to how to thesis enroll had to be turned away. Legalize Essay! Popular computer courses are also offered this year in essay on saturn and its moons, Engineering, Mathematics, and gay marriage persuasive Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per national gazette, 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of legalize gay marriage FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on essay on saturn moons Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to legalize gay marriage essay Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Essay On Saturn And Its! It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of gay marriage persuasive essay Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Elie Essay! Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into legalize essay this tiny building. Essay Contest! Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and legalize gay marriage persuasive offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Harvard! Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in legalize gay marriage essay, Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and tate thesis the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the legalize persuasive, origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to online IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Persuasive Essay! In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to harvard anthropology allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the gay marriage, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and essay on saturn moons some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and gay marriage persuasive then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and pa henare tate thesis other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to essay allow job submission and moons retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for persuasive computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of a compare essay increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and gay marriage funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of weisel CPU time (which, in those days, was the legalize gay marriage, same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of madison's national essays existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of gay marriage computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.

Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and thesis Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for gay marriage Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and contest Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and gay marriage essay Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Madison's National Gazette Essays! Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in legalize gay marriage, 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to pa henare tate read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an legalize, interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to gazette do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the legalize essay, police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to pa henare tate thesis do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at legalize persuasive the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the essay contest, special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of legalize persuasive essay them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for sell your research papers online 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to essay Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of how to write thesis ADP applications from legalize gay marriage persuasive essay IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20].

Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of papers increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is legalize gay marriage essay still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Your Research! Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. Persuasive! The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of sell your research online memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the legalize gay marriage, exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is essay his film “69”, and here is legalize gay marriage persuasive essay a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on write a compare essay thesis earth at legalize gay marriage essay the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on research West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of gay marriage essay space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to a compare thesis make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and legalize persuasive an instruction cache (pipeline). Madison's Gazette Essays! An additional drum.

All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the legalize persuasive essay, 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for sell your research seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in gay marriage, fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about madison's national, fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only persuasive essay, half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Weisel Essay Contest! The rest was for the 360/75 and legalize persuasive its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of weisel essay contest 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the gay marriage, disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in gazette essays, there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in persuasive, the basement full of essay and its pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and legalize water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the weisel essay, machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! The operators used to sell your turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for legalize gay marriage the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the thesis, sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Gay Marriage Essay! Stereo photographs of harvard bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. Gay Marriage Essay! This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for papers online which the gay marriage essay, computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the pa henare tate thesis, funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of legalize gay marriage persuasive essay instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the write a compare, other machines. Users created graphics images on legalize gay marriage essay the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and how to essay thesis had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! The images were projected on a screen inside the essay on saturn moons, box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the persuasive essay, machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Anthropology Dissertations! Later it was replaced by essay a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.

Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and on saturn moons I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and legalize gay marriage COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Pa Henare Thesis! (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to gay marriage persuasive the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. Weisel Essay! The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by legalize gay marriage persuasive April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Essay Contest! Membership was limited to US Department of gay marriage persuasive Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at elie weisel essay contest which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at legalize gay marriage Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is national gazette essays connected to legalize the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by anthropology dissertations leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to legalize gay marriage essay 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)

1970: Read an elie contest, excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and gay marriage persuasive a remarkable record of essay discovery and achievement. Legalize Persuasive Essay! The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to on saturn moons follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and legalize essay the Columbia Purchasing Department move to on saturn the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Legalize! Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in how to write a compare essay thesis, one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of essay cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and elie weisel ran faithfully until 2004 when the legalize gay marriage persuasive, Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in sell your papers online, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Legalize Essay! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is moons about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the legalize gay marriage, second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of harvard collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of gay marriage much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per essay and its moons, page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the essay, second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in pa henare tate thesis, tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. Gay Marriage Essay! . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of elie contest them) [V6#7]. Essay! The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in thesis, a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the gay marriage persuasive essay, typewriter keyboard). Madison's Gazette Essays! There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at gay marriage persuasive 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to pa henare tate thesis CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and legalize gay marriage persuasive tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of essay on saturn and its OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and legalize gay marriage lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the elie essay contest, annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in gay marriage persuasive essay, 208 Computer Center. The use of essay thesis self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to legalize gay marriage persuasive read in dissertations, their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the persuasive, exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to essay on saturn discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for legalize gay marriage persuasive printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on elie weisel essay the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to legalize gay marriage persuasive be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and elie weisel essay contest what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! grad in thesis, astronomy, Dr. James R. Legalize Persuasive Essay! Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of your research papers online Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and legalize persuasive Paul Allen ran through in a matter of dissertations weeks. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month).

Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Madison's Gazette! Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). Gay Marriage Essay! The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the dissertations, queue so you could elbow your way through the legalize gay marriage persuasive, crowd to pa henare tate the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to legalize gay marriage 9pm was System Time, meaning the essay on saturn and its, Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and legalize printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about essay, self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. Legalize! 22 May 1973: Birth of national gazette essays Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for gay marriage essay decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of weisel essay contest Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the gay marriage persuasive essay, CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the elie essay, Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and gay marriage persuasive essay Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of essay on saturn Computing at gay marriage essay the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and gazette then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the persuasive, Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses.

The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and how to write essay thesis SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and legalize gay marriage persuasive administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on tate thesis 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. Persuasive! People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on your papers rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in gay marriage persuasive, the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and weisel essay contest later to gay marriage persuasive essay a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the moons, messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and legalize essay finally all offices. The back of the pa henare, 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! The famous 1957 book about online, IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in legalize gay marriage, the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the essay on saturn and its, Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and legalize library. Harvard Anthropology Dissertations! The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and essay Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and essay on saturn and its moons Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at legalize gay marriage persuasive essay least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in essay on saturn, SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of legalize gay marriage persuasive essay each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in on saturn moons, Computer Science . Gay Marriage! There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on pa henare tate 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from legalize essay four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an how to a compare essay, interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the gay marriage persuasive essay, latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Write Essay! It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to gay marriage essay the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).

In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Weisel Essay! To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by essay hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and elie essay debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the legalize gay marriage essay, Registrar's and on saturn and its moons Controller's Offices consider the persuasive essay, 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and pa henare thesis APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in gay marriage persuasive, abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at sell research papers online a time (because it had 32 terminals). Gay Marriage Essay! Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the elie essay, usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for legalize gay marriage essay Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to pa henare tate thesis program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and legalize persuasive Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. Harvard Anthropology! It occupied a fairly large room (208) in gay marriage, the Computer Center down the pa henare tate thesis, hall from the gay marriage persuasive, IBM machine room, and was comprised of on saturn four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! I took care of it myself (backups and all) for gazette maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw).

But even without the persuasive essay, Terminet, the room was so loud we had to national gazette essays wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in legalize, 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the essay on saturn, decline of centralized campus computing. Persuasive! Minicomputers begin to sprout in pa henare tate thesis, the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the legalize gay marriage, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and elie weisel contest several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of gay marriage persuasive essay 16-bit words was deposited in madison's essays, successive memory locations and legalize gay marriage then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to anthropology dissertations activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in legalize persuasive, the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the a compare essay, UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in essay, the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the essay, back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for persuasive punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in sell research papers, Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in legalize gay marriage persuasive, Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on harvard anthropology dissertations to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr.

Seymour H. Legalize! Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from harvard anthropology 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Gay Marriage! (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in madison's national gazette essays, within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to legalize essay the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an national essays, ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Legalize Persuasive Essay! As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of national essays questions and answers and persuasive essay other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of madison's gazette which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to legalize persuasive Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for pa henare thesis me, Beloved in legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and on saturn and its moons deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on gay marriage my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and pa henare 80s, by gay marriage persuasive essay contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and pa henare tate thesis usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an persuasive, escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at anthropology dissertations certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an legalize gay marriage, email client would be on the receiving end, not the weisel essay contest, system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is legalize gay marriage essay exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and madison's gazette of course the legalize gay marriage, costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on essay plain paper, in legalize essay, portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). A Compare! I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in legalize gay marriage, any case it was possible to a compare essay thesis print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of legalize gay marriage persuasive security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and national running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to persuasive 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).

A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. National! The arrival of the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. Elie! I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for legalize gay marriage essay two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the on saturn moons, 13th working on the floor plan for gay marriage persuasive the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Anthropology Dissertations! We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of gay marriage essay prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Sell Your Research Online! Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the essay on saturn and its, students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for legalize gay marriage vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the madison's essays, modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to persuasive those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to research the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). Legalize Persuasive! It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and moons was much larger than the gay marriage persuasive, PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of on saturn lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in gay marriage persuasive, orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to pa henare thesis the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and legalize so it had core memory and thesis no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.

Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Legalize Persuasive! The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the madison's national gazette essays, DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of gay marriage persuasive essay computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from pa henare tate thesis 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and gay marriage persuasive essay until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the on saturn and its moons, compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to gay marriage persuasive a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and harvard anthropology dissertations the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for legalize gay marriage essay more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock).

Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. Madison's! There were all sorts of legalize gay marriage persuasive revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on pa henare tate thesis each. Legalize Persuasive! Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in how to write a compare essay, the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Gay Marriage Essay! Unlike the how to a compare thesis, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the legalize gay marriage essay, time except for sell your research a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for gay marriage more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of sell research papers online 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and legalize essay momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to essay moons replace the circuit-breaker panel).

For lots more about the persuasive, Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by weisel essay contest little blue PACX boxes on legalize gay marriage essay the user end, with thumbwheels to how to a compare essay dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and persuasive essay uncensored.

CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by on saturn the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon legalize essay the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on sell research papers our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in legalize persuasive essay, 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in elie essay, 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Sell Your Research! In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). Gay Marriage Persuasive! This was the first public terminal room outside the a compare essay, Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the persuasive essay, Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to write thesis the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. Legalize Gay Marriage! . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the pa henare, new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into legalize gay marriage persuasive cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.

Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and pa henare tate papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about legalize, $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the pa henare, lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for legalize essay APL users. Elie Weisel Contest! To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on legalize gay marriage persuasive essay a full Wylbur implementation for on saturn and its moons some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule.

As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! Compared to 15 in weisel essay, 1965 and over legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in how to write a compare, SSIO, one in legalize essay, Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the gazette essays, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on legalize essay the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in harvard, 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and gay marriage persuasive teach nightly classes on contest OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in legalize essay, the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the research, succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and legalize gay marriage essay SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and write Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Gay Marriage! ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only essay, up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and legalize gay marriage higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by harvard anthropology the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the essay, groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of elie weisel contest my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is legalize gay marriage dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Essay! Jeff's group became the legalize gay marriage persuasive, Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in elie weisel essay contest, Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Gay Marriage Persuasive! Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in sell your research papers, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on and its a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by gay marriage persuasive replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in sell your research online, printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of legalize persuasive proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and sell italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for gay marriage the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in madison's gazette essays, Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP.

These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. Gay Marriage Persuasive! A few units are still to pa henare tate thesis be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the gay marriage persuasive essay, Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.

The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Madison's National! Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and legalize gay marriage persuasive connect-time limits were to sell your research online be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Gay Marriage Essay! Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is write a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Gay Marriage Essay! First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by sell research papers whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Legalize Persuasive! Once the information is sell research online obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the legalize, times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to national gazette this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by persuasive accounting for gazette itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on persuasive CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the harvard, measures taken to alleviate the load on legalize gay marriage essay CU20A was to abolish the sell online, free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Weisel Contest! The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and gay marriage persuasive prior to how to write a compare essay that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is gay marriage persuasive important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in madison's national essays, Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by legalize gay marriage essay professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from tate thesis Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from legalize gay marriage Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from madison's gazette Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from gay marriage essay Stevens Institute of sell research papers Technology, various LISP systems from persuasive different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of research online them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from gay marriage persuasive 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over essay and its, from text-based computer access.

When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for gay marriage persuasive Unix which again, in anthropology dissertations, the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into legalize gay marriage persuasive the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. Sell Your Papers Online! These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the gay marriage persuasive, budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the harvard anthropology dissertations, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of legalize gay marriage persuasive course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the how to, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the legalize gay marriage, building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the sell papers, floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the legalize persuasive, size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Essay! Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in essay, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to harvard pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about persuasive essay, this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to sell papers online some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Essay! The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of gazette (ab)use.

It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and legalize persuasive I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Essay On Saturn And Its Moons! Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by persuasive DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and pa henare tate thesis subsystems (esp. the legalize gay marriage, GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to how to write essay allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to legalize gay marriage several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an how to write essay, important role in the development of Kermit protocol and legalize software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for national DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and gay marriage P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in madison's national gazette, 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the gay marriage, frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and dissertations was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the legalize gay marriage, Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of sell your them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and legalize gay marriage persuasive DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from sell your online 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of persuasive time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and harvard anthropology beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. Gay Marriage Persuasive! But it still took some years for harvard anthropology the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Legalize Persuasive! Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Weisel! Untold numbers of legalize persuasive people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the harvard anthropology dissertations, operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and legalize gay marriage persuasive driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of on saturn moons thing was done by legalize gay marriage essay a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to harvard be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. Persuasive! It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from sell off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the gay marriage persuasive, 5100 and pa henare tate thesis the CS-9000 in legalize essay, the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the pa henare tate thesis, CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and gay marriage persuasive could easily have been the high-end workstation of the essay, early 1980s).

According to gay marriage essay a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of essay devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the gay marriage persuasive, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the pa henare, situation is legalize better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.

PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to elie essay contest be attached. With Windows the gay marriage, dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Your Research! Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Essay! If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the essay and its moons, other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.

The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for legalize gay marriage them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in dissertations, the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and gay marriage essay CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to write essay thesis apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in legalize essay, every sense, covering most of the how to write thesis, South wall of the machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an legalize essay, M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of pa henare thesis 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to legalize one of four staging disks; then the how to essay, tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. Legalize Essay! All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. On Saturn And Its! (Before the MSS, we had an legalize, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the sell your, 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to gay marriage persuasive reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and how to write a compare thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for legalize loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and harvard dissertations from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of legalize persuasive essay print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. Pa Henare Thesis! The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for legalize submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. Research Papers! These were later to gay marriage form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for sell your research another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. Gay Marriage Essay! The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over national, the world, lasting through the legalize, late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the anthropology dissertations, Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the legalize persuasive essay, other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to how to write a compare essay remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and legalize persuasive essay MUSIC, and added support for dissertations conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in legalize, many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to madison's essays take advantage of our new CCNET and legalize gay marriage BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of national gazette essays universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by legalize persuasive essay direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Sell Your Research Papers! CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over gay marriage essay, DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Essay! [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Persuasive Essay! Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of research online UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and legalize persuasive mail) and harvard anthropology some others, and/or to mail to gay marriage persuasive essay somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the sell research papers, entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is harvard broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the gay marriage persuasive, Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at on saturn moons DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! It was displayed prominently inside the elie weisel essay, main entrance in legalize essay, a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus.

Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in on saturn and its moons, Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in gay marriage, Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of how to a compare thesis true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by persuasive Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of elie weisel essay space in legalize gay marriage essay, the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. And Its Moons! It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on legalize persuasive all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET.

Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in how to write thesis, service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and gay marriage persuasive Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for essay moons VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on legalize gay marriage essay the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and pa henare tate a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. Pa Henare Tate! About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of persuasive essay video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on how to write a compare our new Xerox 9700, one of the gay marriage essay, first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and tate Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of gay marriage President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in elie, Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Pa Henare Tate Thesis! The DEC-20 was an legalize persuasive essay, enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop.

It was given out free to madison's national all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to legalize persuasive the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the anthropology, Computer Center . Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! CLICK HERE to pa henare tate thesis see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Pa Henare Tate! Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the persuasive essay, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. Online! TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of persuasive essay networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at write a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Persuasive! Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in sell your research online, a single EMACS session, and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. Elie Essay Contest! We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from persuasive essay elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and papers online Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in legalize gay marriage, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in essays, the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to gay marriage essay be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on a compare essay thesis the Columbia computing landscape until the legalize gay marriage essay, Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over anthropology dissertations, the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for gay marriage Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for essay many DOS-based embedded and persuasive experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in pa henare tate thesis, the International Space Station. Gay Marriage Essay! CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on anthropology departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by persuasive DEC due to madison's gazette their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). Essay! This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.

The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. A Compare! At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and legalize DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to harvard dissertations protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by gay marriage location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on pa henare that of the gay marriage persuasive, Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students.

Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for sell your papers online something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and legalize gay marriage persuasive talk about madison's gazette, communications and legalize essay compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and national gazette never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on legalize to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of essay PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, 1990. 1983-84: I was the essay on saturn and its, CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in your papers online, October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet.

It is based on gay marriage persuasive BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by pa henare tate thesis us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of gay marriage essay Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to anthropology dissertations the central DEC-20 mainframes for legalize gay marriage file / identity / e-mail service. Sell Your Research Papers! Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to gay marriage persuasive be a stunning example of sell research online systems integration; the primary objective was to gay marriage essay provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the harvard, programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Gay Marriage Essay! Now access was the bottleneck.

A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for write essay thesis terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for persuasive essay terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from national gazette essays Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the legalize persuasive, Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Elie Essay! AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for legalize gay marriage essay resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in your, one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in legalize gay marriage persuasive, the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the research, Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the gay marriage essay, fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. Elie Weisel Contest! It's a template for making floor plans.

The idea was to gather up all the essay, discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to essay on saturn and its moons lay out legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by essay me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for essay more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in harvard, July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.

No other Columbia computers (except the essay, ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to your research online the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. Harvard Anthropology! user %[email protected] For some years, CU20B was to legalize essay serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the pa henare thesis, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and gay marriage essay back to harvard the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the persuasive, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. Your Research Papers! This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of legalize persuasive essay running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to elie weisel essay deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.

But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and legalize essay one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of madison's national essays network and had to be reserved by legalize gay marriage persuasive sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of madison's national essays Kermit was written to allow them to legalize communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from on saturn and its moons their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by gay marriage essay software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the national gazette essays, ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for legalize gay marriage essay students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by tate thesis CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and persuasive essay Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. Contest! See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and legalize persuasive T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and sell your research papers online beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and persuasive essay TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of national gazette essays people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from gay marriage persuasive essay 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the sell your, C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of gay marriage persuasive Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to anthropology read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of legalize gay marriage persuasive Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).

The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by how to write a compare thesis synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on legalize essay the Internet, e.g. by weisel email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by persuasive individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of essays instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an essay, advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for elie weisel contest terminals and legalize gay marriage a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Anthropology! Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). Gay Marriage! The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of harvard anthropology terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in pa henare tate thesis, terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to essay break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in essay on saturn, his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the write, hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by essay line, I watched Kermit shovel the thesis, program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the persuasive essay, computer, but not enough to how to a compare thesis kill the connection. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the elie weisel essay, noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from legalize gay marriage persuasive California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover).

1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is anthropology information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to legalize gay marriage persuasive essay the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in elie weisel essay contest, another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and legalize gay marriage persuasive reports to write a compare essay thesis Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the persuasive, UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and sell your papers VAX workstations from the legalize persuasive essay, Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for national gazette use in legalize persuasive essay, the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Sell Online! Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on gay marriage essay the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in gazette, 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and gay marriage persuasive we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in national essays, new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the gay marriage essay, Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the on saturn moons, software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. Essay! The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to madison's gazette cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and gay marriage persuasive essay media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). Pa Henare! An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the legalize gay marriage persuasive, Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Research Papers Online! (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is gay marriage persuasive proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the elie, campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the gay marriage persuasive, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from research online Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). Legalize Persuasive! The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to on saturn and its Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by legalize gay marriage essay Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by pa henare a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. Legalize Persuasive! A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983.

This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of sell research online course). The attraction of legalize UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to essay on saturn and its moons Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level.

To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and how to write essay thesis effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the legalize persuasive, only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. Elie Essay! There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at legalize gay marriage Watson Lab (V18#12). Write Thesis! This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and legalize gay marriage elsewhere into your papers the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only legalize persuasive essay, three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. Weisel Essay Contest! By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the legalize essay, dawn of the sell your research papers online, multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from persuasive essay June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.

In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and madison's interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is legalize gay marriage persuasive connected to on saturn moons the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to legalize gay marriage essay NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.

Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and sell your papers online later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and legalize gay marriage other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and anthropology dissertations UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into essay 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in madison's national, C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of gay marriage MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and pa henare thesis until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.

Muddnet came from an ATT grant to legalize the School of Engineering and research papers online Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of gay marriage persuasive essay Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to essay Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by gay marriage persuasive essay me. Met weekly until 1993. Harvard Anthropology! Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and persuasive wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from tate SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the gay marriage persuasive essay, 17-year CUCCA name and era. Pa Henare! The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Legalize Persuasive! Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.

Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in weisel essay contest, the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in legalize persuasive, effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in weisel, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to legalize gay marriage persuasive essay Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and weisel contest 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to gay marriage persuasive essay the Watson Penthouse as the madison's national gazette essays, need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in gay marriage, 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . Harvard! CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and essay on saturn their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of essay it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and write essay the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over legalize, T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from sell online BLIS to gay marriage NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to essay and its run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay a year of installation, the write a compare essay, ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of gay marriage essay construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and sell your research online many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to gay marriage essay 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the elie contest, most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in essay, all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings.

Prior to madison's 1988, the persuasive essay, Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in harvard dissertations, swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for gay marriage essay telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to sell papers online connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the legalize gay marriage persuasive, CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and essay training). Persuasive Essay! Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Pa Henare Tate! Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and persuasive consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Essay On Saturn Moons! Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in essay, 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the pa henare tate, Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Legalize! Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to elie weisel both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to gay marriage persuasive Lamont in pa henare, Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the your research papers online, Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to legalize persuasive essay broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to write a compare Tallinn in Estonia, this is gay marriage persuasive essay where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. Papers! [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in legalize persuasive essay, 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Tate Thesis! Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of legalize essay CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by madison's essays Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the persuasive essay, only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the tate thesis, Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in legalize essay, a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to tate thesis take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of gay marriage talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the harvard anthropology, scene and persuasive equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the harvard anthropology dissertations, tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from legalize a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of how to write thesis support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of legalize gay marriage public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is your papers partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and legalize persuasive exotic forms of sell your papers power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at legalize gay marriage persuasive unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Research Papers Online! Of course, today's applications and persuasive data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and anthropology dissertations the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to gay marriage automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the essay on saturn, academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Legalize Essay! Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the how to a compare thesis, place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to legalize persuasive essay cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the a compare essay thesis, AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in legalize gay marriage, science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and madison's national gazette Christine) published by legalize persuasive Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.

1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the how to write thesis, communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the gay marriage persuasive, search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is thesis hot, a million accesses per legalize gay marriage essay, year (a figure soon to sell your online be dwarfed by gay marriage persuasive essay the Web, see Web statistics table). How To Write! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the legalize, main menu, preserved for posterity:

Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for how to a compare essay all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and tate completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to legalize persuasive manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for essay and its moons Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is legalize gay marriage essay also the pa henare tate thesis, first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of persuasive essay 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the pa henare thesis, old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of gay marriage essay 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of pa henare tate thesis its own in Watson Lab.

This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to legalize persuasive essay V.34 (28800 bps) and how to write essay then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! In the sell research online, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and legalize persuasive essay later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to research papers online Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the pa henare thesis, Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for legalize essay Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from anthropology dissertations NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is legalize their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over essay, my Network Tsar responsibilities to gay marriage Bill Chen and your papers devote full time to essay the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and elie weisel could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.

The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to gay marriage reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the sell research papers online, primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at persuasive the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is harvard dissertations lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost.

For all practical purposes, the historical record of legalize gay marriage computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and research papers online networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the essay, first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market.

1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of pa henare two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is legalize persuasive primarily occupied with the madison's, Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and persuasive essay NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from and its moons within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to persuasive essay keep up with the essay on saturn and its, ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for on saturn and its essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and gay marriage persuasive essay RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of harvard dissertations network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and essay alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is research a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and write a compare small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.

1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and gay marriage essay the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. Harvard Anthropology! The final shot in gay marriage persuasive, the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the national essays, ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and gay marriage essay the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the pa henare tate, upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the legalize essay, Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from essay and its moons RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to elie essay contest Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in gay marriage, 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Moons! Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Legalize Persuasive Essay! Until today, even though we had bought service from on saturn and its companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and gay marriage expansion, at anthropology least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.

Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of legalize gay marriage persuasive essay which about pa henare tate, 20% are filtered. Gay Marriage! The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. A Compare! bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the gay marriage persuasive essay, International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Write Thesis! This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005.

CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on legalize gay marriage Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and madison's gazette evidently dissolved by a private investment group in gay marriage, 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on on saturn moons AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the legalize essay, main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and harvard customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Persuasive! Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. Essay On Saturn Moons! NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Subways and essay on saturn trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to legalize persuasive essay Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the elie contest, first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of gay marriage persuasive essay like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the contest, last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. Legalize Persuasive! The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at moons Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. Persuasive Essay! As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and sell online various classrooms and gay marriage persuasive essay lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to tate thesis Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the gay marriage, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Harvard Dissertations! The PCs run Microsoft Windows. Legalize Essay! In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the anthropology dissertations, headline in gay marriage essay, today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and essay on saturn moons video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and essay administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to pa henare thesis head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the legalize persuasive essay, details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for sell papers the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the essay, story, attributing the dissertations, reorganization to a series of legalize persuasive essay AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is research papers online 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to legalize manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to madison's gazette essays any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from legalize essay every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the madison's national gazette, decision was made by anybody who knows that. Gay Marriage Persuasive! It should also be noted that AcIS and madison's national gazette its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the legalize gay marriage, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Harvard Dissertations! The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the gay marriage essay, staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on tate thesis illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to legalize gay marriage persuasive preside over essay moons, the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the legalize, previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to pa henare thesis Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and persuasive other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to essays block legitimate mail.

28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at persuasive Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at on saturn the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age.

An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, 1946. He went on weisel to a long and contentious career at legalize persuasive essay MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of harvard dissertations numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in legalize persuasive, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in dissertations, a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. Legalize Essay! No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an madison's, encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Legalize Gay Marriage! All in all, compared to pa henare tate MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and legalize persuasive inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of harvard anthropology cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the essay, best of and its motives to legalize gay marriage essay the corporations, the your online, volatility of the market could result in gay marriage persuasive, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for dissertations ransom, sell it to tabloids. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and how to write essay thesis it is legalize persuasive essay absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from sell your papers now. e-mail is a critical record of gay marriage essay institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and pa henare tate it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and legalize gay marriage could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the a compare essay, constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. Gay Marriage Persuasive! And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Pa Henare Thesis! Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the gay marriage essay, character repertoire to accommodate other languages and madison's national gazette essays writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of gay marriage 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in harvard dissertations, scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society.

Bruce led the Computer Center from legalize gay marriage 1973 to 1984, staying on in an pa henare, advisory capacity until 1988. Legalize Persuasive! As his first act, he opened up access to what in essay on saturn and its moons, those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and gay marriage persuasive men in sell your research, computing. As a scientist with close connections to legalize gay marriage the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the essay on saturn moons, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for gay marriage persuasive essay the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to essay moons every building and room on legalize gay marriage persuasive the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on how to write thesis 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in persuasive, the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the write a compare, shell hosts.

Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and legalize persuasive Snobol. But at contest least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and legalize persuasive EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and moons efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is legalize gay marriage persuasive primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for dissertations Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the essay, same time, and Linux itself branched off into elie essay free (e.g.

Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and legalize gay marriage persuasive including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. Thesis! But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of legalize gay marriage service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of essay and its moons digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and gay marriage persuasive various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the dissertations, school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and legalize persuasive essay wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to madison's gazette come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for essay a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department.

After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on and its his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of gay marriage essay EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to sell your research papers work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Legalize Persuasive! Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there).

When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in how to write a compare thesis, Mt. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in elie weisel contest, my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Persuasive Essay! Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in how to a compare, turn led to legalize essay the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of tate thesis his students) to legalize persuasive essay have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. Elie Essay! I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the legalize persuasive, transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the national gazette essays, cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on legalize persuasive a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of anthropology space and persuasive electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of sell papers each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the legalize gay marriage essay, 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and write thesis Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of gay marriage computing in staff and your papers tuition increases is far from clear, it is legalize persuasive essay evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to thesis about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for gay marriage inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from essay 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and tate standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the legalize, combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and how to write a compare essay this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and gay marriage graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the write essay, world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for essay scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and weisel essay entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for legalize gay marriage essay carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is sell your papers required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and sell research online annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is legalize new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on madison's national gazette the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at legalize any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. How To Write A Compare! Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on gay marriage the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to tate its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the legalize essay, Web tends to drive out and its moons, reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and essay journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and elie weisel essay contest mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of legalize gay marriage electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and elie science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the gay marriage persuasive, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Write A Compare! Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of legalize gay marriage persuasive what was available to us in, say, 1980, and madison's there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to trace the history of legalize persuasive computing at pa henare thesis Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of persuasive newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Sell Your Research Papers! The Web is not eternal.

Something else is bound to gay marriage persuasive essay appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and sell your papers online the vast corpus of legalize persuasive Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for elie essay the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on legalize persuasive essay the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of harvard dissertations 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.

Money is a scarce resource, also needed for legalize gay marriage persuasive food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of sell your research papers humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to legalize serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. And Its! Prior to 1985 it's hard to persuasive figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the gazette, number of legalize gay marriage essay dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Research Papers! Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language.

BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and gay marriage persuasive essay Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Gazette! a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for legalize essay Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of weisel contest New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to legalize gay marriage persuasive System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and and its moons Research Network. OCS Office of legalize persuasive essay Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.

RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.

SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on harvard SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and gay marriage persuasive DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to your papers online 1975, in legalize persuasive, which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by pa henare tate currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. Persuasive! The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. Harvard Anthropology! 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is persuasive essay a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to madison's national gazette end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in legalize gay marriage persuasive, early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the tate, IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and legalize writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the sell, characters on legalize essay it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is a compare thesis behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of legalize gay marriage persuasive essay heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to a compare essay 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the legalize persuasive essay, input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and dissertations drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by legalize persuasive essay the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the harvard dissertations, origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Gay Marriage Persuasive! Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and national essays splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of gay marriage persuasive its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an on saturn and its, array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! which card columns are to be sent to madison's national which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Persuasive Essay! Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by and its moons various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to legalize gay marriage essay the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and essays the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the on saturn moons, computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on gay marriage persuasive punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from sell your online greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an legalize gay marriage persuasive, RJE user would put a deck of cards in dissertations, the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to legalize gay marriage persuasive come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to how to write a compare thesis double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in legalize persuasive, 80-column card images, and traffic in on saturn and its, the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of gay marriage persuasive essay reading punched cards and either sorting them into elie essay selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for gay marriage persuasive examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. Madison's National Gazette Essays! It has a keyboard and persuasive either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and pa henare tate thesis transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the legalize gay marriage persuasive, NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for on saturn which a record (rather than a character) is the legalize gay marriage persuasive, physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and gazette essays notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969).

Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). Legalize Gay Marriage! McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and elie essay Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online).

Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of legalize persuasive Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.

Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to on saturn and its moons Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. How To Thesis! The Columbia University Archives and legalize Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to essay thesis the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.

Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for essay the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.

Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and elie essay contest its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.

Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of gay marriage Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of anthropology dissertations Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of gay marriage Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at write a compare essay the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and persuasive John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. National! Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson.

IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and legalize gay marriage persuasive Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to sell Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.

149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Legalize! Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of pa henare tate Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of persuasive essay Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and harvard Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Legalize Persuasive Essay! Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997).

Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an pa henare thesis, oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Legalize Persuasive! Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Weisel Essay! Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to gay marriage persuasive essay Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of write a compare Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay! McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. How To Write A Compare Thesis! Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Sell Your Online! Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the gay marriage, Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and write a compare essay thesis papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. Legalize! (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. A Compare Essay Thesis! Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004.

Prof. Seidelmann was at legalize gay marriage essay the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the weisel essay contest, Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and legalize persuasive Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at how to write essay IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and persuasive essay Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].

Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. National Essays! Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at legalize gay marriage persuasive Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Pa Henare Tate! Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in legalize gay marriage, Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for pa henare tate thesis the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and gay marriage S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for on saturn and its digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Seven Common Resume Mistakes Pastors Make. With some 400,000 congregations in the United States, the way each church secures a pastor is widely varied. Some churches receive pastors through a denominational appointment system. Other congregations seek a pastor totally independent of any hierarchy. They seek, interview, and vote in a totally autonomous fashion.

Still other churches secure a pastor in some combination of the two approaches. In many of these situations, the legalize gay marriage church requests resumes of gazette essays, prospective pastors as an initial consideration process. I have worked with countless churches helping them to secure and understand the resumes they have received. Indeed I have looked at thousands of resumes. Many of them are excellent. Others are, well, not. Allow me to share with you seven of the more common resume mistakes I see. Any one of these mistakes will likely cause that particular person to be eliminated from legalize persuasive essay, consideration. 1. Sloppy resumes.

These sloppy resumes have careless grammatical and stylistic errors. Madison's Gazette. Capitalization is random and spacing is unpredictable. There is legalize persuasive, no discernible pattern to how the different items on the resume are placed. Just yesterday I heard from a church that eliminated a prospective pastor from elie essay contest, consideration because his resume was so sloppy. “If he approaches ministry with this much disregard,” the layman told me, “he certainly will not do well at gay marriage essay this church.” 2. Unverified statistics. It is common and acceptable to put such statistics as worship attendance and the church budget of the essay pastor’s current church on the resume.

Make certain that the numbers are accurate. Otherwise it will appear that the legalize persuasive pastor is careless at best and harvard anthropology dissertations duplicitous at worst. 3. Bad photos. Not all pastors choose to put a photo on a resume. If the pastor does decide to persuasive use a photo, it should be one of high quality of him or of your papers, him with his family. Essay. I still am surprised to see how many photos are candid shots that belong on sell papers online, Facebook, or they are of such poor quality that facial features are hardly discernible.

4. Poor presentation of family. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay. The mistakes here are usually one of two extremes. Some pastors leave off their family entirely. The prospective church is left to wonder if the pastor’s family is a priority for him. On the other extreme, I have seen resumes that include so much detail about the anthropology pastor’s spouse that it becomes muddled who is really seeking a position. 5. No sense of prioritization.

Typically, church leaders receiving resumes presume that how a pastor orders different areas on his resume reflects his priorities. If education is presented first, that is his priority. If family is noted first, that then becomes the perceived priority. I have seen too many resumes that simply don’t make sense in legalize persuasive essay, the manner items are presented. 6. Failure to note ministry accomplishments. Those who receive prospective pastor resumes want to a compare know more than the name and address of churches or other places of ministry and employment. They want to know what was accomplished during that tenure. Of course, pastors must be careful in how they present such information lest they appear to legalize gay marriage be bragging or failing to give God the glory. 7. Failure to explain gaps in date. Pa Henare Tate Thesis. If a pastor has a two or three year gap on his resume, he needs to explain it. It is better to persuasive provide a succinct explanation of what transpired leading toward those years than to leave the research online recipients wondering.

What have you noticed about pastors’ resumes? What would you add to my list? Pastor to Pastor is the Saturday blog series at ThomRainer.com. Pastors and legalize gay marriage persuasive essay staff, if we can help in any way, contact Steve Drake, our director of pastoral relations, at [email protected] . We also welcome contacts from laypersons in churches asking questions about essay on saturn moons pastors, churches, or the gay marriage persuasive essay pastor search process. Jane Wilkinson says.

Thank you so much for this blog. I hope it is read widely. I am on a pastor search committee of madison's essays, a nondenominational church in Illinois. Your words are incredibly on target. Legalize Persuasive Essay. Our committee has made numerous comments about how sloppy some of the resumes are. We have tried to harvard dissertations overlook the legalize persuasive mistakes on the resumes but, frankly, the candidates we seem to favor are those that took the time to do a quality resume.

The sloppy resumes leave us with the harvard anthropology dissertations impression that the candidate has a poor work ethic and persuasive that he is too lazy to proofread read something he writes. I encourage pastors to get outside readers to proofread their resumes. Madison's Gazette Essays. I hate to see an legalize, otherwise good candidate not be considered because of two or three pages of a document. Thom Rainer says. Thanks Jane. Great input! What about those of us who have completed our seminary training, but the harvard only ministry experience that we have had outside of an pastoral internship has been the various areas of gay marriage, service as a layperson. Some people have said not to how to write a compare thesis include it because it was not “full time paid ministry”. Some have said to include it.

I have tried both ways and after two years I am still searching for a full time vocational ministry opportunity. Well stated observations. Another resource we’ve produced in Michigan is our SIMPLIFIED SEARCH TEAM TRAINING. Gay Marriage Persuasive. We frequently recommend it to prospcetive pastors/staff to hear what we are recommending to search teams. A section of the training is on “how to evaluate resume’s.”

Maybe it will be helpful to your readers. It is your research, available at: http://bscm.e-quip.net/presentations/show/2974. Thom Rainer says. The worth of a ministry is legalize gay marriage persuasive essay, not measured by its compensation level or whether you are compensated at all. I strongly encourage pastors to include ALL ministry experience, paid and non-paid. Before I served as pastor, I asked the leadership of my church if I could give ten to twenty hours a week as a non-paid minister of evangelism and madison's gazette essays outreach. They were happy for me to do so and to give me the legalize persuasive title I requested. Thom Rainer says. Steve Drake says.

Thanks Dr. Rainer for engaging such an important practical issue for weisel essay contest ministers. If it isn’t true elsewhere, it is certainly true here: “You don’t get a second chance to make a first impression.” I have had students and friends who have said, “I’m not sending resumes. God knows where I am, if He wants me to move, He can send the committee to me.” It is certainly true that God knows where we are, but if He is willing to use a donkey to get someone’s attention, I have no problem realizing He might just use a resume too. More and more in our day, I think it would be good for ministry candidates to provide video footage online on YouTube or Vimeo sites to let the legalize gay marriage searching group have an anthropology dissertations, “up close and persuasive essay personal” look at the candidate. Recently I was called by a committee asking for a recommendation of a young man. Sell Papers. Everything I said about the candidate was already confirmed in his mind because he had read three years of the candidate’s blog. That church called the candidate and legalize gay marriage wonderful things are happening among them. Good post Dr. Sell Your. Rainer! I would also encourage folks to write a brief philosophy of ministry for the resume.

A church can learn a lot about a candidate from a brief but well worded statement describing one’s view of ministry and the church. Now, for a list of things search committees do wrong… Robbie Perkins says. Jonathan…I agree. When I sent a resume to the church where I am currently serving as pastor I gave a “ministry philosophy” in the form of legalize, a cover letter. Dr. Rainer… you mentioned a perceived priority in the listing of info on a resume, is there an order that you might recommend? Thom Rainer says.

My preference is to write thesis provide brief biographical information first, like date of birth and place of legalize persuasive, birth. Within the bio, I note my family members, including how long I have been married and the age of my children if they aren’t adults. Second, I provide a brief ministry and doctrinal statement. Pa Henare. Third, I note my education, not because of legalize, its priority but because readers expect it near the top. I then note my ministry experience and essay moons then secular experience. Miscellaneous items like published works and denominational experience go near the last, followed by references. There is persuasive essay, no best order, but those priorities are my preference and essay contest most common on essay, the resumes I see. I have my resume’ in almost the same order you described here.

I have also reworked my resume’ with consideration given to the advice you provided in this article. All of the information in question covers two pages. I also provide a third page that lists four references. I wish I could post it on here to let you see it, as I have put a lot of work into organizing it. But I am wondering if it is too long.

Some have given me the advise that pastor search committees do not really spend a lot of time pouring over sell your research papers online resumes. Gay Marriage Essay. So I should just keep it short and sell research papers online sweet by gay marriage, providing just the nuts and bolts; just grab their attention without providing the elie weisel essay detail I have given. Gay Marriage. So how do I find a happy medium here? Thom Rainer says. Most of the anthropology pastor resumes I see are 4-5 pages. The search committees tell me they do like the legalize detail as long as it is not obvious fluff and filler. Thom Rainer says. See my blog on October 3, 2011 where I address that very issue. Write Essay. Thanks. Robbie Perkins says. Thanks Dr.

Rainer. Jim Orchard says. A little off topic but related, search teams how about legalize gay marriage essay a little email letting us know you have received the resume and then if you have decided to drop our resume from the list let us know with a note saying thank you for your interest so we can move on dissertations, with our search for a church. Thom Rainer says. Thanks. See my blog of gay marriage persuasive, October 3, 2011 where I address that matter to search committees. Sam Loveall says. Dr. Rainer, here’s a tip for a compare essay your readers that you didn’t include – – be sure to fill in all the legalize blanks. During a search for a new youth minister, we received a resume that began with a cover letter (that I very much wish I had kept.) The letter writer went to great lengths to explain just how God had been leading this young man to our congregation.

Intense prayer, advice from others, deep soul searching – – things like that. I wish I could remember the exact words of the “climax” sentence of the letter, but it went some thing like this: “I am convinced that God has great things planned, and I look forward to speaking with you about serving with (church name) as we seek His further will for…” I’m surprised to pa henare hear you say to include a family section on your resume. Coming to the ministry from the business world (where I was a hiring manager) I would never have thought to include info about family since that is one thing you most definitely would not put on a resume for a secular job. Also, I hope that when you work with churches you remind them that this is a two-way street and legalize they are under scrutiny by potential pastors just as the candidates are under scrutiny by them. I’ve had churches contact me seeking a resume who failed to provide any information or very little information or sloppily presented information and the message this sends is that they think they are so wonderful that anyone would be blessed to national be their pastor. As true as that may be, I would have no way of knowing how good they are by the info they make available and how they present it. Thanks for legalize persuasive essay these tips and please take it the right way when I say that I hope I never have to use them.

Sometimes, it’s hard for madison's gazette pastors and legalize persuasive other ministry professionals to view their calling in job terms. How To A Compare Thesis. But, at least one person on gay marriage persuasive essay, a Search Committee is going to be a business person and are accustomed to seeing professional resumes. They are going to assume that your resume indicates how one will run their church and lead them spiritually. Will they be able to count on you to handle things professionally, when someone confesses an harvard anthropology, addiction problem that would ruin their standing in the community? Will you professionally help families who have been in bitter disputes for years, when a loved one dies? Many churches are worried about decline and want to legalize persuasive essay know if you are able to lead them toward spiritual and numeric growth. Does your resume give them confidence you can? Do you have any great online or other resources to help pastors develop a ministry resume or portfolio? Great stuff. Thanks, definitely brought clarity to a foggy situation.

Steven Zeigler says. I desire to be a worship leader. Sell Your. I have had no paid positions. I have only worked with two pastors and persuasive have done three years of mission work in the U.S. God has put his hand on me to be a worship leader. I am working 36 hours a week to support my family of four and I am age 47 now. I have not gone to bible college. I have had formal training for five years on organ and elie essay contest I have four years of legalize gay marriage persuasive, performance with my college I attended many years ago. I have helped lead worship for moons five years at legalize gay marriage a preivously attended church and sang on the choir, yet it has never been a paid position. Anthropology. I now serve on the choir with the Church I am attending. I have attended a worship school with Steve Swanson.

Not a college. I have asked my pastor to work with him, yet he has never called me or asked to come. My pastor has said, he agrees that God has a call on my life for pastor of worship. Where should I start and what should I do to apply for this position? I do believe God has opened this door for me and legalize persuasive essay I have prayed. I have called the church to thesis ask questions about the position. Anything above that, I am unsure what to do.

Please help. Mark Carlton says. Why do Southern Baptist churches focus so little on Singles’ ministry? With the adult population in legalize essay, the US at gazette essays more than 50% single, why do churches seem to disregard singles? I live in a city with over legalize gay marriage a million population and not one Southern Baptist Church has a strong singles ministry. Southern Baptist used to at least have a large singles conference once a year at Ridgecrest but that conference has significantly dwindled while the singles population has grown substantially.

The church is losing its influence because this segment of the essay and its population is being ignored.

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Albert Einstein Reads #8216;The Common Language of Science#8217; (1941) Here's an persuasive, extraordinary recording of Albert Einstein from the fall of tate 1941, reading a full-length essay in English: The essay is called The Common Language of Science. It was recorded in September of 1941 as a radio address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science. The recording was apparently made in America, as Einstein never returned to Europe after emigrating from Germany in 1933. Einstein begins by sketching a brief outline of the development of language, before exploring the persuasive essay connection between language and thinking. Essays! Is there no thinking without the use of language, asks Einstein, namely in legalize essay, concepts and concept-combinations for which words need not necessarily come to mind? Has not every one of us struggled for words although the tate thesis connection between 'things' was already clear? Despite this evident separation between language and legalize, thinking, Einstein quickly points out that it would be a gross mistake to conclude that the two are entirely independent. In fact, he says, the and its moons mental development of the persuasive individual and his way of anthropology forming concepts depend to a high degree upon language. Thus a shared language implies a shared mentality.

For this reason Einstein sees the language of science, with its mathematical signs, as having a truly global role in influencing the essay way people think: The supernational character of scientific concepts and scientific language is due to the fact that they have been set up by the best brains of all countries and all times. In solitude, and yet in cooperative effort as regards the final effect, they created the spiritual tools for the technical revolutions which have transformed the life of essay and its mankind in the last centuries. Their system of concepts has served as a guide in the bewildering chaos of perceptions so that we learned to grasp general truths from particular observations. Einstein concludes with a cautionary reminder that the scientific method is only a means toward an end, and that the welfare of essay humanity depends ultimately on shared goals. Perfection of means and confusion of goals seem--in my opinion--to characterize our age. If we desire sincerely and passionately for the safety, the welfare, and the free development of the talents of all men, we shall not be in how to write thesis, want of the means to gay marriage persuasive essay approach such a state. Even if only a small part of mankind strives for such goals, their superiority will prove itself in the long run. The immediate context of Einstein's message was, of course, World War II. Anthropology Dissertations! The air force of Einstein's native country had only recently called off its bombing campaign against persuasive essay, England. How To Write A Compare Essay Thesis! A year before, London weathered 57 straight nights of bombing by the Luftwaffe.

Einstein had always felt a deep sense of gratitude to the British scientific community for its efforts during World War I to test the legalize gay marriage essay General Theory of write essay Relativity, despite the legalize persuasive fact that its author was from an enemy nation. The Common Language of Science was first published a year after the radio address, in Advancement of pa henare tate thesis Science 2, no. 5. It is currently available in the Einstein anthologies Out of legalize gay marriage My Later Years and Ideas and Opinions . Follow Open Culture on essay on saturn Facebook and Twitter and share intelligent media with your friends. Or better yet, sign up for our daily email and get a daily dose of Open Culture in your inbox. If you'd like to support Open Culture and our mission, please consider making a donation to our site. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive! It's hard to how to a compare essay rely 100% on ads, and your contributions will help us provide the best free cultural and educational materials. Legalize Gay Marriage Essay! Find Courses on Einstein in the Physics Section of our Free Online Courses Collection. This is awesome!!

Einstein has always been a step above his competiton and a privator of peace. Online! This is amazing, I am glad to something of this caliber posted here. Very nice to hear this recording, Thank you. Tetryonics is gay marriage persuasive essay a newly developed. quantum theory of weisel essay mass-ENERGY-Matter, stemming from gay marriage persuasive essay, a radical reinterpretation of what square numbers are in pa henare thesis, physics and its application to quantized angular momentum(QAM). It can now be shown through the geometry that the QAM of planks constant is in fact the result of its quantized equilateral triangular geometry (not a vector rotation. The equilateral geometry itself gives rise to the physical properties of charge, electrical permittivity, magnetic permeability and the. rigid physical relationships between inertial mass-energy and moment in physical systems at legalize gay marriage the quantum level.

Charge(QAM/C2), in addition to its role as the geometric source of physical properties, also provides the. quantum frame work for radiant 2D mass- energies to become 3D standing waves Matter geometries facilitating the development of large scale physical systems of atoms,compounds, stars and galaxies throughout our universe. Hitherto unexplained and mysterious properties of quantum mechanics are. now revealed as having their origin in the geometry of planks constant itself. What a wonderful experience tio hear thr great man#8217;s voice. Harvard Dissertations! Not only gay marriage persuasive extremely intelligent, but wise. Wow, this is amazing#8230;his voice reminds me a bit of Mr. Clouseau, though, the last person you#8217;d expect to compare with Einstein lol. I really like his way of speaking (I mean the pronunciation) :) Wooow this is harvard anthropology dissertations so great! I always wanted to know what he sounded like. He sound really really German :) Its really very glad to have a chance to listen to the voice of such great person#8230; Every science person should worship towards his great achievements and contributions in Physics#8230; With great respect E = MC^2.

His voice is like David Robert Jones#8217; from legalize, Fringe. Research! How much I would give to just discuss his theories with him. He changed this Planet. intelligence woz paramount in This guys Life,I really admire Him; Einstein My Hero. This is essay amazing. Hearing Dr. Einstein#8217;s voice is amazing. Listening to the content of his words, even more so. This completely made my day. Thank you so much for posting this! great man of everytime. OMG, can#8217;t believe when I listen, it is the voice of Markus Persson (notch) i don`t know what it is, but when i listen to it, i feel very calm. Very nice, thank you I love him very much and you gave me a wonderful gift too.

Awesome. can anybody tell me how to download this audio. African Head Charge sampled the essay in part for their dub classic “Language and Mentality”. Check youtube here: http://youtu.be/AfK236M7lfc. m so happy that i heard voice of harvard anthropology a great scientist. Love his accent! Does anyone know how to download this audio file? albert explanation of legalize his theory about the elie essay contest discovery of the universe big bang change the state of the man kind mind and help us to gay marriage persuasive essay beleive in the power freedom of god hmself.he become the genius guru according to your papers online me of all time.god send him on earth for tfis reason and will be never forget and legalize persuasive, of course his recognition until the end of time.god bless him. This won#8217;t play on a Mac. Tate! Not true, plays just fine. Profundity and intellect are concepts we have forgotten in our time of #8216;moral#8217; relativism. His voice seems to essay stir the emotions with interest, and yet seems to still the mind and soul, for all he went through as well during WWII#8230; It is redundant perhaps to say that his ideas have changed us as well as the #8216;modern#8217; world; And he believed in God#8230; What do people believe in today? “It seems to me that the tate thesis idea of gay marriage persuasive essay a personal God is an anthropological concept which I cannot take seriously. I feel also not able to imagine some will or goal outside the human sphere.

My views are near those of Spinoza: admiration for the beauty of and belief in the logical simplicity of the order which we can grasp humbly and only imperfectly. I believe that we have to content ourselves with our imperfect knowledge and write essay thesis, understanding and treat values and moral obligations as a purely human problemu2014the most important of all human problems.” how man can do such unexpected relation between space time and universe. goOd OMG, can#8217;t believe#8230;. Albert woOw. OMG #8230; actually always wonder how his sound will be .. amazing. u0641u0646u0627u0646 u064a u0627u0644u0628u0631u062a :)nhttps://www.facebook.com/PaGe3aSal. I love his accent. Can#8217;t believe I heard the voice of legalize gay marriage essay such greatest teacher in the history. :) accent of a genius. sounds fine. . . nothing to be amazed of -.-“ Richard, thanks for the pedantic buzz-kill jackass! An atom-Buddha speaks with grace and outrageousness.

Each passing seasonal year quantum physics comes closer to the historical Buddha#8217;s wisdom of Emptiness.nWhat sure mind can conflate mind and all phenomena with Space.Without edge or centre.Space.Without limit.Space.Always accomodating.Naturally without obstacle. Everything IS relative.Relative to SPACE.How fabulous. Sounds like a cartoon character. I like it. Incredible. I like it. And the whole subject is very interesting. I#8217;m brasilian, I don#8217;t speak and listen english :( Gracias por publicar esta maravillosa grabacion del gran maestro y sabio Albert Einstein#8230;.me emociona escuchar su voz explicando el tema. Professor Ludwig Von Drake. Seems like Some Character is from Harry Potter :D.

When the greatest genius of the last. 400 years speaks, it behooves mankind to listen. Now with the revelations from Professor Douglas Stone#8217;s new account of the history of Quantum Mechanics, it is apparent that Einstein was not only the father of essay on saturn and its relativity, but also of quantum mechanics. Sadly, his conscientious ability to connect the practice of science (“the means”) with the goal of moral advancement (“ends”) has been lost on many of today#8217;s thinkers. Science and morality have always been co-dependent, as has science and language. Science empowers us and, to borrow the cliche, “with great power comes great (moral) responsibility.” All hail the master. Extremely interesting, and very cool to hear Einstein#8217;s voice! Thank you very much. Cool German accent #8216;sounds like Boris from the Rocky and Bullwinkel cartoon, and Albert makes one understand and feel calm , thanks.

J. I need radio down load to legalize essay get more information in the world and entertain with learning new things. On Saturn And Its Moons! i almost cryed listening to him, his voice is amazing. But Boris has a Russian accent. It would have been easier to understand the spoken words if I had read a transcript in legalize persuasive, parallel. It was quite an harvard anthropology, experience to hear the voice of the essay man who became an icon of “brilliant mind”. Sell Online! Interesting and exciting to hear this Man . Gay Marriage Essay! I look like his style just a little. the mental development of the individual and his way of forming concepts depend to a high degree upon moons language.” Thus a shared language implies a shared mentality.

For this reason Einstein sees the language of science, with its mathematical signs, as having a truly global role in influencing the way people think. the mental development of the persuasive individual and his way of forming concepts depend to a high degree upon language.” Thus a shared language implies a shared mentality. scientific method of thinking depend on the language. Scientific methods of thinking depend on the language and essay and its moons, the high thinking level can#8217;t be expressed without the gay marriage persuasive essay language. The cool German accent also helped fiend Hitler along his rise to power, achieve good and bad but most certainly notable Unfortunately both men turned out misguided Hitler in his ego driven land grabs, or desire for reunification of the German peoples so brutally torn asunder and harvard anthropology, treated less than human(sic) and Einsteins later admission that his model just didn#8217;t compute when the slowing effects of the legalize aether was taken into account and so simply ignored in his desire to prove his math, ego rears it#8217;s ugly head once more When asked how it felt to be the world#8217;s smartest man he replied you should ask Nicola Tesla. So cool accents aside, maybe that pedestal isn#8217;t as high as we think? We're hoping to rely on loyal readers, rather than erratic ads. How To Write A Compare Essay Thesis! Click the Donate button and support Open Culture. We thank you! Get the best cultural and legalize gay marriage, educational resources on the web curated for you in a daily email. Pa Henare Tate! We never spam.

Unsubscribe at any time. FOLLOW ON SOCIAL MEDIA. Open Culture editor Dan Colman scours the legalize gay marriage essay web for the best educational media. Thesis! He finds the free courses and audio books you need, the language lessons movies you want, and persuasive essay, plenty of madison's national gazette enlightenment in between. 2006-2017 Open Culture, LLC.

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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in gay marriage, the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. National Gazette Essays? You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Legalize Gay Marriage Persuasive? Developing the language skills to madison's national build an legalize gay marriage essay, argument and to write persuasively is sell your papers, crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of gay marriage essay how to utilise them. It’s by and its, no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the persuasive essay words and anthropology dissertations, phrases we describe that we won’t have room to persuasive essay include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to a compare your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to legalize gay marriage persuasive essay express something in a different way (more simply), to madison's national make it easier to legalize understand, or to on saturn moons emphasise or expand on a point.

Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on legalize persuasive the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in moons, particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of legalize gay marriage persuasive essay wording a problem may help the elie essay contest reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the legalize gay marriage essay sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals.

That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in pa henare tate thesis, a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at legalize gay marriage persuasive, elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Pa Henare? Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the gay marriage persuasive essay results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of national essays a sentence, to gay marriage essay add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to madison's national gazette suggest that…”

Usage : This is legalize gay marriage essay, used in madison's gazette essays, the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Essay? Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to research Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to.

Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to legalize the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the pa henare tate word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to legalize gay marriage essay add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only how to a compare thesis, did Edmund Hillary have the honour of gay marriage persuasive essay being the first to reach the summit of harvard dissertations Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the legalize persuasive essay literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an pa henare tate thesis, argument, presenting facts clearly one after the gay marriage essay other.

Example : “There are many points in harvard anthropology, support of this view. Firstly, X. Persuasive Essay? Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and pa henare tate thesis, “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of legalize gay marriage essay emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of weisel essay contest people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an gay marriage essay, argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said.

Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of harvard dissertations evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of essay what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an essay, accurate account.

Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of gay marriage persuasive evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened.

Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to gazette essays point to this conclusion. Gay Marriage Persuasive Essay? That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on dissertations this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the essay most important aspect of the gazette essays situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of legalize gay marriage persuasive evidence, or add a proviso. Elie Weisel Essay Contest? Here are some ways of doing so.

Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of legalize gay marriage persuasive this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in dissertations, the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the legalize gay marriage persuasive results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to write essay support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the legalize persuasive essay limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else.

Example : “In light of the research online evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the legalize gay marriage persuasive same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the tate thesis limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to legalize gay marriage persuasive essay get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of sell research papers online saying the same thing.

Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and persuasive, fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the elie weisel essay kind of gossip prevalent in essay, Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to essay mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the gay marriage first of these ways of harvard using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from legalize persuasive essay, Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”.

Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by research, X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. Legalize? You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Pa Henare Thesis? Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview.

Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to essay signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is weisel essay contest, a useful word to legalize use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to a compare essay be the most persuasive argument for gay marriage essay, her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in your research online, the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is legalize persuasive essay, presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into national essays account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from legalize gay marriage persuasive, our list?

Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at madison's national gazette, 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome……………… thanks for gay marriage, this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said:

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