How to Do Homework - Dos and Don ts in Writing College Application… - Emerson College
Dec 19, 2017 How to write a book essay for college,
Barbara Petchenik Children#8217;s World Map Drawing Competition. The Barbara Petchenik Competition is write a book for college a biennial map drawing competition for children. Waits. It was created by how to a book, the International Cartographic Association in current essays, 1993 as a memorial for Barbara Petchenik, a past Vice president of the a book essay, ICA and cartographer who had a lifelong interest in essays, maps for children. How To Write A Book Essay For College. The aim of the effect impact media, contest is to promote the creative representation of the write, world in graphic form by to india essays, children. Write. The competition is organized every two years. In a national round in essay on merits, all participating ICA member countries, the national winners are selected, which are exhibited during the International Cartographic Conference, where the international winners are selected. The international winners can be seen below.
To also see the national winners, please visit the Winner Map Collection at the Carleton University Library. Members of the how to write a book, jury. 193 drawings from 34 countries were exhibited at essays love review, ICC2017. Write A Book Essay. The jury members were. Pilar Sanchez-Ortiz Rodriguez, Spain – Chair Ana Maria Garra, Argentina Paulo Menezes, Brazil Temenoujka Bandrova, Bulgaria Dariusz Dukaczewski, Poland Necla Ulugtekin, Turkey Naeema Al Hosani, United Arab Emirates Rob Edsall, USA Carla Sena, Brazil and Jesus Reyes, Hungary – Substitute Members Peter van der Krogt, The Netherlands – International Coordinator. At Work. Crafting Our Dreams on the Land of Indonesia.
Map, Communicate with the World. The World is in our Hands. How To Write A Book Essay For College. Oronce Fine through our eyes. by Noemi Sanchez Avramova Alba Serrano Suarez (12) Through a Child's Eyes. by cheap custom, Rebecca Kneale Akira McTavish-Huriwai (15) Our Path for write a book essay Exploration. Members of the essays love, jury. 189 drawings from 38 countries were exhibited at ICC2015. 287 people participated in write a book essay for college, the public vote.
The jury members were. Essay Of Watching Tv. Necla Ulugtekin, Turkey, chair Jose Jesus Reyes Nunez, Hungary, chair of the commission on how to write for college, cartography and children Ana Maria Garra, Argentina Angelica di Maio, Brazil (LOC) Rumiana Vatseva, Bulgaria Giedre Beconyte, Lithuania Dariusz Dukaczewski, Poland Pilar Sanchez, Spain Robert Edsall, USA Carla Sena, Brazil, substitute member. Effect Media. The animals of the write a book for college, world. We'll fix the pieces to essays, bring peace. The whole world is on write a book for college, the same boat.
Our Earth and Pollutions. We are part of a passage to india essays all. by how to a book for college, Luka H.del Avellano and on merits and demerits, Luana N.Salazar Harder. My place in how to, today's world through my own vision. by Alexandra Papadopoulou, Maria Katopodi, Christina Louko. The authors of proposal this submission are three blind children who constructed this map for how to write essay the blind using methodologies learned at current essays, their Special Primary School for a book the Blind. Paper Proposal. Europe is write for college my home. Cause Effect Essay Impact Media Society. Building bridges of peace across the how to a book, world.
A world of lotus, a world of harmony. Let the music for everyone. The world in at work essay, our hands. Members of the jury. Write Essay. 155 drawings from 30 countries were exhibited. Research Write. Too see them all, please visit the Winner Map Collection at the Carleton University Library. 47 people participated in the public vote. Essay For College. The jury members were. Effect Media. Necla Ulugtekin, Turkey, chair Temenoujka Lubenova Bandrova, Bulgaria Giedre Beconyte, Lithuania Robert Edsall, USA Nei Erling, Brazil Pilar Sanchez Ortiz Rodriguez, Spain Dirk Burghardt, Germany, local organiser Jose Jesus Reyes Nunez, Hungary, chair of the commission on cartography and children Joop van der Schee, Netherlands, IGU Dariusz Dukaczewski, Poland, subtitute member. My Place in Today's World is essay for college a World Where Friends are Very Important to Me. Cheap Essays Uk. The Wide World Flies to Me.
Good and write for college, Bad Sides of My Todays World. The World of My Dreams. Happy Earth is Music to Our Ears. Current Essays. Big Miracle by Little Hands. The World in how to for college, My Face. 186 drawings from 31 countries were exhibited. Too see them all, please visit the Winner Map Collection at essays, the Carleton University Library. We also have a PDF list. A jury selected the following winning entries: A Message to a Blind Friend.
We and essay, our world. Living in a Globalized World In One Ark. The World at women at work essay, my Fingertips – Remains a Puzzle. Write For College. See the a passage to india, World Shining in how to a book essay for college, Your Eyes! The World in a Click. Living in the Globalized World is review like a music playing and continents are its alphabets. How To Write. When you play all together it has meaning.
Let's Unite in and demerits tv, Peaceful Heart. The Web of Global Connections. The Web of how to write a book essay for college Global Connections. Living In a Global World. Cheap Custom Essays. The Related World. Internet Brings Knowledge to how to write essay for college, the World And Makes It Globalized. Children Should Not Cry For Sorrow. Essays. The Whole Wide World Is Open for a book for college Your Dreams. A Lot Of Countries In One World.
My Creation, My World. Essay. I Want an Equal World For All. Many Nations, One World. The World Peace in Childrens' Eyes. We Have Different Colours of Skin, But We Are All Children. Mr. Humankind or the how to write essay for college, Faith in to india essays, World Cosmopolism. All the how to a book essay, World in a Balloon. Hachiko. Many Nations, One World.
Holding Hands Among Nations, United In Peace. The Self-Portrait of the World. How To Write A Book Essay For College. The World Is Just Like a Chess. Many Spots Make 1 World. Bulgaria Is A Friend With All Nations in the World. A World Free From Hunger. Cheap. Pope Pilgrim United All Nations. A Book Essay For College. Music Around Our World.
Let's Make Our World Merrier With Smiles of United Nations. World's Wonders of Nature. We Are Great Family, Take Care of hachiko book Our Home. Many Nations, One World. Let's Stitch the how to write a book essay for college, World Together. Many Nations, One World. Human beings, signs of cause effect equality. How To Write A Book For College. Children united round the world for cause effect impact media a brighter future.
Keep on the world and its content, don't break up by write essay, war! The children and write, flowers will make a better world. Essay For College. Preserve the earth for future generations! (Pandaworld is a passage to india essays a better world for write essay for college children) How good with parents. On Merits And Demerits Tv. Cherish our nature. by Rachelle Domingo, Michael Estalilla, Argielica Jumarang and Catherine Ambicki. How To A Book. Economical threatens for the children's life.
For the current essays, children make our world a better place. A Book Essay. It only depends on us! The world is in to india, our hands. Write Essay. Making a better world for waits book report children. Wake up, Man! Perhaps It Is not too Late! Sauver la Terre: preserver l'environment aujourd'jui, c'est assurer la vie demain. by Rachelle Domingo, Michael Estalilla, Argielica Jumarang and a book for college, Catherine Ambicki.
The map of the world (La carte du monde) The olympic spirit unites people (L'espirit olympique unit les peuples) Flower-world (Monde dans une fleur) Wild animals-Inhabitants of land and sea (Les animaux sauvages, habitants de la terre et de la mer) Torch of hachiko waits report liberty (Le flambeau de la liberte) Let's bloom flowers over a book essay, the world (Faisons eclore des fleurs dans le monde entier) It's a hard world! (C'est un monde dur!) (note: painted on hachiko book report, a rock) Materialism is write a book essay not good for cause effect impact media society us (Le materialisme n'est pas bon pour nous) Bridging for how to write a book for college Friendship. Is the essay of watching, Earth's Future Going to how to write for college, be Like This? Bridging the continents. At Work. A Dream of how to write essay for college a Happy Life.
Sky Scrapers of the World. Hachiko. The World-Friendship Really Makes a Difference. We preserve the environment of the earth together. The World is For Everyone. The World Map In My Cone Hat. Write A Book For College. Distribution of Endangered Wild-Life Due to Environmental Pollution. Abstract World Map, showing flags and features. Wonderful world of a child's dream. by Jonathan Limones Lopez and Juan Jose Febrere Garcia. Standing Up the and demerits of watching, World.
Peace in the World. The Horse Population of the for college, World. Cheap Custom Essays Uk. Children Around the World. Write. Greetings From the World. Dharmendrasinh mahendrasinh Chauhan says: I am teaching drawing to children varying in essays love, age from 5 year to 25years. Many of my students have won prizes in how to for college, various drawing competition held. It has come to my knowledge that your organization also held competition in drawing.
So with this I kindly request your good self to send me detailed information along with participation forms of the competition so that students can participate. Awaiting your encouraging reply, Dharmendrasinh M. Hachiko Book Report. Chauhan. A Book For College. TULIKA FOR CHILD ART. Dear Dharmendrasinh M. Research. Chauhan, Thank you for your question! The Barbara Petchenik Competition is essay organized in current essays, the following way: ICA member countries organize a national competition, whose winning entries are then forwarded to the international competition. The next competition will be held in 2015. Details will be published soon. I also forwarded your message to write a book essay for college, Jesus Reyes, chair of the current essays, ICA Commission on essay for college, Cartography and women, Children.
He will give you more details on how to proceed. Best regards, Manuela Schmidt. Here is the a book essay for college, answer from Jesus Reyes: Thank you so much for contacting us and your interest in our competition. Cheap Custom Essays. The next competition will be organized in the next year, and the updated rules, call for the competition and other documents will be placed to the website of the ICA Commission on a book for college, Cartography and Children (http://lazarus.elte.hu/ccc/ccc.htm) and essay, we are going to inform using also our Facebook profile (https://www.facebook.com/icaccc). If you visit the Commission website, you can find the a book essay, General rules and other materials of interest for the participants in love, the competition. Best regards, Jesus Reyes. please send me a details about BARBARA PETCHENIC ART COMPETITION . I am interested in the new editions of the competition, 2017. A Book For College. Hi, I'm one of the love, webmasters of the write essay for college, ICA.
The mission of the cheap custom essays, International Cartographic Association (ICA) is to promote the disciplines and how to for college, professions of write cartography and GIScience in how to write a book, an international context.
Write My Essay Paper - College Essay Essentials: A Step-by-Step Guide to… - University of British Columbia
Type My Essay For Me - How To Write A College Essay | MIT… - Adelphi University
Dec 19, 2017 How to write a book essay for college,
Motorola U: When Training Becomes an Education. At Motorola we require three things of our manufacturing employees. They must have communication and computation skills at the seventh grade level, soon going up to eighth and ninth. How To Write Essay? They must be able to cause effect impact do basic problem solving—not only as individuals but also as members of a team. And they must accept our definition of work and the workweek: the time it takes to ship perfect product to the customer who’s ordered it. That can mean a workweek of 50 or even 60 hours, but we need people willing to how to a book essay work against quality and output instead of a time clock.
These requirements are relatively new. Ten years ago, we hired people to perform set tasks and didn’t ask them to do a lot of thinking. If a machine went down, workers raised their hands, and a troubleshooter came to fix it. Ten years ago, we saw quality control as a screening process, catching defects before they got out the door. Ten years ago, most workers and some managers learned their jobs by observation, experience, and trial and error. Current Essays? When we did train people, we simply taught them new techniques on top of the basic math and communication skills we supposed they brought with them from school or college. Then all the how to write rules of manufacturing and competition changed, and in our drive to change with them, we found we had to effect impact rewrite the rules of corporate training and education. We learned that line workers had to actually understand their work and their equipment, that senior management had to how to write a book essay exemplify and reinforce new methods and custom essays skills if they were going to stick, that change had to be continuous and participative, and that education—not just instruction—was the only way to make all this occur. Finally, just as we began to capitalize on the change we thought we were achieving, we discovered to our utter astonishment that much of our work force was illiterate. They couldn’t read.
They couldn’t do simple arithmetic like percentages and fractions. At one plant, a supplier changed its packaging, and we found in the nick of time that our people were working by the color of the package, not by what it said. In Illinois, we found a foreign-born employee who didn’t know the difference between the present tense and how to write essay the past. He was never sure if we were talking about what was happening or what had happened. These discoveries led us into impact media society, areas of education we had never meant to enter and into budgetary realms we would have found unthinkable ten years earlier. Essay For College? From the cheap kind of skill instruction we envisioned at the outset, we moved out in both directions: down, toward grade school basics as fundamental as the three Rs; up, toward new concepts of work, quality, community, learning, and write essay leadership.
From a contemplated total budget of $ 35 million over a five-year period, a sum many thought excessive, we came to spend $ 60 million annually—plus another $ 60 million in hachiko waits book report, lost work time—and everyone thought it was money well invested. Today we expect workers to know their equipment and begin any troubleshooting process themselves. How To A Book Essay? If they do need an expert, they must be able to a passage to india describe the malfunction in detail. In other words, they have to be able to analyze problems and then communicate them. Today we see quality as a process that prevents defects from occurring, a common corporate language that pervades the company and applies to security guards and secretaries as well as manufacturing staff. (For more about this, see the how to write a book essay for college insert “The Language of hachiko waits book Quality.”) The mathematics of quality are difficult.
Even the vocabulary—bell curves, probability functions, standard deviations expressed in multiples of the Greek letter Î£ —can be formidable. At Motorola, we have nevertheless tried to teach at least a basic version of this math to every employee and to extend the concepts and terminology of industrial quality into every corner of the business—training, public relations, finance, security, even cooking. How To Write A Book For College? In 1983, we thought three days of essays training on how to essay quality would be enough. Today we have 28 days of write material—quality tools, quality strategy, quality techniques, quality feedback mechanisms—and over the course of several years, we expect our engineers and manufacturing middle managers to how to a book have all 28. The corporate goal is to achieve a quality standard by 1992 equivalent to what the statisticians and industrial engineers call Six Sigma, which means six standard deviations from current essays, a statistical performance average.
In plain English, Six Sigma translates into how to a book for college, 3.4 defects per a passage essays, million opportunities, or production that is 99.99966 % defect free. How To Write Essay? (By contrast, and according to formulas not worth explaining here, 5Î£ is essay impact media 233 defects per million, and 4Î£ is 6,210. Airlines achieve 6.5Î£ in safety—counting fatalities as defects—but only 3.5 to 4Î£ in baggage handling. Doctors and pharmacists achieve an accuracy of just under 5Î£ in writing and filling prescriptions.) Motorola has not yet reached Six Sigma in manufacturing or in any other function. But we have achieved our initial goal of creating a common vocabulary that lets every person in the company speak the how to essay same quality language. Everyone pursues his or her own job version of a passage to india Six Sigma, and everyone shares a sense of what it means, objectively and subjectively, to take part in the process of write a book essay for college getting from essays, where we are to where we want to be. The idea of 3.4 defects per million opportunities may sound ridiculous for a course instructor or a chef, but there is always some way to a book for college apply the standard and strive for the goal. In effect, the Six Sigma process means changing the proposal write way people do things so that nothing can go wrong. Applied to the chef, the process of reaching Six Sigma by 1992 means he can burn five muffins this year, two muffins next year, and eventually none at all. Of course, Six Sigma applied to muffins is in one sense a fiction, and if we presented it to the chef as an ultimatum, it would also be insulting. The real point is that importing that quality language from manufacturing to the rest of the how to write essay company stimulates a kind of discussion we might not otherwise have had.
It also tells people they’re important, since the time-cycle and current essays quality standards so vital to manufacturing and product design now also apply to the chef, the security guard, and the clerical support people. What we actually said to the chef was that he made a consistently Six Sigma chocolate chip cookie—in my opinion it ranks with the best in the world—and we wanted him to do the same with muffins. We asked him what changes we needed to make so he could accomplish that. He said, “The reason I can’t make better muffins is that you don’t trust me with the key to the freezer. I have to make the batter the night before because when I get here in the morning the makings are still locked up.
When batter sits for 12 hours, it’s never as good as batter you make fresh and pop directly in the oven.” He was right, of course. The language of how to write for college quality can also be used to write talk about trust. Security guards are another good example. Every morning they have to get 12,000 employees and about 400 visitors through the how to write essay for college gates in half an hour. What’s their assignment—to keep people out, bring people in, protect property? As we now define it, their job is to make sure the right people get in quickly and, if there are problems, to handle them politely and professionally. Quality is measured accordingly—a “customer” complaint is a defect, and a customer is anyone who comes to the gate. Today Motorola has one of the most comprehensive and effective corporate training and education programs in the world and, in a recent leap of current essays ambition, our own corporate university. Why in a book essay for college, the world, you ask, should any corporation have its own university?
My answer is the story of how we came to have ours. In part, it is a kind of a passage essays odyssey, a ten-year expedition full of well-meaning mistakes, heroic misapprehensions, and shocking discoveries. In part, it is a slowly unfolding definition of education and change that shows why successful companies in today’s business climate must not only train workers but build educational systems. In 1979, Bob Galvin, then Motorola’s CEO and now chairman of the executive committee, asked the human resource department to put together a five-year training plan. He believed that all employees needed upgrading in their skills if the how to essay company was going to survive. Galvin had made two earlier attempts at company-wide education. The first focused on new tools, new technology, and teamwork, but it didn’t produce the results he wanted. Plant managers brought in new equipment but wouldn’t change the support systems and their own work patterns. So he set up the Motorola Executive Institute, an intensive, one-time course for 400 executives that tried to give them an MBA in four weeks.
The participants learned a great deal, but again, the ultimate results were disappointing. Galvin, who understood that change had to force its way through a company from the top down, had been driving home the cause society point that those who lead often lose their power—or their right to lead—because they’re unwilling to change. He now realized that the top probably wasn’t going to lead the attack until all employees wanted change to take place. Motorola had to educate everyone and make people see the need for a book essay change. To carry out this training program, we set up an education service department—MTEC, the current essays Motorola Training and Education Center—with its own board of directors consisting of how to write Galvin himself, two of his top executives, and review senior managers from each of how to write Motorola’s operating units. MTEC had two principal goals: to expand the participative management process and to paper write help improve product quality tenfold in five years. Our charter was not so much to educate people as to essay be an agent of current essays change, with an emphasis on retraining workers and redefining jobs. Write A Book? Our first order of business was to essays analyze the jobs that existed then, in 1980, and try to anticipate what they’d look like in the future.
The first thing we learned was not to look too far ahead. A Book For College? If we made a two-year projection and impact society trained people for how to essay for college that, then change didn’t arrive quickly enough for people to make the hachiko waits book shift. We had to how to write anticipate, plan curricula, then train separately for each incremental change. We had thought progress would be made in leaps, but it took place one step at a time. To meet the paper quality target, we developed a five-part curriculum. First came statistical process control, which consisted of instruction in seven quality tools.
Basic industrial problem solving was second. Third was a course on write a book essay how to cheap essays uk present conceptual material, a tricky assignment for an hourly worker presenting a technical solution to an engineer. Fourth was a course on effective meetings that emphasized the role of how to essay participant as well as that of chairperson. Cheap Essays Uk? Finally we had a program on goal setting that taught people how to define objectives, how to describe them in for college, writing, and how to measure progress. So far so good. In the early 1980s, at a typical plant with 2,500 workers, MTEC was using 50,000 hours of employee time—a lot of time away from the job for current essays what some people considered a pretty esoteric program. We thought it was worth the investment. How To? Putting quality tools in the hands of a passage essays every employee was the only way to write essay for college overcome the custom essays uk old emphasis on shipment goals, even when meeting those goals meant shipping defective products. Yet the skeptics were right. How To Write For College? We were wasting everyone’s time.
We designed and essays love review taught courses, and people took them and went back to their jobs, and how to essay nothing changed. Cheap Custom Essays? We had made a series of false assumptions. Our first mistake was to assume that once we described the courses, the people who needed them most would sign up to take them. They didn’t. Write? We also assumed that the courses would be popular, but enrollment was never in danger of paper swamping our capacities. The old approach had been to how to write a book essay for college learn by watching others. When technology changed once in five years, on-the-job training made some sense, but people can’t handle constant innovation by a passage essays, watching one another. Yet somehow the culture told them they didn’t learn things any other way. Write A Book? Since people resisted formal classes, we developed self-help material so they could pick up a package and take it home. That failed too. People just didn’t see homework as real training, which left us in cheap custom, a bind: our employees didn’t seem to believe the training was necessary, but if it was necessary, then it had to a book take place in a formal classroom, not at home.
So we dropped the learn-at-home program. Not because people couldn’t learn that way but because we couldn’t get people to want to learn that way. Training, it appeared, was not something we could deliver like milk and expect people to consume spontaneously. Essays? It was not simply a matter of instructing or giving people a chance to instruct themselves. We had to how to write for college motivate people to want to learn, and that meant overcoming complacency. When Motorola hired people in the old days, we hired them for life. People grew up in their jobs, acquired competencies and titles, moved from work force to management. Research? All employees became members of how to essay our Service Club at current essays the end of ten years, which meant we wouldn’t terminate them except for poor performance or dishonesty.
We never gave anyone an absolute right to lifelong employment, but we did provide an unmistakable opportunity to stay. This was the how to write a book essay for college employment model that built the corporation and made it successful, and we believed the paper research loyalty it inspired gave us added value. We hadn’t yet realized in the early 1980s that there was going to be a skill shortage, but we clearly needed to upgrade our training. A lot of our competitors, especially in the semiconductor business, hired people, used their skills, terminated them when their skills were out of date, then hired new people with new skills. Write Essay For College? But we had plants where 60 % to 70 % of the a passage to india workers were Service Club members. We didn’t want to break a model that had worked for 50 years, but we had some people who thought that if they made that ten-year mark they could mentally retire, and that was an attitude we had to fix. How To A Book Essay For College? In the custom essays uk end, we had to let people know that “poor performance” included an unwillingness to change. We had to abandon paternalism for shared responsibility. A second major misconception was that senior managers needed only a book for college a briefing to to india essays understand the new quality systems. Conceptually, in fact, they grasped them very quickly and believed in their importance.
But their behavior patterns didn’t change, and how to for college that made life very difficult for middle managers. Operations review is a good example. If a production team had mastered the new techniques and was eager to apply them, and if senior management paid lip service to quality but still placed its highest priority on shipping goals, middle managers got caught in the squeeze. Workers expected them to emphasize quality even if that made some deliveries late. Top management expected them to improve quality but not at the expense of schedule. Workers began to wonder why they’d taken the training. A Passage To India? They’d learned how to keep a Pareto chart and make an Ishikawa diagram, but no one ever appeared on how to write a book essay the floor and asked to see one. On the contrary, some of their immediate managers wanted product shipped even if it wasn’t perfect.
Top managers, on the other hand, began to wonder why it was that people took the courses so carefully designed for them and then went back to their jobs and did nothing different. Shipping goals were being met, but quality was not improving. At about this point in our frustration, we asked two universities to hachiko book report evaluate our return on investment. They identified three groups. In those few plants where the work force absorbed the whole curriculum of quality tools and process skills and where senior managers reinforced the training by means of new questions appropriate to the new methods, we were getting a $ 33 return for every dollar spent, including the cost of wages paid while people sat in class. Plants that made use of either the quality tools or the process skills but not both, and then reinforced what they taught, broke even. Finally, plants that taught all or part of the curriculum but failed to reinforce with follow-up meetings and a new, genuine emphasis on quality had a negative return on write essay for college investment. We were learning our first lesson all over again, that change is not just driven from the top—change must begin at the top.
We had also begun to understand that one secret of manufacturing success was a language common to every employee, in this case a common language of quality. But if quality was to be the new language, every top manager had better learn to speak it like a native. Since Bob Galvin believed quality training was useless unless top managers gave quality even more attention than they gave quarterly results, he dramatized the point at current essays operations review meetings. He insisted that quality reports come first, not last, on the agenda, and then he left before the financial results were discussed. By 1984, we were admittedly a little disappointed by write a book for college, what we had achieved so far, but we believed we could address the problem with a new, double-edged initiative. First, by hiring and training more carefully, we would bring our manufacturing talent up to proposal the standard in product design, and second, having now learned our lesson about top executive involvement, we would offer the training to upper management as well as line workers. There was no question that manufacturing was a second-class citizen.
Our recruiting strategy had always been to find the best engineers, and a book for college the best engineers went into product design. We had never deliberately looked for the best manufacturing or materials-management people. We now consciously upgraded the status, rewards, and hachiko waits book recruiting for Motorola manufacturing. We also put together a two-week program of courses that tried to project what our kind of manufacturing would look like in ten years and to think about the changes we would have to make to stay competitive. We wanted all the decision makers in manufacturing to how to write a book take part. We began, as so often before and since, by repeating a past mistake. We assumed the proper people at the top would sign up without prompting. Essays Love? What we found was that many simply delegated the write a book essay program to subordinates. Our advisory board—Galvin and 11 senior managers—soon saw what was happening and changed the policy. Essays Love? From then on, the board “invited” people to take the write a book essay for college training, and board members began by inviting themselves, then everyone else at the top.
The curriculum centered on manufacturing technologies—computer-aided design, new quality measurements, computer-integrated manufacturing, just-in-time—as well as on a passage to india what we called “unity of purpose,” our name for how to write for college the empowered work force. We also began to focus on to india essays time. We used to take three to seven years to design a new product; now we were shooting for 18 months. How To? Finally, we started talking about a contract book where marketing, product design, and waits manufacturing would meet, argue, and reach genuine agreement about the for college needs of the a passage essays market, the right new product, and the schedules and responsibilities of each group in producing it. Historically, such agreements had often been made but never kept. Write A Book For College? The three departments would meet and agree, product design would go home and invent something quite different but wonderfully state-of- the-art, manufacturing would do a complete redesign to permit actual production in the real world, and finally marketing would find itself with a product bearing little resemblance to what it had asked for and been promised.
We wanted to to india essays use the training to send a message to the company about achieving quality through the integration of efforts across functions, a message not just about how to quality of product but about quality of people, quality of service, quality of the total organization. In 1985, we also started an annual training and education event for senior management. Each year, the CEO picks a topic of critical concern and brings his top executives together to thrash it out with the help of some carefully chosen experts. That first year the topic was competition, especially Asian competition. There were Asian companies—whole Asian countries—going after every market segment we were in. Conversely, there were huge world markets we were ignoring: India, mainland China, Eastern Europe. The goal was to scare the cause effect impact wits out of all the participants and how to write a book essay for college wake them up to the perils and opportunities of our position. We had people calling themselves worldwide product or marketing managers who didn’t even have a passport. From 1985 to 1987, our top 200 people spent 17 days each in the classroom. Ten days on current essays manufacturing, five days on global competition, and two more days on how to essay for college cycle-time management. We then drove that training down through the a passage organization via the major components of the curriculum.
What was ten days for a vice president might have been eight hours for a production worker, but eventually they were all speaking the same language. Or so we believed. In 1985, we decided, after considerable fact finding and lengthy deliberation, to open our new cellular manufacturing facility in the United States rather than take it offshore. Top management had just gone through its workshop on foreign competition, and essay there was a general feeling that, with our manufacturing expertise, we should be able to compete with anyone in paper write, the world. We acknowledged the write a book essay fact that it wasn’t only low-cost labor we’d been going offshore to to india get but brains—first-rate manufacturing knowhow. Write Essay? In our naive self-satisfaction over custom essays the success of our training programs, we figured we now had across-the-board know-how in how to write a book essay, Illinois. Our work force in Arlington Heights, outside Chicago, knew radio technology, and given the similarities, we believed these workers could make the bridge to cellular. In addition, they had improved quality tenfold in the first five years of training and were well on research their way to doing it again.
Nevertheless, we were making what was fundamentally an emotional commitment, not a hard-nosed business decision. However much quality had improved, it had probably not improved enough to compete in new technologies when our labor was going to cost us more than it cost our Asian competitors. However thoroughly the Arlington Heights workers understood radios, we were about to empower them to do much more than they had done in the past—not just one or two assembly functions but quality control, flexible manufacturing, and mentoring for a book the several thousand new hires we’d eventually have to add. Maybe we sensed the thin ice we were on. In any case, we did a quick math assessment to see exactly where we stood with regard to further training. The scores were a shock. Only 40 % passed a test containing some questions as simple as “Ten is what percent of 100?”
Let me dwell for a moment on the full drama of those results. The Arlington Heights work force was going to lead the company into global competition in hachiko, a new technology, and how to for college 60 % seemed to have trouble with simple arithmetic. We needed a work force capable of operating and maintaining sophisticated new equipment and proposal research write facilities to a zero-defect standard, and most of them could not calculate decimals, fractions, and percents. It took us several months and a number of math classes to discover that the real cause of much of this poor math performance was an inability to read or, in the case of many immigrants, to comprehend English as a second language. Those who’d missed the simple percentage question had been unable to read the words. A Book? In a sense, this was good news: it meant their math might not be as bad as we’d feared. A Passage To India? But the write a book essay news was bad enough even with the silver lining. Research Write? For years, we’d been moving computers into the work line to let everyone interface with a keyboard and a screen; since 1980, the number of computer terminals at Motorola had gone from 5,000 to 55,000.
At the new plant, workers would need to feed data into these terminals and write essay for college extract information from them. Now we had reason to wonder if they’d be able to use their computers effectively. And yet these people were superior employees who had improved quality tenfold and more. How had they done that if they couldn’t read? It was a mystery—and a great problem. The mystery was easily solved. In the early 1980s, we had had several layers of paper write middle managers who acted as translators.
They took the directions on write a book essay for college the screens and put them into spoken English or, in many cases, Polish or Spanish, and the workers—dedicated, motivated people—carried them out. The problem, however, remained. Cheap Essays? In fact, it grew rapidly more serious as we began to set up the how to a book essay for college new plant. We had begun to remove layers of middle management in the mid-1980s, and in setting up the new factory we wanted to leave no more than two or three levels between the plant manager and the greenest entry-level hire. For that to work, we had to cause effect impact media have people with basic skills who were quick to learn— and quick to write for college teach.
After all, we couldn’t staff the whole plant with our current employees, even if they all had the necessary skills. To India? We had to have a cadre of 400 to 500 people who could serve as teachers and role models for others as we brought them in. In the old days, our selection criteria had been simply, “Are you willing to work? Do you have a good record of write a book for college showing up for work? Are you motivated to work?” We didn’t ask people if they could read. Uk? We didn’t ask them to how to write a book for college do arithmetic. We didn’t ask them to demonstrate an ability to solve problems or work on a team or do anything except show up and be productive for so many hours a week. The obvious, drastic answer would have been to fire that old work force and hire people who could meet our standards, but that was not an acceptable approach for our company and probably not a realistic one given the educational level of the available labor pool. We quickly implemented a standard for current essays new hires based on seventh grade math and reading skills, but as we recruited people from the outside, we found remarkably few who met that seventh grade standard.
We look for many things in our applicants, beyond literacy. How To A Book? For example, they must also be punctual and responsible. Proposal Research? But at some installations, the requirements are even higher. Write A Book Essay? In one location, we opened a sophisticated plant and found we had to screen 47 applicants to find 1 that met a ninth grade minimum requirement and also passed a drug test. This was admittedly an extreme situation, and the results were also skewed by the drug test.
Still, at 1 applicant in 47, a company soon runs out of potential hires, especially if anyone else is book report competing for the labor supply. We quickly saw that a higher set of how to for college standards for new hires was not the book whole answer to our Illinois problem, particularly since we weren’t willing to lay off dedicated people who’d been with us for a book essay for college years. And Arlington Heights was no isolated pocket. Documenting installations one by one, we concluded that about half of our 25,000 manufacturing and hachiko waits support people in the United States failed to meet the seventh grade yardstick in English and write math. At a plant in Florida, we offered English as a second language, thinking maybe 60 people would sign up, and we got 600—one out of three employees. By signing up, they were telling us they couldn’t read the memos we sent them, the work order changes, the labels on a passage boxes.
When we started MTEC in 1980, it was on the assumption that our people had the basic skills for the jobs they were doing. For five years, we saw ourselves as an agent of change, a school for the language of quality, a counselor and goad to senior management, a vocational instructor in write a book, the new skills and paper measurement systems that would enable our employees to how to write a book essay lead the electronics industry in custom uk, sophistication and quality control. Our charter as an educational program was to write a book for college provide continuous training to every employee. Then suddenly, to meet our business needs, we found we had to add remedial elementary education. We had never wanted to be in the grade school business, and it threw our investment strategy into chaos. An annual budget projected at $ 35 million to $ 40 million for the early 1980s had grown to $ 50 million a year by 1988, and we were going to need $ 35 million more over to india essays a three- to write five-year period to correct the literacy problem.
Yet budget was only one of our problems. Paper Write? Morale was an even thornier issue. A Book Essay? Remedial education made many people uncomfortable, and some were literally afraid of school, an cause impact media, environment in which they had failed as children. We didn’t want to embarrass them; these weren’t marginal workers, remember, but valuable, experienced employees. Yet they were also people with serious math and literacy problems, and we had to educate them.
We took the position that remedial math and language instruction was simply another form of skills training. We videotaped older employees within a few years of retirement and had them say to others their own age and younger, “Look, we’re not going to get out of here without learning new skills. We need to go to class. Back in 1955, we had another moment of truth when we had to move from tubes to how to write a book transistors. We did it then; we can do it now.” We also had Bob Galvin respond personally to letters. If a man wrote to hachiko report ask if he really had to how to write essay for college go back to current essays school at 58 and study math, Bob would write back, “Yes, you do. But everyone does. You do your job well, but without more math you won’t survive in the work environment another seven years.” We adopted a policy that said everyone had a right to retraining when technology changed.
But if people refused the retraining, then we said we’d dismiss them. In fact, we had refusals from 18 employees with long service, and we dismissed all but one. That sent another strong message. There was also a flip side to how to write essay for college the policy. It said that if people took retraining and failed, then it was our job to research write figure out a way of helping them succeed. After all, nearly one-fifth of the U.S. population has some kind of learning disability. If some of our employees couldn’t learn to read and compute in conventional classrooms, we tried to help them learn some other way. If they couldn’t learn at all but had met our hiring standards 20 or 30 years ago and worked hard ever since, we found jobs for them at Motorola anyway. Uncovering widespread math and reading problems was a great shock to the system, but it had the beneficial effect of how to write a book essay pushing us into three watershed decisions that shaped the whole future of MTEC and Motorola. First, we realized that remedial elementary education was not something we could do well ourselves, so we turned for help to community colleges and other local institutions. Second, we decided to take a harder look at essays uk certain other skills.
We had always assumed, for example, that high school and junior college graduates came to us equipped with technical and business skills like accounting, computer operation, statistics, and basic electronics. When we discovered they did not—by this time nothing surprised us—we decided to go back to the community colleges that were already helping us with remedial math and English. Essay? We told them what we needed, and current essays they had courses with the corresponding titles, so we sent them our people. Our next surprise was that the courses weren’t quite what the how to write a book titles implied. The community colleges had fallen behind. Their theories, labs, and techniques were simply not up to book report modern industrial standards. They hadn’t known where we were going, and we hadn’t bothered to tell them.
This discovery forced our third major decision—to begin building the educational partnerships and dialogues that eventually led us to Motorola University. We’ve deliberately tried to treat our educational suppliers the same way we treat our component and chemical suppliers. To begin with, that means acknowledging that in a certain sense we buy what they produce. To make that work, they have to know what we need, and we have to know what not to duplicate. We exchange faculty, jointly develop curriculum, share lab equipment, and tend our mutual feedback mechanisms. In half our plants, as an how to a book, experiment, we have vocational training experts—community college staff members whom we pay full-time—to act as the ongoing bridge between the changes going on in our business and the changes necessary in the college curriculum. Essays Uk? We’re also developing dialogues with engineering schools, as well as elementary and secondary schools, about what we need and how it differs from how to write a book, what they provide.
Dialogue means not a single meeting, or two or three, but regular meetings every few weeks. We get presidents, deans, superintendents, principals, professors, and teachers to sit down with our vice presidents for manufacturing and report quality, our CFO, the managers of various plants and functions and talk about how to write for college our needs and theirs. Schools and colleges have no self-evident need to collaborate with us to the extent we’d like them to. Some educators and academics believe businesspeople are universally unprincipled, that the reason for our involvement in education is to cause effect impact media serve ourselves at the expense, somehow, of the community at how to write a book essay large. Yet in the course of talking and custom interacting, we’ve found that the benefits to all parties have emerged quite clearly. Some of our strongest support comes from the people who teach remedial English and math. They know how widespread the problem is beyond Motorola and how to for college seem grateful that we’re eager to current essays attack illiteracy without assessing blame.
The point is how to a book not that our concern with education is to india essays utterly altruistic but that better and more relevant education helps business, labor, and the schools themselves. This last point is how to write essay important. Take the case of a community college. To begin with, we supply them with, say, a thousand students a year, and a thousand tuitions. We also donate equipment. To India Essays? More important than either of these benefits, perhaps, is the a book essay fact that we offer an insight into what the globally competitive marketplace demands of students and educators.
Most colleges are very resource poor. Cause Effect Essay Media Society? But the dialogue means that they can come into write a book essay, our plants, talk to us, study state-of-the-art manufacturing, and cause effect media society they can use our facilities to pursue their own staff development. We provide summer internships for their teachers and set aside a certain number of in-house training slots each year for how to for college community college faculty. We encourage them to use our labs and cause effect media equipment to teach not only Motorolans but all their students. We believe—and I think they believe—that the mutual benefits are huge. We’ve assigned one of a book for college our senior people to be the cause essay impact media director of institutional relationships. His job is to understand and try to improve the supply lines that run from elementary schools, high schools, and colleges to essay for college Motorola.
He’s there to diagnose their needs, communicate ours, and fund projects that bridge the gap. Motorola has set up an cause media society, account—in addition to the $ 60 million education budget—that we can use to invest in schools that are willing to how to write essay for college undertake change and to work with us to address the needs of the populations that supply our work force. For example, two of our scientists came up with an electronics kit that costs only $ 10 to produce. Then we discovered that the average high school physics teacher has only $ 2 per essays love review, student to spend. Write A Book Essay? So we decided to use the account to book donate the kits to schools we draw students from a book, and to teach the teachers how to use them. We also sponsor a planning institute for superintendents from 52 school districts in 18 states on how to build strategic education plans and work with their business constituencies, of which we are one element. We’re also trying to build a volunteer corps of Motorola employees who want to work with schools and teach, plan, or translate particular classes into industry-specific programs. In 1980, we thought we could provide × amount of training, get everybody up to speed, then back off. Now we know it’s open-ended. Cause Effect Media Society? Whenever we reach a certain level of expertise or performance, there’s always another one to write for college go for. Now we know it’s a continuous investment from custom essays uk, both sides—from the individuals who attend classes and apply new skills and from the write for college corporation that designs new training programs and makes the review time available to take them.
In fact, we now know there is no real distinction between corporate education and every other kind. Education is a strenuous, universal, unending human activity that neither business nor society can live without. A Book Essay? That insight was another that led us to proposal research Motorola University. When Bob Galvin first suggested a university in 1979, the company wasn’t ready. Galvin started interviewing presidents of real universities for advice and leads, but in the meantime I interviewed 22 senior Motorola executives to get their reactions. Write For College? They were afraid a university, so called, would drain resources from the business rather than add value. For my own part, I was afraid the name “university” was too pretentious. This wasn’t to essays be a seat of free and open inquiry. This was to write a book essay for college be training and education for work force and managers. Instead, we set up MTEC as a service division, with its own board of directors.
That made us the only corporation in the United States with a training advisory board that included the CEO and other senior officers. But it didn’t make us a university. Then in 1989, CEO George Fisher made the suggestion. He believed the word university would give us greater autonomy. Current Essays? He also thought it would create an expectation we’d have to grow into. A great deal had changed in those nine years. First of all, most of our senior clientele—the 22 executives and their fellow skeptics—had stopped seeing education as a cost and had begun to accept it as an indispensable investment. How To Write For College? They’d seen returns. Most other people in the company had seen more than that. They’d seen themselves picking up marketable skills; they’d felt themselves growing in self-esteem and waits self-confidence.
Another difference was that by 1989 we were working closely with the schools, and when public educators heard the how to word university, their response was positive, even enthusiastic. They took it to mean that we were serious about education, not just enthralled with our own bottom line. But what was a university? And more to the point, what was a Motorola University? What kind of model should we work from? There were several that might apply, it seemed to me. One came from the charter of the City University of New York, which says that one of the university’s central missions is to essay society meet the write needs of the city’s residents. What we had was a training department that focused on the needs of the organization.
Becoming a university would mean a shift toward meeting the needs of individuals, the “residents” of the essays love review corporation. Another possible model was the how to essay for college open university of the United Kingdom, which, instead of bringing people to the education, takes the proposal research write education to the people and puts it in a book essay for college, a context they can understand. A third possibility was the model described by Cardinal Newman in The Idea of current essays a University, which, after 150 years, is still the cornerstone of liberal education. Newman’s ideal university had no place for vocational training, so in write essay, that sense he and we part ways. But in another sense, we’re in complete agreement. Newman wanted his university to mold the kind of individual who can “fill any post with credit” and cheap custom essays uk “master any subject with facility”—an excellent description of how to for college what we wanted Motorola University to do. Our evolving vision of the university contains elements of all three models. We try to make our education relevant to the corporation, to the job, and to the individual. We also try to research write bridge the gap between our company and the institutions that supply us with people. We don’t intend to grant degrees, but we do intend to how to write essay for college design courses that accrediting boards will certify and to india that the write a book essay universities that give degrees will count. (See the insert “Curriculum Development at Motorola U.”)
Curriculum Development at current essays Motorola U. Motorola never farms out curriculum design—the road map that shows what we need to write for college learn. But we may contract with an individual, a group, or a college to design a particular course, which we then turn over to our deans of delivery—one for the United States, one for the rest of the world—for distribution. Those deans search out hachiko book report, instructors through the write a book for college colleges or just hire free agents, whom we train. Sometimes, too, courses are packaged as software, as videos, or go out via satellite. For each functional area we have a course-design team of instructional system designers whom we think of as product engineers in terms of title, pay, status, and job security.
Their expertise is knowing how to extract the skill requirements from a job analysis and package them into training for adults. Of 1,200 people involved in training and education at Motorola—including 110 full-time and 300 part-time staff at Motorola University—23 are product design engineers. They’re like department chairs, and current essays the senior product manager is like a dean. The faculty are the actual course writers, audiovisual specialists, and instructors. We divide each functional curriculum—engineering, manufacturing, sales and marketing—into three parts: relational skills, technical skills, and business skills. M.U. itself is how to a book responsible for teaching relational skills—customer satisfaction, effective meetings, effective manufacturing supervision, negotiation, effective presentations. Essays? Since 1985, however, we have developed the curriculum for technical and business skills—basic math, electronics, accounting, computer operation, statistical process control—in cooperation with community colleges and technical schools. As a result of what we’ve learned over write essay the last decade, the cheap essays uk Motorola curriculum has two more critically important elements. A Book? The first is culture. Culture in a corporation is cheap essays partly a question of history and how to for college of common language—a form of custom uk tribal storytelling. How To Essay For College? At Motorola, for example, we believe in taking risks.
Our history shows it was one of the things that made us great. Telling those stories creates a tradition of risk, invests it with value, and encourages young people to go out and do the same. But culture is current essays not only inherited, it’s also created. Teamwork is an example. Our history is one of individual contributors, not teams. Write Essay For College? So training has to custom essays emphasize team building and downplay the Lone Ranger culture we valued in the 1950s and 1960s. The second extra element is remedial reading and math, which today means algebra. In most of our factories, we want analyses and experiments requiring algebra done right on the line. As for reading, we’ve found that the engineering group writes work order changes, product specifications, and product manuals at a fourteenth to how to a book essay seventeenth grade level—to be read by a passage, people who read at the fourth to sixth grade level.
We’re trying to lower the former and raise the latter. When we talk about a literate work force by how to a book for college, 1992, we mean seventh grade. But our goal remains ninth grade by 1995. We are entering a new era of partnership with established universities. We give them feedback on the courses they teach and even on hachiko waits book report their faculties. Most companies have just blindly reimbursed tuition costs, but we think we have a legitimate interest in the schools that prepare our future employees and in the colleges that provide continuing adult education at our expense. For example, Motorola and Northwestern jointly designed a quality course for write a book essay for college the second year of Northwestern’s MBA program. Northwestern also offers courses taught half-term by one of its professors and half-term by one of our experts—first half, theory; second half, application. We work closely with the Illinois Institute of Technology as well, and with Arizona State University. For the first time, we actually evaluate university services, not just assume they must be good. We avoid collegiate trappings—no professors or basketball teams—but we do make academic appointments of a kind: we name people to staff positions, and for two or three years they leave their jobs and devote themselves to write educational activities. (See the insert “Finding and Training Faculty.”) We also have a Motorola University Press that prints more than a million pages a month and plans to publish a series of books on write a book essay design and quality written by one of our employees.
I own a videotape of an all-day engineering class whose instructor, in hachiko report, closing the session, thanks the students for their active participation. In fact, except to breathe, not one of them has made a sound. In eight hours of teaching, the instructor never asks a question. He never makes eye contact. He is on top of his subject technically, but the class is boring beyond belief. The teachers at write a book essay for college Motorola University aren’t there to implant data. Proposal Research? They’re there to a book essay for college transfer information and to india essays get it applied quickly. We design curricula and train teachers with that end in mind. Training and how to essay for college certification of hachiko book all teachers is in four phases of 40 hours each. The first phase is procedural: how to use flip charts, foils, chalkboards; how to how to write a book for college manage a classroom; how to effect impact media ask questions; how to how to essay for college observe, listen, and reinforce.
The second phase deals with the particular kinds of behavior we want to see teachers and students exhibit. We believe in participative management, so instructors must be models of openness and respect for other opinions. We also emphasize teamwork, so teachers must encourage mutual support and current essays try to curb the how to a book essay competitive, who’s-best model most people learned in school. The third 40 hours deals with subject matter. We walk teachers through the course and then we walk them through the paper research research that underlies it. We don’t want them to teach their version of, say, Effective Meetings; we want them to teach ours . Not everyone can deliver on those terms.
For example, few academics can do it our way. They’re used to interpreting material independently, so after the first page, it tends to take on their own particular slant. It may make a fascinating course, but we can’t have 3,000 people learning 35 different versions of Effective Meetings. Finally, we assign teachers to a book essay for college master instructors who use them as coteachers and then have them teach on their own with feedback before turning them loose. We have found three groups of people who make especially good teachers. The first is cheap custom essays recently retired Motorola employees. We start talking to them six months out and a book for college try to get them through certification before retirement. Those who make it are superb. They believe in what they’re teaching, they know how to apply it, and they can tell the stories from the past and relate them to the future. We have one powerful, middle-management course on current essays managing change—specifically, the change that must take place in Motorola is to prosper over the next decade—that is write a book taught by insiders only.
Bill Weisz, a former CEO and now a vice chairman of the board, devotes the last seven hours to a passage the topic “I built this bureaucracy, and if I was 25 years old, here’s how I’d blow it up and how to write a book build what we need for the next ten years.” The second group consists of married women with college degrees whose children have left home. Hachiko Book Report? Lack of experience makes it hard for how to them to find jobs, so we’ve worked out programs with community colleges to screen them and reorient them to the business world. In courses like Effective Meetings, Interpersonal Skills, and Basic Sales Skills, they’re our best performers by far. Essays Uk? Most students think they’re old business hands, but their actual experience—community politics, selling ideas to children, managing teenagers—is just as rich and certainly just as useful. The third group represents a kind of how to for college talent sharing. Like most other companies, Motorola has a rule against rehiring people who’ve taken early retirement. Now we trade early retirement talent with other companies.
ATT gives us a list of 100 potential instructors who’ve just left, and we give them our list. It’s been a success. People like translating their experience from current essays, ATT or IBM and making it relevant and effective in our different world. Eventually we hope to change the rules so that people who pass our certification will always have an alternative to early retirement. As for Newman’s grander concept of the university, our commitment is not to buildings or a bureaucracy but to creating an environment for how to write a book essay for college learning, a continuing openness to new ideas. We do teach vocational subjects, but we also teach supervocational subjects—functional skills raised to a higher level. We not only teach people how to respond quickly to new technologies, we try to commit them to love the goal of a book anticipating new technologies. We not only teach people how to lead a department to better performance and essays review higher quality, we try to dedicate them to the idea of a book essay for college continuing, innovative leadership in the workplace and essays love the marketplace. How To Write Essay? We not only teach skills, we try to breathe the very spirit of essay impact media creativity and flexibility into manufacturing and management.
Electrifying the Now and Future Employee. The word university is undeniably ambitious, but Motorola management has always tried to essay for college use words in ways that force people to waits report rethink their assumptions. The term university will arouse curiosity and, I hope, raise the expectations of our work force and our training and education staff. We could have called it an educational resource facility, but who would that have electrified? As a first step, we have decided that Motorola University will be a global institution. We are already working on a formal relationship with the Asia Pacific International University, based in Macao.
Motorola University is write a book essay presently open to essays love review the employees of our suppliers, of our principal customers, and even of our educational partners, but we envision a time when the university will accept students from how to a book essay, outside our immediate community of companies and institutions, people who will not necessarily work for Motorola or any of our suppliers or customers at any time in their lives. At the cheap essays uk same time, one of our goals is to have the best graduates of the best institutions want to work for a book for college us. To achieve that, we must attract young people into a passage essays, our classrooms so they’ll know how good we are, and, just as important, so they’ll know they have to take certain steps in write a book for college, their own development in order to work for us or someone like us as adults. One of the things we have on the drawing board is a math-and-science summer institute for effect essay fifth, sixth, and seventh graders. Another is a simulation using an aircraft from the movie Top Gun . Write For College? We’ll stop the plane in mid-takeoff from a carrier and dissect it, showing the geometric and algebraic principles used in its design, then relate that back to the computer to show the same principles used in the design of other things. The goal is not to teach kids design but to show them that algebra is worth suffering through. The point of a program like that is not to get kids to paper research write work for Motorola.
We’d like the how to a book essay for college really inspired ones to want to work for us when that time comes. Hachiko Waits Book? But if not, well, at least they’ll be able to work for essay for college someone. William Wiggenhorn is Motorola’s corporate vice president for traning and education and the president of Motorola University.
Economic research papers - My Paper Writer - Book Review: On Writing The College… - Emory University, Atlanta, GA
Dec 19, 2017 How to write a book essay for college,
Three cheers for write essay for college, the mighty personalities! Technology has turned us all into celebrities whose pictures appear everywhere on social media. Even children write messages that travel the world and express intimate details, love stories, preferences and the like. We may wish to hachiko waits book report be like the great and dream of living in palaces. Yet let us spare a thought or two for the unfortunates who make up perhaps 50% of the world population. Side by side, let us develop the poor people essay and use the social conscience to mitigate their suffering. Many writing assignments come early in school and continue through at least fifteen years through college. Write Essay? Writing is thought and paper proposal research write, action, adventure and romance, and we best give it a lot of attention. Beginning with essays and letters, we may be branching out into stories, reviews of books and movies, critical essays, research proposals and papers, reports, and the like. That is a lot of writing indeed.
Detailed guidelines are provided regarding formatting, word length and submission date. These must be carefully observed. Something in common relates to all writing. The subject, the audience and purpose should be carefully understood. Planning and how to write a book essay, researching appropriate valid sources would bring plenty of materials but avoid plagiarism. The outline or draft is first prepared. Current Essays? The different sections or paragraphs are carefully written. The usual formula would be introduction, body and conclusion.
An writing an informative essay among the different types like expository, argumentative and narrative, is a rather common assignment. In such writing, you would reveal your knowledge of a subject like wildlife in a carefully planned manner. Important points are necessary and how to write a book for college, a Google search would throw up immense quantities of material. If wildlife is too broad, conservation of waits book report wildlife narrows it down. A thesis sentence reveals at how to a book essay for college, the beginning what the book essay would deal with. Maybe the financing for nature conservation plans is the subject. After the how to write evidence is presented in the middle paragraphs, the conclusion restates the thesis and current essays, whatever final decisions have been made without introducing new material. Everything should be interesting to the reader and sustain interest throughout, beginning with a bang. While business and for college, official writing and proposal research write, correspondence may stick entirely to how to essay for college dry facts and statistics, creative essays bring greater freedom and essays, color to the writer and the reader. Creativity can certainly remove the write for college tedium of writing and give the audience a burst of happiness. Ideas from story writing could be injected into the essays to provide additional interest.
You need not call a spade a spade each time. Putting everything in waits, black and white like in the newspapers breeds boredom. Creativity brings color and sparkle to turn a boring subject into something entertaining. Humor, dialogue, atmosphere, and character would animate writing. A large industry of creative writing in print and online caters to how to write the human need to be entertained after hard work during the weekends, and movies do just that! An what is an annotated bibliography is not the norm in the usual reference lists that we commonly see at the end of research papers. The reference list states the sources of materials used in compiling the paper and current essays, names books and a book for college, documents, websites too. Waits Report? The annotated reference list is a separate document that goes one step further and provides write ups of maybe 200 words on how to write for college each item in the list. The write-up is not merely an love, abstract or summary, but adopts critical approaches and states the quality of the write for college work.
In the case of engineering books, for instance, it would be quite a specialized task for the writer. The writer of the pieces would have to do ample research to arrive at hachiko waits report, those short write ups. The whole world is thinking business plans! Though the idea may be alarming initially, writing a business plan before you take the plunge is write a book essay for college crucial. Having a blueprint like a plan of action to review pursue over the next five years provides a purpose and direction besides being compulsory for submission to licensing and financing agencies. If it is a new business, everything is being planned and speculative.
Yet you know what the products and services are and have sought licensing and funding accordingly. The framing of vision and mission goals assumes great significance. How To? Business premises or the factory where goods are produced, their maintenance, staff, and machinery would all find a place in the business plan. What advertising strategies are being adopted, in paper proposal, which media and for how to write essay for college, how long? Which are the funding agencies? If it is a bakery, things look overwhelmingly complicated, but should be broken down into proposal research segments as learned in the study course.
Yet most businesses are run by those without deep business knowledge or skills. In such a case, the internet supplies enough materials to provide confidence and a book, build up skills. Companies offer consultancy services and help set up the business. We started with the famous people essay that everybody would find interest in because of our homage to review celebrities. An essay about famous people at how to write for college, this point of time might deal with Hillary, Angela Merkel, and Cameroon, to current essays talk politically.
If it is writers, names like Salman Rushdie and Margaret Atwood come to mind. If we want to essay for college include what the famous have contributed to civilization, that would be a mighty success story in terms of religion and government, art and culture. Yet we are aware of infamous people too who waged war or committed serious crimes. Write? Maybe we should include them all if we are interested in history and development, a true picture of a book essay society. The famous people essay would be a grand window indeed to view life, just like a film, with many images.
An essay about poor people would highlight what the affluent or the government can do to improve their plight. Insecurity, hunger, malnourishment and poverty plague millions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Their situation could easily be remedied with contributions from the many billionaires, but politics, religion, race and current essays, culture become the barriers. The essay could certainly express our innermost feelings and the desire to help that may lead to a shift in how to write a book essay, thinking. Practice writing a few essays: Why does the world have inequality between the rich and poor? Describe three deserving famous persons of the 21st century. Mention five ways you could help the poor people. Technology has turned us all into celebrities whose pictures appear everywhere on social media. Even children write messages that travel the world and express intimate details, love stories, preferences and the like.
We may wish to be like the great and dream of living in palaces. Current Essays? Yet let us spare a thought or two for the unfortunates who make up perhaps 50% of the world population. Side by side, let us develop the poor people essay and use the social conscience to mitigate their suffering. Many writing assignments come early in school and continue through at least fifteen years through college. Writing is thought and action, adventure and romance, and we best give it a lot of attention. Beginning with essays and letters, we may be branching out into how to a book stories, reviews of books and paper research, movies, critical essays, research proposals and papers, reports, and write a book essay for college, the like. That is a lot of writing indeed. Research Write? Detailed guidelines are provided regarding formatting, word length and submission date. These must be carefully observed.
Something in common relates to all writing. The subject, the audience and how to write a book essay for college, purpose should be carefully understood. Planning and researching appropriate valid sources would bring plenty of essays review materials but avoid plagiarism. The outline or draft is write a book essay for college first prepared. The different sections or paragraphs are carefully written. The usual formula would be introduction, body and conclusion. An writing an informative essay among the different types like expository, argumentative and narrative, is a rather common assignment.
In such writing, you would reveal your knowledge of a subject like wildlife in a carefully planned manner. Important points are necessary and a passage, a Google search would throw up immense quantities of material. If wildlife is too broad, conservation of wildlife narrows it down. A thesis sentence reveals at the beginning what the essay would deal with. Maybe the financing for nature conservation plans is the write a book essay subject. After the evidence is presented in the middle paragraphs, the conclusion restates the thesis and whatever final decisions have been made without introducing new material. Everything should be interesting to the reader and sustain interest throughout, beginning with a bang. While business and official writing and correspondence may stick entirely to dry facts and statistics, creative essays bring greater freedom and color to the writer and the reader. Creativity can certainly remove the tedium of writing and give the audience a burst of happiness. Ideas from story writing could be injected into the essays to provide additional interest. You need not call a spade a spade each time.
Putting everything in black and white like in the newspapers breeds boredom. Creativity brings color and hachiko report, sparkle to turn a boring subject into something entertaining. Humor, dialogue, atmosphere, and character would animate writing. A large industry of creative writing in print and online caters to the human need to be entertained after hard work during the weekends, and movies do just that! An what is an annotated bibliography is essay for college not the norm in the usual reference lists that we commonly see at the end of research papers.
The reference list states the sources of materials used in compiling the paper and hachiko, names books and documents, websites too. The annotated reference list is a separate document that goes one step further and provides write ups of maybe 200 words on each item in a book essay, the list. The write-up is not merely an abstract or summary, but adopts critical approaches and states the quality of the work. Hachiko Book Report? In the case of engineering books, for instance, it would be quite a specialized task for the writer. The writer of the pieces would have to do ample research to arrive at those short write ups. The whole world is thinking business plans! Though the idea may be alarming initially, writing a business plan before you take the plunge is crucial. Having a blueprint like a plan of action to pursue over the next five years provides a purpose and direction besides being compulsory for submission to licensing and financing agencies. If it is a new business, everything is being planned and speculative.
Yet you know what the products and how to a book essay, services are and have sought licensing and funding accordingly. The framing of vision and mission goals assumes great significance. Business premises or the factory where goods are produced, their maintenance, staff, and machinery would all find a place in the business plan. What advertising strategies are being adopted, in current essays, which media and for how long? Which are the funding agencies? If it is a bakery, things look overwhelmingly complicated, but should be broken down into segments as learned in the study course. Essay For College? Yet most businesses are run by those without deep business knowledge or skills. In such a case, the internet supplies enough materials to provide confidence and build up skills. Companies offer consultancy services and help set up the business. We started with the famous people essay that everybody would find interest in because of cheap uk our homage to celebrities. An essay about famous people at this point of time might deal with Hillary, Angela Merkel, and Cameroon, to talk politically.
If it is writers, names like Salman Rushdie and Margaret Atwood come to write mind. If we want to include what the famous have contributed to civilization, that would be a mighty success story in terms of religion and government, art and culture. Yet we are aware of infamous people too who waged war or committed serious crimes. Book Report? Maybe we should include them all if we are interested in a book essay, history and development, a true picture of society. Love Review? The famous people essay would be a grand window indeed to view life, just like a film, with many images. An essay about poor people would highlight what the affluent or the government can do to improve their plight. Insecurity, hunger, malnourishment and poverty plague millions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Their situation could easily be remedied with contributions from the many billionaires, but politics, religion, race and how to write essay, culture become the barriers. The essay could certainly express our innermost feelings and paper proposal research, the desire to help that may lead to how to for college a shift in thinking. Practice writing a few essays: Why does the world have inequality between the rich and poor?
Describe three deserving famous persons of the 21st century. Mention five ways you could help the poor people. Technology has turned us all into celebrities whose pictures appear everywhere on social media. Even children write messages that travel the current essays world and express intimate details, love stories, preferences and the like. We may wish to be like the great and dream of living in palaces. How To A Book Essay For College? Yet let us spare a thought or two for the unfortunates who make up perhaps 50% of the world population. Side by essays review side, let us develop the poor people essay and how to a book, use the social conscience to current essays mitigate their suffering. Many writing assignments come early in school and continue through at least fifteen years through college. Writing is thought and action, adventure and romance, and we best give it a lot of a book essay attention. Beginning with essays and current essays, letters, we may be branching out into stories, reviews of how to write essay books and movies, critical essays, research proposals and papers, reports, and the like.
That is cheap a lot of writing indeed. Detailed guidelines are provided regarding formatting, word length and submission date. These must be carefully observed. Something in common relates to all writing. The subject, the audience and purpose should be carefully understood.
Planning and researching appropriate valid sources would bring plenty of materials but avoid plagiarism. The outline or draft is first prepared. The different sections or paragraphs are carefully written. The usual formula would be introduction, body and conclusion. An writing an informative essay among the a book different types like expository, argumentative and narrative, is a rather common assignment. In such writing, you would reveal your knowledge of a subject like wildlife in proposal research, a carefully planned manner. Important points are necessary and a Google search would throw up immense quantities of material.
If wildlife is too broad, conservation of wildlife narrows it down. Write A Book? A thesis sentence reveals at the beginning what the hachiko waits essay would deal with. Maybe the financing for nature conservation plans is the subject. After the evidence is presented in the middle paragraphs, the conclusion restates the thesis and whatever final decisions have been made without introducing new material. Everything should be interesting to the reader and how to essay for college, sustain interest throughout, beginning with a bang. While business and official writing and cheap essays, correspondence may stick entirely to dry facts and statistics, creative essays bring greater freedom and color to the writer and the reader. Creativity can certainly remove the tedium of writing and give the how to a book for college audience a burst of happiness.
Ideas from current essays story writing could be injected into the essays to provide additional interest. You need not call a spade a spade each time. Putting everything in how to essay, black and white like in the newspapers breeds boredom. Creativity brings color and sparkle to turn a boring subject into something entertaining. Current Essays? Humor, dialogue, atmosphere, and character would animate writing. A large industry of creative writing in print and online caters to the human need to be entertained after hard work during the write for college weekends, and movies do just that! An what is an annotated bibliography is not the essays norm in the usual reference lists that we commonly see at the end of research papers. The reference list states the sources of materials used in compiling the paper and names books and documents, websites too. How To A Book Essay? The annotated reference list is a separate document that goes one step further and provides write ups of cheap essays uk maybe 200 words on each item in the list. The write-up is not merely an abstract or summary, but adopts critical approaches and states the quality of the work.
In the case of engineering books, for instance, it would be quite a specialized task for the writer. The writer of the pieces would have to do ample research to a book essay for college arrive at those short write ups. The whole world is essays thinking business plans! Though the idea may be alarming initially, writing a business plan before you take the write essay plunge is crucial. Having a blueprint like a plan of essays review action to how to write essay for college pursue over the next five years provides a purpose and direction besides being compulsory for submission to hachiko book licensing and essay, financing agencies. If it is essays love review a new business, everything is being planned and speculative. Yet you know what the products and services are and have sought licensing and write for college, funding accordingly. The framing of vision and mission goals assumes great significance.
Business premises or the factory where goods are produced, their maintenance, staff, and machinery would all find a place in the business plan. What advertising strategies are being adopted, in which media and for how long? Which are the funding agencies? If it is a bakery, things look overwhelmingly complicated, but should be broken down into segments as learned in the study course. Yet most businesses are run by those without deep business knowledge or skills. In such a case, the internet supplies enough materials to provide confidence and build up skills.
Companies offer consultancy services and help set up the business. We started with the love famous people essay that everybody would find interest in because of our homage to celebrities. An essay about famous people at how to write a book essay, this point of paper time might deal with Hillary, Angela Merkel, and Cameroon, to talk politically. If it is writers, names like Salman Rushdie and Margaret Atwood come to write essay mind. If we want to include what the famous have contributed to civilization, that would be a mighty success story in terms of religion and government, art and culture. Yet we are aware of infamous people too who waged war or committed serious crimes. Maybe we should include them all if we are interested in history and development, a true picture of society. Hachiko Book? The famous people essay would be a grand window indeed to view life, just like a film, with many images. An essay about poor people would highlight what the affluent or the government can do to improve their plight. Insecurity, hunger, malnourishment and poverty plague millions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Their situation could easily be remedied with contributions from the how to a book essay for college many billionaires, but politics, religion, race and culture become the barriers.
The essay could certainly express our innermost feelings and the desire to help that may lead to a shift in thinking. Practice writing a few essays: Why does the world have inequality between the rich and poor? Describe three deserving famous persons of the 21st century. Mention five ways you could help the poor people.
Get Someone Write My Paper - Book Review: On Writing The College… - University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
Dec 19, 2017 How to write a book essay for college,
Guide to write Anita and to india essays Me, by Meera Syal. Overview, analysis and important topics. Overview | Perceptions of England and the English | The history of modern India: Partition, Gandhi and emigration | Religion | Racism and xenophobia. The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Anita and Me', by Meera Syal. The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Anita and Me', by Meera Syal. Author: Ross Grainger. Our guide to 'Anita Me' contains an overview of the how to write a book for college novel and analysis of the important themes and topics, including racism, religion and modern India. Anita and Me begins with a lie about a lie.
The fibber, nine-year-old Meena (the ‘me’ of Anita and Me ), lies more often than the other children in current essays, her English village because her life is exceptionally lacking in truth. Does her Punjabi heritage make her Indian, or does her preference for fish fingers make her British? Are her parents’ caricatures of Britain more accurate than the villagers’ stereotypes of Indians? Is it right for her to write essay for college receive presents at essays, Christmas and attend Sunday school without any real notion of write a book for college, Christianity? Of course, these are not unusual conflicts for immigrants to Britain. Were Anita and Me just another second-generation immigrant on the psychiatrist’s couch it would be enjoyable, but not outstanding. What elevates Meera Syal#39;s semi-autobiographical story is the fact that our intrepid young protagonist is as curious and perceptive about the changes taking place in her adopted homeland as she is about the evolution of her own body and mind. It is the proposal 1960s. Meena’s world is Tollington, a fictional Black Country mining village under the steady but irreversible influence of post-industrial decline, urban modernisation and growing immigration.
Adding to this trio of social tremors is a slight but unmistakable increase in sexualisation amongst the village youth. As Meena struggles to a book essay for college make sense of her changing surroundings, one girl struts without ‘fear or censure or recoil’ in her ‘green, cool eyes.’ That girl is Anita Rutter. ‘Rutter’ is a grimly appropriate surname for the girl who captivates Meena with fantastic tales of clumsy advances from the local lads. ‘Of course it was inevitable that Anita would get round to sex; it hung round her anyway like a faint perfume.’ Desperate to master the cause essay society lexicon of this new and for college forbidden domain, Meena, continuing an current essays, earlier discussion with Anita, innocently asks her parents one evening whether she is a virgin. It is not Meena’s first naïve lurch into lasciviousness, but it is the prompt for a book her parents to a passage to india question their beti ’s friendship with young Ms Rutter. It initially appears improbable that Anita, with her ‘foghorn voice, foul mouth and proficiency at lassoing victims with her frayed skipping rope’, should become friends with a neighbour who is not only a child, but an immigrant child. Write A Book Essay For College. Despite their differences, Anita sees in Meena a potential ally who is intelligent yet pliable.
Meena, for current essays her part, mistakes Anita for write for college the ‘jewelled hand’ of ‘destiny’ that she has been waiting so impatiently for. From the surface this often dastardly dyad appears to a passage essays offer nothing more than an entertaining reminder of Polonius’ parting words to write essay for college his son Laertes in Hamlet , “This above all: to thine own self be true”, advice that Meena eventually heeds. Look closer, though, and impact media you realise that the dynamic between Anita and Meena represents the history of post-war immigration to Britain. Anita, older, stronger and more confident, befriends the frightened, frustrated and how to for college bewildered second-generation child. From promising if confused beginnings the friendship grows, frays, breaks, heals, frays again and waits finally snaps for good. Amidst this development we learn that Meena’s family is not just an how to essay for college, ethnic minority but also a cultural minority. Happy, healthy, whole, well fed, bilingual, colourful, tolerant and devoted to effect essay media their wider family network: Meena’s family has the necessary survival ingredients, unlike Anita’s.
When Anita’s mother runs off with a younger man, leaving her daughter in a parent-less household, it is Meena’s mother who welcomes the blossoming nettle of a child into her home and how to a book attempts to give her two things she has clearly lacked, discipline and a nutritious meal. Cheap Essays. Though the how to write for college voyage is proposal research write, rough, the gesture pours water on the flames of racism and xenophobia that flicker and sometimes conflagrate in the community as a motorway arrives and old certainties crumble. Perhaps, Syal appears to be saying, the cries of ‘wog’ are not about colour or creed, but simply jealousy and insecurity: deep down, the embittered indigenous of Tollington resent having to witness non-white families function as families ought to a book for college function. Current Essays. John Danalis makes the same point in a different way in his book Riding the Black Cockatoo : #39; Perhaps this is a book, why white Australia has forever been perplexed by Aboriginal peoples, because despite our industry, despite our busyness, we#39;ve always suspected that these people were onto something, that they had mastered the love art of living.#39; That is how to write a book, not to current essays say that Meena’s cluttered and aromatic home is perfect. As the rice boils and the sauces bubble an internal contradiction stews in Meena’s mother. While she can easily dismiss the arrogance of many English people (‘Doesn’t he know we were fitting bidets into our houses when their ancestors were living in how to essay for college, caves?’ she says of a particularly small-minded neighbour), she has to acknowledge that the English system is, in some areas, superior to that of the land she left behind. Current Essays. ‘At least in this country, you can get to the top university without having to pay a thousand greedy officials to how to a book essay get there,’ she tells her daughter. ‘That’s why we had to leave, we were poor and clever, a bad combination in cheap custom essays uk, India.’ Lest she appear to be softening, she adds, ‘Of course, if Britain had not left us in such a damn big mess, it would be a different story’ Syal manages to direct this blizzard of themes and metaphors and characters with commendable adroitness. How To A Book For College. She teaches the English about the current essays Indians and the Indians about the English and how to for college each group about itself using rich prose and powerful verisimilitude.
The transliteration of the Black Country dialect is accurate to the phoneme, and stands in curious contrast to the smatterings of Punjabi that Meena picks up from her wise maternal grandmother, Nanima. Book. Compared to this varied and odoriferous feast of life lessons and culture clashes (of which those listed here are a mere hors d’oeuvre), the plot of how to a book, Anita and Me sits like the fish fingers and hachiko waits book chips that Meena’s mother serves Anita as an Anglophile alternative to how to write essay for college the Indian dish she (Anita) cannot comprehend. That is, satisfying but a touch bland. While the paper research write story contains several hearty journeys and moments of epiphany, it often lacks the spice of how to write essay, conflict, apart from a somewhat underplayed twist that bears a strong resemblance to a scene from To Kill a Mockingbird. That aside, Anita and Me is a marvellous mosaic of the essay impact media society making of modern Britain. Analysis of important themes and topics. The Education Umbrella Guide to write a book for college 'Anita and Me', by uk Meera Syal. Write A Book Essay For College. The Education Umbrella Guide to hachiko waits report 'Anita and Me', by Meera Syal. Author: Ross Grainger.
Our guide to how to a book 'Anita Me' contains an overview of the novel and analysis of the important themes and topics, including racism, religion and modern India. Perceptions of current essays, England and write essay for college the English. In chapter three, Meena and her mother meet Mrs Worrall, an elderly neighbour who devotes her life to caring for her husband. Meena’s mother cannot believe that Mrs Worrall’s children live in nearby Wolverhampton but never visit their mother: ‘I will never understand this about the English, all this puffing up about being civilised with their cucumber sandwiches and cradle of democracy big talk, and then they turn round and kick their elders in the backside, all this It’s My Life, I Want My Space stupidness, You Can’t Tell Me What To Do cheekiness, I Have To Go To Bingo selfishness and waits You Kids Eat Crisps Instead Of Hot Food nonsense. What is this My Life business, anyway?
We all have obligations, no one is write essay, born on their own, are they. I mean, Mrs Worrall is their mother, the woman who gave them life. And she on a passage to india essays her own with Mr Worrall, too. I tell you, if my mother was so close, I would walk in my bare feet to see her every day. Every day.’ A few pages later, Meena goes to visit Mrs Worrall. After seeing Mrs Worrall’s devotion to Mr Worrall, Meena concludes: Not all the English were selfish, like mama sometimes said, but then again, I did not think of Mrs Worrall as English. She was a symbol of something I’d noticed in some of the Tollington women, a stoic muscular resistance which made them ask for nothing and expect less, the same resignation I heard in the voices of write for college, my Aunties when they spoke of back home or their children’s bad manners or the wearying monotony of their jobs.
In chapter seven, Meena describes Mr Ormerod, the shopkeeper, explaining why developing countries in Africa and Asia need ‘culture’ and ‘civilisation’ and not just ‘fans radios, cookers.’ He implies that non-white countries are less advanced than Britain. Cause Effect Impact Media Society. When Meena’s father relates this, Meena’s mother says: ‘Doesn’t he know we were fitting bidets into our houses when their ancestors were living in caves? Oh God!’ and then she went suddenly quiet and looked hard at papa. ‘God Shyam, is that how they see us? Is it really?’ Papa shrugged his shoulders. How To Write Essay. ‘You take things too seriously, Daljit. They have accepted us, have we ever had any trouble from people round here? You know, like Usha had over in Willenhall, those shaved head boys shouting at hachiko waits book, them, pushing the kids around?’ Mama got up angrily. ‘Just because it doesn’t happen to how to essay us, does not mean it is not happening! And they leave us alone because they don’t think we are really Indian. “Oh, you’re so English, Mrs K!” Like it is a buggering compliment! If I hear that one more time’ The history of modern India: Partition, Gandhi and emigration. In chapter three, Meena’s father tells Meena a story that took place ‘when we lived in Lahore, just before Partition.’ Meena then says: #39;I knew something about Partition, about the English dividing up Indian into India and Pakistan, and of some people not knowing until the day the borders were announced, whether they would have to impact media move hundreds of miles away, leaving everything behind them.#39; ‘Partition’ refers to a book essay for college the partition of the British Indian Empire. On the 15th of August, 1947, following decades of custom uk, turmoil, the land formerly known as British India became two nations, India and a book for college Pakistan. (Above: the Indian subcontinent after Partition in love, 1947.
The areas shaded red, part of India, are regions where there was (and is) a high density of Hindus and Muslims living together.) Meena’s father’s family lived in Lahore in the Punjab region. This region contained a large number of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs. Following partition, Meena’s father’s family, Hindus, found themselves in the newly created Islamic Republic of Pakistan, a state created to satisfy the a book huge Muslim population of cause essay impact society, British India. Like millions of others, Meena’s father, his seven siblings and their parents migrated across the new border to settle in how to write a book for college, India. In total, around 14 million people migrated from one side of the border to the other in the weeks and months following Partition. (Above: the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent) Meena’s father is talking during one of his musical evenings, or mefhils, where ‘our usual crowd plus a few dozen extra families would squeeze themselves into essays love review our house to hear papa and selected Uncles sing their favourite Urdu ghazals and Punjabi folk songs.’ Late that night, Meena is awoken by the sound of her Uncle Bhatnagar describing his experiences of write a book essay, Partition: ‘But it was a damn massacre!’ he was spluttering, and research then he talked in write a book for college, Punjabi of which I recognised a few words, ‘Family money death. ’ and then, ‘They talk about their world wars We lost a million people!
And who thought up Partition? These “gores”, that’s who!’ Then everyone launched in, the proposal research write whispers squeezed through the gap in the door and I could make out familiar voices saying such terrible and alien things. ‘My mother and I, the Hindus, marched us through the how to write a book for college streets our heads uncovered’ That must have been my Auntie Mumatz, one of our few Muslim friends. ‘They wanted to paper write do such things to us but we had left the house for how to them and everything in it, and my father he was a judge, he had been so good to them’ There was a long pause, I thought I heard someone sniff. ‘All the time we were walking, mama and I, papa was lying dead, his head cut from love review his body. They found it later lying in the fallen jasmine blooms’ The chaos that followed Partition did indeed see an appalling amount of violence. After a few more relatives share anecdotes and memories, Meena’s father describes being hijacked while taking the essay train to Delhi with his father: ‘There was a Muslim in our carriage. He began praying. A Sikh next to us began cutting off his hair quickly. He offered to shave the Musselman’s moustache but he refused. A Passage Essays. “Allah will save me,” he said. The Hindu goondas entered the carriage’ Papa paused a moment. ‘They looked at us, my father quoted the how to write Gita [Hindu scripture] at them, the only time I have ever heard him quote any religious script. They tore the trousers off the Musselman, saw he was circumcised, and cut off his head’ One of the key figures of the Indian independence movement was Mohandas Gandhi, sometimes referred to review as Mahatma (“venerable”) Gandhi.
In chapter seven, at the opening of the village fete, Mr Pembridge, a local Conservative councillor, makes a speech in which he cites Winston Churchill, ‘a man who I’m sure is everybody’s hero here.’ Later, “Uncle” Alan asks Meena’s father what he thought of the speech: ‘Oh, very um impressive. As usual,’ papa smiled back. ‘Although Mr Churchill is not particularly one of my heroes. But anyway’ ‘Why not?’ pressed Uncle Alan, suddenly alert, searching papa’s face as if wanting confirmation for how to essay something still forming in his head. ‘Well,’ paused papa, feeling slightly uncomfortable, ‘no doubt he was a great leader’ ‘Well, when Mahatma Gandhi came over here to paper research visit, your Mr Churchill described him as “that half-naked little fakir”. But still’ Uncle Alan interrupted papa, a bitter smile twisting his lips, ‘Mr Kumar, he is how to write essay, not my Winston Churchill, and I thank God for that.’ And he stalked off and disappeared amongst the crowds.
Throughout Anita and Me , Syal tries to show that English people have a lot to learn about Indians and, likewise, Indians sometimes have the wrong impression of the English. A Passage To India Essays. In the 1960s Winston Churchill was (and still today is) venerated and how to write a book adored by many British people for current essays his leadership during the Second World War. How To Write A Book Essay For College. Meena’s father clearly expects Alan to be angered by his (albeit meek) criticism. Instead, surprisingly, Alan takes offence at the phrase “your Mr Churchill.” Churchill did indeed call Gandhi a “half-naked little fakir,” a reference to Gandhi’s preference for simple hand-made robes and his deep devotion to Hinduism (a ‘fakir’ is a Muslim or Hindu who lives on only the most basic necessities and while depending somewhat on the charity of others). The fact that Meena’s father refers to Gandhi, a fellow Hindu, as ‘Mahatma’ shows that he respects him. Write. When Meena’s Nanima arrives Meena begins to learn more about the history of her ancestors’ homeland, ‘a country that seemed full to bursting with excitement, drama and passion, history in the making.’ She realises that ‘for the first time I wanted to visit India and claim some of this magic as mine.’ She then goes on to describe the one-sided, British-centric history lessons on India in her school: Victorian soldiers posed in grainy photographs, their feet astride flattened tigers, whilst men who looked like any one of my uncles, remained in write essay, the background holding trays or bending under the weight of impossible bundles, their posture servile, their eyes glowing like coals Then there were the ‘modern’ images, culled from newspaper and hachiko report television clips, where hollow-eyed skeletons, barely recognisable as human beings, squatted listlessly around dry river beds, and machete-wielding thugs tore into how to write a book for college each other in messy city streets, under the love review benevolent gaze of a statue of Queen Victoria. I always came bottom in history; I did not want to be taught what a mess my relatives had made of India since the British had left them (their fault of write a book essay for college, course, nothing to do with me), and longed to ask them why, after so many years of media society, hating the how to ‘goras’, had they packed up their cases and followed them back here.
This sentiment is receives a clever and unexpected riposte a few pages later from Mr Turvey, known to Meena as Mr Topsy (after the nickname he gives Meena). He meets Meena and Nanima in the village market and, to the astonishment of essays, everyone, has a conversation with Nanima in Punjabi (prompting one of the women to ask “Where did yow learn Indian then?”): Mr Topsy/Turvey watched her with devoted eyes. Essay For College. ‘I served in India. Current Essays. Ten years. Magical country. How To Essay For College. Magical people. The best.’ ‘Shouldn’t have bloody been there anyway, should you?’ I muttered under my breath. Custom Essays. ‘Who asked you to lock up my granddad and steal his chickens?’ I was by now walking fast, making Nanima puff and trot a little to keep up, but I could still hear him shouting behind us, ‘We should never have been there. Write For College. Criminal it was! Ugly.
You look after your nan! You hear me, Topsy!’ Once again, each side has a lot to learn from the current essays other. For College. The Education Umbrella Guide to essays review 'Anita and Me', by Meera Syal. Write A Book For College. The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Anita and Me', by cause effect media society Meera Syal. Author: Ross Grainger.
Our guide to how to write a book essay for college 'Anita Me' contains an overview of the novel and essays love analysis of the important themes and topics, including racism, religion and modern India. Meena’s parents are nominally Hindu, but do not practise their religion with much conviction. As Meena bemoans, they do not even have a shrine in the house. Instead, they practise an interesting mix of how to write a book, eastern and cheap custom essays uk western theism, fusing Hinduism with Christianity. Write. I now understood why my parents made an effort to mark Jesus’ birthday, despite the remarks made by some of my Aunties and Uncles. ‘Meena would feel left out It is waits book, not fair, when all the other children are getting presents. Besides, we all get the day off, so why not?’ This was a typical example of Hindu tolerance, the reason, my mama told me, why so many religions happily coexisted in India Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Sikhism and especially Islam. ‘There are more Muslims in India than there are in how to write essay for college, Pakistan!’ mama told me proudly. ‘Every path leads to the same god, that is what we believe, beti’ Papa would have to repeat these arguments to proposal research my Auntie Shalia who held her ears and whispered, ‘ Thoba !’ when he once told her that I was a regular visitor to Uncle Alan’s Sunday School at the Wesleyan church. Write A Book For College. ‘They just read and play, nothing much religious really’ he offered. ‘All the kids go there, it keeps them out of the cold and out of book report, mischief.’ ‘But really, Shyam-saab, you want your daughter to come home reciting hymns and what not?’ Auntie Shalia cried. ‘All that boring sitting around and amen this and that, no joy and how to write those damn hard seats and that awful organ music, like a donkey in pain. Besides, you will confuse the hachiko waits book girl.’ Meena then goes on to explain her father’s position on religion: Papa did not let on that he was as confused as I was about Hinduism; because of Dadaji’s beliefs, religion had never been an integral part of how to write essay, his upbringing, and essay society his experiences around Partition had removed any lingering religious instincts he might have kept through suspicion or habit. ‘I have seen what we do in the name of religion,’ he once told mama. ‘What I do, how I behave, I will do in the name of humanity. And that is that.’ She then concludes by saying, ‘All the same, I continually mourned the fact that we did not have a shrine.’ Meena’s desire for a shrine is less about spiritualism than a desire to be reincarnated as somebody famous. When she berates her father for not taking her to the temple he tries to how to a book explain that the only religion she needs is the to india little voice in her head that warns, “Meena, you should not do this”: ‘[T]hat voice is your conscience and God gave you that voice to help you be good. And it will always be there, no matter how many temples you go to.
Do you understand?’ I nodded, a sinking sensation overtaking me. How To A Book Essay. So it would always be there, that’s what he said. I was stuck with it. ‘As long as you listen to this voice, it will lead you to God. Research. Even if you do something wrong, if you feel sorry, God knows that too. So don’t worry about being punished. That is what we are here for’ he added, as an afterthought. How To Write A Book For College. Amongst the villagers, meanwhile, the love main source of religion is the local Wesleyan Methodist church, ‘the only church in the village, the a book essay centre of over-organised events we laughingly termed a social life’. One of the most active members is Mr Ormerod, who believes that the best way to make immigrants feel welcome is to, ‘continually try and convert us to the ways of Jesus Christ, his Saviour.’ Uncle Alan, as we have seen is a bit more pluralistic.
In chapter seven, Meena recalls a conversation he once had with Mr Ormerod: ‘I think they should jolly well follow whatever religion they choose. As long as they can feed themselves and work their land with some independence, I feel that we will indeed have done the Lord’s bidding.’ Mr Ormerod looked as if Alan had suggested having a piss in the font and love review from that point, as much as it must have pained him to snub a man of God, gave Alan a wide berth. How To Write A Book. I once remember standing waiting to be served in his shop with papa at my side whilst Mr Ormerod conducted a heated discussion with one of the effect society choir ladies about Uncle Alan’s worrying views. How To Essay. ‘I mean, Mrs Lacey, it’s not just about giving them stuff, is cheap, it? It’s about giving them culture as well, civilisation. A good, true way of living, like what we have. It’s all very well just saying hee-yaar, get on with it but they’ll just tek us for mugs. Write For College. They’ll want fans next, radios, cookers.
I mean, we ain’t a charity, are we?’ Mrs Lacey nodded her head and proposal research then said, ‘I thought we was a charity.’ ‘Well, you know what I mean,’ replied Mr Ormerod testily, giving her some change and turning to us with a welcoming smile, completely devoid of irony. The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Anita and Me', by Meera Syal. The Education Umbrella Guide to how to essay for college 'Anita and Me', by Meera Syal. Author: Ross Grainger. Our guide to 'Anita Me' contains an overview of the novel and a passage essays analysis of the important themes and topics, including racism, religion and how to write modern India. We have seen that Meena’s family, because they are perceived as anglicised, are largely spared the society violence and insults suffered by some of their relatives. The only write a book for college occasion in which Meena is paper research write, insulted to how to write a book essay for college her face comes on the way to the shrine when her mother gets the car stuck on Coal Hill.
Meena has to ask the cheap custom essays motorists behind if they could back up slightly to write essay allow her mum the necessary space to current essays reverse and then accelerate. All the write essay for college drivers are obliging except the last one, a ‘sweet-faced elderly woman’: ‘She blinked once and fumbled with the hachiko waits book report gear stick and said casually, ‘Bloody stupid wog. Stupid woggy wog. Stupid.’ ‘Wog’ is an informal and offensive term for essay for college someone who is not white. It is the one word every non-white immigrant in Britain does not want to hear. It is almost as bad as the American word ‘n****r’, the name Tracey gives her black dog, much to cheap essays uk Meena#39;s vexation.
The most significant use of this ugly word, and indeed the climactic event of the book, comes during the village fete. When Reverend Ince announces that the money raised will go towards a new roof for the church, some people in how to write for college, the crowd murmur in love, disagreement. Amongst the indignant villagers is a book essay, Sam Lowbridge, Anita’s part-time boyfriend. When Uncle Alan tries to calm him down he says angrily, ‘Yow don’t do nothing but talk, “Uncle”. And give everything away to some darkies we’ve never met. We don’t give a toss for anybody else. This is essays review, our patch. Not some wogs’ handout#39;. Later, Sam proves that he doesn’t understand that he has offended Meena, a girl he considered his friend. ‘Are yow angry with me, Meena?’ he asks, ‘like he was asking me to dance.’ Anita, too, in supporting Sam, doesn’t realise that she is insulting Meena.
As we have learnt, Sam, Anita and the other villagers consider Meena and her family as “honourary” Englanders. Write A Book. To them, ‘wog’ means a non-white person who is of no use to them. The Education Umbrella Guide to 'An Inspector Calls' The Education Umbrella Guide to cheap 'An Inspector Calls' Author: Ross Grainger. This simple and effective guide offers students everything they need to understand J.B. Priestly's dark play about society. It also provides a range of classroom activities.
The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Animal Farm' The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Animal Farm' Author: Ross Grainger. Our comprehensive guide contains everything students need to understand George Orwell's farmyard fable: introduction, chapter-by-chapter summary and analysis, character profiles, glossary of how to, important terms and classroom activities. The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Lord of the Flies' The Education Umbrella Guide to 'Lord of the Flies' Author: Ross Grainger. Our comprehensive guide offers students everything they need to understand Nobel Prize winner William Golding's dark tale about hachiko book report, civilisation and savagery. The guide features a chapter-by-chapter summary, character profiles, explanation of the symbols and motifs, and a 12-week scheme of work. The Education Umbrella Guide to how to a book essay 'The Great Gatsby' The Education Umbrella Guide to to india essays 'The Great Gatsby' Author: Ross Grainger. Our comprehensive guide contains everything students need to understand F. A Book Essay For College. Scott Fitzgerald's famous jazz-age tale, including chapter-by-chapter summary and analysis, character profiles and love review analysis of the write essay for college themes and symbols.
The Education Umbrella Guide to Silas Marner. The Education Umbrella Guide to uk Silas Marner. Author: Ross Grainger. Our guide to 'Silas Marner', by George Eliot, offers students a summary and for college analysis of hachiko waits book, every chapter, as well as analysis of the how to write a book for college novel's major themes. The Strange Case of paper, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.
Author: Robert Louis Stevenson, Imelda Pilgrim, Ross Grainger. The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and how to write a book essay Mr Hyde is a psychological thriller about the respectable Dr Jekyll and his evil associate Mr Hyde. Available for the first time in TECbook format, the text comes with the following content built-in: introduction, chapter summaries and analyses, character profiles, an explanation of the themes and vocabulary flashcards. Romeo and Juliet. Romeo and Juliet. Research Write. Author: William Shakespeare, Imelda Pilgrim, Ross Grainger. Our very own guide to 'Romeo and Juliet', complete with the full, unabridged text, is write essay for college, designed to help GCSE students succeed. Features include: summary and analysis of every scene; explanation of the themes and motifs; character profiles; and an exam help page. Author: William Shakespeare, Ross Grainger, Imelda Pilgrim.
Our very own guide to 'Macbeth', complete with the full, unabridged text, is designed to help GCSE students succeed. Features include: summary and analysis of every scene; explanation of the themes and motifs; character profiles; and an exam help page. Author: Meera Syal. The debut novel from the award-winning screenwriter of Bhaji on a passage to india essays the Beach. The story of nine-year-old Meena, growing up in the only Punjabi family in essay for college, the Black Country mining village of Tollington. Author: Meera Syal. The story of Meena, growing up in paper proposal, the only Punjabi family in the Black Country mining village of how to write a book essay, Tollington, from award-winning screenwriter Meera Syal.This hilarious novel is waits, a set text for GCSE WJEC and Edexcel. Oxford Literature Companions: Anita and Me. Oxford Literature Companions: Anita and Me. Author: Alison Smith.
Oxford Literature Companions offer student-friendly, assessment-focused support for set texts, giving you and your students confidence in achieving their full potential. This full colour guide to Anita and Me by write a book for college Meera Syal is ideal for the classroom or as revision. Anita and paper proposal write Me Literature Guide For GCSE. Anita and Me Literature Guide For GCSE. Author: Susan Elkin. For study or revision, these guides are the perfect accompaniment to the set text, providing invaluable background and exam advice.
Grade 9-1 GCSE English Text Guide - Anita and Me. Grade 9-1 GCSE English Text Guide - Anita and how to essay Me. Author: CGP Books CGP Books. Grade 9-1 GCSE English Text Guide - Anita and Me. Study and Revise for paper proposal GCSE: Anita and Me. Study and write for college Revise for GCSE: Anita and essays love review Me. Author: Susan Elkin.
Enable students to achieve their best grade in for college, GCSE English Literature with this year-round course companion; designed to cheap custom instil in-depth textual understanding as students read, analyse and revise Anita and Me throughout the course. Studying Anita and Me Studying Anita and Me Author: English Media Centre English Media Centre. DVD of Meera Syal interview, film clips + 64-page photocopiable resource for GCSE 2010.
Order Paper Writing Help 24/7 - How To Write A College Essay | MIT… - Pennsylvania State University
Dec 19, 2017 How to write a book essay for college,
essay lyrics First published in The Believer, July, 2003. The Genre Artist. If a story takes place, as we are told stories do, then who or what does it take that place from, and why is an acquisition verb—take—necessary to describe the how to write essay, activity of stories? Maybe it’s an unfair, literalizing question. Review? Not all figures of speech need to be prodded for accuracy (although shouldn’t a phrase relating to essay for college, stories, which are made of language, have some passing precision?). Stories would keep taking place whether or not we worried about research, what it meant for them to do so, or worried about how to write a book essay, what stories actually did instead. But if we poked at this strange phrase, which suggests a theft of setting in effect media society, order for narrative to occur, we might also deduce that if a place is a book essay, taken for paper write something to happen in it, then this taking must happen at a specific time (that’s what the word “happen” asks us to believe, anyway). The verb “take” presumes duration, implies a moment (unless we take a break from time or take the opportunity to no longer experience time , options that are difficult, at best, to how to write a book essay for college, secure, unless we die).
It is this specific time that is hachiko waits, meant to concern us when we encounter what is likely the most well known (i.e., terrifying) story opener of all: once upon a time. Imbedded in this innocent phrase, which I would like to prod for the rest of this paragraph until it leaks an interesting jelly, is a severally redundant claim of occurrence, perhaps the first thing a reader, or listener, must be promised (reader: consumer of artificial time). For the sake of contrast, to look at a more rigorously dull example, the opener “I have an idea” does not offer the same hope, or seduction, or promise (particularly if I am the how to a book essay, “I”). Even the verb is static and suggests nothing approximating a moment. Time is being excluded, and look at all the people already falling asleep. “Once upon a time” is far more promising (something happened, something happened!). Current Essays? We might need to believe that the clock is essay for college, ticking before we begin to invest our sympathies, our attentions, our energy. Fiction has, of course, since dropped this ingratiating, hospitable opener in favor of subtler seductions, gentler heraldings of story.
But it is rare not to feel the clock before the first page is done, a verb moving the people and furniture around (whereas “having an idea” does not allow us to picture anything, other than, possibly, a man on a toilet). The physical verbs are waiting to assert themselves, to provide moments that we are meant to believe in, and verbs, traditionally, are what characters use to stir up the trouble we call fiction. Impact Society? Without physical verbs we have static think pieces, essays, philosophical musings. There is no stirring, because generally there is nobody there holding a spoon. This will be an interesting distinction to remember. Maybe this is as it should be, since Proust said the duty of the write a book essay for college, literary artist was to tell the current essays, truth about time. How To A Book Essay For College? Aside from blanching at the notion of duty, which is one of the required notions to blanch at, it seems clear to me that Proust’s edict, interpreted variously, has served as a bellwether for cause effect society most thriving traditions of fiction (which held true, of course, before Proust articulated it). If fiction has a main theme, a primary character, an how to write for college occupation, a methodology, a criteria, a standard, a purpose (is there anything else left for cause impact media fiction to have?), it would be time itself. Fiction is the production of false time for readers to experience. Most fiction seeks to a book for college, become time . Without time, fiction is nonfiction.
Yes, that’s arguable—we have Borges, Roussel, Christine Brooke-Rose, and to india essays Robbe-Grillet, after all, among others, to tell us otherwise, and it is in part their legacy, their followers (witting or not), whose pages will be shaken here until we have something that counts for a portrait of this anti-story tradition. One basic meaning of narrative, then: to create time where there was none. A fiction writer who tells stories is how to essay for college, a maker of paper research, time. How To Write A Book Essay For College? Not liking a story might be akin to not believing in its depictions of time. It sounds facile to book, say that stories occur, but it is part of the larger, relentless persuasion that time both is and envelops the practice we call story. Essay? We cannot easily separate the two. Hachiko Waits Report? Yet if time is the most taken-for-granted aspect of fiction writing, it would seem precisely like the good hard wall a young, ambitious writer would want to bang his head against, in order to walk and how to a book essay for college talk newly in the world of fiction (that’s still the desire, right?).
To the current essays, writer searching for the obstacle to surpass , time would look plenty worthy a hurdle. If something must be overcome, ruined, subverted in order for fiction to write a book essay for college, stay matterful (yes, maybe the metaphor of progress in literary art is pretentious and tired at this point (there’s time again, aging what was once such a fine idea)), then time would be the thing to current essays, beat, the thing fiction seemingly cannot do without, and therefore, to write a book essay for college, grow or change, must. John Haskell is among an intriguing new group of writers chiseling away at uk, the forms of fiction writing without appearing exhaustingly experimental (read: unreadable). Write Essay? Haskell is working primarily without or around time, producing fiction that might appear more essayistic, discursive, inert, philosophical, and, well, literally timeless (which is not yet to say that his debut book is for essays the ages ). Yes, I said “inert,” because things do not have to for college, move to be interesting. Think mountain. Think dead person. Think thought. I say “think,” because Haskell is a thinker, and although he writes often about film, you could not film what he writes.
I Am Not Jackson Pollock contains some storylike moments, but it is effect essay society, primarily a new kind of fiction, one that, curiously, hardly seems interested in fiction at all (which is not to write a book essay for college, suggest that it reads autobiographically—the opposite is true, which makes a great case for secret-keeping). Haskell might be indebted to Borges, but not in the way most so-called imaginative writers are. Effect Essay? There’s no obsession with infinity and how to a book worlds within worlds, no conceptual masterminding at work to cause impact, showcase a stoner’s tripped-out, house-of-Escher mentality, not much that would qualify as being made up. Haskell is more interested in how to write for college, using modest, unassuming forms of nonfiction, as did Borges or Sterne (albeit Haskell does not perpetrate extravagant untruths): the current essays, essay, the how to for college, report, the cause effect essay media, biographical sketch, the character analysis (this last is Haskell’s favorite, from how to a book essay, real people like Glenn Gould and Jackson Pollock, to film characters like Anthony Perkins’s innkeeper in Psycho , to Topsy, the to india essays, first elephant executed by electricity). Haskell does not write characters so much as he writes about them, and it is this willful instinct toward exposition that is so curiously distinctive and unusual in the story-driven world of most new fiction. A fair question here might be this: where is the fiction in this, if these “stories” of Haskell’s refuse story and how to essay then faithfully essay to supply information, respectable information, analysis, and reflection, just as nonfiction might? And one fair answer might be: John Haskell’s primary fiction, overriding his entire project, the place where his fiction is located, is precisely in report, his puzzling gesture of calling these pieces fiction in the first place. He is fictionalizing his genre. Or, in a book, other words, his fiction is genre itself.
Haskell is not an cause effect media artist in a particular genre, he is an artist of genre. To do what Haskell does is to take several genuine risks, which occasions a word or two about risk. What could a writer in our country possibly be risking, other than his own pride, livelihood, or publishability, which are not exactly noble losses should they actually be lost? (Many of us began writing without pride and publishability anyway, and I’m not exactly clear what livelihood is.) Yet risk is the most urgent exhortation of what we are supposed to take when we write fiction (which is write a book, somehow different from the kind of paper, taking a story does when it takes place). Fiction is praised when it is called “risky,” but this sort of risk usually involves shattering, shameful disclosures. How To Write Essay? (I could fill the rest of this essay with examples of shattering, shameful disclosures, but maybe just one will do: while wrestling with my dog, experimenting on a new hold called “the Sumatra,” we ended up horizontal on the lawn, head to a passage to india, toe, and thereupon commenced a directed nuzzling, a purposeful mouth-to-balls activity, that in write essay, some quarters of academe is referred to as the custom uk, sixty-nine, which then became a standard “variation” on the “Sumatra,” well into adulthood (especially into adulthood)). How To Write Essay For College? With secret-telling having become its own lucrative industry, it’s hard to fathom what a risk of subject-matter might be (though I’m certain better, scarier secrets are approaching in next season’s books, however ill-equipped my imagination is to conceive them). Risks of form, on a passage to india, the other hand, might seem more provocative, more inherently interesting to those attuned to the established modes and means of fiction writing (Hey, you guys!), but the risk more often cited in these cases is the financial sort that a publisher takes in write a book essay, publishing such work. They risk not selling enough books.
And they are sorry but they cannot take that risk (it is interesting that the writer is hachiko book report, supposed to be risky while the publisher is not). Risk might very well have a more palpable financial meaning than an artistic one. So while it is essay for college, no longer clear what literary risk is—perhaps the term has been molested to death, like those other harassed words: edgy, innovative, startling, stunning—it could be more appropriate to cheap custom uk, say that within the larger, hapless chance-taking of writing at all (when indifference is about the scariest, and likeliest, response most of us might face), writing fiction without story seems especially curious, willfully self-marginalizing, and therefore very much worth considering. (No, not all obscure literary gestures are “interesting,” but something akin to how to write a book for college, playing golf without one’s body, as John Haskell might be doing, is.) The shopworn adage “show-don’t-tell” reinforces the ethos that fiction must have a story, and warns a writer away from discursive, essayistic moments and society exposition, which apparently amount to a kind of quicksand for the writer (a statement that presupposes motion as a valuable aspect of fiction writing). Haskell’s quicksand is write a book essay for college, rich as a batter and quite worth getting trapped in, although so much inertia can feel confining. If we are to be cast in mud, and then smothered, we want our demise to be fascinating.
Telling is to india essays, supposedly insufficient, it cannot produce a quality demise, since it does not dramatize a moment, or in fact does not even supply a moment at all. Telling is stingy with time. Yet even though we “tell” a story, we only do it well when we do not actually tell it, but show that story occurring in time. Does telling fail because it discriminates against the notion of moments entirely? Take this paragraph in Haskell’s story, “The Faces of Joan of how to a book essay for college, Arc.” Hedy Lamarr, through most of the movie, takes the side of those in authority, which is not the uk, same as having authority. Obedience is a way of reconciling oneself to a lack of authority or a lack of choice. But it’s not the only way. This is a funny (read: not-so-funny) way to start a section in a story, but this is Haskell in his psychological mode, and write a book for college it’s a tone he turns to frequently, which can make parts of a passage, this book sound eerily similar to the DSM-IV-TR Case Studies: A Clinical Guide to how to a book, Differential Diagnosis . His exposition is current essays, dutiful and persistent, but he oddly does not seem to be using it to generate sympathy, which is what a narrative writer might hope for after disclosing details of character. Write A Book? Minimalism in fiction, which at its best extracted psychology purely from surfaces, would be anathema to Haskell. One of his favorite things to do, his pet point throughout the book, is to probe the cheap custom, interior conflicts within a character, but the effect is rather more coldly intellectual than warmly empathic:
She creates a space between what she does and how to write a book for college who she feels she is, so at least she can live with a little peace.He wanted to let whatever it was inside of him come out, and then change it, and by changing that he was hoping everything else would change. Inside that bubble he could relax and let who he was come out. She waited until what the cheap essays uk, camera wanted was fairly close to what she wanted, and a book essay although this wasn’t a perfect arrangement, she could pretend to stand it. … the man wanted to waits book, bring out a book for college, whatever it was inside the media society, boy. Haskell is expert at clarifying the a book, moments when his characters feel estranged from themselves.
The defiance of Haskell’s title is a form of self-denial echoed throughout most of these stories. He is so shrewd at depicting this sort of moment, that for to india essays him it is apparently sufficient to how to a book essay, carry whole stories. Paper Research Write? Once he has achieved the revelation, he seems ready to write for college, end his story. If he has a deficiency, it’s his inability to convert his fascinations into whole pieces of writing that prove the artistic adequacy of his idea. If Haskell is love review, desperate to how to write a book for college, show us how people hide from themselves and conspire against cheap custom essays uk, their own better interests, working as multiple identities in how to a book, agonizing contexts—which is, after all, a familiar enough idea routinely explored, or dramatized, by many writers—then it’s upon essays, him to make our experience of this idea immediate, visceral, and how to for college potently refreshed. Maybe it’s not upon him , but when the idea is centralized, as it is in Haskell’s work, and narrative is deliberately excluded, there is cheap custom uk, a risk when that idea does not seem novel. To be fair, Haskell has no real comforting tradition to fall back on, to guide him in his efforts, so he must invent for himself what an ending, in this sort of how to essay, writing, might look like.
It’s an original path he has chosen, and it will be rewarding to watch this exceptional writer as he navigates this new territory for fiction. When a prose writer such as Haskell surmises a distinction between story and fiction, as he so intriguingly has, a critic can safely ask after the cheap essays uk, absent story and not be upbraided for assuming that fiction must have one. Write? A writer thus interested anyway in a passage to india, dividing the two projects risks an error of category, or at the least risks being read incorrectly (not that reading correctly sounds like a very compelling thing to be doing). But when, for example, David Markson, an expository novelist who fired the starting gun for fictions of information and write a book essay for college proved that pure exposition can be alarmingly moving, who purposefully tells instead of shows, is dismissed in The New York Times for current essays failing to how to essay, provide a story in his novel Reader’s Block , no discussion follows about why, exactly, fiction must have one (at 150 words in the book review, how could any discussion follow?). Nor do we learn what a story might have looked like in such an exquisitely felt book that, to summarize, catalogs the various ways historical figures have hated whole races of people and/or died by their own hands. (Yes, you should read this book.) Markson should have presumably, under the fiction-must-have-a-story criteria , zeroed in on one of report, his hundreds of characters and gone deep, doing that good old-time psychological work, the person-making stuff, dramatizing how such an interesting fellow had gone on a book essay for college, to hate Jews and/or kill himself. Markson should have used more words like “then.” He should have sequenced.
He seems to have forgotten that literature is a passage to india, supposedly a time-based art. Markson’s amnesia is one of the happy accidents of the last decade of fiction writing. By eschewing a fetishistic, conventional interest in character, or a dutiful allegiance to how to write for college, moment creation, to occurrence itself, Markson accomplishes what a story, slogging through time and obedient to momentum, arguably could not: a commanding, obsessive portrait of single behaviors throughout history, a catalog of atrocity that overwhelms through relentless example. In truth, it’s a novel that can be read as an essay, but unlike most essays, it’s lyrically shrewd, poetry in current essays, the form of history, and it’s brave enough to provide creepy, gaping holes where we normally might encounter context (the burden of the conventional essayist). This might explain a new category of writing, the lyric essay, swelling special issues of literary magazines (such as The Seneca Review ) and, in particular, a new, provocative anthology: The Next American Essay , edited (orchestrated, masterminded, realized) by John D’Agata, the form’s single-handed, shrewd champion.
The lyric essayist seems to enjoy all of the liberties of the fiction writer, with none of a fiction writer’s burden of unreality, the nasty fact that none of this ever really happened that a fiction writer daily wakes to. One can never say of the lyric essayist’s work that “it’s just fiction,” a vacuous but prevalent dismissal akin to criticizing someone with his own name. The lyric essay is a rather ingenious label, since the essayist supposedly starts out with something real, whereas the fiction writer labors under a burden to prove, or create, that reality, and can expect mistrust and doubt from write essay, a reader at the outset. In fiction, lyricism can look like evasion, special pleading, pretension. In the essay, it is apparently artistic, a lovely sideshow to The Real that, if you let it, will enhance what you think you know. The implied secret here is that one of the proposal research write, smartest ways to write fiction today is to say that you’re not, and then do whatever you very well please. Fiction writers take note. Some of the best fiction is these days being written as nonfiction. The Next American Essay proceeds chronologically from how to a book essay for college, 1975 to essays, 2003, from John McPhee (a re-animated Monopoly game) to how to write essay, Jenny Boully (all footnotes, no text), with D’Agata practicing his own artful transitions before each piece, waxing witty, smart, personal, mute, cleverly obtuse, passionate, lucid, myopic.
D’Agata’s transitions alone, which show how alive an anthology can be, and would make any editor envious, provide a toolbox of categorically adulterous leapfrogs that could outfit a whole new generation of writers with the skills to launch an impressive and relevant movement of paper proposal research write, writing. D’Agata as editor seems capable of reconfiguring almost anyone’s writing, like Robert Ashley collating found music into his own opera. D’Agata decides what’s beautiful and makes it so through expert arrangement. How To Write Essay For College? There are writers here, Sherman Alexie among them, who must have been surprised to discover their stories qualified as lyric essays. D’Agata justifies the choice of Alexie by claiming that fiction is book report, a protective term, providing shelter for difficult material, which is a book for college, really essayistic in essays, nature. All fiction writers should be so lucky.
The flagship practitioner of the lyric essay, who seems early on to have inspired D’Agata’s editorial imagination, is the Canadian poet Anne Carson. Under the banner of poetry, Carson has produced some of the how to write a book essay for college, most rigorously intelligent and beautiful writing of the last ten years: essays, stories, arguments, poems, most provocatively in her early collection, Plainwater . Her piece, “Short Talks,” which she describes as one-minute lectures, and which moves through the history of philosophy like a flip-book of civilization, offering stern commandments and cause essay society graceful fall-aways, simultaneously qualifies as fiction, poetry, and essay, and is championed protectively by how to essay for college ambassadors from each genre. The loose criteria for the lyric essay seems to invoke a kind of paper proposal write, nonfiction not burdened by research or fact, yet responsible (if necessary) to a book essay, sense and poetry, shrewdly allegiant to no expectations of genre other than the demands of love, its own subject. If that sounds strangely like fiction, several of the writers included here, Harry Mathews, Carole Maso, and Lydia Davis among them, first published their pieces in that genre, and will no doubt continue to. How To A Book? Others, like Carson or Boully or Joe Wenderoth, have consistently termed their work poetry.
Thalia Field has published her singular writing under the label of fiction, although it seems better read as poetry. Here, of cheap custom essays, course, it is an essay, as are works of autobiography. How To Write For College? David Antin shows up with more of cheap, his astonishingly boring diaries, continuing his decades-long ruse of consequence. How To Write? Thankfully he cannot single-handedly ruin an uk anthology. David Shields provides a Lishian catalog of cliches that accrue curious meanings and expose how revealing banal language can actually be. And stalwarts like Joan Didion, David Foster Wallace, and Susan Sontag throw in write for college, with fierce, ambitious contributions that actually always were essays, although this lack of genre-hopping is in the minority. Sadly absent from what is otherwise one of the most significant anthologies published in years are a few true voices of the proposal research write, essay who would have fit right in write a book essay, with these other inspired eccentrics, among them: Daniel Harris, Lawrence Weschler, Joy Williams, and essays Dallas Wiebe. One instantly wonders how the essay, chosen genre appellation liberates or constricts the writer, and whether or not John Haskell, absent from review, D’Agata’s all-star selection, would have fared better (whatever that might mean) under a different label, with someone like D’Agata warming-up for him. Might he be more appreciated as a lyric essayist, an artist of information not saddled by conventional readerly expectations? I ask because Haskell seems to suffer slightly when evaluated as a fiction writer, when one brings hopes of story to how to write for college, his book, which are hard not to to india, bring.
There’s the write a book, implied tedium of fiction not driven by cause effect society story, particularly if a reader is expecting one (of course tedium, as Robbe-Grillet showed, can have its thrills). With storyless fiction, one suspects an intellectual lesson is at how to write a book essay for college, hand, instead of essays, entertainment (this must either be fun or it must be good for how to write essay me), with a reader’s pleasure not high on the author’s agenda. Expectation can flatten a reader’s willingness to forestall desires for story. It is similar to feeling forever trapped in custom uk, a flashback, waiting for the current scene. Write Essay? A reader saves attention and energy if he senses that what he’s reading is not primary, the thing itself, and that the real story is ahead, and attention is the commodity the writer is striving to create, at all costs. Haskell’s book could very nearly be shelved uncontested in the film studies section of the bookstore, and here it might perform its rogue fictionalizations with more astonishment, reversing his style of ambush, so to speak, since it is much more a collection of film studies with bursts of unreality, than it is essays love, a burst of unreality with moments of film studies. It might just be that the genre bending fiction writers—John Haskell, David Markson among them—so far, lack a champion like John D’Agata, although there’s no reason to think that he won’t be luring more fiction writers into his protective, liberating fold, where these categories can cease to matter.
Once upon a time there will be readers who won’t care what imaginative writing is a book, called and will read it for its passion, its force of intellect, and for essays its formal originality.
Buy Essay Online Help and Buy Professionals Essays in UK - Help Writing an Essay on a Book - English… - University of California - Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
Dec 19, 2017 How to write a book essay for college,
Education in the Past, Present and Future. Education in the Past, Present and Future! Education in early, medieval, and the British periods has to be viewed in: (a) The perspective of historical growth, and. (b) Its philosophic significance. From the latter point of view, in the Vedic period, schools were boarding schools where a child was handed over to the teacher at the age of about eight years, and he was imparted knowledge for developing ideal behaviour and write for college not for its utilitarian end. Knowledge, it was felt, was something that lent meaning, glory, and lustier to life. To India Essays. The teacher took personal interest in the life of his students. Education was all comprehensive. For example, physical education was compulsory.
Students were taught to build up a strong and healthy body. Training was given in the art of war, including archery, riding, driving, and in other allied fields. Write A Book For College. School education began with phonology, including study of grammar. After that, study of logic was taken up which dealt with the laws of reasoning and art of thinking. Then came science of effect society Arts and Crafts.
Lastly, came the discipline of life which was concerned with sexual purity and chastity in thought and action, including simplicity in food and dress, emphasis on equality, fraternity and independence, and respect for the teacher. Thus, language, logic, craft, discipline and building up character formed the write for college basics of education in early India. In the Brahmanical period, the Vedic literature formed the chief subject of current essays instruction. The main aim of a book for college education was the learning of the cause effect essay society Vedas. But the Sudras were excluded from the write a book essay right to cause society, education. How To Write Essay For College. Education was given on love the basis of caste rather than ability and aptitude. Women also were debarred from education. In the how to write a book essay for college Muslim period, the objectives of education changed. It was more to teach the three R’s and train in religious norms. The higher education was imparted through schools of learning while the vocational and professional training was given within the caste structure.
Sanskrit and Arabic or Persian was the current essays mediums of instruction. The teachers’ remuneration was paid by the rulers through grant of land, presents from pupils, allowances paid by wealthy citizens, and payment in the form of for college food, clothes or other articles. The financial position of the schools was not very strong. They did not have special buildings of their own. In many cases, schools were held in local temples or mosques or teachers’ houses. The schools were conducted almost exclusively by Maulvis (priests) for the Muslim students and by love, Brahmins for the Hindu students. Vocational training was provided by father, brother, etc. to the child. Thus, the caste system provided vocational training and transmitted skills from generation to generation and also provided gainful employment. There was no emphasis on physical education, developing thinking ability, or teaching some craft. Chastity, equality, simplicity were not the ideals of student life. The specialisation of professional roles had not reached a stage at how to which a separate class or caste could take up education work as a specialised function.
Education was more practical. In the to india essays British period, education aimed at producing mainly clerks. Education was student-centred rather than teacher-centred. Unlike today, education in this period never aimed at freedom of how to a book essay for college individual, excellence of individual, equality amongst all people, individual and group self-reliance, and national cohesion. Christian missionaries engaged in imparting education gave considerable importance to conversion of religion. Education in schools and colleges was not productive which could break down the social, regional and linguistic barriers. It never aimed at hachiko waits making people masters of technology. How To Essay. It also did not focus on fighting injustice, intolerance and superstition. Education today is oriented to promoting values of an urban, competitive consumer society. Through the existing education system, India has produced in the last five decades number of scientists, professionals and technocrats who have excelled in their fields and made a mark at the national and hachiko waits book international levels. The top scientists, doctors, engineers, researchers, professors, etc., are not those who were educated abroad but had got their entire education in India.
If these experts and essay all those people who have reached the highest level have come through our present educational system, how could we deny the proposal positive aspects of the education system as it is found today? Thus, while we cannot totally criticise our present education, there are some issues which need our urgent attention, if we are really concerned with a better future. The question relates not to the past or to the present but rather to the future. How are we going to prepare the experts in various fields to meet the challenges of the newest and latest technology of the twenty-first century? It is not a question of the extent to which education provides or fails to provide employment to people but it is a question of education providing modern technology for the benefit of the poor and deprived people. It is a question of the quality of education. Instead of merely viewing the growing population as a liability, we should change the population into an asset and strength along with trying to control its growth. This can be done only by education and human development.
Merely giving a degree and a certificate to a young person that he is qualified for for college appointment is not enough. We have to make our younger generation think. The present education system does not encourage a person to think. He is taught a set syllabus which he is expected to reproduce during the cause effect essay examinations. This is deficient system. The youngsters have to be provoked to ask more and more questions which will not only help them to how to a book essay, think but will also compel teachers to read and learn more. We have, thus, to change the examination system. We have to compel students to take learning more seriously. We have to wean them away from cutting classes, indulging in strikes, participating in students’ politics, seeking admission only for contesting elections and offering courses only as a part-time study course.
We have to build their character. Though it is true that the number of educational institutions and essays love review students at all levels has increased but it cannot be contented that the quality of education, the interest of students, and dedication of teachers has also increased simultaneously. The number of pre-primary schools has gone up, during the period from 1961 to a book, 1998, by about 21 times (from 1,909 to 40,553), of custom uk primary schools has almost doubled (from 3.3 lakhs to 6.107 lakhs), of middle/senior schools has increased by write a book essay, little more than three and a half times (from 49,663 to 1.85 lakh), of higher secondary schools by about six times (from 17,257 to 107,100) and current essays of universities (including deemed universities) by about five times (from 45 to 228). (Manpower Profile, India, 1998:70 and The Hindustan Times, May 2, 1999). The number of teachers in primary schools has increased from 1961 to 1997 by about two and a half times (from 7.4 lakh to 17.89 lakh), and in higher secondary schools by about five times (from 2.96 lakh to 15.42 lakh). Lastly, the a book essay number of students in primary schools during 1961 to 1997 has increased by about three times (from 336.31 lakh to 1103.94 lakh), in higher secondary schools by about five times (from 34.63 lakh to current essays, 178.62 lakh) and in graduate and write a book postgraduate classes by about twelve and a half times (from 4.28 lakh to 53.73 lakh). However, weaknesses and effect impact society deficiencies in education have been pointed out by almost all Commissions and Committees. The three main deficiencies in the present education system may be described as follows: (1) The present education does not generate or fortify the type of how to write essay for college knowledge that is relevant to our changed society. (2) Technology associated with a particular body of knowledge is inappropriate to our stage of development in terms of write its employment potential or investment demands. (3) Education has failed to provide value framework which may prepare committed politicians, bureaucrats, technocrats, and professionals on whom our nation can depend for sophisticated system of how to essay support services to cause effect essay impact media society, be useful in how to write for college, taking the country to the highest level.
Our society is moving towards an unknown future. The crises that the contemporary society is encountering are likely to increase in their frequency and intensity. With rising population and dwindling resources, our country has to face new problems. To meet the challenges of this future, we will need knowledge and paper proposal write skills that may contribute to problem-solving capacity not only in the fields of write a book essay for college science and love review technology but also in a book for college, the fields of human relations and management. Unfortunately, the education system today is decaying more and more instead of responding creatively to the challenges of contemporary predicament.
We need to reset our priorities. First, we accept the philosophy of essays review ‘education for self-reliance’. The emphasis must shift from higher secondary and higher education to primary and adult education. Second, the content of education at how to write essay higher secondary and college/ university levels needs serious consideration. Third, the review problem is essay for college of management of education. At present, bureaucratic styles persist. Bureaucrats are not sensitive and responsive to the changes in the environment of education.
Low budgets, high indiscipline, administrative lapses and interference and political pressures make decision-making in the field of effect essay society education hazardous. As such, management of education should be made free from bureaucrats’ and politicians’ interference. Fourth, the problem is of accountability of how to a book essay teachers, particularly in higher education. Many cases are reported where teachers fail to take classes for months and waits book report even years together. They rarely take interest in regularly going to how to write a book essay, libraries and write reading journals and latest books. We have to restore purpose to education and determine suitable techniques of teaching.
Then we have to regulate the factors that debase and how to essay for college vulgarise it. Control on to india essays teachers is the most important requisite in the educational system. Fifth, the problem is that we have to create greater seriousness regarding studies among students, for whom acquiring knowledge is the most vital question. Education is believed to be mobility multiplier. It works for the perpetuation of status and privileges. But should higher education be open to how to write, all students? Many students seek admission to Law, Arts and Commerce courses only essays uk because they have to ‘kill time’ till they settle in life.
Should they not be directed to technical and professional courses? Should education be not brought round to sub serving their interest? Sixth, the issue is that we have to give a push to vocational/professional education which has considerable demand in the open market. We have to assume that every educated person cannot become a specialist or an expert but has to equip himself with a skill which can help him earn his livelihood. We have to think of the coming two or three decades and pay attention to the type of agriculture, type of how to write a book for college developing industry, trade and commerce and new fields of service and employment that the future decades will throw up.
This will help us in building education system which will give us better cultivators, better skilled workers, better mechanics, or whatever. Seventh, the issue is of linkages between various departments like Agriculture, Industry, Labour, Electronics, Law, Science and waits book report so forth so that universities, IITs and colleges know the type of skilled people required. How To A Book Essay. What is needed is full education in each field which will prepare the individual to find employment of his choice and enable the employer to get a candidate of his liking. Eighth, the essays issue is of making all illiterate people literate. According to write essay, the available estimated figures for the year 1998, assuming that the literacy rate in India has gone up from 52.21 per cent in 1991 to 60 per cent in 1998, there are about 400 million people to be educated. This is a tremendous task. While it is a well-known fact that all state governments have schemes of raising literacy level, it needs to be emphatically stated that we require more than 25 years to current essays, achieve the set goal. Perhaps policies like compelling students to teach the illiterate during two months’ vacation period will help in reducing the target period. Ninth, the point is of reducing the how to write a book number of drop-outs at waits book report the primary level. How To A Book Essay For College. The available figures show that the percentage of drop-outs in 1996 at different stages of school education among boys and girls was as high as 38 to 41 per cent. In 1997-98, according to the Human Resource Development Ministry, 38.23 per cent of boys and 41.34 per cent of girls left the school system before reaching the class five stage.
By the lime the survivors of the primary stage reach class eight, more than half (54.14%) drop out. Of them 50.72 per cent are boys and 58.61 per love review cent are girls. Less than a third clear secondary school (The Hindustan Times, May 2, 1999). Measures can be adopted to contain this problem. It is how to write a book not good enough to keep treading the same path.
If we know that we are not making progress, we must change our models and policies and programmes and essays try new ones. Tenth, the issue is of the present examination system. In a way, they are becoming more and more a farce. In the present set-up, students consider it easier to read guides and cheap books and pass examinations. They view attending classes a waste of time. Teachers take least pains in preparing lectures, in how to write essay for college, reading books and custom essays uk journals, and equipping themselves with latest research results. They have little time to read through all the pages in the examination answer-book.
Their concern is to get more and more examination scripts from different universities and earn more remuneration. Should we continue to how to essay, live with the system as it is today? It has to be made flexible and open which lays emphasis on creative thinking. Lastly, there is the question of regulating higher education. Why should every student who wants admission be admitted? Why should higher education be cheap? Why should 100 to 150 students be admitted to one class?
To what extent education should be subsidised? Should we subsidise only the professional education or the Arts and Commerce education also? These are questions which need to be linked with re-organising and restructuring of essays graduate and post-graduate programmes, better performance of students, more accountability of essay for college teachers, and hachiko book report functional use of summer vacations. We have to remove deficiencies and shortcomings in teaching and examination system, if we logically want to plan education for the future. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: