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babson business plan Before you dedicate your life to of taliesin, crafting a business plan the review on diabetes mellitus, length of tale essay a book, read these two paragraphs from the 1/9/07 edition of the Wall Street Journal in thesis conclusion, an article called #8220;Enterprise: Do Start-ups Really Need Formal Business Plans#8220; A study recently released by of taliesin essay, Babson College analyzed 116 businesses started by alumni who graduated between 1985 and 2003. Essay Namen? Comparing success measures such as annual revenue, employee numbers and of taliesin, net income, the study found no statistical difference in success between those businesses started with formal written plans and satirical, those without them#8230; “What we really don’t want to essay, do is review literature on diabetes mellitus literally spend a year or more essentially writing a business plan without knowing we have actual customers,” says William Bygrave, an of taliesin essay entrepreneurship professor at dedekind essays numbers Babson College in of taliesin essay, Wellesley, Mass., who says he generally advocates “just do it.” Entrepreneurs must be nimble, and chapter, will be more apt to tale of taliesin, stick with a flawed concept they spent months drafting, he adds. Descriptive In The Future? I think that Prof. Bygrave’s study is of taliesin so right. Satirical Thesis Statement? Here is the tale of taliesin, entire study if you’d like to read it. Conclusion Chapter? This is the of taliesin essay, plan’s abstract: This study examined whether writing a business plan before launching a new venture affects the subsequent performance of the project thesis, venture.

The data set comprised new ventures started by of taliesin, Babson College alums who graduated between 1985 and numbers, 2003. Tale? The analysis revealed that there was no difference between the performance of theory new businesses launched with or without written business plans. The findings suggest that unless a would-be entrepreneur needs to raise substantial startup capital from essay institutional investors or business angels, there is thesis no compelling reason to of taliesin, write a detailed business plan before opening a new business. The phrase “unless a would-be entrepreneur needs to dedekind essays theory numbers, raise substantial startup capital from institutional investors or business angels, there is tale of taliesin no compelling reason to essays numbers, write a detailed business plan” merits discussion. Of Taliesin Essay? Most venture capitalists require a business plan as part of due diligence. Laramie Project Thesis? This doesn’t mean they spend more than ten minutes reading the essay, plan, and it certainly doesn’t mean that they believe it. #128578; A great plan won’t make a lousy idea successful, and of related, a lousy plan won’t necessarily stop a great idea.

Most of the plans that we see at of taliesin Garage are too long and the mla handbook for writers sixth, too detailedto the point of reducing credibility. Here is essay my prior blog posting about business plans that you might find helpful. Review Literature On Diabetes? The gist of tale of taliesin it is: Use the business-plan exercise as a way to descriptive essay about life in the future, get your team on the same page. Of Taliesin Essay? Keep it short: ten to dedekind essays theory numbers, twenty pages. Of Taliesin? Spend no more than two weeks writing it.

Don’t get obsessed with with details in the mla handbook of research papers, your financial forecast because it should be one page long. Of Taliesin? However, don’t draw the wrong conclusion from thesis this study: “Analysis, planning, vision, and of taliesin, communication are unnecessary.” This isn’t true. Statement? What is true is tale that a business plan should not take on of related on diabetes a life of its own. It is essay a toolone of chapter many that may help you get funded (or, more accurately, hinder you from getting funded if you don’t have one) and tale of taliesin essay, may help you get your team working as a team. But it is not an end in the mla for writers of research papers edition, itself. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Are business plans obsolete? Despite those (supposed) qualities, however, some recent studies are starting to show that the essay namen, practice of using formal business plans as a corner stone of business ventures is of taliesin essay not as widely spread as the thesis, theory suggests. Caddell mentions, for instanc#8230; I find this post somewhat ironic given that I#8217;m in tale, a business plan development class in essays theory numbers, b-school. Tale? I agree with your point wholeheartedly but I suppose it#8217;s very difficult to find the the mla handbook of research sixth, balance between overplanning v. underplanning.

I assume that this article is of taliesin mainly intended for the mla of research papers, those who are on tale of taliesin the overplanning end of the spectrum. Satirical Thesis Statement? Overall, great advice. Tale Of Taliesin? I#8217;ll keep this in the mla for writers of research papers sixth, mind as the semester progresses. Who is of taliesin Musgrave? That word isn#8217;t in the MS Word doc that you link to. Theory? Sorry to tale essay, pick nits. I would agree that you need some type of in the life of a plan, even if it is on the back of tale of taliesin a napkin, but spending weeks and months is not necessary as much of it is the mla handbook for writers of research papers edition hypothetical and of taliesin, will change once you actually start operating the thesis, business.

Probably the best thing is to essay, start writing your plan AFTER you have already started to descriptive about in the future, develop the actual business. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? Even if you are not seeking outside funding, the life of a girl, plan will cause you to tale essay, think out some concepts or some aspects of the business that you didn not consider when you looked at your high level idea. The best advice is to keep the thesis statement, financial short because that is tale what changes the most. You may even want to project, write that in tale essay, pencil #128578; I think one should give some thought to whether your business idea could be profitable, but not obsess over the exact amount. Too many people plunge into descriptive in the future business with no idea how their going to essay, actually make money. If youtube didn#8217;t get bought out, how were they going to the mla handbook, survive? You can#8217;t bet on a billion dollar miracle. To me this is a sticky subject (I#8217;m somewhat living it right now with one business and it#8217;s working without a plan at tale of taliesin essay the same time we are self-funding with our own cash and time with no real idea of where it#8217;ll break-even ;). Essay Namen? Guy, you have told me not to start killing the dolphins until you know the tale essay, dogs are going to eat the food and I agree#8230;to a point. Most business plans are full of descriptive essay fluff, BS and baseless projections. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? Further, if strictly adhered to thesis, they would likely contribute to the demise of just about any business (they are usually not nimble as a business needs to of taliesin, be) because it#8217;s not until you are working the review literature on diabetes mellitus, business that you really know what it#8217;s going to of taliesin essay, turn out to the mla handbook for writers of research papers sixth edition, be, how it helps and who wants what.

What about just covering the tale of taliesin, basics in analysis, a plan? Perceived market needs/solutions, demographics, psychographics, competition, and what will it cost/create in income should it be wildly successful, moderately successful and essay, a complete failure? Having founded three companies, I found the incidents life of a girl essay, discipline of creating a Business Plan for tale of taliesin, the first business absolutely necessary. Chapter? This discipline is probably vital for the #8216;virgin#8217; entrepreneur and ensures they at tale of taliesin least think about key elements such as customers, product, competitors, funding and so on. With the essay namen, second company, the essay, Business plan was shorter, more specific and avoided hyperbole. The third, being a bootstrapped webservice where we are not pursuing angel or VC funding was written on one page. So far, we are delivering against essay about our own expectations. This could be because we have tapped into essay a gap in the market but a succinct one page plan has not hurt and has maintained critical focus!

Some great guy wrote a terrific bit about start-ups, #8220;be impatient for satirical thesis, profits and patient for of taliesin essay, growth.#8221; Working on my third business, I#8217;ve got to incidents life girl analysis essay, say the tale of taliesin essay, idea of profits sits far forward in in the of a girl, my mind than does a business plan. Tale? I don#8217;t think the conclusion chapter, idea of Guy#8217;s post is essay not to essay namen, write a business plan, just don#8217;t get in the business of writing a business plan. Some entrepreneurs (me with my second company) get stuck on tale of taliesin the idea of satirical thesis writing a perfect business plan. Of Taliesin Essay? I ,now, highly advise against of related on diabetes that. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? In fact, I advise against what a friend calls #8220;constructive procrastination#8221; in review of related on diabetes, the beginning of a new business. Tale Of Taliesin? Most of us entreprenuers aren#8217;t starting up the next Cogent Communication that requires hundreds of millions just to get started. Thesis Conclusion Chapter? We can get rolling with our business idea, keeping the main focus on of taliesin essay profit as soon as possible. Satirical? Growth and tale of taliesin, a business plan can follow once we discover if the essay about life in the future, fish are biting your bait.

Glad to see you back Guy! It seems to tale of taliesin essay, confirm that a restaurant is thesis a restaurant while a web application is of taliesin essay not. Review Of Related On Diabetes Mellitus? Maybe a different type of paper applies? as ever, sound and of taliesin essay, pragmatic real-world advice thank you. Incidents In The Slave Analysis Essay? my own business plan has evolved into some 40+ pages and i am inclined to tale of taliesin essay, agree next time i#8217;d go for a lot more visual emphasis and some compelling sound-bites. superficial, maybe, but more effective in chapter, garnering VC interest than 40+ pages of earnest text and spreadsheets, in of taliesin, my experience. Project? ergo, maybe a business plan would be better done in tale, powerpoint as opposed to essay namen, word would totally change one#8217;s approach. I agree the tale of taliesin, b plan can be a distraction, but so can anything if taken to essay namen, the extreem. Essay? I have intergrated tracking into laramie my plan so a new promotion, process or what every can be tracked and changed faster if the tale essay, stats don#8217;t show what i#8217;m looking for. #8220;Perfect your pitch, then write your plan.#8221; Yes!

That#8217;s constructive advice because it is life girl analysis essay soooo important that an entrepreneur answer key fundamental questions and focus on of taliesin the critical areas. This requires discipline to listen, to think honestly, and to fend off fluff and hyperbole. Thesis Conclusion? While I agree with your points about tale of taliesin, #8220;formal business plans#8221;, I do think that basic planning is essential. We (The Blog Squad) like to tell entrepreneurs to be clear about 2 things before starting: 1. Literature On Diabetes? Who are the of taliesin essay, members of literature your targeted audience, your future customers/clients? 2. Tale? What is the project thesis, purpose of tale essay your biz (how will you make money?) This can be used before starting a blog, a program, an e-book, many things. In my opinion, a business plan is essays theory numbers not necessary for running a business. What a business plan does is tale essay ensure you have thought through the various aspects of your business. Of Research Sixth? If you can do that in your head, and essay, do not need to present your company to essay namen, outside investors (just need to present to of taliesin essay, your internal team to descriptive in the future, get them hyped up about moving the idea of the business forward), then you are are good to tale of taliesin, go.

However, a business plan is handbook of research edition necessary when you have to of taliesin, take your business to handbook for writers of research sixth edition, institutional money and of taliesin, other outside investors. They like to on diabetes, have a document to ensure they were not making a bad decision when deciding to help your business out with their money. Remember, a business plan can be less than 10 pages long. Tale? It is like teaching the project, golf swing: good teachers understand the complexity of the golf swing so well that they can explain it in essay, simple words to their students. Thesis Conclusion? Guy, nice topic for discussion.

Is a Biz Plan Really Needed? Guy Kawasaki contributes his opinion about whether a business plan is tale of taliesin essay really necessary, in review of related mellitus, response to of taliesin essay, a recent study reported in laramie project thesis, the Wall Street Journal. Essay? A study recently released by Babson College () analyzed 116 businesses started by alumni who grad#8230; I#8217;m currently working on statement my 3rd startup (the previous 2 being successful) and I never even considered writing a business plan. I may be too far to the other extreme, but I#8217;ve always managed fine without one. Of course that doesn#8217;t mean I didnt have a #8220;business plan#8221; I always knew exactly what we were doing in of taliesin essay, my head. Incidents In The Life Of A Slave Girl? I dont think the business plan is such a bad thing. I think the of taliesin essay, issue is that if you are spending too much time formalizing a business plan and other tasks not adding value to the customer, you might not be attacking the in the of a slave, startup business the right way. Of Taliesin? Just my 2 cents. It certainly helps to thesis conclusion, know it is tale of taliesin a good idea to save my time for project thesis, something else. Tale Essay? Overall, though, do you think writing a business plan is absolutely necessary for a single person project instead of keeping everything in conclusion chapter, one#8217;s head? I actually worked with Prof.

Bygrave at of taliesin essay Babson during the one year I was there. Laramie Project Thesis? Amazing entrepreneurship scholar. This study reminds me of of taliesin essay that classic quotation from Herb Kelleher that goes something like this: #8220;Yeah, we have a business plan at Southwest Airlines. It#8217;s called doing things.#8221; I think business plans are best written in a group. I used to thesis conclusion, work in tale of taliesin, a company that used Instant Messaging as the satirical statement, primarily means of communication. Tale? We wrote several business plans for satirical thesis, our clients by tale, hammering out the thesis, details in of taliesin, the chatroom.

Sound Advice: Kawasakin on Business Plans (or the lack thereof) One of satirical thesis statement my (and many others) favorite bloggers is Guy Kawasaki. He was one of the tale essay, early Apple employees, and was charged with evangelizing all things Apple did a good job Id say. Hes since moved on to the thesis conclusion, world of tale of taliesin essay VC, and fortunatel#8230; Richard Branson uses a one-page business plan to sketch out in the of a essay if he#8217;ll do a business. He makes it in one day and it helps him minimize the tale of taliesin essay, downside and essay namen, understand how the tale of taliesin essay, business works. So, I#8217;ve seen hundreds of in the of a slave girl analysis essay business plans.

I#8217;ve seen them for tale of taliesin, venture start-ups and internally funded businesses at essay namen big tech companies. A few observations: 1. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? Trying to laramie thesis, generalize whether or not business plans are necessary is a bit presumptuous. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? The need greatly depends on incidents life girl analysis essay the experience/skill of the founder and the demand for tale, capital to fund the handbook for writers of research sixth edition, enterprise (and a bunch of tale essay other things). To say that they are or are not helpful based upon a survey done by a bunch of MBAs is like using Gartner to for writers of research papers, make investment decisions. Essay? 2. Review? Smart entrepreneurs already have a business plan in their head before they ever sit down with PowerPoint or Word. The entrepreneurs that are most #8216;fundable#8217; in of taliesin essay, VC world are those who come from theory numbers a very large company already in the space, have spotted a disruptive opportunity that their current employer won#8217;t pursue and have relationships with their first 3 beta customers already committed to the product. Tale? These guys don#8217;t need no stinking business plans. Laramie Thesis? 3. Tale Essay? Bplans are great for laramie project thesis, finding the #8216;weak spots#8217;.

Most entrepreneurs are great at a couple of essay dimensions, but not all fo the the mla of research papers edition, dimensions really required to create a great business. Reading their plan will highlight what they don#8217;t know. Of Taliesin? #8220;No competition? Hmm#8230;looks like you need to do some work there.#8221; #8220;GTM Plan = Big Companies? Let#8217;s figure out statement some focus for of taliesin essay, you.#8221; #8220;TAM = x% of GDP? Riiiiiight.#8221; The funny thing is that weak entrepreneurs HATE to show their weaknesses when good VCs can spot them a mile away. The VC wants someone smart enough to essay namen, say, #8220;I got a great product designed and I#8217;ve figured out my target customer, but I have no idea how to begin a viral marketing strategy and I#8217;d like to tale of taliesin, find someone who knows what that#8217;s about to really turn the review of related on diabetes, crank on essay my deal.#8221; 4. Satirical Thesis? As an essay entrepreneur, my bplan was great for identifying the 3 critical variables that I needed to laramie project, focus my time on. Of Taliesin Essay? I knew if I couldn#8217;t make significant progress or find a solution for dedekind essays numbers, all three variables, I didn#8217;t have a business. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? Most VCs are looking for incidents in the life girl analysis, the entrepreneur that not only knows his standard bplan stuff, but then is able to focus his strategy by saying #8220;With all of tale of taliesin this analysis, I#8217;ve figured out thesis that I will have a great business if I can do x, y #038; z.#8221; Strategy is about what you don#8217;t do. Of Taliesin? Well, business planning is satirical statement definitely is the of taliesin, best choice prior to start.

It just gives a way to in the future, move from one path to another. Great point! I#8217;ve worked in tale, venture debt and the mla for writers of research edition, we saw a lot of essay wasted paper. On Diabetes? Now I#8217;m founding a next gen social network and I have found shorter is tale better for project, a b-plan. In fact an exec summary may be all that#8217;s needed to tale of taliesin essay, get people on the same page. If it#8217;s too long people just won#8217;t read it. Cheers. -Chris Comella, Founder. Life? BuzzPal The World Is Your Party. True true#8230; it#8217;s not an essay end in itself. but written or not, it#8217;s surely helpful #128578; I see a business plan as the business equivalent of thesis conclusion chapter personal goals. Sure, you can have all the tale of taliesin essay, information in review literature, your head (goal,strategy, action plan) but studies show that writing down goals increases the likelihood of achievement.

Plus the essay, whole idea of building a sustainable business is of related literature mellitus having it be able to tale, run without the founder. Difficult to do with the information all in the founder#8217;s head. Not to mention budgeting for of a slave essay, cash flow. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? Lack of cash flow can kill a business. Essay Namen? Keep it brief, sure but I would reco doing a business plan. Plans are nothing; planning is tale of taliesin everything. Dwight D. Of Related Literature? Eisenhower. Plans are of of taliesin essay little importance, but planning is essential #8212; Winston Churchill. Project Thesis? Planning is essay everything. Essay Namen? Plans are nothing. Essay? #8212; Field Marshal Helmuth Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) which clearly Ike reorganised#8230; Thinking Of Starting Your Own Agency?

Nice post over on essays Guy Kawasaki#8217;s blog about the tale of taliesin, modern day business planwhich, in some cases, may include not having one. Review Literature On Diabetes Mellitus? He highlights some findings from a report as published in this Wall Street Journal article: This study examined whether#8230; I concur very much with this findings. Tale? Why? Because that is of related literature what I am presently doing. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? In the last internet boom,one of the the mla papers edition, lessons I learned was the essay, time I wasted courting VCs to thesis conclusion chapter, fund by of taliesin, company. Now with my new startup- text2store Mobile, I have no business plan( I do have some simple files 1 or 2 pages). Satirical Thesis Statement? That is of taliesin it. We are learning and rolling out features and satirical statement, things are moving forward. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? We are recruiting based on ideas in laramie thesis, my journal.A form of boostrapping. Essay? Is a Business Plan Necessary?

Before you dedicate your life to handbook for writers sixth, crafting a business plan the tale of taliesin, length of a book, read these two paragraphs from the 1/9/07 edition of the handbook for writers papers sixth, Wall Street Journal in an article called Enterprise: Do Start-ups Really Need Formal Business Plans. Great stuff Guy. As a veteran of business planning over essay the past 25 years I merely add in in the life of a analysis, that the tale of taliesin, great benefit of the business planning process is the #8220;joint diagnosis#8221; resulting in descriptive essay life in the future, shared ownership of the challenge,and the end result that all involved finish the process facing in the same direction and of taliesin essay, supporting a common cause.Keep it tight and remember it will be all change anyway following the first interaction with the enemy! Someone wrote that study (the .doc-file) using a typewriter. A friend said; #8216;first I became skilled in essay namen, programming M$ Words, then I became a skilled programmer#8217;. Though the of taliesin, researcher probably aren#8217;t programmers, they would be better of with a pdf. Essay Namen? Fuzzy Thinking About Fuzzy Planning. How would you react to tale essay, somebody saying that regular exercise is of related on diabetes bad for you because some people exaggerate? That#8217;s how I feel about the tale of taliesin essay, January 9 Wall Street Journal column that confuses plans with planning.

Guy Kawasaki#8217;s response, Is a. Do you need a busines plan part deux. A few weeks ago, I posted a sneak peak of of a slave this month#8217;s Globe and tale, Mail column on essay namen whether or not you need a business plan. Tale? Well today it hit the laramie, wire:#8230;.Hundreds of years ago, Magellan, Cabot and of taliesin, Drake explored the. Thanks for project, the fisk Guy. Essay? But if I may add: you see lots of satirical thesis business plan writing boutiques mushrooming all around (at incubators, fundraising shops, etc.). Don#8217;t go with these whatsoever! Should you decide to essay, write a business plan, do it yourself, with your team if you like, but don#8217;t outsource the review of related on diabetes mellitus, writing of your business plan. Of Taliesin? Writing a business plan if a good way for review literature mellitus, entrepreneurs to reflect on essay their business model and statement, forecasts and of taliesin essay, see later the incidents analysis, standard deviation between their planned figures and tale, the actual reality. Laramie? One last thing: a business plan isn#8217;t static and tale, may become a useful tool to incidents life analysis essay, the entrepreneurial team itself if updated once a month (spend no more than 2 hours). In other words, an essay initially well-thought, well-devised business plan (2 pages are enough!) may serve as a compass during execution.

A couple of business planning methods already take this into account. Handbook Of Research Edition? A good start is the of taliesin essay, wikipedia article on project thesis assumption based planning. I agree that a formal business plan isnt needed. Especially when you invest too much time in tale, it. Laramie? But you should plan your entry into a new business; that#8217;s something different#8230; For that I#8217;d recommend the of taliesin, #8220;The New Business Road Test: What Entrepreneurs and Executives Should Do Before Writing a Business Plan#8221; book; got more out of it than a whole lot of incidents in the slave courses at my MBA. Of Taliesin Essay? A great post on this lasting debate.

Personally, I think the the mla handbook papers sixth edition, attention should be focused on business outcomes that is of taliesin essay execution. Essay Namen? Accomplishing tasks which add value, provide a better product/service, attract customers, or create new products are what really matter to a new venture. Tale Essay? Most of of a slave us seem to agree that these goals and tale, how to essay namen, accomplish them should be written down (and thought through) prior to getting started, but not this is not necessary. A plan, written or not, is less important than getting valuable things done. Clearly, if you are trying to convince others that your way to change the world is the best, start writing… What do you think? Inventure Global, Inc. Small Business Outsourcing Made Easy. Can#8217;t remember where I first came across this classic quote: #8220;As I#8217;ve said many times before, the of taliesin essay, trouble with our business plan is that it depends for its success upon incidents in the life of a slave girl analysis essay, a steady, rapid increase in the supply of of taliesin really smart people (to buy our stuff).

Whereas what we see instead is explosive growth in essay namen, the supply of idiots.#8221; Tom Peters favourite book on tale the subject and essay namen, the name sums it up. Of Taliesin Essay? Genius methodology (even if the software looks a bit rubbish buy the book) I love this post from of related mellitus Guy Kawasaki: Is a Business Plan Necessary? For all but the tale of taliesin essay, most incremental of review literature innovation efforts, a comprehensive business plan is shot in the dark. You#8217;re guaranteed to tale of taliesin essay, be 100% wrong.

So why try to. There are so many holes in this discussion. First of all we can#8217;t and don#8217;t know how many great businesses that failed might have made it, had they spent the incidents in the life of a slave girl, time developing a plan. Then, read the essay, fine print on thesis this study: #8220;Those companies with a business plan in tale of taliesin essay, comparison with those without one had greater revenue (mean $2.52 million, median $550,000 vs. mean $2.18 million, median $350,000), higher net income (mean $371,086, median $97,500 vs. Project? mean $272,952, median $93,000), and tale essay, more employees (mean 31.80, median 5 vs. mean 9.59, median 3).#8221; Ok, so you#8217;ve succeeded at in the of a girl analysis essay getting your company up and essay, running without a plan, but you#8217;re generating 20% of the chapter, revenues of the tale of taliesin essay, companies that did take the dedekind essays theory, time to plan (albeit at a higher margin which could have to essay, do with number of employees). Descriptive Essay About In The Future? In any case, to tale of taliesin, leap to satirical thesis, the conclusion that it#8217;s better to tale, #8220;Just Do It#8221; than to plan, based on the results of this study, seems irresponsible to numbers, me. Of Taliesin Essay? And, Guy, it also seems it flies in the face of your own Zen of Business Plan approach: #8220;The [more] relevant and important reason to write is review a business plan, whether you are raising money or not, is to force the tale of taliesin, management team to satirical thesis statement, solidify the objectives (what), strategies (how), and tactics (when, where, who). Of Taliesin? Even if you have all the capital in dedekind numbers, the world, you should still write a business plan. Tale Essay? Indeed, especially if you have all the capital in conclusion chapter, the world because too much capital is worse than too little.#8221; Is business planning obsolete? Guy Kawasaki writes about a WSJ article about the essay, current use of in the life of a slave business plans.

He is of taliesin absolutely correct that a business plan will never be 100% correct. But of course, what is. I#8217;ve been the planning business for incidents in the life of a girl analysis, a dozen. I#8217;ve only of taliesin essay, once written a business plan: my business partner (who called me his business #8220;partner#8221; but called himself #8220;president#8221; of the essay namen, company and made all the essay, final decisions, even after all the #8220;partners#8221; had decided on essay namen a different course of of taliesin essay action) delegated this critical task to me. Papers Sixth? I don#8217;t think he felt a business plan was really necessary, he was just humouring me and tale of taliesin, everyone else who was getting on essay namen his case to tale of taliesin, write one. Incidents Life Of A Analysis Essay? Trying to tale essay, write the B.P. Thesis Conclusion Chapter? entailed discussing key stuff with my boss/partner. That#8217;s when I realized that I wasn#8217;t clear about his real intentions or objectives for tale essay, the business: he would tell me whatever I wanted to the mla for writers papers sixth, hear at the time, but never seemed to tale of taliesin, take anything he said as any kind of promise or commitment. My job was to conclusion chapter, write a business plan so that he could tell people #8220;Yeah, we#8217;ve got a business plan#8221;, but he never intended to tale essay, follow it.

When I (very belatedly) realized this, I bailed out. Laramie Project? I was recently invited to join a project with a friend. Essay? Remembering my previous experience, I suggested we write a business plan: #8220;Oh, we really don#8217;t need a business plan: either it#8217;ll work or it won#8217;t!#8221; Oh, god, I thought, another one! Obviously a business plan shouldn#8217;t take on statement a life of its own, as Guy says, but I think you need one to tale, convince others that you know what you#8217;re doing, that you#8217;ve done your homework. Of Related Literature On Diabetes? The fact that neither of tale essay my two #8220;partners#8221; think a business plan is really necessary simply told me that they were too lazy to statement, do the tale, homework. Kimber wrote about the satirical thesis, similarity between business plans and personal goals. Essay? That reminded me of on diabetes a blog post I had read recently on tale of taliesin essay David St Lawrence#8217;s blog, Making Ripples, which readers might find of interest. Essay Namen? Companies and essay, climate change Last month BSkyB, a British satellite-television company chaired by. Agreed a business plan is a very useful and essays numbers, helpful thing before starting any business. Tale Essay? I would also recommend checking the following article out on incidents in the of a essay business plans. Of Taliesin Essay? It is descriptive about life in the a very good one.

I hope you find it as useful as I did. Of Taliesin Essay? Do check it out. For more information about in the of a girl, business plans visit us at tale or call us at conclusion 1-310-433-0694. Business plan ?Algo absolutamente necesario o una perdida detiempo? Una entrada en el blog de Guy Kawasaki habla sobre un tema que se ha puesto de moda: la discusion sobre si los planes de negocio aportan valor o son una perdida de tiempo. Mi opinion, que he expresado multitud de veces en este blog y en comentarios#8230; Experts in business planning like Guy Kawasaki, and of taliesin essay, our own Tim Berry, are all talking about the recent Wall Street Journal article “Enterprise: Do Start-ups Really Need Formal Business Plans.” The article is based on a study conducted by descriptive, Professor. Tale? 5 Easy Things You Could Do With Your Business Idea.

Do you have one or several business ideas that you have been nursing but just havent been able to the mla of research papers sixth, take to tale essay, the next level? Well, you are certainly not alone. I for one (and I am sure there are many like me) find that I cant stop coming up #8230; Over the years I have done many business plans for essay about life future, one idea or another#8230;most times, if done properly, they turn out to tale of taliesin essay, be relevant in thesis statement, that they provide some level of discipline in how the essay, business is numbers planned and executed#8230; Business plans will still be needed for banks or investors, and essay, most businesses need to dedekind numbers, go through that. But I agree, keep it short (10 pages max) and go straight to the point. It really helps staying on track and tale essay, don#8217;t forget the main objectives. Satirical Thesis? Reviewing your business plan every three months to adjust priorities is essential as you always have new partners, new competitors or new development that need to be integrated#8230; You can find additional information on this topic at tale

You really do need a business plan if you really want to build a solid foundation under your business. The #8220;Working Business Plan#8221; is the best form of business plan to start out with. This plan answers the 5 #8220;W#8217;s#8221; Who, What, Where, When and thesis, Why about of taliesin essay, your business. Thesis? There is no pre-required length that a Working Business Plan should be. Of Taliesin? Just remember that you aren#8217;t writing to impress, you are writing to address the for writers of research edition, important issues of tale of taliesin starting your business. Satirical Thesis? This plan is tale of taliesin just for satirical, your planning purposes and can be expanded later on of taliesin into a full executive plan as needed. Do you need a strategic plan? For a while now, strategic planning has been the laramie, big rage.

It was essential that all companies have strategic plans, and those managers that did not think strategically were thought to be less capable than others. Management consultants c#8230; I compare preparing a road map to creating a business plan with my clients. Some prefer very detailed maps with every rest stop, restaurant and mile-marker indicated. Others just want a list of tale of taliesin directions of when turns or changes in laramie thesis, direction are needed. Maps are useful and necessary for long trips, trips into unknown territory, and for of taliesin essay, newer drivers. Essay About Life In The Future? Business plans can be simple or complex #8212; it all depends on of taliesin who is essay about in the future driving and where they want to go. Is a Business Plan Necessary to Build a Successful Business? Over on tale of taliesin IowaBiz I recently wrote about whether a business plan is essay namen necessary to tale essay, build a successful business. I thought I would share it with our readers here.

As an Iowa business lawyer I get the question a lot.If you#8230; I really appreciated this post on business planning. It’s something that every entrepreneur should be aware of#8230; we have a large subscriber base and satirical thesis statement, we featured this post on our site under the research and planning category on of taliesin our content site The Mla Handbook Of Research Papers Sixth? Thanks again for of taliesin, the useful information! Nice article and handbook papers sixth edition, certainly true. I think that no matter how excelent is a business plan or the idea behind it, if you just did not raise any succesfull business previously OR you didnt work for many years for of taliesin essay, an outstanding company as a manager OR you dont have very important contacts, the essay namen, plan will be almost useless despite of tale of taliesin being able to thesis conclusion chapter, make the essay, plan happen.

So even if you need to raise money, IMHO I think writing down a business plan is handbook papers edition not always a good idea.

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21st Anniversary Update! January 21, 2017. Photo 2017 William Kelly. Today, January 21, 2017, marks our 21st anniversary on the internet! Another year has passed and the website continues to grow and thrive, thanks to you, our loyal visitors and tale essay, friends! Our anniversary updates are usually large ones and often international in scope and today's update is no exception. In fact, the first five articles represent material from the U.S., Australia, Italy, England and Finland!

We start with news of an innovative Shroud billboard project here in the U.S. that has its roots in a similar recent project in review mellitus, Dublin, Ireland. This update also brings you five more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, video links to the entire December 2016 Rome Shroud Conference, the latest issue of the BSTS Newsletter, Shroud news from Finland, along with links to many new books, articles, papers, videos and tale essay, much more. Let's get started! Here is the Update Table of Contents: Click for larger view. Photo 2017 William Kelly. Click for larger view. Photo The Holy Face Project. Last year I was contacted by project, Val Kelly of Hilton Head, South Carolina, who told me about of taliesin, a project where an organization in Dublin, Ireland published billboards of the Shroud face without any accompanying text or verbiage and created quite a strong public reaction.

Val wanted to duplicate the idea near her home in Hilton Head with the help of her prayer group and asked me what it would take to obtain an image for that purpose. I liked the idea of a Shroud image without any text since each person who saw it would have to think about it and ultimately make up their own minds about the mla papers edition, what it meant. Of Taliesin Essay? I agreed to provide the image and Val and her prayer group funded the life slave girl essay, production of a test billboard that will remain in of taliesin essay, place for one year. Incidents Of A Slave Girl Analysis? You can see the result in the accompanying photographs. The billboard, which receives over 19,000 impressions per week, is viewable on the way back from Savannah toward Bluffton/Hilton Head, approximately six miles south of the Route 46 traffic circle (one mile south of the Pink Pig Restaurant) on Rt. 315, with Bellinger Hill Road being the closest intersection. Of Taliesin? (Click here for analysis, map provided by the billboard company). According to Val, We plan on making presentations to of taliesin essay, the local Catholic churches to see if they would have interest in sponsoring additional, local billboards and then hopefully expand from there. I do have contacts in the mla handbook of research sixth, South Carolina and will investigate expanding further. It will take some time, but, will keep you in of taliesin essay, the loop on our progress. I mentioned this project at the STERA, Inc. Board of Directors meeting in December and descriptive life, some concern was expressed about the placement of the essay, Shroud image on a double billboard.

The question was, what might it be paired with and what implications could that have? As you can see in the above photographs, there is an image of a flooded home in the lower billboard with the message Don't Wait. Communicate. and the sub-message, Make your emergency plan. Frankly, I find the juxtaposition of the two actual billboards to be rather ironic, fitting and even complimentary! What do you think? Board member Richard Orareo promptly did some further research on the Dublin billboard and provided us with the following information: The image of in the life of a essay, The Holy Face that we saw in the photograph was on Sarsfield Road in Inchicore, in tale essay, outer Dublin. This billboard is one of many that is part of The Holy Face Project. Twenty eight are scattered throughout Ireland with 8 in Dublin. This project is a small part of the greater Human Life International, a Pro-Life Organization. Mr.

Patrick McCrystal is the project manager. Laramie Thesis? He organized a national prayer service in of taliesin, all 32 counties in Ireland that featured a large Holy Face banner at each service. There was also a project that brought the incidents in the life of a girl, Holy Face inside the bus system in tale, Dublin. They estimate that more than 1,000,000 viewed the image within the 200 buses. McCrystal raised necessary funding through an appeal to the Human Life International membership. They raised more than €60,000. Pam Moon also had a traveling Shroud exhibit that traveled from Dublin, to Cork, to Knock during 2014. Ireland has it going on! - Richard UPDATE: I am very pleased to report that as soon as this update went online we received a cordial greeting from Patrick McCrystal , the man who manages the descriptive life in the future, Ireland Holy Face Project that inspired the South Carolina group.

We have agreed to stay in touch and Patrick was kind enough to send me a copy of their newsletter, which includes many more details and tale, photographs. Review Of Related Literature On Diabetes? You can read it here: The Holy Face Project Newsletter . He also provided us with a link to their new website, . We will keep you posted on of taliesin everyone's progress. Updated January 25, 2017. Five More Issues Added to Rex Morgan's Shroud News Archive. With this update we add five more issues to in the slave girl essay, Rex Morgan's Shroud News archive, which will total 118 issues when complete. This update includes Issue #62, December 1990 through Issue #66, August 1991 with articles by such notable Shroud scholars as John Tyrer, Ian Wilson, Eoin Mille, Andre Van Cauwenberghe, Remi Van Haelst, Joe Nickell, Prof. Of Taliesin? Daniel Scavone, Prof. Alan Whanger and laramie project thesis, Mary Whanger and Father Peter M. Rinaldi, S.D.B.

Our sincerest thanks as always to Stephen Jones for his extraordinary effort in tale, scanning and optical character recognition of every page, Ian Wilson for providing the original issues and valuable input and of course, to Rex Morgan for his gracious permission to reprint them here on December 2016 Rome Shroud Conference Videos Online. As we announced in our last update, an International and Interdisciplinary Conference on the Shroud of Turin with the theme, He saw and He believed. The Shroud, science, faith and proclamation of the project thesis, Paschal Mystery , was held in tale, Rome on December 13 - 14, 2016. The event was sponsored by the Institute of Science and Faith of the Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum , in collaboration with the incidents in the girl essay, International Centre of Sindonology in Turin. Tale Essay? Speakers included Prof. Antonio Cassanelli, Prof. Gian Maria Zaccone, Mgr. Giuseppe Ghiberti, Father Andrew Dalton LC, Father Nicolas Bossu LC, Father Rafael Pascual LC, Dr. About Life In The Future? Petrus Soons, Dr. Ada Grossi, Fr.

Gianfranco Berbenni OFM Cap, Prof. Bruno Barberis, Prof. Paolo Di Lazzaro, Roberto Falcinelli and many others. Recently, the organizers released videos of the conference on YouTube so we are including links to them all below. Most of the presentations are in Italian but a few are in English. Here are the links: Since I was unable to attend the conference in of taliesin essay, person, I created a PowerPoint/video presentation titled The Contributions of the Shroud of Turin Research Project , which was presented on my behalf (see link #5 above). Since it is difficult to see the screen clearly in handbook for writers of research papers sixth, the above video, I am including a link to a 640x480 mp4 video version of my presentation (84 MB), along with a separate link to tale of taliesin, a pdf version of the life, presentation script: BSTS Newsletter December 2016 Issue No. 84 Now Online.

We are happy to report that the British Society for the Turin Shroud page of the website has been updated and the latest December 2016 Issue No. 84 of the BSTS Newsletter is now online. This issue includes several in-depth research articles starting with Did Joan of Arc See the Turin Shroud? by Hugh Duncan and The Pray Codex by Hugh Farey , the newsletter's Editor. It also includes a reprint of Pollen on of taliesin essay the Shroud of Turin: The Probable Trace Left by Anointing and Embalming by Marzia Boi and an event article by Brenda Benton titled My First Visit to Jalsa Salana . Also includes news from around the dedekind essays theory, internet and much more. Source: Mikael Agricola: Rucouskirja (Prayer Book) 1544. I recently received an update from tale of taliesin our good friend Juha Hiltunen , about an upcoming Shroud Exhibit and project, Seminar in Turku, Finland. He also provided us with a link to the Finnish language website of the 2015 Shroud of Turin Rauma Exhibition , which was held in Helsinki. Here is the information he sent us about this year's events:

The Exhibit: Date: March 27 - April 17, 2017. Place: Turku, Finland. Martinkirkko (Church of Martin). The first exhibit in tale essay, Finland (2010) was also arranged here. Exhibit program is included as a part of the Reformation 500-year celebrations in Turku, as it was the former capital of Finland and the place where Mikael Agricola, in review of related on diabetes, the inspiration of Martin Luther, worked and translated the of taliesin, Bible into handbook papers, Finnish and therefore started the Reformation here too. The Seminar: Date: April 8, 2017. Of Taliesin? Place: Turku, Finland. Martinkirkko (Church of Martin).

All participants are from Finland and lectures are in Finnish. Project? Name of the seminar: Contemplation of God's/the Lord's Face in the Tradition of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Finland. Speakers: Prof. Antti Laato: The Face of God/the Lord in the Bible Rev. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? Pekka Kiveks: Contemplation of project thesis, Christ in of taliesin essay, our Hymns and Spiritual Songs Prof. Laramie Project? Visa Immonen: The Image of tale of taliesin essay, Veronica in our Medieval Churches Prof.em. Jouko N. Dedekind Essays Numbers? Martikainen: Contemplation of Christ and His Face in the Prayer Book of the Finnish Reformer Mikael Agricola and in the Passions-Salve of Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676) Juha also pointed out that although the topics of the scheduled lectures are not directly related to the Shroud of Turin, some references to it will undoubtedly be made. Of Taliesin? You will also find his latest book, a revised and updated edition of his 2009 Finnish language work, will soon be available and is listed in our Recently Published Books section below. It is great to see an ongoing effort to educate the people of Finland about the Shroud of Turin by Juha and his colleagues.

Thank you for keeping us informed Juha! International Conference on the Shroud of incidents life of a girl analysis, Turin, Washington State, 2017. In our September 19, 2016 website update we announced that an International Conference on the Shroud of essay, Turin will be held in Pasco, Washington State, USA on July 19-22, 2017. We wanted to remind everyone that the deadline for submission of papers is of related mellitus, February 28, 2017 so there is of taliesin essay, still time to participate. See our previous article or click on the above link to visit the conference website where you can find more details, register for the event, learn about travel, hotels and about life future, accommodations, view a video from the conference organizers and much more. In an e-mail on January 18, 2017, conference organizer Robert Rucker sent me the tale essay, following update: 2017 Lecture Tour on the Shroud - With the conference on the Shroud of conclusion, Turin ( coming up July 19 to 22 in of taliesin essay, Pasco, Washington, Bob Rucker and Mark Antonacci are planning a lecture tour (mid-March to mid-April) to reach people at research facilities and population centers across 14 states. An outline of this lecture tour is available at and at As specific locations, dates, and times are arranged, they will be made available on these sites.

Those interested in helping in this effort should contact Bob (H: 509-375-4770, C: 509-628-6894) or Mark (314-704-0537). Several new Shroud related books have been published in recent months. We are listing them here but have also permanently archived them all on the Shroud of Turin Booklist page (alphabetically by author). To make it easy to find the laramie project thesis, new additions, we have annotated each new listing with (Added 21 January 2017) so simply search for that phrase on the Booklist page. Valokuva Jeesuksesta. Torinon krinliina tieteen, historian ja Uuden testamentin valossa (A Photograph of tale of taliesin, Jesus. Shroud of the mla for writers of research papers edition, Turin in the Light of Science, History and the New Testament) by Juha Hiltunen (Finnish language) Since we included a Shroud News from Finland feature in of taliesin, this update, we wanted to include the latest Finnish language book on laramie project thesis the Shroud, even though it is of taliesin, not yet available online. Of Related? We will update this listing with the link as soon as it becomes available. In the meantime, you can order the book directly from the publisher by sending an e-mail to [email protected] . According to tale of taliesin, the author, this book is a completely revised edition in March 2017 (of his 2009 1st edition). It contains all the thesis chapter, relevant new research data since 2009 and more visual material compared with the tale, first edition.

And the question mark is now removed from the title, because all this new data (incl. dating of the Shroud to the 1st C) confirms more precisely, I think, that it is truly a photograph of dedekind essays theory numbers, Jesus. Paperback: ca. 400 pages. Publisher: Kirjapaja. Helsinki, Finland March 2017. Here is an tale excerpt from the chapter, description of the tale essay, book on the Amazon France website (Google translation): In 2015, over one million people came to pray, or to about life future, simply pass an tale of taliesin essay ancient linen cloth: the Shroud of Turin. The reason for its attraction is simple: it is deemed to have wrapped the body of Jesus of Nazareth after his crucifixion in Jerusalem. The reputation of the Turin shroud is old: it was at theory numbers least in existence during the second half of the fourteenth century, at Lirey in Champagne.

This book presents a rigorously consolidated statement and tale essay, update of our knowledge on the shroud of Turin. The Mla For Writers Of Research Papers? It then assesses methodically different image forming hypotheses. Tristan Casabianca was born in Bastia in 1982. A graduate in history of of taliesin essay, public law and political ideas as well as economic analysis of law (Universities of Aix-Marseille, Hamburg, Rotterdam), Tristan Casabianca is laramie, particularly interested in its academic publications (the Heythrop Journal, New Blackfriars) scientific and philosophical consensus on the shroud. Relying on traditional historiographical criteria, he has proposed, in 2013, a new method for assessing the tale of taliesin, Shroud of Turin.

Paperback: 110 pages. Publisher: Anima Corsa (2016) Recently Published Papers and Articles. by Giovanni Fazio, Giuseppe Mandaglio and Antonio Anastasi. Included in this update are links to a number of papers and articles that were published recently. All have also been permanently archived on the Scientific Papers Articles page (alphabetically by title) and the Website Library page (alphabetically by author). Revisiting a pure stochastic mechanism to explain the chapter, body image formation on the Linen of Turin by Giovanni Fazio, Giuseppe Mandaglio and Antonio Anastasi , The Journal of The Textile Institute, Published online: 30 Nov 2016.

Here is the tale, abstract: In this paper, we revisit a pure stochastic process as a possible mechanism of the Shroud body image formation. Literature On Diabetes Mellitus? Successively, we make a comparison with another mechanism that uses the Maillard reaction as source of a ‘stochastic-like effect’ image. Both the mechanisms seem to be able to explain all the chemical and tale, physical characteristics of the Shroud image. However, an experimental confirm of the possible colouration by the Maillard reaction could be, easily, verified. On the contrary, for obtaining a pure stochastic effect, it is in the of a slave analysis, necessary to await the result of the tale of taliesin, experiment for years or decades. Indeed, the latency times, for the two images’ formation are very different. Recently, we have pointed out that the distribution of the yellowed fibrils on the Shroud of Turin, well represented by a linear regression between the image intensity and the cloth-body distance, has a stochastic aspect. In this paper, by a preliminary approach, we show that the chemical reaction between reducing sugar coming from the conclusion chapter, linen manufacturing procedure (mainly composed of tale of taliesin essay, crude starch and possibly also Saponaria officinalis) and some specific post-mortem gases like ammonia and/or diamines that could have been released by the corpse who was enveloped in girl essay, the Shroud can yield a “stochastic-like effect” image.

Moreover, we think the above reaction could also explain why the tale essay, body image on literature the Shroud is a unicum. The Turin Shroud is essay, traditionally considered the burial cloth of Jesus Christ, but carbon-14 analysis indicated a medieval date. Here, a digital restoring of the hands’ region of the Turin Shroud image has allowed to visualize anatomic details never seen before: the scrotum and part of the the mla of research papers, right hand's thumb. Additionally, the unnatural position of the right hand's thumb, adjacent to the palm of the hand, positioned below it and, consequently, almost fully hidden except for its protruding end, seems to denote a stress, which could be consequent to tale, crucifixion. Review Of Related Literature On Diabetes Mellitus? These results shed new light on the long-lasting scientific debate about the authenticity of the relic since the absence of the essay, thumbs has been considered as one of the most important indirect proof that the Turin Shroud wrapped the body of a man who was crucified alive. This study proposes an alternative interpretation of the pollen grains found on the Christian relic of the Shroud of Turin, the majority of which belong to entomogamous plants. The examination of the images in the literature and review literature on diabetes mellitus, the observation of of taliesin essay, modern pollen under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the most abundant pollen on review of related literature mellitus the relic may be attributed to the genus Helichrysum (Asteraceae family) instead of Gundelia tournefortii. The other most important pollen found belongs to tale, the Cistaceae-Cistus spp.—the Apiaceae—probably Ferula spp.—and the Anacardianceae—the genus Pistacia. These pollen grains could have come from plants used to obtain expensive and valuable substances that would have been the basis for the oils of Helichrysum, ladanum and galbanum, as well as for chapter, mastic and terebinth products; this fact has not been considered by previous authors.

Ancient historical records give us references that could link the pollen traces to a mixture of balms and essay, ointments employed for preparing the for writers, body for funeral and burial. For this reason, the palynological study reveals coherency with these historical records about the rituals, as reported on by the important scientists Pliny the Elder and Dioscorides, dating back to tale of taliesin, the first century ad. Shroud of Turin and review mellitus, Sudarium of Oviedo, Possible Burial Fabrics at the Tomb of Jesus of Nazareth (English) - Sudario de Oviedo y Sindone de Turin, Posibles Linzos Sepulcrales de Jesus de Nazaret (en espanol) by Guillermo Heras Moreno , Vice-President of Research and tale essay, Training, Spanish Center for Sindonology (Centro Espanol de Sindonologia - CES), August 2016. [Editor's Note: This is a summary of data compiled over the years by the CES, some of review of related literature mellitus, which has been previously published in papers at various conferences. This is the tale of taliesin, most up-to-date and fully illustrated summary of project thesis, their findings, available in both English and Spanish language versions]. Here is a brief excerpt from the introduction: Can we relate the tale of taliesin essay, Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin as belonging to the same corpse?

If so, is it reasonable to believe this may have been the corpse of Jesus of Nazareth? In other words: Are the Sudarium of Oviedo and essays, the Shroud of Turin the burial cloths mentioned in the Gospel texts as Shroud in the Synoptics and Sudarium in the Gospel of tale of taliesin, John? [Editor's Note: These next two articles are not directly about the Shroud of Turin but were suggested to me by Melanie Stallard , one of our website viewers. This is what she wrote regarding the first article]: I just wanted to mention to you an article I read in the September issue of Science magazine about a new technology to read extremely damaged artifacts, called, virtual unwrapping. I include the descriptive essay future, original article and citation below, but it occurred to me as I read the article to wonder if any application of tale essay, virtual unwrapping could glean further information from the Shroud. Since the technology mentioned in the article is far beyond my expertise, I thought I would include the article here to see if it can stimulate any interest or response from Shroud scholars. The first article is titled: From damage to discovery via virtual unwrapping: Reading the project thesis, scroll from En-Gedi by William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, Pnina Shor and Yosef Porath , Science Advances, 21 September 2016, Vol. 2, no. 9, e1601247. A few weeks later Melanie sent me a follow up e-mail that said: I have happened across another article that describes a technology perhaps you already know about, terahertz imaging, which was used at MIT Media Lab to attempt to read multiple pages of an unopened book. They used: (1) a terahertz camera that emits very high radiation, (2) an algorithm to detect the reflection of the radiation bursts caused by each page and (3) computational imaging to detect the of taliesin, images of the letters on each page.

These efforts, as reported in this article, were much less successful than in the first article I sent you, Virtual Unwrapping. I just thought if any scientist contacts you regarding the previous article, this one might also be mentioned. Dedekind Theory Numbers? I found the video that accompanies the review very interesting regarding the reference to use of terahertz imaging to determine time-lapse information. Here is the link: Judging a book through its cover - New computational imaging method identifies letters printed on first nine pages of a stack of tale essay, paper by Larry Hardesty , MIT News Office, September 9, 2016. [Editor's Note: It is highly unlikely that any technology that emits very high radiation could be considered non-destructive or would ever be appropriate for use on the Shroud]. Recently Released Videos and Audios. A number of new Shroud related videos have been released recently and we are including links to them here. The first is a new short film from award winning filmmaker David Rolfe and co-producer Pam Moon and is titled, When I Survey the Wondrous Cross . The video, inspired by the feature film Risen, is of related literature mellitus, beautifully produced and edited with an equally beautiful soundtrack performed by Tom Moon . This is a truly inspirational music video from the producer of the tale of taliesin, award winning 1978 film, The Silent Witness, the thesis conclusion, first ever documentary on the Shroud of Turin. David has graciously posted the 4 minute 20 second video on Vimeo at the above link to share it with all of tale, us. He has also made available a new Vimeo link to his superb 2016 film, A Grave Injustice (which we featured in handbook papers, a Special Update on March 19, 2016, in case you missed it). The Shroud of Turin as the Burial Cloth of Jesus: Answers for Critics , is the title of a one hour twenty-three minute presentation made by Dr. John Johnson at an Apologetics Symposium held on tale October 16, 2016 at the Cedar Park Church, in Bothell, Washington.

This is laramie project thesis, a YouTube video of his complete presentation. Dr. Johnson has a PhD in of taliesin, Applied Math from the University of California at Berkeley. He retired from Boeing after 31 years, mostly in Aerospace. He has studied and taught Bible archaeology since he was a Biblical Christian in 1980. Russ Breault: Could the Shroud be a Receipt? is the title of a 22 minute video of one of Russ' excellent Shroud Encounter presentations, which he just posted on YouTube. Here is what Russ wrote us in a recent e-mail: Some of you who have seen my Shroud Encounter presentation know that I end with the laramie project, idea of the Shroud as a receipt, a proof of purchase.

Could it be a record of the transaction between God and man? Could the Shroud be an itemized receipt documenting the price that was paid? Mark Antonacci: Test the Shroud - At the Atomic and Molecular Levels is the title of a recent audio only podcast interview with Mark on The Mind . Here is an excerpt from the description on their website: Arguing that new scientific tests might contest these findings and essay, reveal the Shroud to be very probably the genuine burial cloth of Jesus Christ, Mark Antonacci proposes a scientifically-testable hypothesis that particle radiation emanating from the shroud-wrapped, crucified body may account for dedekind numbers, very many of the tale essay, Shroud's features, such as full-length body images, still-red blood marks, erroneous carbon dating and dedekind numbers, more. Our good friend Jim Bertrand reports that the website for tale of taliesin essay, the recently formed American Confraternity of the Holy Shroud is now online. Produced by Robert Siefker , the new website went online on December 28, 2016.

According to laramie project thesis, the site, The possibility of strengthening faith, and potentially changing lives, is of taliesin, what prompted the founding of the American Confraternity of the Holy Shroud (ACHS). The mission of the Confraternity is to develop ways that the Shroud, whether it is thesis conclusion chapter, “authentic” or an iconic representation of Jesus’ passion and death, may illuminate and of taliesin, strengthen Christian faith. The Mysteries of the Shroud of Turin by Robin Barret is an article that appeared on essays theory December 16, 2016 in tale, , The Voice of Interior Alaska. Here is an excerpt: Some have called the the mla handbook papers edition, Shroud of Turin an elaborate hoax; others have called it a miraculous artifact of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus. It is either one or the other. What is the shroud and where does it come from? 2016 was another great year for web traffic, although we did not surpass our 2015 record of 1 million+ visitors. Of course, that year the Shroud was on public display and garnered considerable media attention which drove lots of extra traffic to our site.

Our final total for 2016 was 895,995 visits and we averaged more than 2450 visitors per day or around 75,000 visitors per tale of taliesin month. In 2016 our visitors generated over 15 million hits, viewed nearly 12 million files, viewed over 2.3 million pages and generated 704 GB of bandwidth! You can see the details for yourself by clicking on the above graphic. We thank you, our loyal viewers, for your continued participation and support! Since viewers often write me asking where and when I might be giving Shroud presentations, I am again including my upcoming schedule in case I happen to be in your area. If so, please drop by and say hello.

Also, please understand that as of this writing, the schedule is by no means complete and that many of the times and project, venues are still not finalized and subject to tale of taliesin, change. I will do my best to update them prior to the events. March 8 - 9, 2017 - I will again be speaking at essay about life in the future the University Series™ , an annual multi-parish adult education program held in Southern California each year during the Lenten season. The University Series™, an event created and organized by my dear friend Fr. Dave Heney , offers 90+ seminars connecting faith with real life in areas such as current events, contemporary moral issues, evangelization, faith and science, marriage and tale of taliesin, family, church history, scripture and prayer. The 2017 season runs from March 2 to April 7 at handbook for writers papers twelve different parishes in Los Angeles and Ventura counties. I will make three presentations, the first on Wednesday, March 8th at 7:30-9:00 pm at the St. Mel Activity Center , the second on Thursday, March 9th at 7:30-9:00 pm at St. Tale Of Taliesin? Mary's Church in conclusion, Whittier and the third, a special lecture (not part of the University Series) at 9:30 am on March 9th at Our Lady of Malibu church.

If you wish to learn more you can visit the University Series Website where you can review each topic and sign up for the sessions. The charge to attend is $8 per person, but you can bring a friend for tale of taliesin, free! March 24 through March 26, 2017 - I will be lecturing at chapter Immaculate Conception Church , 2310 Robertson Ave., Norwood, Ohio (near Cincinnati). The event is the premiere of a new Shroud Speaker Series organized by the Shroud Project of essay, Cincinnati . On Friday, March 24, 2017, I will make two presentations to students, parents and teachers at the parish school, Immaculate Conception Academy . I will give one public lecture on Saturday, March 25, 2017 (starting at 10:00 am) and one public lecture on Sunday, March 26, 2017 (starting at 11:00 am). You can register for any of the public lectures and see their complete 2017 speaker schedule on the special website: Shroud Speaker Series Registration . I hope to see some of you there! April 4 through April 7, 2017 - I will once again be lecturing along with the Vancouver Shroud Association's Man of the thesis, Shroud Exhibit at St. Isidore Roman Catholic Church in Kanata, near Ottawa, Canada. The complete lecture and tale of taliesin essay, exhibit schedule and theory numbers, other details are also now available on tale of taliesin St. Isidore's Man of the Shroud Exhibit website.

I will be giving ten lectures over the four day schedule. May 2 through May 5, 2017 - I will again be teaching my Shroud of Turin course in review of related mellitus, the Masters of Science and of taliesin, Faith program at the Ateneo Pontificio Regina Apostolorum in Rome. July 28 through 30, 2017 - I will once again be in England and speaking at the 51st Annual Jalsa Salana Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Convention in of a essay, Hampshire. Watch for an in-depth article about the tale essay, event in our Fall Update in October. September 29 through October 1, 2017 - My dear friend Dr. Chuck Dietzen has invited me back to in the slave girl analysis, the Indianapolis, Indiana area to participate in tale of taliesin essay, the opening of his new Shroud exhibit. The details are still being finalized and I will post more information as soon as it becomes available. October 12 through 15, 2017 - My dear friend and chapter, brother Pete Schumacher has invited me back to lecture at his Shroud Exhibit and Museum (SEAM) in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Tale Of Taliesin Essay? I will give one lecture on Thursday, October 12, 2017 at 6:30 pm at the Flickinger Theatre , 1110 New York Ave., Alamogordo, New Mexico and laramie project thesis, another on Saturday, October 14, 2017 at 6:30 pm at the Silver City Convention Center in Silver City, New Mexico.

December 1 - 2, 2017 - I have been invited to speak at a conference named The Real Presence: Eucharistic Miracles; the Holy Shroud; and Our Lady of of taliesin, Guadalupe, in New Braunfels, Texas, hosted by the Fullness of Truth Catholic Evangelization Ministries in Texas. The event is being held at Sts. In The Life Slave Girl Essay? Peter and essay, Paul Catholic Church , 386 N. Of Related Literature? Castell Ave., New Braunfels, Texas 78130. Updated September 15, 2017. I don't have an exact date for the next update, but I do know it will occur in the Spring, probably sometime in May. Tale Essay? A lot will depend on my travel and lecture schedule, which is not yet finalized for this year. Although I don't know the review mellitus, exact date, I do know for sure that the of taliesin essay, next update will include more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News , the latest papers, books, articles and videos and conclusion chapter, of course, any breaking Shroud news.

To be sure you don't miss any important Shroud information as it occurs, check our STERA, Inc. Facebook page from time to time, since we now try and update it every week or so to keep you informed between our regular quarterly website updates. Essay? You can also join our Website Mailing List and receive an e-mail whenever the site is updated or any important Shroud news breaks. We hope you find this update interesting and dedekind essays theory numbers, useful and look forward to seeing you in the Spring! Thank you all again for being there!

It is deeply appreciated.

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The Five Stages of Small Business Growth. Categorizing the problems and growth patterns of small businesses in a systematic way that is useful to entrepreneurs seems at first glance a hopeless task. Small businesses vary widely in size and capacity for growth. They are characterized by independence of tale of taliesin action, differing organizational structures, and varied management styles. Yet on conclusion closer scrutiny, it becomes apparent that they experience common problems arising at similar stages in their development. These points of similarity can be organized into a framework that increases our understanding of the nature, characteristics, and problems of businesses ranging from a corner dry cleaning establishment with two or three minimum-wage employees to a $ 20-million-a-year computer software company experiencing a 40 % annual rate of growth.

For owners and tale of taliesin essay managers of small businesses, such an descriptive essay about life understanding can aid in assessing current challenges; for example, the need to upgrade an existing computer system or to hire and tale of taliesin essay train second-level managers to maintain planned growth. It can help in anticipating the thesis conclusion, key requirements at various points—e.g., the inordinate time commitment for owners during the start-up period and the need for delegation and changes in their managerial roles when companies become larger and tale of taliesin more complex. The framework also provides a basis for evaluating the impact of present and proposed governmental regulations and policies on one’s business. A case in point is the exclusion of dividends from double taxation, which could be of great help to a profitable, mature, and stable business like a funeral home but of no help at dedekind theory all to a new, rapidly growing, high-technology enterprise. Finally, the essay, framework aids accountants and consultants in diagnosing problems and matching solutions to smaller enterprises.

The problems of a 6-month-old, 20-person business are rarely addressed by advice based on a 30-year-old, 100-person manufacturing company. For the former, cash-flow planning is paramount; for the latter, strategic planning and budgeting to achieve coordination and handbook edition operating control are most important. Developing a Small Business Framework. Various researchers over the years have developed models for examining businesses (see Exhibit 1). Tale Of Taliesin. Each uses business size as one dimension and company maturity or the stage of growth as a second dimension. While useful in many respects, these frameworks are inappropriate for small businesses on at least three counts. Exhibit 1 Growth Phases. First, they assume that a company must grow and project thesis pass through all stages of development or die in the attempt. Second, the models fail to capture the important early stages in a company’s origin and tale of taliesin essay growth. Third, these frameworks characterize company size largely in terms of annual sales (although some mention number of employees) and ignore other factors such as value added, number of locations, complexity of product line, and laramie project rate of change in products or production technology.

To develop a framework relevant to of taliesin essay small and growing businesses, we used a combination of experience, a search of the literature, and empirical research. (See the second insert.) The framework that evolved from this effort delineates the five stages of development shown in Exhibit 2. Each stage is characterized by an index of size, diversity, and complexity and described by five management factors: managerial style, organizational structure, extent of formal systems, major strategic goals, and the owner’s involvement in the business. We depict each stage in Exhibit 3 and describe each narratively in this article. We started with a concept of of related literature growth stages emanating from the work of Steinmetz and Greiner. Of Taliesin Essay. We made two initial changes based on descriptive essay life future our experiences with small companies. The first modification was an extension of the of taliesin essay, independent (vertical) variable of size as it is used in the other stage models—see Exhibit I to papers edition include a composite of value-added (sales less outside purchases), geographical diversity, and complexity; the of taliesin essay, complexity variable involved the number of product lines sold, the extent to review of related on diabetes mellitus which different technologies are involved in tale of taliesin essay, the products and the processes that produce them, and the rate of descriptive about life in the future change in these technologies. Thus, a manufacturer with $ 10 million in sales, whose products are based in a fast-changing technical environment, is farther up the vertical scale (“bigger” in terms of the other models) than a liquor wholesaler with $ 20 million annual sales. Similarly, a company with two or three operating locations faces more complex management problems, and hence is farther up the scale than an otherwise comparable company with one operating unit. The second change was in the stages or horizontal component of the framework . From present research we knew that, at the beginning, the entrepreneur is totally absorbed in the business’s survival and if the business survives it tends to evolve toward a decentralized line and tale of taliesin essay staff organization characterized as a “big business” and the subject of most studies. * The result was a four-stage model: (1) Survival, (2) Break-out, (3) Take-off, (4) Big company. To test the model, we obtained 83 responses to a questionnaire distributed to 110 owners and managers of successful small companies in the $ 1 million to for writers sixth edition $ 35 million sales range. These respondents participated in a small company management program and had read Greiner’s article.

They were asked to of taliesin identify as best they could the phases or stages their companies had passed through, to characterize the major changes that took place In each stage, and to describe the in the slave girl essay, events that led up to tale essay or caused these changes. A preliminary analysis of the for writers sixth edition, questionnaire data revealed three deficiencies in our initial model: First, the tale of taliesin essay, grow-or-fail hypothesis implicit in the model, and those of others, was invalid. Some of the enterprises had passed through the survival period and then plateaued—remaining essentially the same size. with some marginally profitable and others very profitable, over a period of between 5 and 80 years. Second, there existed an early stage in the survival period in which the entrepreneur worked hard just to dedekind exist- to obtain enough customers to become a true business or to move the product from a pilot stage into quantity production at of taliesin an adequate level of quality. Finally, several responses dealt with companies that were not started from scratch but purchased while in a steady-state survival or success stage (and were either being mismanaged or managed for profit and essays not for growth), and then moved into a growth mode. We used the results of this research to revise our preliminary framework. The resulting framework is shown in tale of taliesin, Exhibit II.

We then applied this revised framework to the questionnaire responses and obtained results which encouraged us to work with the incidents in the girl analysis essay, revised model: * John A. Welsh and Jerry F. White, “Recognizing and Dealing With the Entrepreneur,” Advanced Management Journal, Summer 1978. Exhibit 2 Growth Stages. Exhibit 3 Characteristics of essay Small Business at Each Stage of Development. In this stage the main problems of the business are obtaining customers and delivering the product or service contracted for. Among the key questions are the following: Can we get enough customers, deliver our products, and provide services well enough to become a viable business? Can we expand from that one key customer or pilot production process to in the of a essay a much broader sales base? Do we have enough money to cover the considerable cash demands of this start-up phase?

The organization is a simple one—the owner does everything and directly supervises subordinates, who should be of at least average competence. Systems and tale of taliesin essay formal planning are minimal to nonexistent. Chapter. The company’s strategy is simply to remain alive. The owner is the business, performs all the of taliesin, important tasks, and is the in the life slave analysis, major supplier of energy, direction, and, with relatives and friends, capital. Companies in the Existence Stage range from newly started restaurants and retail stores to high-technology manufacturers that have yet to stabilize either production or product quality. Many such companies never gain sufficient customer acceptance or product capability to essay become viable. In these cases, the owners close the business when the start-up capital runs out and, if they’re lucky, sell the laramie project thesis, business for its asset value. (See endpoint 1 on Exhibit 4).

In some cases, the owners cannot accept the essay, demands the business places on their time, finances, and energy, and they quit. Those companies that remain in the mla handbook for writers papers sixth edition, business become Stage II enterprises. Exhibit 4 Evolution of Small Companies. In reaching this stage, the business has demonstrated that it is a workable business entity. Of Taliesin. It has enough customers and satisfies them sufficiently with its products or services to the mla of research papers sixth edition keep them. The key problem thus shifts from tale of taliesin, mere existence to the relationship between revenues and expenses. The main issues are as follows: In the short run, can we generate enough cash to break even and to cover the repair or replacement of our capital assets as they wear out? Can we, at a minimum, generate enough cash flow to the mla handbook for writers edition stay in business and to finance growth to tale a size that is sufficiently large, given our industry and market niche, to essays theory numbers earn an economic return on our assets and labor? The organization is still simple.

The company may have a limited number of employees supervised by a sales manager or a general foreman. Neither of them makes major decisions independently, but instead carries out the rather well-defined orders of the owner. Systems development is tale, minimal. Review On Diabetes. Formal planning is, at best, cash forecasting. The major goal is still survival, and the owner is essay, still synonymous with the business. In the Survival Stage, the enterprise may grow in size and review literature on diabetes profitability and move on to Stage III.

Or it may, as many companies do, remain at the Survival Stage for some time, earning marginal returns on invested time and tale essay capital (endpoint 2 on Exhibit 4), and eventually go out of essays numbers business when the owner gives up or retires. The “mom and pop” stores are in tale of taliesin essay, this category, as are manufacturing businesses that cannot get their product or process sold as planned. The Mla Of Research Sixth Edition. Some of these marginal businesses have developed enough economic viability to ultimately be sold, usually at a slight loss. Or they may fail completely and drop from sight. The decision facing owners at this stage is whether to of taliesin exploit the company’s accomplishments and expand or keep the company stable and review literature profitable, providing a base for alternative owner activities. Tale Essay. Thus, a key issue is whether to use the company as a platform for growth—a substage III-G company—or as a means of support for the owners as they completely or partially disengage from the company—making it a substage III-D company. (See Exhibit 3.) Behind the disengagement might be a wish to start up new enterprises, run for political office, or simply to pursue hobbies and other outside interests while maintaining the essays, business more or less in the status quo.

In the Success-Disengagement substage, the company has attained true economic health, has sufficient size and product-market penetration to ensure economic success, and essay earns average or above-average profits. The company can stay at this stage indefinitely, provided environmental change does not destroy its market niche or ineffective management reduce its competitive abilities. Organizationally, the company has grown large enough to, in many cases, require functional managers to take over certain duties performed by the owner. The managers should be competent but need not be of the highest caliber, since their upward potential is limited by the corporate goals. Descriptive Essay About Future. Cash is plentiful and tale essay the main concern is to avoid a cash drain in prosperous periods to the detriment of the company’s ability to withstand the the mla for writers of research papers sixth edition, inevitable rough times. In addition, the tale, first professional staff members come on board, usually a controller in conclusion chapter, the office and perhaps a production scheduler in the plant. Basic financial, marketing, and of taliesin production systems are in incidents life of a slave girl analysis, place. Planning in the form of operational budgets supports functional delegation. The owner and, to a lesser extent, the tale essay, company’s managers, should be monitoring a strategy to, essentially, maintain the status quo.

As the business matures, it and the owner increasingly move apart, to some extent because of the owner’s activities elsewhere and to some extent because of the presence of other managers. Many companies continue for long periods in theory, the Success-Disengagement substage. The product-market niche of some does not permit growth; this is the case for many service businesses in small or medium-sized, slowly growing communities and for franchise holders with limited territories. Other owners actually choose this route; if the company can continue to tale of taliesin essay adapt to environmental changes, it can continue as is, be sold or merged at a profit, or subsequently be stimulated into growth (endpoint 3 on Exhibit 4). For franchise holders, this last option would necessitate the purchase of other franchises. If the descriptive about future, company cannot adapt to changing circumstances, as was the tale essay, case with many automobile dealers in the late 1970s and early 1980s, it will either fold or drop back to a marginally surviving company (endpoint 4 on Exhibit 4).

In the Success-Growth substage, the owner consolidates the incidents life of a slave girl analysis essay, company and marshals resources for tale essay growth. The owner takes the cash and the established borrowing power of the company and risks it all in financing growth. Looking Back on Business Development Models. Business researchers have developed a number of models over the last 20 years that seek to delineate stages of corporate growth. Joseph W. McGuire, building on thesis chapter the work of W.W. Rostow in economics, * formulated a model that saw companies moving through five stages of of taliesin economic development: † 1. Traditional small company. 2. Planning for growth. 3. Take-off or departure from existing conditions.

4. Drive to professional management. 5. Mass production marked by a “diffusion of objectives and an interest in the welfare of society.” Lawrence L. Laramie. Steinmetz theorized that to survive, small businesses must move through four stages of growth. Steinmetz envisioned each stage ending with a critical phase that must be dealt with before the company could enter the next stage. § His stages and phases are as follows: 1. Direct supervision. The simplest stage, at of taliesin the end of which the laramie project, owner must become a manager by learning to delegate to others. 2. Supervised supervision.

To move on, the manager must devote attention to growth and expansion, manage increased overhead and complex finances, and learn to become an administrator. 3. Indirect control. To grow and survive, the company must learn to delegate tasks to key managers and to deal with diminishing absolute rate of return and overstaffing at the middle levels. 4. Tale Of Taliesin Essay. Divisional organization. About Life In The. At this stage the company has “arrived” and has the resources and organizational structure that will enable it to remain viable. C. Essay. Roland Christensen and Bruce R. Scott focused on development of life girl analysis organizational complexity in a business as it evolves in its product-market relationships.

They formulated three stages that a company moves through as it grows in overall size, number of products, and market coverage: ‡ 1. Tale. One-unit management with no specialized organizational parts. 2. One-unit management with functional parts such as marketing and finance. 3. Multiple operating units, such as divisions, that act in their own behalf in the marketplace. Finally, Larry E. Greiner proposed a model of thesis corporate evolution in which business organizations move through five phases of growth as they make the transition from tale of taliesin essay, small to large (in sales and employees) and from young to mature. || Each phase is distinguished by an evolution from the descriptive essay about life future, prior phase and then by a revolution or crisis, which precipitates a jump into the next phase. Tale Of Taliesin Essay. Each evolutionary phase is characterized by a particular managerial style and each revolutionary period by a dominant management problem faced by the company. These phases and crises are shown in Exhibit 1.

*W.W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1960). †Joseph W. McGuire, Factors Affecting the Growth of Manufacturing Firms (Seattle: Bureau of Business Research, University of Washington, 1963). §Lawrence L. Steinmetz, “Critical Stages of Small Business Growth: When They Occur and How to Survive Them,” Business Horizons, February 1969, p. 29. ‡C. Roland Christensen and incidents in the of a slave girl analysis essay Bruce R. Scott, Review of Course Activities (Lausanne: IMEDE, 1964). ||Larry E. Greiner, “Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Growth,” HBR July–August 1972, p. 37. Among the important tasks are to make sure the essay, basic business stays profitable so that it will not outrun its source of cash and to develop managers to meet the needs of the growing business. This second task requires hiring managers with an eye to of related literature mellitus the company’s future rather than its current condition. Systems should also be installed with attention to forthcoming needs. Operational planning is, as in substage III-D, in the form of budgets, but strategic planning is extensive and deeply involves the owner.

The owner is thus far more active in all phases of the company’s affairs than in tale of taliesin essay, the disengagement aspect of this phase. If it is review, successful, the III-G company proceeds into Stage IV. Indeed, III-G is of taliesin essay, often the first attempt at growing before commitment to a growth strategy. If the III-G company is unsuccessful, the causes may be detected in time for the company to shift to III-D. If not, retrenchment to the Survival Stage may be possible prior to bankruptcy or a distress sale. In this stage the key problems are how to grow rapidly and of a analysis essay how to finance that growth. The most important questions, then, are in the following areas:

Can the owner delegate responsibility to tale others to the mla handbook for writers papers sixth improve the managerial effectiveness of a fast growing and increasingly complex enterprise? Further, will the action be true delegation with controls on performance and a willingness to see mistakes made, or will it be abdication, as is so often the case? Will there be enough to satisfy the essay, great demands growth brings (often requiring a willingness on the owner’s part to tolerate a high debt-equity ratio) and a cash flow that is not eroded by inadequate expense controls or ill-advised investments brought about by owner impatience? The organization is decentralized and, at least in part, divisionalized—usually in either sales or production. The key managers must be very competent to review of related literature on diabetes mellitus handle a growing and complex business environment. The systems, strained by growth, are becoming more refined and extensive.

Both operational and strategic planning are being done and involve specific managers. The owner and the business have become reasonably separate, yet the tale essay, company is still dominated by dedekind essays both the owner’s presence and of taliesin essay stock control. This is a pivotal period in a company’s life. If the dedekind essays numbers, owner rises to the challenges of a growing company, both financially and managerially, it can become a big business. If not, it can usually be sold—at a profit—provided the owner recognizes his or her limitations soon enough.

Too often, those who bring the business to the Success Stage are unsuccessful in Stage IV, either because they try to grow too fast and run out of cash (the owner falls victim to the omnipotence syndrome), or are unable to delegate effectively enough to of taliesin essay make the company work (the omniscience syndrome). It is, of course, possible for the company to traverse this high-growth stage without the thesis, original management. Often the entrepreneur who founded the company and brought it to the Success Stage is replaced either voluntarily or involuntarily by the company’s investors or creditors. If the company fails to make the big time, it may be able to retrench and essay continue as a successful and substantial company at a state of equilibrium (endpoint 7 on Exhibit 4). Or it may drop back to Stage III (endpoint 6) or, if the problems are too extensive, it may drop all the way back to the Survival Stage (endpoint 5) or even fail. (High interest rates and uneven economic conditions have made the latter two possibilities all too real in the early 1980s.) The greatest concerns of a company entering this stage are, first, to consolidate and control the financial gains brought on by rapid growth and, second, to retain the advantages of small size, including flexibility of response and the entrepreneurial spirit.

The corporation must expand the management force fast enough to eliminate the inefficiencies that growth can produce and professionalize the company by use of such tools as budgets, strategic planning, management by in the life slave girl analysis objectives, and standard cost systems—and do this without stifling its entrepreneurial qualities. A company in Stage V has the staff and financial resources to engage in detailed operational and tale of taliesin essay strategic planning. The management is decentralized, adequately staffed, and experienced. And systems are extensive and well developed. The owner and the business are quite separate, both financially and literature on diabetes mellitus operationally. The company has now arrived. It has the advantages of size, financial resources, and tale managerial talent.

If it can preserve its entrepreneurial spirit, it will be a formidable force in thesis conclusion chapter, the market. If not, it may enter a sixth stage of sorts: ossification. Ossification is characterized by a lack of innovative decision making and the avoidance of risks. It seems most common in large corporations whose sizable market share, buying power, and financial resources keep them viable until there is a major change in the environment. Unfortunately for these businesses, it is usually their rapidly growing competitors that notice the of taliesin, environmental change first. Several factors, which change in importance as the business grows and develops, are prominent in handbook papers sixth edition, determining ultimate success or failure. We identified eight such factors in essay, our research, of which four relate to the enterprise and four to the owner. The four that relate to the company are as follows:

1. Financial resources, including cash and borrowing power. 2. Personnel resources, relating to numbers, depth, and quality of dedekind theory numbers people, particularly at tale the management and handbook for writers of research sixth edition staff levels. 3. Systems resources, in terms of the degree of sophistication of both information and planning and control systems. 4. Business resources, including customer relations, market share, supplier relations, manufacturing and distribution processes, technology and of taliesin essay reputation, all of which give the company a position in its industry and market. The four factors that relate to the owner are as follows: 1. Owner’s goals for himself or herself and for the business. 2. Owner’s operational abilities in doing important jobs such as marketing, inventing, producing, and managing distribution. 3. Owner’s managerial ability and willingness to delegate responsibility and to of related manage the activities of tale others. 4. Owner’s strategic abilities for looking beyond the present and matching the strengths and weaknesses of the company with his or her goals.

As a business moves from one stage to another, the importance of the thesis conclusion chapter, factors changes. Tale Of Taliesin. We might view the factors as alternating among three levels of importance: first, key variables that are absolutely essential for success and must receive high priority; second, factors that are clearly necessary for the enterprise’s success and laramie thesis must receive some attention; and third, factors of little immediate concern to top management. If we categorize each of the eight factors listed previously, based on its importance at each stage of the company’s development, we get a clear picture of changing management demands. (See Exhibit 5.) Exhibit 5 Management Factors and the Stages. The changing nature of managerial challenges becomes apparent when one examines Exhibit 5. In the early stages, the owner’s ability to do the job gives life to the business.

Small businesses are built on the owner’s talents: the ability to sell, produce, invent, or whatever. This factor is thus of the highest importance. The owner’s ability to delegate, however, is on the bottom of the essay, scale, since there are few if any employees to delegate to. As the company grows, other people enter sales, production, or engineering and they first support, and then even supplant, the owner’s skills—thus reducing the importance of this factor. At the same time, the owner must spend less time doing and more time managing. Incidents In The Of A Essay. He or she must increase the amount of work done through other people, which means delegating. The inability of many founders to let go of doing and to tale of taliesin essay begin managing and delegating explains the demise of many businesses in substage III-G and Stage IV. The owner contemplating a growth strategy must understand the project, change in personal activities such a decision entails and examine the managerial needs depicted in Exhibit 5. Similarly, an entrepreneur contemplating starting a business should recognize the need to do all the selling, manufacturing, or engineering from the beginning, along with managing cash and planning the business’s course—requirements that take much energy and commitment. The importance of cash changes as the business changes. It is an extremely important resource at the start, becomes easily manageable at the Success Stage, and is a main concern again if the of taliesin, organization begins to grow.

As growth slows at the end of Stage IV or in Stage V, cash becomes a manageable factor again. The companies in Stage III need to recognize the financial needs and risk entailed in life, a move to Stage IV. The issues of people, planning, and systems gradually increase in importance as the company progresses from slow initial growth (substage III-G) to rapid growth (Stage IV). These resources must be acquired somewhat in advance of the growth stage so that they are in place when needed. Matching business and personal goals is crucial in the Existence Stage because the owner must recognize and of taliesin be reconciled to the heavy financial and time-energy demands of the new business. Some find these demands more than they can handle. In the Survival Stage, however, the owner has achieved the necessary reconciliation and survival is paramount; matching of goals is thus irrelevant in future, Stage II. A second serious period for goal matching occurs in tale of taliesin essay, the Success Stage. Does the the mla for writers sixth edition, owner wish to commit his or her time and risk the accumulated equity of the tale of taliesin essay, business in order to grow or instead prefer to review of related mellitus savor some of the tale of taliesin, benefits of in the life of a slave analysis essay success? All too often the owner wants both, but to expand the business rapidly while planning a new house on Maui for long vacations involves considerable risk.

To make a realistic decision on which direction to take, the owner needs to consider the personal and business demands of different strategies and to evaluate his or her managerial ability to meet these challenges. Finally, business resources are the stuff of tale of taliesin essay which success is made; they involve building market share, customer relations, solid vendor sources, and a technological base, and are very important in the early stages. In later stages the loss of a major customer, supplier, or technical source is more easily compensated for. Thus, the descriptive life in the, relative importance of this factor is of taliesin essay, shown to be declining. The changing role of the factors clearly illustrates the need for on diabetes owner flexibility.

An overwhelming preoccupation with cash is quite important at some stages and less important at others. Delaying tax payments at almost all costs is paramount in Stages I and II but may seriously distort accounting data and use up management time during periods of success and growth. “Doing” versus “delegating” also requires a flexible management. Holding onto old strategies and old ways ill serves a company that is entering the growth stages and can even be fatal. Even a casual look at Exhibit 5 reveals the demands the Take-off Stage makes on the enterprise. Tale. Nearly every factor except the owner’s “ability to dedekind theory do” is crucial. This is the stage of action and potentially large rewards. Essay. Looking at this exhibit, owners who want such growth must ask themselves: Do I have the quality and diversity of dedekind people needed to manage a growing company?

Do I have now, or will I have shortly, the systems in place to handle the needs of a larger, more diversified company? Do I have the inclination and ability to delegate decision making to my managers? Do I have enough cash and borrowing power along with the of taliesin essay, inclination to risk everything to pursue rapid growth? Similarly, the potential entrepreneur can see that starting a business requires an ability to do something very well (or a good marketable idea), high energy, and a favorable cash flow forecast (or a large sum of cash on hand). These are less important in Stage V, when well-developed people-management skills, good information systems, and budget controls take priority. Perhaps this is why some experienced people from large companies fail to make good as entrepreneurs or managers in small companies.

They are used to delegating and are not good enough at doing. This scheme can be used to evaluate all sorts of small business situations, even those that at about first glance appear to be exceptions. Of Taliesin Essay. Take the case of laramie project thesis franchises. These enterprises begin the Existence Stage with a number of differences from most start-up situations. They often have the following advantages:

A marketing plan developed from extensive research. Sophisticated information and control systems in place. Operating procedures that are standardized and very well developed. Promotion and of taliesin other start-up support such as brand identification. They also require relatively high start-up capital. If the franchisor has done sound market analysis and has a solid, differentiated product, the new venture can move rapidly through the Existence and Survival Stages—where many new ventures founder—and into the early stages of Success. The costs to incidents in the of a girl analysis the franchisee for tale of taliesin these beginning advantages are usually as follows: Limited growth due to territory restrictions. Heavy dependence on the franchisor for continued economic health.

Potential for the mla of research papers later failure as the entity enters Stage III without the maturing experiences of Stages I and II. One way to of taliesin essay grow with franchising is to acquire multiple units or territories. Managing several of these, of course, takes a different set of thesis skills than managing one and it is here that the lack of survival experience can become damaging. Another seeming exception is high-technology start-ups. Tale Essay. These are highly visible companies—such as computer software businesses, genetic-engineering enterprises, or laser-development companies—that attract much interest from the investment community. Entrepreneurs and investors who start them often intend that they grow quite rapidly and then go public or be sold to other corporations. This strategy requires them to acquire a permanent source of outside capital almost from the beginning. Project Thesis. The providers of this cash, usually venture capitalists, may bring planning and operating systems of a Stage III or a Stage IV company to the organization along with an outside board of directors to oversee the investment. The resources provided enable this entity to jump through Stage I, last out Stage II until the tale of taliesin, product comes to market, and attain Stage III. At this point, the planned strategy for in the slave girl analysis growth is often beyond the managerial capabilities of the founding owner and the outside capital interests may dictate a management change.

In such cases, the of taliesin essay, company moves rapidly into Stage IV and, depending on of a analysis essay the competence of the development, marketing, and tale of taliesin essay production people, the company becomes a big success or an expensive failure. The problems that beset both franchises and laramie project thesis high-technology companies stem from a mismatch of the founders’ problem-solving skills and the demands that “forced evolution” brings to tale of taliesin essay the company. Besides the of related, extreme examples of franchises and high-technology companies, we found that while a number of other companies appeared to be at a given stage of development, they were, on closer examination, actually at one stage with regard to a particular factor and at another stage with regard to the others. For example, one company had an tale abundance of cash from a period of controlled growth (substage III-G) and was ready to accelerate its expansion, while at incidents life girl the same time the owner was trying to supervise everybody (Stages I or II). In another, the owner was planning to run for tale of taliesin essay mayor of a city (substage III-D) but was impatient with the company’s slow growth (substage III-G). Although rarely is a factor more than one stage ahead of or behind the company as a whole, an imbalance of dedekind essays factors can create serious problems for the entrepreneur. Tale Of Taliesin Essay. Indeed, one of the major challenges in a small company is the fact that both the problems faced and the skills necessary to deal with them change as the company grows. Thus, owners must anticipate and manage the factors as they become important to the company.

A company’s development stage determines the managerial factors that must be dealt with. Its plans help determine which factors will eventually have to be faced. Knowing its development stage and future plans enables managers, consultants, and investors to make more informed choices and to prepare themselves and their companies for later challenges. While each enterprise is unique in many ways, all face similar problems and all are subject to great changes. That may well be why being an owner is so much fun and such a challenge.

Neil C. Churchill is a visiting professor at the Anderson School at UCLA and a professor emeritus of entrepreneurship at incidents in the life of a analysis INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France. Virginia L. Lewis is a senior research associate of the Caruth Institute at SMU.

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5 pitfalls to avoid when implementing SMED. Single-minute exchange of dies is a lean manufacturing concept that has grown beyond the world of metal forming. It now stands for any lean exercise that attempts to reduce changeover time to tale of taliesin essay single-digit minutes. In implementing such a program, manufacturing managers need to understand the common pitfalls that plague these efforts. For Writers Of Research Sixth! Figure 1: Keeping very large dies close to the press can reduce changeover times. The die storage racks at essay, this appliance manufacturing facility are close to the door stamping line. The racks stand four bays tall and five bays wide. Eighteen bays are used for die storage, and two other bays are used for die staging and holding recently removed dies. Photo courtesy of Wayne Trail Technologies.

One of the most formidable impediments to efficient production flow in many stamping environments is changeovers or setups. Dedekind! Besides the obvious waste of time and capacity, operators generate other “wastes,” such as part defects, rework, and scrap, during changeovers. This usually occurs during the trial-and-error process of ensuring everything is in position to form the part correctly when production commences. To avoid multiple setups, stampers sometimes lean toward larger lot, batch, or run sizes, which in of taliesin essay, turn creates more inventory and reduces the company’s flexibility. Laramie! Meanwhile, the tale of taliesin trend in recent years has been for customers to thesis conclusion ask for smaller, more frequent deliveries from suppliers. This has put more pressure on metal forming companies to reconsider past “big-batch” practices. Shigeo Shingo, an industrial engineer work worked with Toyota, recognized this problem more than 30 years ago and developed his single-minute exchange of dies (SMED) concepts. Shingo wanted to reduce the tale essay changeover time involved in switching out the large dies in of related, the transfer presses. The original proc-ess called for stopping production, using overhead cranes to move the very heavy dies, putting the dies into the press relying on eyesight to determine placement, and tale essay, then using crowbars to incidents in the of a slave girl analysis essay adjust the dies during the trial phase. Tale Of Taliesin Essay! The entire process took more than 12 hours. After observing the descriptive future process more closely, Shingo and his engineers introduced the use of precision instruments to of taliesin essay eliminate the thesis chapter incorrect placement of dies; created a more intelligent schedule for die changeouts, which helped to minimize setups; scheduled overhead crane use so no one had to wait to use the material handling tool; and moved necessary tools near the stamping press.

As a result, the Toyota team was able to reduce the changeover time to less than 10 minutes per die. (“Single minute” refers to the goal of reducing setup time to a single-digit number of minutesanything less than 10 minutes.) Today the of taliesin essay term SMED has a broader meaning. The concepts can be applied to many changeover processes, even those that do not involve a die. However, many companies have yet to put them into essays practice or have been unable to sustain them over time. The key concepts are really straightforward. First, externalize all activities related to a changeover process. In other words, complete changeover activities that can be performed while the of taliesin essay equipment is running.

For example, the die is positioned nearby in a staging area (see Figure 1) or in an overhead crane ready for placement, and instructions for life of a slave girl, the next job have been prepared and reviewed. The same items for the current job can be put away after the next job is up and running. Streamlining both external and internal activities is another key concept. Internal activities are those activities that must be performed when the tale of taliesin equipment is stopped. The means to streamline will depend on the nature of the process. Chapter! Often it involves modest changessuch as the introduction of hydraulic clamps to essay lock the die into place quicklywhich make the process easier. The Mla Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers Sixth Edition! In other cases, it involves standardizing on best practices for the setup process itselfthe step-by-step approach to be followed. Tale Of Taliesin! To make SMED concepts work, stampersand manufacturers in generalneed to avoid five common pitfalls: Fail to the mla handbook for writers of research papers sixth edition organize Fail to establish standard work Fail to maintain equipment Fail to make the right equip-ment investments Fail to determine the value of of taliesin essay, equipment time. Experience has shown that as much as 50 percent of the opportunity to reduce changeover time involves getting better organized. As previously mentioned, activities that can be externalized must be identified. Dedekind Essays Theory Numbers! Once this has been done, an important question must be answered: Who will perform the external activities?

Will it be the press operator? Will it be somebody else, such as a dedicated setup person? Will it be a combination of individuals? The answer will depend on the nature of the process and the external activities that must be performed. For example, with highly automated presses and long cycle times, the press operator may be able to perform all of these activities. For more traditional presses, others must perform these duties. Unfortunately, such additional help not associated with equipment operation often is tale considered indirect or non-value-added, which usually means that management is reluctant to assign someone to future such a role. However, companies must consider the value that such individuals provide, which typically far exceeds their cost.

Figure 2: When storage racks can’t be located near a stamping press, die carts that can accommodate the previously used die and the new die are useful and tale essay, eliminate multiple trips to a storage rack. Some die carts, such as this one, also can elevate to incidents life of a slave essay align the deck with the press bed. Photo courtesy of Green Valley Manufacturing Inc. Proper organization also involves effectively arranging areas around equipment as well as storage areas for tooling and materials to of taliesin improve accessibility. Review Literature Mellitus! Point-of-use storage conceptsstoring tooling at the equipmentare applied whenever possible. At the very least, staging areas for dies and other materials to be used for the next job must be identified nearby (see Figure 2). Of Taliesin! In this case, a person should be able to locate a die within 30 seconds. Safety is also an dedekind essays numbers, important consideration here. Eliminating heavy lifting and unsafe movements, such as climbing ladders, always should be a goal. 2 Fail to Establish Standard Work.

Interestingly, few companies have effectively defined standard work for their changeover processes. And if they have, they do not always insist that all personnel follow it. The result is a highly variable process that depends greatly on the person performing it. Tale Essay! For some reason, company management is for writers papers sixth reluctant to tale of taliesin essay direct people on how to set up, leaving it up to about life each individual to figure it out for him- or herself. Accuracy in this context refers to meeting the quality expectations for the stamping job that is being set up to tale essay run.

One person might be able to descriptive complete the trial processing and adjustment step quicklyperhaps even in one iteration. Another person might take multiple iterationsand more timefor the very same setup. Stampers must define standard work processes, including the best known sequence of tale, steps and the expected time for each. In the case of die changeovers, the standard work should be developed as a team activityengaging everybody involved with the setupto identify best practices and ultimately get agreement on them. The result is often a small playbook of procedures for different types of setups. These are referred to before each changeover as a reminder of incidents in the of a slave girl analysis essay, how it should be done.

The need for tale of taliesin, standard work is particularly important when multiple people are involved in the proc-ess. Clear roles and thesis conclusion chapter, responsibilities must be identified to minimize the changeover time. Such coordination has been referred to as the tale pit crew balletachieving the same precision as a pit crew in handbook for writers of research papers, the midst of a heart-pounding race. A strong correlation exists between the time required to change over a piece of equipment and the condition of that equipment. Make no mistake, it will be more difficult to set up a stamping press that has not been maintained properly over time. The ability to achieve the tale essay accuracy required will diminish. More experienced and skilled employees will be required to perform the changeover process. Too many companies inadequately maintain their equipment and life of a slave girl essay, tooling.

Much like setup personnel, maintenance technicians are viewed as overhead and essay, have been reduced in dedekind numbers, cost-cutting efforts. In other companies, maintenance personnel are not given accessibility to the equipment to perform preventive maintenance because of the desire to keep the equipment running. Whatever the tale essay case, the practice becomes “run to failure,” which can seriously affect equipment condition and lead to longer changeover times. 4 Fail to chapter Make the Right Equipment Investments. Some companies attempt to achieve the essay objective of more flexibility by making significant investments in new equipment or technology to add capacity. Dedekind Essays Theory! Now, such investment may well be worth pursuing, but it may not be necessary. Much can be gained by of taliesin essay, working with existing equipment. As previously mentioned, up to thesis 50 percent of real improvement associated with a SMED program involves getting better organized.

Frankly, if stampers currently are not managing the changeover process properly, what makes them think that they will do any better with new equipment? Also, this is not a shop floor issue. Lack of effective organization and standard work are management issues. When it comes to tale of taliesin essay new equipment or software, bigger and faster are not always better. Too often the technology purchased requires different skill sets than those available in the organization. Insufficient training is provided, and the full benefits of the handbook for writers new investment go unrealized. In other situations, the changeover process becomes more complicated. This is particularly the case with highly automated forming operations in which multiple processes have been combined into one line. Not all equipment manufacturers have learned about SMED, nor have they incorporated the concepts into their machinery designs. 5 Fail to Determine the Value of Equipment Time.

A common reason that stampers do not always make the proper decisions with regard to the first four points lies in how they look at equipment time. When asked what the value of the tale equipment time is, the usual response is the hourly wage for the operator. On rare occasions the employees’ benefits are added. However, this is thesis conclusion looking at the cost of running the equipment, not the value. Of Taliesin! The value that the equipment can generate far exceeds the handbook edition costs. When the true value is recognized, stampers realize that the investment required to avoid the first four pitfalls is really quite reasonable and provides substantial and timely returns. Stampers need to ask themselves this question and then look at the time lost to changeovers. They might view it in a different light then, and find greater motivation to do the right things when it comes to changeover. Achieving and sustaining SMED concepts is as much about attitude as it is about the concepts themselves. Over time a stamping company must maintain a persistent focus on changeover and of taliesin, continually emphasize its importance. Life Slave Girl Essay! By the way, the biggest pitfall to tale implementing a successful SMED effort is worth a mention: Failure to act.

Not doing it means it will never get done. Change Management Associates. Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054. STAMPING Journal is the only industrial publication dedicated solely to serving the needs of the metal stamping market. In 1987 the American Metal Stamping Association broadened its horizons and renamed itself and for writers sixth, its publication, known then as Metal Stamping . October 8 - 11, 2017 | Hollywood, FL. October 25, 2017 | Atlanta, GA. November 6-9, 2017 | Chicago, IL. Subscriptions Advertise with Us Contact Us En Español Industry Tradeshows FMA Store Job Board provides metal fabrication professionals with market news, the industry's best articles, product news, and conference information from the of taliesin essay Fabricators Manufacturers Association, Intl. 2017 FMA Communications, Inc.

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central europe essay of Central Europe? Assessing the potential of the New far right after Haider. Ian Hall and Magali Perrault. Traditionally, the emergence of populist political extremism on both the left and the right has been ascribed to economic, social and political failures. Such groups appeal, it is argued, to the economically disaffected and of taliesin essay socially marginalised. Life Of A Analysis Essay! [1] Accounts of right-wing populism commonly reflect this thesis, with movements such as Le Pen's Front National in France and the German Republicans cited as examples. Such parties, which deliberately seek the support of the disaffected and marginalised, are not, however, confined to Western Europe. The former Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe have not been immune to this phenomenon, as the emergence of parties such as the Slovak National Party in essay, Slovakia, the Republicans in the Czech Republic, the Serbian Radical Party or the Hungarian Justice and Life Party demonstrate. With the review of related on diabetes, rise of the Freedom Party in of taliesin, Austria, a prosperous and stable liberal democracy, the accepted account of the emergence of right-wing movements demands re-examination. This essay first identifies the characteristics of this traditional populism of the of related literature, right and essay then sketches the contours of the new populism, which has appeared in recent years with remarkable speed and success. It also assesses the likelihood of the emergence of such movements in Central and Eastern Europe and essays theory suggests the manner and means by which domestic institutions and external bodies, especially the tale of taliesin, European Union, might respond.

Traditional parties of the far right. The traditional parties of the far right, such as the Front National, display a number of common characteristics. The most obvious is, of course, their strong sense of national and linguistic identity, clearly manifested in their virulent xenophobia and openly racist rhetoric. Second, they share an ingrained distrust of parliamentary politics, instead favouring broadly authoritarian models of government, often with a single demogogic leader. Amongst the older generation, in particular, in project, states which have experienced an authoritarian government in the past, there is something of a nostalgic longing for a return to such a regime. Third, populists of the of taliesin essay, far right commonly advocate neo-corporatist economic policies, with extensive state intervention in the economy. This aspect of their programmes reflects, to a large extent, the socio-economically marginalised constituency, which forms the in the life of a slave essay, base of support for such parties. Of Taliesin! Finally, these groups tend to future promote conservative social policies, including the prohibition of abortion and the limitation of tale of taliesin essay, access to birth control (on the grounds that birth-rates amongst the indigenous population are falling relative to those of immigrants), the reinforcement of the family, the incidents in the of a essay, eradication of drug abuse and the reform of what they perceive as excessively liberal school curricula. What has perhaps best characterised these movements, however, is their palpable lack of major electoral success.

In part, this failure has been a function of tale, post-war European governments' commitment to marginalise such groups through their economic and social policies. The promotion of full employment, economic growth, consumerism and increased spending on social services were all, in part, intended to detract from the appeal of authoritarian groups. Greater European unity was also conceived of as a means of preventing the resurgence of the authoritarian extreme right, by guaranteeing these economic and essays social gains and by tying national governments into a broader framework of law to support democracy and human rights. The pursuit of these policies rested upon the long-standing belief that economic depression, social marginalisation and political weakness (combined with national humiliation in Germany's case) had been the determinant factors in the success of the traditional far right in essay, the 1930s. Dedekind Essays Numbers! Succinctly stated by E H Carr in 1940, Western leaders believed that: the connexion between unemployment and war is not fortuitous. Seven million unemployed brought Hitler to power. [2] Political democracy, it was argued, had to be extended by tale of taliesin national governments as well as by literature on diabetes supra-national bodies, such as the EU, into the social and economic spheres or face lasting illegitimacy in the eyes of a demanding, broadened electorate. These ideas have continued to dominate Western European thinking, forming much of the basis for the argument for rapid EU enlargement into Central and Eastern Europe. What is uncertain, however, is whether such policies can prevent the reappearance of strong far-right parties in both West and East.

The appeal of the new populist parties. Indeed, Europe is witnessing the formation and rapid growth of a new type of tale, extreme right populist party which, so far at least, has experienced a greater degree of success than its traditional counterpart. Jorg Haider's Freedom Party (FPO), which obtained more than 27 percent of the votes in literature on diabetes, the Austrian parliamentary elections of October 1999 and tale of taliesin essay entered into the governmental coalition, may be only the incidents life of a girl essay, tip of a more substantial political iceberg. The existence and electoral appeal of the Italian Lega Nord, the tale of taliesin, Belgian Vlaams Blok, the People's Party in Switzerland, the much smaller Savoy League of Patrick Abeille in French Savoy and perhaps even the rightist CSU, which has ruled the German Land of Bavaria since 1957, seem to illustrate a broader continental trend. Dedekind Essays! Clearly, there are specific domestic conditions that have influenced the rise of these parties (starting with the Proporz in Austria), but they do appear to have a number of characteristics which distinguish them from the traditional movements of the extreme right. First, in contrast to the traditional parties, whose constituencies are usually the economically and socially marginalised, the of taliesin, so-called Alpine populists - in Switzerland, Austria, Northern Italy and the mla handbook for writers of research papers Savoy - deliberately appeal to the rich and tale of taliesin the privileged. Their economic rhetoric is explicitly neo-liberal. The centralist state is denounced as bureaucratic and tax-oppressive. Thus, the Lega Nord proclaims its fervent opposition to the centralized, bankrupted, oppressive, perverse, profligate, high-tax system, and the incorrigible inefficiency and corruption caused by Welfarism.

It continues: we have the Welfare State because it is in review of related literature mellitus, the interest of the whore-masters who (mis)manage it and because it benefits the parasites who hover around it, like so many viruses that suck the vital energy out of a nervous system (financial system), and not because it is for the material or moral well-being of the people. [3] In less strident terms, the Austrian Freedom Party has pledged to cut taxes and of taliesin subsidies, reduce the federal deficit and privatise state-owned companies. The first budget, presented by the new FPO finance minister Karl-Heinz Grasser on Tuesday 21 March, confirmed their neo-liberal economic orientation and reaffirmed their commitment to the policies outlined in thesis chapter, their manifesto. The 'new' far right, therefore, has jettisoned the corporatism and interventionism of their 'traditional' cousins, embracing the market in an effort to reap the supposed economic benefits of globalisation. About the cultural and political aspects of this trend, however, they remain deeply suspicious. Structural transformations in Western European economies have been matched by a change in the social groups to which the new far right appeals. The growth of high-technology and service industries has changed the tale of taliesin essay, face of these economies, bringing important political consequences. The appeal of traditional conservatism, for example, has been undermined by higher labour mobility and job insecurity. In response, some conservatives have toyed with nationalist or anti-immigration policies, attempting to co-opt far right opinion. Thesis Conclusion Chapter! The decline of the manufacturing industry has also eroded the constituency of the left. It was to this group, too, that the 'old' extreme right appealed.

Its decline has required a tactical shift. Tale! 'Single-issue' politics, traditionally focused on anti-immigration, has been replaced by descriptive essay about life in the future a broader agenda with a wider intended appeal. Today, as Lonnie Johnson has pointed out, the bedrock of the FPO support is still working class, but the party has also made considerable inroads among the young, the educated and with female voters. [4] In so doing, the tale of taliesin, new far right has sought to present a respectable profile, at least on issues other than immigration, and laramie project thesis hitherto has taken steps to affirm a commitment to the democratic process and its institutions. Haider and the FPO, for example, have been keen to tale of taliesin present themselves as transcending the traditional political divisions, seeking to rid themselves of some of the stigma of the traditional far right. Haider considers himself beyond left and right, which is the numbers, title of a book he published in of taliesin, 1997. He declared as early as 1975 that the search for project thesis a third way is more urgent than ever [5] and later repeated We [in the Freedom Party] are neither right nor left, we're just in front. [6] The Lega Nord's programme also argues that the movement must stay outside and above the meaningless Left-Right scheme, fighting for its well-defined goal, against all other parties if necessary, but at the same time trying to catalyze transversal support among them: the yearning for massive popular support driven by essay populistic slogans has to be put aside for a while, and the conduct must be subtler and more refined. [7] This new refinement is reflected in the (at least nominal) commitment of the new far right to parliamentary politics and the democratic process. Whether this commitment is genuine is difficult to judge, given that such undertakings are constitutionally required in many European states, and participation in the political arena is barred to those who refuse to make them. [8] It may well be, however, that this commitment is a tacit recognition of democracy's continuing popular appeal, or perhaps even an the mla handbook for writers papers sixth edition, indication of the willingness of a new generation of right-wingers to embrace it. Whether tactical or grounded in tale of taliesin essay, conviction, the democratic orientation of the new far right might well help to explain its appeal.

Whilst democracy remains popular, mainstream political parties are often not. Western voters are, in thesis, general, apathetic about such politics and politicians, and consequently more prone to of taliesin favour an alternative: the Greens in the 1980s, the descriptive essay future, old far right in tale, the 1990s (in Belgium, for example) and the FPO in Austria in 2000. A commitment to descriptive essay future the democratic process makes the parties of the new far right safer in of taliesin essay, the eyes of the electorate. The transformation of the descriptive about, new populists, both rhetorical and political, has been accelerated in the wake of Haider's electoral success in Austria, as the value of respectability is appreciated by similar groups across Western Europe. Tale Of Taliesin! As the new far right eclipses the traditionalists, Haider, rather than Le Pen, is increasingly viewed as the role model. The decision of Bruno Megret (the former Number Two of the mellitus, Front National and the man usually considered to be the moderate and respectable face of the party) to secede and create the Mouvement National Republicain (MNR), could be tentatively seen as an illustration of the growing divide between these two approaches to far-right politics.

Megret, for instance, recently declared: what Haider has done in of taliesin, Austria, we will do in numbers, France. Of Taliesin! [9] Positioning the party beyond left and right,, and presenting this respectable image to the electorate has clearly served the FPO well. Since 1986, when Haider became Chairman, as the table below suggests, the Freedom Party has succeeded in attracting blue-collar voters traditionally supportive of Social Democracy. How do Austrian blue-collar workers vote? +2 (1994-1994 change) Source: F. Theory Numbers! Plasser, P.Ulram, E.Neuwirth, F.Sommer, Analyse der Nationalratswahl 1995, quoted in Sully, The Haider Phenomenon , p. 121. Significantly, in tale of taliesin, October last year, the Freedom Party overtook the in the girl analysis essay, Social Democrats (SPO) as the workers' party, with 47% of workers voting for the FPO. Moreover, they came close to a highly symbolic victory over the SPO in of taliesin essay, the capital, a traditional stronghold of Austrian Social Democracy marked by the legacies of Red Vienna.

In contrast to the authoritarian far right, with its outright rejection of European integration, the new populists of the right share an ambiguous attitude towards the EU and review of related mellitus the European project. Although sceptical in many respects, these groups are cautiously supportive of some aspects of the tale of taliesin essay, project. Clearly opposed to a federal, centralised EU, their leaders have been at the forefront of review of related literature on diabetes, demands for tale of taliesin a Europe of regions or of nations. The FPO, for example, firmly states that the European Union shall not become a European federal state but a confederation. [10] Similarly, the Lega Nord seeks to build the EU of the regions, a Europe of the Hundred Flags, and contends that the nation state is a historical artifact, functional in a given social and economic situation, which will soon become obsolete. Dedekind Essays Theory Numbers! Edmund Stoiber, the leader of the of taliesin, Bavarian CSU, a party notoriously hostile to a federal Europe, also recently repeated his opposition to a European central state ( Zentralstaat ). [11] Such views seem to reflect both the populists' above-mentioned dislike of bureaucracy and inefficiency, as well as the primarily regional rather than national appeal of the movements.

The new far right has often built its success in regional strongholds: the Lega Nord in prosperous Lombardy, the Vlaams Blok in Flemish Flanders and the FPO in the Land of Carinthia. The success of Haider's FPO in Austria raises the question of papers, whether the new populism of the far right might gain similar electoral results in Central and Eastern Europe. Could a similar political phenomenon emerge in the Czech Republic, Hungary or Poland, and lead - to use a phrase out of context - to what the first president of Czechoslovakia, T G Masaryk, might have bemoaned as an tale essay, unfortunate re-Austrianisation of the of research papers sixth, region? Furthermore, what might be the consequences of of taliesin, understanding the rise of the new far right, not in terms of essay in the future, economic or political crisis, but in terms of increasing prosperity and political stability, underpinned by EU membership? Hints of a possible Haiderisation of Central Europe could be detected even before the recent electoral success of the Freedom Party. It might be argued that, for example, the readiness of Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party (ODS) to split the Czechoslovak state in tale of taliesin, 1992, on the grounds of ridding the conclusion chapter, Czechs of the Slovak burden, is an illustration of this process.

To a lesser, but still tangible, extent, the economic arguments presented to the comparatively wealthly Slovenes in favour of secession from Yugoslavia in tale of taliesin essay, the late 1980s and early 1990s may also reflect this trend. This view is reinforced by descriptive future the manner in which some Western European populists have responded to the velvet divorce of Czechoslovakia, and the secession of Slovenia from the essay, Yugoslav state. Leaders of both the Vlaams Blok and incidents of a slave analysis essay the Lega Nord have praised the of taliesin, Czechoslovak-style separation. The 1995 electoral manifesto of Vlaams Blok unambiguously appealed to the Czechoslovak precedent· arguing that the Belgian state is a historical mistake . We want a separation and incidents of a slave essay a division on the Czechoslovak model. [12] The authors of the pamphlet The Project of a Flemish State (Project Vlaamse Staat), published in May 1998, applauded the quick, democratically legitimate breakup of the Czechoslovak state. [13] In June 1996, the tale of taliesin, chairman of Lega Nord, Umberto Bossi, declared: it's time to choose the Czechoslovakian way. Let us divide up the dedekind theory numbers, country. [14] Almost eight years after the start of the break-up of the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav federations, there is of taliesin more evidence that could illustrate the potential resonance of the new far right in Central Europe. We shall briefly examine the cases of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia and Slovakia. The Czech Republic. Less than eight years after having engineered the breakup of theory numbers, Czechoslovakia, Klaus, now Chairman of the Czech National Assembly, sharply condemned the EU reaction to the inclusion of the FPO in the Austrian government. For Klaus, the tale, Freedom Party's participation is the lesser evil compared with the attempt of the EU to oppose the sovereign decision-making of one of its members. [15] While he has sought to secure EU membership for the Czech Republic, Klaus has simultaneously expressed his disdain at what he perceives as the socialist or Social-democratic aspects of the European project. Like Bossi, Haider or even Stoiber, Klaus believes that in the future, the EU will be formed by sovereign states which have joined voluntarily, and that the sovereignty of the EU itself will be derived from essay about life in the its members…we [the ODS] do not want to dissolve our state in tale of taliesin essay, supranational structures formed without deep roots in fact, and without real identity.

The ODS is keen to see a systematic curbing of the growth in [EU] bureaucracy and argues for a Europe the strength of which is in its diversity, not its uniformity. Girl Essay! [16] It is not only in their attitudes towards the European project, however, that there is common ground between Czech rightist politicians and Haider's FPO. As the well-documented discrepancy between Klaus's rhetoric and the reality of the ODS's economic policies when the party was in power demonstrates, words and statements of intent are not necessarily a reflection of actions and beliefs. Yet even a superficial comparison of the political programmes of the FPO and the ODS illustrates the potential for tale essay the emergence of thesis, Haider-style populism in the Czech Republic. From a semantic point of view, the ODS, like the Freedom Party, puts a neo-liberal notion of freedom at the centre of its political philosophy. Both parties acknowledge the role of the state in areas such as social solidarity and the protection of the environment, but they also consider the state a potential threat to the freedom of the individual. Tale Of Taliesin Essay! The ODS, thus, purports to erect obstacles to the attempts to project extend Etatisme…Neither intervention in the contents of contracts between individuals nor entrepreneurial activity is the business of the state. The FPO proposes a catalogue of duties for the state [which] should serve to limit the state to its original functions and should prevent an expansion in its activities, thus forming the basis for the necessary reduction of the state…The state should abstain from any profitable or entrepreneurial activity that currently just leads to essay a distortion of in the girl analysis, competitive relationships on the markets to the detriment of private competitors and …to the disadvantage of taxpayers. Both parties share a strong sense of national identity. What sets them apart is the openly xenophobic rhetoric of the Austrian party.

Given the conflicts between Czechs and Romanies, and the racist attitudes with which immigrants from poorer states to the East must content, the potential for a political movement combining the mainstream policies of the of taliesin, ODS with an anti-immigrant agenda is clear. This analysis can also be applied, in chapter, many respects, to Hungary. Like Klaus, the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban refused to denounce the participation of the Freedom Party in the Austrian government. Instead, he rather enigmatically described the FPO's rise to power as a stone being thrown into an intellectually and politically stagnant pond. [17] In Hungary, some inroads have been made by more traditional far-right politicians and Istvan Csurka, Chairman of the Justice (Truth) and Life Party, represented by of taliesin essay only 14 out of 386 MPs, has still been able to drag the Hungarian agenda further rightward. [18] Mainstream parties, such as Orban's Federation of Young Democrats (FIDESZ), have displayed a tendency to drift towards an increasingly nationalist agenda, while remaining committed to parliamentary politics and neo-liberal economics.

On 23 March, for example, a representative of FIDESZ introduced in parliament a bill which would make compulsory the display of the national flag on all public buildings at all times. According to another MP, the essay in the, bill aims at strengthening national awareness. [19] Moreover, the democratic commitment of FIDESZ's junior coalition partner, the Independent Smallholders' Party of Jozsef Torgyan, remains doubtful. Some elements of FIDESZ are also increasingly critical of the EU, arguing that it represents a threat to Hungarian values and interests. Hungarian doubts over membership focus largely on nationality questions. The fate of Hungarian minorities in Slovakia, Romania and Serbia are still a thorny issue, as they were in 1993, when Hungary threatened to veto Slovakia's inclusion in the Council of Europe. Such questions might easily evolve into broader economically-grounded arguments, politically respectable but with a nationalistic edge, which could be used to justify a Hungarian veto against a possible second wave of of taliesin essay, Central European applicants (in the plausible scenario that Hungary gains membership before Romania or Slovakia). Slovenia's political landscape is, at first sight, remarkably similar to Austria's, marked by a clear divide between mainstream Social Democratic and Catholic-conservative groupings. It is also marked by notable economic success, and descriptive life Slovenia stands as one of the wealthiest countries of the region, with a 1997 GDP per capita in purchasing power parity of USD 13,000. [20] Slovenia could witness the emergence of tale of taliesin essay, several right-wing movements which could follow the example of the FPO and establish themselves as third forces on the political landscape.

For some time, the thesis chapter, Slovene National Party seemed to be a possible contender, gaining, for instance, ten percent of the votes in the 1992 parliamentary elections. Support, however, dwindled and the party eventually split up in 1997. The (misnamed) Slovene Social Democratic Party, and its leader Janez Jansa, are more likely candidates. Jansa, the former Minister of of taliesin essay, Defense between 1991 and 1994, has established himself as the charismatic figurehead of the numbers, movement, adopting the trappings of of taliesin, a modernised and urban radical right. Its policies are a potent mix of xenophobic rhetoric with claims to be Social Democratic. As Rudolf M Rizman contends, Jansa's hatred and moreover vengeful spite against laramie thesis, everything Yugoslav, communist and liberal Weltanschauung gives the Social Democratic Party the ability to shake the Slovene party system and to tale mobilise along the literature, lines of radical right and values - especially if, Rizman pointedly adds, the change of the international situation (the substantial rise of the radical right elsewhere in Europe…) would allow for it. [21] The Slovak National Party has long been considered a typical traditional far-right movement and the leadership of Jan Slota (incidentally, a friend of Le Pen's) was clearly marked by extremism. But Slota's recent ousting, and his replacement by the more moderate Anna Malikova, may mark a shift from these traditional policies to essay those of the new far right, much as Megret's split from essay life Le Pen suggests a movement towards the adoption of an FPO-like approach in France. Implications: domestic and European. In a recent interview with the Financial Times , Romano Prodi, the Chairman of the European Commission, stated: We must tranquilise our public opinion and the public opinion of the applicant countries. Otherwise, there will be hundreds of Austrian situations. [22] In this context, what can domestic and international institutions do to stem the of taliesin essay, tide of the essay in the, new far right in essay, Central Europe?

One major factor in the rise of parties of the radical right in Western Europe is the illegitimacy, in the eyes of the electorate, of mainstream political parties. In Austria, public disaffection with the conservative and Social Democratic movements which have dominated domestic politics since World War II contributed greatly to the popularity of Haider's third force, the Freedom Party. In Central Europe, where the concept of a party itself remains discredited, tainted by descriptive essay about life in the its association with the tale, Communist past, and disaffection with mainstream politicians is common, it is more difficult to review on diabetes assess the risk of growing support for the far right. Nevertheless, if Europe is seeing the rise of a new breed of tale, extreme right-wingers, who appeal to the more affluent and politically-aware voter, it seems likely that such parties will emerge in incidents of a slave analysis, Central Europe, as the economies of the essay, region grow and dedekind essays theory numbers entry into the EU is secured. Domestically, the options available to governments to tale essay check the rise of such groups, especially those which seek to present a respectable, constitutional face, are limited. Seeking to exclude them from the democratic process may be unconstitutional; including them in government may incur the wrath of the EU or international opinion. Nevertheless, this latter tactic, which might be described as the Schussel option [the choice of the leader of the Austrian conservative People's Party to ally himself with the laramie project, FPO], though entailing a substantial risk, might well be the most profitable. It appears that much of the tale of taliesin, new far right's support comes by way of thesis, protest votes. Tale Of Taliesin Essay! In government, given an handbook papers edition, already disaffected electorate, these groups might rapidly lose popular appeal, as their ability to cut bureaucracy or fight corruption is shown to be limited. This option does involve a risk, for it takes at face-value the democratic commitment of the new far right; in the long run, however, it may be the best tactic. The implications for the European project, however, may be interpreted as more serious.

Hitherto, enlargement into Central and Eastern Europe has at least been partially justified on of taliesin essay, the grounds of discouraging the establishment of review of related on diabetes mellitus, nationalist authoritarian regimes in the region. Sharing the economic benefits of the EU, it is argued, prevents the tale essay, creation of economically and essays theory socially marginalised groups which provide the most fertile recruiting grounds for far-right parties. The growth of the essay, new far right, represented by the FPO in Austria, with its emphasis on neo-liberal economics and dedekind essays theory professed commitment to democracy, could challenge this thesis. It may be, in fact, that the far right could emerge in strength in societies marked by relative wealth and tale of taliesin essay social stability. It is possible to foresee that, following the handbook for writers, accession of their countries to the EU, with the economic benefits that it might bring, Czech, Hungarian or Slovene leaders may frustrate both greater integration of the Union and the process of admitting poorer neighbours to the East, such as Romania or Bulgaria. Like Haider, a Czech, Hungarian or Slovene populist leader of the new far right could insist on greater economic convergence as a precondition to further enlargement, such as an equalisation of essay, wage levels between EU states and prospective members or a so-called transition period for labour mobility.

The distinct lack of enthusiasm (to put it euphemistically) of states, such as Ireland, Portugal and Spain, towards EU eastward enlargement might prefigure this. A slogan such as once we get into the EU, we will close the door behind us might therefore prove dangerously seductive to the electorates. Animosities against a supra-national institution like the EU could be stirred up by Central European far-right leaders. All the leading applicant countries for EU membership (with, of descriptive essay about life future, course, the exception of Poland) are small states, which share the experience of forced participation in an oppressive Communist political structure which many regard as a foreign, ie Russian, import. Slovenia was, of course, not part of the tale, Soviet Bloc, but the incidents in the life slave girl essay, Slovene far right has consistently repudiated all things Yugoslav (and this includes the adoption of a xenophobic stance against the immigrants from the former Yugoslavia who have settled in the country).

The Haider case has been interpreted by far-right leaders in tale of taliesin essay, Central Europe as evidence that EU membership might be somewhat akin to membership in the Soviet Bloc (or Yugoslavia, for the Slovenes) and limit their sovereignty, as small and often newly-independent states. Descriptive! Anna Malikova, the new moderate leader of the Slovak National Party, recently made this fear explicit. The reaction of Western Europe against Austria, she stated, reminded me of the doctrine of of taliesin, limited sovereignty that we knew from project 1968: The Russians then taught us that the choice of the electors could be put into question. Of Taliesin Essay! We have just obtained our independence. We do not want to lose it again. [23] To attempt, as the EU has done with Austria, to prevent the rise of the far right through the use of European institutions, might well provoke a nationalist backlash in newly-accepted EU states. The dilemma for project thesis the EU, therefore, is that while eastward expansion may avert the adoption of traditional authoritarian extremist regimes, it may also increase the likelihood of the emergence of new, nominally-democratic far-right parties with great electoral appeal.

Expansion, therefore, is not the panacea some Europeans claim it to essay be. Attempts to thesis chapter avert the growth of the new far right by the EU after a first wave of enlargement may be met with considerable resistance in essay, the new member states. A shift to laramie thesis qualified majority voting in the EU, which Romano Prodi has recently declared imperative in the wake of the rise of the FPO, will undoubtedly increase rather than decrease tensions within the Union. [24] The question, as the Polish Foreign Minister, Bronislaw Geremek, has argued, is tale whether the future of the EU is to be built in an atmosphere of courage and about future imagination, or whether fear is to tale essay be the main emotion keeping the Union together. Thesis! [25] Ian Hall and Magali Perrault , 30 March 2000. Ian Hall read Modern History at Exeter College, Oxford, and holds a Mlitt in International Security Studies from the University of St.

Andrews. He is currently writing a PhD on international political theory with special reference to the 'English school' of international relations theory. He is a book reviewer for International Affairs . Magali Perrault is currently completing a doctoral dissertation on the breakup of Czechoslovakia at the University of St Andrews (Department of International Relations) and writes for Central Europe Review on Austrian, Czech and Slovak issues. Notes [Click on the ^ to return to the text] 1. Of Taliesin Essay! See C Williams, 'Problems of Transition and the Rise of the Radical Right,' in for writers sixth edition, S P Ramet (ed), The Radical Right in tale, Central and Eastern Europe , Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania State UP, 1999, p 32. ^ 2. E H Carr, The Two Scourges, The Times , 5 December 1940, p 5. Thesis Conclusion Chapter! ^ 5. quoted in of taliesin essay, Christa Zochling, Haider: Licht und Schatten einer Karriere , Vienna, Molden Verlag, 1999, p 93. ^ 6. quoted in Melanie Sully, The Haider Phenomenon , Boulder, East European Monographs, 1997, p 35. Project Thesis! ^ 8. Tale Of Taliesin! Mark Mazower, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century , Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1999, p 292. ^ 10. Numbers! Programme of the Austrian Freedom Party adopted on 30 October 1997, see ^ 11. Speech of Stoiber on 8 March 2000 in Passau (on the website of the CSU, ^ 12. quoted in Wilfried Dewaechter, Belgique: La dechirure, Politique Internationale , Winter 1997/98, no 78, p 180. ^ 13. See the interview with Gerolf Annemans, Luk Van Nieuwenhuysen and Karim Van Overmeire on the Vlaams Blok website http://www.vlaams-blok/project.html. ^ 14. quoted in John Newhouse, Europe Adrift , New York, Pantheon Books, p 69. ^ 15.

RFE/RL Newsline, 4 February 2000. ^ 16. See the manifesto of the Civic Democratic Party ( ^ 17. Quoted in of taliesin essay, The Economist , 12 February 2000, p 36. ^ 18. Adam LeBor, Haider Effect Spreads Beyond Austria to descriptive in the Silence Popular Voice of Liberal Youth, The Independent , 7 March 2000. ^ 20. Figures in essay, report of the European Commission, Agenda 2000 enlargement (1998). Incidents In The Life Analysis! ^ 21. Rudolf M.Rizman, Radical Right Politics in Slovenia, in Ramet (ed), The Radical Right in Central and Eastern Europe Since 1989, p 155. ^ 22.

Romano Prodi, quoted in Prodi Signals Hard Line on EU Applicants, Financial Times , 3 March 2000. Tale! ^ 23. quoted in life analysis, Adrien Jaulmes, Les nationalistes slovaques en embuscade, Le Figaro , 18 February 2000. Tale Of Taliesin! ^ 24. See Prodi Signals Hard Line on EU Applicants, Financial Times , 3 March 2000. ^ 25. Bronislaw Geremek quoted in Prodi Scolded on EU Expansion, Financial Times , 7 March 2000. ^

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Variant Effect Predictor Annotation sources. VEP can use a variety of annotation sources to of taliesin, retrieve the essays theory, transcript models used to predict consequence types. Cache - a downloadable file containing all transcript models, regulatory features and variant data for a species GFF or GTF - use transcript models defined in a tabix-indexed GFF or GTF file Database - connect to a MySQL database server hosting Ensembl databases. Data from VCF, BED and bigWig files can also be incorporated by VEP's custom annotation feature. Using a cache (--cache) is the fastest and tale of taliesin essay, most efficient way to use VEP, as in most cases only a single initial network connection is made and literature, most data is of taliesin, read from local disk. Use offline mode to life in the, eliminate all network connections for speed and/or privacy. Ensembl creates cache files for every species for tale essay each Ensembl release. They can be automatically downloaded and configured using If interested in RefSeq transcripts you may download an alternate cache file (e.g. homo_sapiens_refseq), or a merged file of RefSeq and Ensembl transcripts (eg homo_sapiens_merged); remember to specify --refseq or --merged when running VEP to use the relevant cache. Of Related Mellitus! See documentation for full details. It is also simple to download and of taliesin essay, set up caches without using the thesis chapter, installer.

By default, VEP searches for caches in $HOME/.vep; to use a different directory when running VEP, use --dir_cache. FTP directories by species grouping: The cache stores the following information: Transcript location, sequence, exons and other attributes Gene, protein, HGNC and other identifiers for each transcript (where applicable, limitations apply to RefSeq caches) Locations, alleles and frequencies of existing variants Regulatory regions Predictions and scores for SIFT, PolyPhen. It does not store any information pertaining to, and essay, therefore cannot be used for, the following: HGVS names (--hgvs, --hgvsg) - to retrieve these you must additionally point to a FASTA file containing the reference sequence for your species (--fasta) Using HGVS notation as input (--format hgvs) Using variant identifiers as input (--format id) Finding overlapping structural variants (--check_sv) Enabling one of these options with --cache will cause VEP to essays theory, warn you in its status output with something like the following: For those with Bio::DB::HTS (as set up by or tabix installed on their systems, the speed of retrieving existing co-located variants can be greatly improved by converting the cache files using the supplied script, Of Taliesin Essay! This replaces the plain-text, chunked variant dumps with a single tabix-indexed file per chromosome. Theory Numbers! The script is simple to run:

To convert all species and all versions, use all: A full description of the tale of taliesin, options can be seen using --help . When complete, VEP will automatically detect the converted cache and use this in place. Note that tabix and bgzip must be installed on your system to convert a cache. downloads these when setting up Bio::DB::HTS; to enable to find them, run: When using the project, public database servers, VEP requests transcript and variation data that overlap the loci in your input file. As such, these coordinates are transmitted over the network to tale of taliesin, a public server, which may not be appropriate for those with sensitive or private data. Users should note that only the essay about life future, coordinates are transmitted to the server; no other information is sent. To run VEP in an offline mode that does not use any network connections, use the flag --offline. The limitations described above apply absolutely when using offline mode.

For example, if you specify --offline and --format id, VEP will report an error and refuse to run: All other features, including the ability to use custom annotations and plugins, are accessible in offline mode. VEP can use transcript annotations defined in GFF or GTF files. The files must be bgzipped and indexed with tabix, and VEP requires a FASTA file containing the genomic sequence in order to generate transcript models. Your GFF or GTF file must be sorted in tale of taliesin essay, chromosomal order. VEP does not use header lines so it is safe to remove them. You may use any number of GFF/GTF files in essay about in the, this way, providing they refer to the same genome.

You may also use them in concert with annotations from a cache or database source; annotations are distinguished by the SOURCE field in the VEP output: This functionality uses VEP's custom annotation feature, and tale of taliesin essay, the --gff flag is a shortcut to: You should use the review, longer form if you wish to customise the name of the GFF as it appears in tale of taliesin essay, the SOURCE field and VEP output header. VEP has been tested on GFF files generated by Ensembl and dedekind essays theory, NCBI (RefSeq). Due to tale essay, inconsistency in life slave analysis essay, the GFF specification and adherence to it, VEP may encounter problems parsing some GFF files. For the same reason, not all transcript biotypes defined in your GFF may be supported by VEP. VEP does not support GFF files with embedded FASTA sequence. The following entity types (3rd column in essay, the GFF) are supported by VEP. Lines of other types will be ignored; if this leads to an incomplete transcript model, the literature, whole transcript model may be discarded. [Show supported types]

aberrant_processed_transcript CDS C_gene_segment D_gene_segment exon gene J_gene_segment lincRNA lincRNA_gene miRNA miRNA_gene mRNA mt_gene ncRNA NMD_transcript_variant primary_transcript processed_pseudogene processed_transcript pseudogene pseudogenic_transcript RNA rRNA rRNA_gene snoRNA snoRNA_gene snRNA snRNA_gene supercontig transcript tRNA VD_gene_segment V_gene_segment. Entities in the GFF are expected to be linked using a key named parent or Parent in the attributes (9th) column of the GFF. Unlinked entities (i.e. those with no parents or children) are discarded. Sibling entities (those that share the same parent) may have overlapping coordinates, e.g. for exon and tale, CDS entities. Transcripts require a Sequence Ontology biotype to be defined in laramie project thesis, order to be parsed by VEP. The simplest way to define this is of taliesin, using an attribute named biotype on the transcript entity. Literature On Diabetes Mellitus! Other configurations are supported in order for VEP to be able to parse GFF files from NCBI and other sources. The following GTF entity types will be parsed by VEP: Entities are linked by an attribute named for the parent entity type e.g. exon is linked to essay, transcript by transcript_id, transcript is linked to the mla for writers of research papers edition, gene by gene_id. Transcript biotypes are defined in attributes named biotype, transcript_biotype or transcript_type. If none of these exist, VEP will attempt to interpret the source field (2nd column) of the tale essay, GTF as the biotype.

If the chromosome names used in your GFF/GTF differ from those used in the FASTA or your input VCF, you may see warnings like this when running VEP: To circumvent this you may provide VEP with a synonyms file. Chapter! A synonym file is tale essay, included in VEP's cache files, so if you have one of these for your species you can use it as follows: Using a GFF or GTF file as VEP's annotation source limits access to some auxiliary information available when using a cache. Currently most external reference data such as gene symbols, transcript identifiers and protein domains are inaccessible when using only a GFF/GTF file.

VEP's flexibility does allow some annotation types to be replaced. The following table illustrates some examples and alternative means to retrieve equivalent data. * Note this will also instruct VEP to for writers of research papers sixth, annotate input variants against tale of taliesin essay transcript models retrieved from the cache as well as those from the GFF/GTF file. It is possible to in the analysis essay, use --transcript_filter to of taliesin, include only the transcripts from your GFF/GTF file: By pointing VEP to a FASTA file (or directory containing several files), it is possible to retrieve reference sequence locally when using --cache or --offline.

This enables VEP to retrieve HGVS notations (--hgvs), check the essay life in the future, reference sequence given in input data (--check_ref), and essay, construct transcript models from a GFF or GTF file without accessing a database. FASTA files can be set up using the installer; files set up using the dedekind theory numbers, installer are automatically detected by VEP when using --cache or --offline; you should not need to use --fasta to manually specify them. To enable this VEP uses one of two modules: The Bio::DB::HTS Perl XS module with HTSlib. This module uses compiled C code and can access compressed (bgzipped) or uncompressed FASTA files.

It is set up by the VEP installer. Tale Of Taliesin! The Bio::DB::Fasta module. This may be used on dedekind essays theory numbers, systems where installation of the Bio::DB::HTS module has not been possible. It can access only uncompressed FASTA files. It is also set up by the VEP installer and tale of taliesin essay, comes as part of the thesis, BioPerl package. The first time you run VEP with a specific FASTA file, an index will be built. This can take a few minutes, depending on the size of the FASTA file and the speed of your system.

On subsequent runs the index does not need to be rebuilt (if the FASTA file has been modified, VEP will force a rebuild of the index). Ensembl provides suitable reference FASTA files as downloads from its FTP server. See the Downloads page for details. You should preferably use the installer as described above to fetch these files; manual instructions are provided for reference. In most cases it is best to download the single large primary_assembly file for your species.

You should use the unmasked (without _rm or _sm in the name) sequences. Note that VEP requires that the file be either unzipped (Bio::DB::Fasta) or unzipped and then recompressed with bgzip (Bio::DB::HTS::Faidx) to run; when unzipped these files can be very large (25GB for human). An example set of commands for setting up the data for human follows: VEP can use remote or local database servers to tale, retrieve annotations. Using --cache (without --offline) uses the local cache on disk to fetch most annotations, but allows database connections for some features (see cache limitations) Using --database tells VEP to retrieve all annotations from the thesis chapter, database. Tale Essay! Please only descriptive in the future, use this for tale of taliesin small input files or when using a local database server!

By default, VEP is essays numbers, configured to connect to Ensembl's public MySQL instance at For users in the US (or for any user geographically closer to tale essay, the East coast of the USA than to Ensembl's data centre in Cambridge, UK), a mirror server is available at Chapter! To use the mirror, use the tale, flag --host Users of the mla for writers of research papers edition, Ensembl Genomes species (e.g. plants, fungi, microbes) should use their public MySQL instance; the connection parameters for this can be automatically loaded by using the flag --genomes. Users with small data sets (100s of variants) should find using the default connection settings adequate. Those with larger data sets, or those who wish to of taliesin, use VEP in a batch manner, should consider one of the dedekind numbers, alternatives below. It is possible to tale essay, set up a local MySQL mirror with the review literature mellitus, databases for tale of taliesin your species of interest installed. For instructions on installing a local mirror, see here. About! You will need a MySQL server that you can connect to from the machine where you will run VEP (this can be the same machine). For most of the functionality of VEP, you will only need the Core database (e.g. homo_sapiens_core_90_38) installed.

In order to find co-located variants or to tale of taliesin essay, use SIFT or PolyPhen, it is also necessary to install the incidents life of a girl analysis, relevant variation database (e.g. Tale Of Taliesin! homo_sapiens_variation_90_38). Note that unless you have custom data to insert in the database, in most cases it will be much more efficient to use a pre-built cache in theory, place of of taliesin essay, a local database. To connect to the mla for writers, your mirror, you can either set the connection parameters using --host, --port, --user and --password, or use a registry file. Tale! Registry files contain all the connection parameters for your database, as well as any species aliases you wish to set up: For more information on the registry and registry files, see here. ADVANCED The cache consists of compressed files containing listrefs of serialised objects. Laramie Thesis! These objects are initially created from the database as if using the Ensembl API normally. In order to reduce the size of the tale of taliesin essay, cache and allow the the mla, serialisation to tale of taliesin, occur, some changes are made to the objects before they are dumped to disk.

This means that they will not behave in exactly the same way as an object retrieved from the database when writing, for example, a plugin that uses the cache. The following hash keys are deleted from thesis conclusion chapter, each transcript object: analysis created_date dbentries : this contains the tale of taliesin, external references retrieved when calling $transcript-get_all_DBEntries(); hence this call on project, a cached object will return no entries description display_xref edits_enabled external_db external_display_name external_name external_status is_current modified_date status transcript_mapper : used to convert between genomic, cdna, cds and protein coordinates. Essay! A copy of this is cached separately by VEP as. As mentioned above, a special hash key _variation_effect_feature_cache is created on the transcript object and used to cache things used by laramie thesis, VEP in predicting consequences, things which might otherwise have to be fetched from the database. Tale Of Taliesin! Some of these are stored in review, place of equivalent keys that are deleted as described above.

The following keys and data are stored: introns : listref of intron objects for the transcript. Of Taliesin Essay! The adaptor, analysis, dbID, next, prev and seqname keys are stripped from thesis conclusion, each intron object translateable_seq : as returned by mapper : transcript mapper as described above peptide : the translated sequence as a string, as returned by protein_features : protein domains for the transcript's translation as returned by Each protein feature is stripped of all keys but: start, end, analysis, hseqname codon_table : the codon table ID used to translate the transcript, as returned by protein_function_predictions : a hashref containing the keys sift and polyphen; each one contains a protein function prediction matrix as returned by e.g. Similarly, some further data is cached directly on the transcript object under the following keys: _gene : gene object.

This object has all keys but the following deleted: start, end, strand, stable_id _gene_symbol : the gene symbol _ccds : the tale of taliesin essay, CCDS identifier for essays the transcript _refseq : the NM RefSeq mRNA identifier for the transcript _protein : the Ensembl stable identifier of the translation _source_cache : the tale of taliesin essay, source of the transcript object. Only defined in the merged cache (values: Ensembl, RefSeq) or when using a GFF/GTF file (value: short name or filename) Ensembl release 90 - August 2017 EMBL-EBI EMBL-EBI.