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Not Altogether an Illusion: Translation and Translucence in the Work of freud Burton Watson. Burton Watson has proven himself one of the best translators of classical Asian literature. Through background information about Watson’s life and close reading of grade his poetry translations, the following essay highlights the intricacies of his artistry and demonstrates the genius of his translations in reconciling the perceived rift between poetry and scholarship. T eaching from Eliot Weinberger’s Nineteen Ways of Looking at Wang Wei , I pointed the class to Burton Watson’s translation of “Deer Fence,” [1] from 1971: Empty hills, no one in sight, only the freud essay on transience sound of someone talking; late sunlight enters the case study approach to learning deep wood, shining over the green moss again. One student, a young woman from Shanghai exposed to translation theory and a traditionalist sense of freud poetry in English, scoffed: “That’s it?” I remember a college professor of mine relating how her graduate advisor, a meticulous philologist whose translations overflow with annotation, also disparaged Watson’s translations, saying he probably typed up his first drafts and sent them to his publisher without looking at them again. But I also remember William Butler Yeats, from “Adam’s Curse” [2] : . . . A line will take us hours maybe;

Yet if it does not seem a moment’s thought, Our stitching and unstitching has been naught. For all the arab league work it takes, Yeats says, to freud essay be a poet is still to writing eigth essays be “thought an freud, idler by the noisy set / Of bankers, schoolmasters, and clergymen / The martyrs call the world.” Throw certain readers of translation into that noisy set, for the fact is that beneath the surface simplicity of Watson’s lines hide not only years of accumulated scholarly expertise but the internalized discipline of the contemporary American idiom as well. Since Chinese poetry started being translated into English, poets and foreign national sinologists have presented poetry and sinology as if they were locked in eternal conflict. Essay On Transience! In 1921 Amy Lowell said, “Chinese is league so difficult that it is a life-work in itself; so is the study of poetry. On Transience! A Sinologue has no time to learn how to in school essay write poetry; a poet has no time to learn how to read Chinese”; in 1958 George Kennedy said of Ezra Pound, “Undoubtedly this is fine poetry.

Undoubtedly it is bad translation”; drawing a distinction between the “poet-translator” and “critic-translator,” James J. Y. Liu wrote in 1982 that while the latter’s “primary aim is to show what the original poem is like, as a part of his interpretation,” the former “is a poet or poet manque whose native Muse is temporarily or permanently absent and essay who uses translation as a way to recharge his own creative battery [and] write a good poem in English based on his understanding or misunderstanding of a Chinese poem, however he may have arrived at in school, this”; and in essay 2004, against those who “believe that translations should consist of word-for-word cribs in which syntax, grammar, and form are all maintained, and in which the translator is merely a facilitator who allows the original poem to speak for itself in a new language,” Tony Barnstone posited that the “literary translator is like the michael diversity competition musician who catalyzes the otherwise inert score that embodies Mozart’s genius. . . Essay On Transience! . Fidelity , true fidelity, comes from a musician’s deeper understanding of the american service national high music.” [3] The genius of freud on transience Watson’s translations is eigth that they reconcile the rift between poetry and scholarship. As Weinberger points out in Nineteen Ways , Watson was “the first scholar whose work displayed an affinity with the freud on transience modernist revolution in American poetry: absolute precision, concision, and the use of critical thinking means everyday speech,” particularly impressive at a time when most anglophone “scholars of essay Chinese ignored, or were actively hostile to modern poetry.” (“Many still are,” Weinberger adds.) That precision, concision, and everyday speech deepened what T. S. Eliot called Ezra Pound’s invention “of Chinese poetry for our time.” Though Eliot acknowledged it to be an illusion (“an illusion which is not altogether an illusion either”), he explained that when “a foreign poet is case successfully done into the idiom of our own language and on transience our own time, we believe that he has been ‘translated’; we believe that through this translation we really at what critical thinking means to me, last get the original. . . . On Transience! His translations seem to be—and that is the test of excellence—translucencies.” [4] This is the oshima diversity essay quality that compelled my student, expecting more audible poetic devices, to scoff; but she should know that this quality is itself a poetic device, honed from Watson’s own attentive readings in the entwined lineage of American and Chinese poetry, particularly as seen in Ezra Pound and Kenneth Rexroth. Pay attention, and you can hear it in the echoing o’ s and whispering s ’s that turn “only the sound of someone talking,” above, into something like onomatopoeia. Watson is perhaps the only translator of Chinese it’s possible to freud essay imagine writing to the editor of a literary journal to say, “I can’t tell you how honored I am to be in the same magazine as Charles Reznikoff”; he sent Pound some of his earliest poetry translations (Pound wrote back, but made no comment on bad condition, the versions), and freud essay on transience he had drafts edited by Joanne Kyger, Cid Corman, Gary Snyder, and Allen Ginsberg. Service National! [5] Watson is not the poet-translator largely ignorant of Chinese as Pound or Rexroth were. Since the 1970s, he has lived mostly in Japan; nearing ninety, he still spends hours each morning and evening on translation work. Born in 1925, he was first exposed to Asian languages growing up in New Rochelle, New York, when workers at the laundry his father went to gave him lychee nuts, jasmine tea, and illustrated Chinese magazines; later a high school drop-out in freud essay on transience the Navy stationed in the South Pacific, he picked up some Japanese to help him on shore leave. After being discharged, he studied at Columbia University, both as an eigth, undergrad and for his PhD (completed in 1956), under L. Carrington Goodrich and Chi-chen Wang, and was later a colleague of C. T. Hsia there. As a scholar, Watson is known for broad cartographies such as Early Chinese Literature (1962), ranging from the eleventh century B.C.E. to the third century C.E., and freud Chinese Lyricism: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century (1971).

These books are authoritative and insightful as overviews and introductions from an era in which few students studied Chinese and in school essay fewer had access to it as a living language, yet they are still usable in or out essay on transience of the classroom today. Nor is their authoritativeness authoritarian; Watson acknowledges his subjectivity when speaking of translation: “The reader should perhaps be reminded that when he reads these early Chinese works in translation, he is at many points reading not an incontrovertible rendering of the meaning of the original, but only one of a variety of tentative interpretations.” [6] In this way, he acknowledges the illusoriness of his translations’ translucency. His translations, appropriately, also aim at readers looking for an introduction to Chinese literature rather than at specialists who want to test a fellow academic’s mettle via footnotes and bibliographies. To Learning! Yet even as the essay scholar in writing grade essays him acknowledges that he can offer nothing but “one of a variety of tentative interpretations,” the translator in him nevertheless finds ways to make us, in Eliot’s words, “believe that through this translation we really at essay, last get the original.” Of his many translations of bad condition classical Chinese philosophy, history, and religion—including the Records of the Grand Historian of China (1961), Complete Works of freud on transience Chuang Tzu (1968), The Tso Chuan: Selections from essay, China’s Oldest Narrative History (1989), and The Lotus Sutra (1993)—he says his “aim was to make the freud essay on transience most famous and influential passages of these texts available in easily readable form so that they could be read by English readers as one reads Herodotus, Thucydides, Polybius, or Livy.” About “Deer Fence,” Weinberger notes: “His presentation is as direct as the Chinese. There are twenty-four English words (six per foreign school essay line) for freud the Chinese twenty, yet every word of the Chinese has been translated without indulging, as others have done, in a telegraphic minimalism.” Further, Watson’s translation hints at bad condition in school, Wang Wei’s prosody: a five-character Chinese line contains a caesura after the second word; “Empty hills, no one in sight” replays that with a comma, using the Chinese rhythm as the basis for on transience his English free verse.

In another translation, Du Fu’s “Spring Prospect,” [7] Watson does something similar. The nation shattered, mountains and rivers remain; city in spring, grass and trees burgeoning. Feeling the times, blossoms draw tears; hating separation, birds alarm the heart. Beacon fires three months in succession, a letter from home worth ten thousand in critical thinking to me gold. White hairs, fewer for the scratching, soon too few to hold a hairpin up. * * Men wore hairpins to keep their caps in freud essay place. Du Fu (712–770) was of a generation with Wang Wei (699–759) and Li Bai (701–762); in Chinese he is writing eigth essays considered the greatest of the freud essay on transience three, indeed, the what critical thinking means greatest lyric poet of the tradition.

But while Wang Wei and Li Bai have been translated repeatedly and successfully, Du Fu in English has proven harder (Watson says Du Fu is the most difficult poet to translate). I find Watson’s Du Fu among the best. As with Wang Wei and other premodern poets, a pause breaks Du Fu’s five-character line after the second syllable, which, again, Watson implies with the comma in freud on transience five of the poem’s eight lines. (Snyder inserts a visible caesura into his translation with extra spaces, so that “The nation is ruined, but mountains and rivers remain / This spring the city is bad condition in school deep in weeds and brush.” [8] ) But the on transience form of this poem is not the form of Wang Wei’s quatrain, above, which Watson makes implicit in the punctuation of his end-stopped lines: in “Spring Prospect,” every couplet is a sentence, whereas in “Deer Fence” the sentence is the full quatrain. Arab League! The form is “regulated verse,” itself the result of medieval translations from Sanskrit, in which the central two couplets in the eight-line poem must observe a strict semantic and prosodic parallelism. Freud Essay! [9] Du Fu was a radical in the history of writing regulated verse’s development.

Following its origins in freud essay Sanskrit, the language of sutras and gathas, an association with Buddhism developed for regulated verse. But Du Fu was one of the first to nativize, or domesticate, the form and write in it for local and historical topics, such as this poem’s mourning over bodies politic and physical in deterioration (though canonized as of a generation after his death, he was not highly regarded as a poet while alive; perhaps this is part of the arab reason why). Freud Essay On Transience! In Chinese Lyricism, Watson explains it this way: before Du Fu, regulated verse “had been mainly for displays of verbal dexterity,” whereas Du Fu brought it “to full maturity” and established the form “as a vehicle for serious poetic statement.” He “packed the utmost amount of grade essays skill and significance into the parallel couplets, using them not, as earlier writers had done, to display a series of essentially static tableaux, but to propel the poem forward by freud essay on transience putting it through a succession of highly disciplined maneuvers.” [10] Here, the parallelism requisite in thinking regulated verse’s middle couplets is softened by American English’s historical inattention to freud on transience the convention, but it emerges nonetheless: a gerund, a conceptual noun, a comma, a noun from nature, a verb, and a noun of diversity essay competition emotion define both lines in “Feeling the times, blossoms draw tears; / hating separation, birds alarm the heart.” Watson’s following couplet, “Beacon fires three months in succession, / a letter from freud essay, home worth ten thousand in gold,” portrays perhaps a subtler artistry. The “beacon fires” ?? and arab essay league “a letter from home” ?? are parallel in the Chinese, as are the numerical values and elemental metonymy of “three months” ?? and “ten thousand in gold” ??. (“Month” and “gold” are parallel because they are abstractions of the “Seven Luminaries,” or the freud essay sun and moon plus the visible planets, themselves named after the writing grade essays five elements: “gold” is metal, or the planet Venus, and “month,” of course, is the moon. Freud On Transience! In Japanese, the Seven Luminaries also name the days of the week: moon , as in English, is Monday, while metal is Friday, named in Latin dies Veneris , or “day of eigth grade essays Venus.”) But Du Fu anchors the freud on transience components in a central verb in each line, “to link” ? in the first case and “to be worth” ? in michael diversity essay competition the second. Perhaps emphasizing the timelessness many English readers wish to see in Chinese’s lack of freud on transience tense distinction, Watson’s sentence omits verbs; instead, the parallelism of the lines comes in what thinking to me presenting both images as encapsulated: “three months in succession ” and freud essay on transience “ten thousand in gold. ” Watson’s methods for signifying the league regulated verse form in his translation also represent the incisiveness of freud on transience his revisions; in writing an earlier-published translation of this poem, among other differences, sentences do not correspond with couplets, and line 5 ends “three months running,” not yet parallel with “ten thousand in gold—” in the following line. [11] But these are implicit formalizations.

He makes the form of the poem explicit with a parenthetical “(5-ch. regulated verse; written early in freud on transience 757 when Du Fu was still a captive in Chang’an)” at the head of the poem. With the note about caps and hairpins, it is the translation’s only scholarly apparatus; together, they frame the poem, reminding the reader that she is reading a translation and, as such, a work of scholarship, distinct from, yet related to, contemporary poetry originally in English. Yet these, too, extend the poem’s poetic effects: regulated verse’s association with Buddhism was embodied in a tendency toward transcendental timelessness in the middle couplets’ parallel imagery, or what Watson called the eigth “essentially static tableaux,” emerging from the immediate scene set and resolved in freud on transience the first and final couplets (even when, as in “The nation shattered, mountains and rivers remain; / city in spring, grass and trees burgeoning,” the first couplet observes parallelism, too). Coming before and after the translation, Watson’s annotations extend the immediate scene of Du Fu’s capital, Chang’an, into the context of the translation, rising in the middle but rooted at its extremities in the realities facing the foreign high school contest poet and, in his paratexts, the on transience translator. Ascent and grounding describe as well Watson’s reconciliation of the scholarly and oshima diversity essay competition poetic demands of translation: the freud solidity of his knowledge of classical Chinese finds expression in an English that calls attention to case study approach itself primarily in freud on transience how it barely calls attention to in school essay itself. On Transience! It is an extension of the overall architecture of the what means regulated verse form, down to the “succession of highly disciplined maneuvers” that define the antithetical parallelism of their middle couplets at their best. Where others have presented poetry and translation as forever at odds, Watson’s work sees this conflict as its own static tableau and reduces it to a productive part of his own translational poetics. Watson has translated broadly; as his scholarship fits a time when students needed more basic mapmaking than scholars have to freud essay provide today, he translated more authors and poets in anthologies and selected representations than seems possible.

Because Watson and case approach others laid the groundwork they did, scholars and translators can focus on translating more deeply; now that there are more translators (though not, in fact, more translators of premodern Chinese poetry and philosophy), my hope is that we can meld our voices with smaller sets of individually chosen writers, whose works we would translate in whole, rather than in excerpt or selection pressed too closely against others. The risk of the mode of translation that defines Watson’s generation is not only that our knowledge of freud essay on transience a foreign literature looks like so many “greatest hits” collections; it is also that one translator pronouncing so many voices may leave the impression that different writers of essay league different eras sound alike (though to be sure, the premodern Chinese and Japanese poets Watson has translated wrote within a tradition whose discourses were considerably more unified than ours is now). Freud! As Eliot Weinberger put it, “Most translators are capable of translating only a few writers in their lifetimes. The rest is rote.” [12] Still, Watson has said, “one should not be too fussy about what sort of material one is american foreign service national essay contest required to translate. Any type of translating is good experience in both the language one is on transience translating out of and into.” Burton Watson’s translations never read as rote. Effortless, translucent, yes.

And beneath these illusions, which are not altogether illusions, either, Watson gives us what Yeats called the stitching and diversity essay unstitching, the parallelism of scholarship and freud poetry, within one simple act, which is never simple: translation. University of Hong Kong. Lucas Klein , former radio DJ and union organizer, is national school essay a writer, translator, and editor whose work has appeared in freud essay Jacket, Rain Taxi , CLEAR , and PMLA , and from Fordham, Black Widow, and New Directions. An assistant professor at american foreign national, the University of Hong Kong, his translation Notes on the Mosquito: Selected Poems of Xi Chuan ?? won the freud essay on transience 2013 Lucien Stryk Prize and was shortlisted for eigth grade essays the Best Translated Book Award in poetry (see xichuanpoetry.com). He is translating Tang dynasty poet Li Shangyin ??? and seminal contemporary poet Mang Ke ??. [1] In Eliot Weinberger and Octavio Paz, 19 Ways of Looking at freud on transience, Wang Wei: How a Chinese Poem Is Translated (Kingston, RI: Moyer Bell, 1987), 24. Weinberger’s comments, quoted below, are on approach, p. 25. [2] William Butler Yeats, The Collected Poems of essay W. B. Yeats , ed. Richard J. Finneran (New York: Scribner Paperback Poetry, 1996), 80–81. [3] Amy Lowell, preface to Fir-Flower Tablets: Poems Translated from the Chinese , by Florence Ayscough and arab essay Amy Lowell (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1921), v; George A. Kennedy, “Fenollosa, Pound and the Chinese Character,” in Selected Works of George A. Kennedy , ed. Freud! Tien-yi Li (New Haven: Far Eastern Publications, Yale University, 1964), 462; James J. Y. Liu, “The Critic as Translator,” in The Interlingual Critic: Interpreting Chinese Poetry (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982), 37; and Tony Barnstone, “The Poem behind the Poem: Literary Translation as American Poetry,” in The Poem behind the Poem: Translating Asian Poetry , ed.

Frank Stewart (Port Townsend, Wash: Copper Canyon Press, 2004), 2. [4] T. S. Eliot, “Introduction: 1928,” in New Selected Poems and Translations , by Ezra Pound, ed. Richard Sieburth, 2nd ed. (New York: New Directions, 2010), 367. [5] Details of Watson’s life come from michael oshima essay competition, personal correspondence with Eliot Weinberger (November 24, 2010), Gary Snyder (January 22, 2014), Joanne Kyger (January 28, 2014), and essay Jesse Glass (February 5, 2014) as well as from John Balcom, “An Interview with Burton Watson,” Translation Review 70, no. 1 (2005): 7–12. Otherwise unattributed quotations are from the Balcom interview. Snyder writes that he and his then-wife Kyger “spent time with Burton, and though I don’t remember which book it was, we talked with him at arab, length about his translations of poems from the Chinese and on transience described the effort of contemporary American-language poets to be vernacular, thrifty, precise, and michael diversity vivid. Essay On Transience! Joanne in particular talked one on one with Watson several times at length. Foreign High School Contest! I think he learned a lot from on transience, her, and it was reflected in what critical to me subsequent volumes of translation.”

Kyger writes, “When I spent a little time speaking with him about his translations, as far as I can recall, it had to do with William Carlos Williams’s concept of scoring the page for the voice, including empty space for breath pauses, or commas; making line breaks at freud on transience, the end of a breath phrase, and generally simplifying the language. I was also very much into Charles Olson’s PROJECTIVE VERSE, as a way to what thinking translate the freud dynamics and energy of the breath and voice to the page.” Glass, publisher of Ahadada Books, writes that Watson “doesn’t particularly like the very latest of experimental poetry—in fact we have a joke about that—it’s an ‘ahadada’ poem for an ahadada book. . Oshima Diversity Essay Competition! . . The last time we were looking at books together I picked up Thomas Pynchon’s V. , and he promised he’d give Pynchon a try. I suggested Gravity’s Rainbow , but if I recall correctly he walked away with the original, 1922 version of Ulysses tucked away in a blue Maruzen bag.” For more on his Charles Reznikoff reference, see my article, “The Self Is That Which Gets Lost in Translation: A Sociolinguistic View of Chinese Poetry Translation through Modernity and Parataxis,” Forum for World Literature Studies 4, no. 1 (2012), esp. 165–66. Reznikoff pays tribute to Chinese poetry in an interview, quoting Wei Tai ?? (fl. 11th cent.) from the epigram to A. C. On Transience! Graham’s Poems of the Late T’ang : “Poetry presents the thing in order to convey the feeling. It should be precise about the thing and essays reticent about the feeling.” See L. S. Dembo, “The ‘Objectivist’ Poet: Four Interviews [Charles Reznikoff],” Contemporary Literature 10, no.

2 (Spring 1969): 193; and A. On Transience! C. Graham, Poems of the Late T’ang (London: Penguin, 1965), 7. [6] Burton Watson, Early Chinese Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 1962), 12. [7] Burton Watson, The Selected Poems of Du Fu , Translations from the Asian Classics (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 30. [8] Gary Snyder, tr., “Spring View,” in arab league The New Directions Anthology of Classical Chinese Poetry , ed. Eliot Weinberger (New York: New Directions, 2004), 100. [9] See Victor Mair and essay Tsu-Lin Mei, “The Sanskrit Origins of Recent Style Prosody,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 51, no.

2 (December 1, 1991): 375–470. [10] Burton Watson, Chinese Lyricism: Shih Poetry from the bad condition in school Second to the Twelfth Century , Companions to Asian Studies (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971), 153–154. [11] See The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry: From Early Times to the Thirteenth Century , Translations from the Oriental Classics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984), 225. [12] Eliot Weinberger, “3 Notes on Poetry,” in Outside Stories , 1987–1991 (New York: New Directions, 1992), 60. Many years later, Weinberger would reverse this: “I’ve translated some things—most of them many years ago—but just as there are pianists and people who play the piano, there are translators and those who translate.

Burton Watson is a translator; I’m a dilettante” (in Jeffrey Errington, “The Eliot Weinberger Interview,” The Quarterly Conversation , June 6, 2011). Featuring Argentine/Spanish writer and 2014 Puterbaugh Fellow Andres Neuman along with two special sections on international eco-lit and tranlsation and world literature.

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The Media Bias and Its Effect on Media Choice. An editorial in freud the Columbia Journalism Review commenting on the nation and the media after the 2004 presidential election suggests it is possible that media outlets are getting a bad rap when it comes to claims of media bias. Instead of the media being biased, the editorial asserts, perhaps it’s time to consider reader and viewer bias. “We remain a red and blue nation,” the editorial points out, adding that media outlets, driven by economics, may have to cater to audiences’ political preferences and return to critical, the time of the essay on transience partisan press when readers knew before they picked up their paper in the morning what the writers’ opinions would be (“Red News”). Need essay sample on The Media Bias and michael diversity competition, Its Effect on Media Choice ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Claims of media bias pervade the airwaves. Fox News often takes a right-of center stance in reporting the freud news but claims that it is justified in calling itself “Fair and Balanced” because of what it describes as a tendency for the rest of the mainstream news media to lean to the left (Collins Hickey). Mainstream news outlets take a beating every week on radio talk shows hosted by the likes of Rush Limbaugh and Bill O’Reilly, who accuse the news outlets of critical means to me, having a left-of-center political agenda. Still, others say that conservative owners and Republican editors of media giants set the media agenda (Parenti Jamieson).

Editorial page editors are all too familiar with accusations of media bias from both sides. Schmitt and colleagues point out a common problem for essay on transience, newspaper editors. “Two readers from opposing partisan groups write letters to the editor, each complaining that news coverage is biased in favor of the other side” (55). Many of those looking to back up their claims of media bias point to foreign high school essay, a 1996 Freedom Forum/Roper Center survey as evidence that the news media lean one way or the other. Freud. The survey found that out of 139 Washington-based journalists surveyed, 61 percent of the sample identified themselves as “liberal” or “liberal to moderate.” Only 9 percent identified themselves as “conservative” or “moderate to conservative” (Hickey). The book The American Journalist reported in oshima diversity essay competition 1996 that 44 percent of journalists lean toward the Democratic Party while 16 percent prefer Republicans and 16 percent prefer independents (Dennis). In his best-selling book Bias, journalist Bernard Goldberg lays out a number of studies that show journalists lean toward the left and contends journalists as a group are generally out-of-sync with “mainstream America” (127). But does this tendency for journalists to lean left-of-center result in an identifiable bias in news media? A sampling of content analyses show it does not. Essay. A study done analyzing news coverage during the presidential campaigns of case study approach to learning, 1988, 1992, and 1996 found that on the whole, campaign coverage of the Democratic and Republican candidates was evenly balanced in two of the three elections — the one aberration was in the 1992 campaign: Bill Clinton was found to receive 54.4 percent of positive coverage in his race against on transience George H.W. Bush (Watts, Domke, Shah Fan). Study To Learning. A study analyzing news coverage of the 1991 House banking scandal, in which members had written more than 8,000 checks resulting in insufficient funds in their House bank accounts, found that coverage was evenly balanced between Democrats and Republicans, showing no evidence to support claims of “anti-Republican bias or any meaningful partisan bias” (Niven 648).

As researchers continue to freud, undertake content analyses in response to media bias claims, another body of service national high essay, research is ongoing. This research is looking at audience perceptions and asking what consumers of news and information bring to the table when it comes to seeing a news story as biased. Could the essay on transience news stories some readers and viewers deem biased actually be measured as fair and objective by other readers and viewers? Could it be that audience members’ preconceived notions are responsible for michael essay, the way they judge stories, and not the stories themselves? Though the answer is not that simple, previous research suggests individuals’ preconceived notions do play a big role in how they judge the fairness and essay, objectivity of a news story. This study expands on that body of research, looking at audience perception of media bias and the hostile media effect, which Vallone and colleagues first described in 1985 as the tendency of in school, partisans on both sides of an issue to see new coverage as biased against their point of view. Freud. Since Vallone and colleagues’ coinage of the term, many researchers have sought to replicate the hostile media effect, and essay, many have been successful, finding that two viewers diametrically opposed to each other on an issue covered in the news will find the same story biased against their point of freud, view.

Issues covered in these studies have included the oshima diversity essay competition ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict (Vallone et al.), the freud essay use of primates in essay research (Gunther et al.), and on transience, the use of league, genetically modified foods (Schmitt et al.). This study attempts to replicate the hostile media effect by freud essay, looking at how those who support and oppose the war in Iraq see a news story related to american essay contest, the war. It attempts to expand on freud essay on transience, the knowledge of the hostile media effect by seeing if it is strong enough to drive readers and viewers to other sources they see as friendly to their point of diversity, view. Why is it important to essay, better understand the hostile media effect and its implications? Schmitt and colleagues put it this way: “…if people do subject information to different cognitive and perceptual processing when it appears in what mass media, understanding this processing may provide us with important clues to the singular role of mass media as an essay, information source in society” (55). It is important to study this effect and critical to me, understand what impact it will have in a society that is growing more segmented when it comes to media consumption. Evidence shows that audiences are becoming more fragmented based on political beliefs and other characteristics. Mainstream media outlets are losing viewers and listeners to freud essay on transience, new media sources, including cable television programming, Internet Web sites, chat rooms, and talk radio.

Jones states “For any given new media program, members of the audience are more likely to share common interests and political views” (159). Looking at the hostile media effect and the role it plays in selection of news sources sets the stage for answering further important questions: How will getting news and information from in school essay a source that presents it in a light friendly to one’s political outlook affect their knowledge on freud essay on transience, issues? How will it affect political discourse and one’s willingness to engage in discussions with those who share differing views? How will citizens get critical information about american foreign national high elected officials and issues when media outlets serve as an extension of the political party and promote one side of the freud on transience debate while discrediting the other? Review of Literature. Trends in media consumption.

In 1996, Australian Rupert Murdoch launched Fox News in an attempt to be a major player in American television (Hickey). American Service High School Essay Contest. Nine years after its launch, Fox’s opinion-based format with a host of news personalities who boast mostly right of center views has helped the network eclipse the viewership of CNN and drawn people away from network news to cable (Pew). Fox continues to climb ahead of CNN in the Nielsen ratings. Essay. On election night 2004, Fox drew 8.1 million viewers compared to CNN’s 6.2 million viewers. Fox beat even the broadcast networks in eigth essays viewership during the Republican convention in September 2004 (Berkowitz).

Results from a 2004 Pew Research Center for the People and the Press survey show that since 2000, the number of freud essay, Americans who watch Fox News has increased from 17 percent to 25 percent (Pew). Study To Learning. Those gains have been greatest among political conservatives and Republicans. Fifty-two (52) percent of Fox viewersdescribe themselves as conservative, up from 40 percent when the freud on transience survey was taken in 2000. While Republicans and league, political conservatives are coming to Fox in larger numbers, they are also shunning other news sources. The Pew survey showed that half as many Republicans as Democrats rated sources such as ABC News, CBS News, The New York Times, and U.S. News and World Report as credible.

The partisan divide isn’t present only in Fox viewers. The gap between the essay percentage of Republicans and Democrats who listen to talk radio is also growing, according to the Pew study. It defines talk radio as shows that invite viewers to eigth essays, discuss current events, public issues and on transience, politics and michael competition, includes examples such as Rush Limbaugh’s show and call-in shows on National Public Radio. In 2004, 24 percent of Republicans regularly listened to radio shows that invite discussion of freud, current events and politics. Only 13 percent of Democrats listened to these shows.

In 2002, 21 percent of Republicans listened to talk radio versus 16 percent for essay, Democrats. The Pew Center report also points out that while most Americans do not care if news reflects their viewpoint, 36 percent do. Thirty-three (33) percent of those who identified themselves as liberal reported liking news that shares their point of view. The report says liberals go to sources such as Comedy Central’s “The Daily Show” and freud, National Public Radio to get news and information. Forty-three (43) percent of conservatives reported liking their news to share their point of view and 41 percent of Republicans go to Fox News to get news that coincides with that view.

Thirty-three (33) percent of moderates report liking news to share their point of view. Evidence points to a growing trend: Political partisans sense a growing presence of bias in mainstream news. Writing. This perception of freud on transience, bias leads them to seek out what critical news programming and publications that square with the views they hold. The success of opinion-based programming shows that when given a choice, partisans will often abandon other news sources and stick with those they feel present the freud essay on transience news in the light they most want to see it. Foreign High School Essay. The rise of cable and the Internet has given readers and viewers unprecedented choice in deciding where they want to get their news and information. This level of choice threatens to fragment audiences in new ways. It is important to look at what drives the perception of bias, particularly among partisans. As the Pew Center data show, media bias is driving viewers and readers — particularly Republicans —to other specific sources of news and information that they and essay, like-minded news consumers deem friendlier to their views. Building a theoretical framework: The hostile media effect Vallone and colleagues were the first to coin the phrase “hostile media phenomenon” to eigth grade, describe “the tendency for freud essay, partisans (defined in michael this case as those who share opposing views on an issue) to view media coverage of controversial events as unfairly biased and hostile to the position they advocate” (Discussion section 1). The researchers undertook an experiment asking students who identified themselves as either pro-Israel, pro-Arab, or as having neutral feelings on the conflict to watch six segments of news programs about the Beirut massacre in September 1982. Essay. When it came to the pro-Israeli and pro-Arab students, each side found the news segments as biased in favor of the case approach to learning other side.

Further, the researchers found that the perception of bias led those on both sides to believe that personal views of the editorial staffs who produced the segments were opposite of their own when it came to on transience, the subject. Vallone and colleagues also noted that within both groups, those with the highest amount of knowledge were more likely to identify the media as biased. American Foreign National High Contest. In their study, the researchers wrote, “Our suggestion is that viewers of media coverage of on transience, a continuing political struggle may see their side portrayed as villain, and the other side as the hero” (Media Coverage section 4). They came up with three possible explanations of why those who claimed media bias did. The first was that partisans would observe a story as devoting an equal amount of in school essay, facts and time to on transience, both sides, but because partisans believed their side’s claims to be more accurate than the other, even balanced coverage would be seen as biased. Giner-Sorolla and in school, Chaiken explain this in a later study, saying “Thus, even a correctly perceived balanced presentation would appear to be unfairly biased toward the on transience opposition, by treating the ‘inferior’ claims of the opposition as equivalent to the ‘superior’ claims of the partisan’s own side” (166). The second explanation was that individuals recall the same images and arguments in a news report, but they are likely to classify those images and argumentsas hostile to their own side.

Even neutral material is likely to grade essays, be rejected, so that thevalence of images and arguments are seen as supporting the essay on transience other side. Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken call this “selective categorization.” The third explanation was that partisans remember the facts and images that went against their beliefs better than they remembered the michael essay material that coincided with their beliefs. Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken call this “selective recall.” Seeking to further understand how processes contributing to the hostile media effect work, Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken undertook additional experiments to see if news stories on freud, developments in the Middle East and abortion prompted thesame reaction among partisans. They were able to replicate the league hostile media effect among a group of students on the Middle East issue, but not on the abortion issue. The two found through their experiment that selective recall and selective categorization did not explain the on transience hostile media effect, but that “prior beliefs about american foreign national high media bias were the main ingredient on bias judgment, affecting viewers of the program both directly and through estimates of program content” (Giner-Sorolla Chaiken 179). Gunther built on the work of Vallone and colleagues by looking more closely at who was vulnerable to the hostile media effect. After analyzing data from a study commissioned by the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE), he found that if a person identified with a particular group, he or she was more likely to say media coverage of that group was unfavorable. Essay. While Republicans judged coverage of their own group as “not favorable enough,” Democrats found coverage of Republicans “too favorable.” Gunther concluded that high involvement in american national high essay an issue “increases the essay likelihood that a person will take a skeptical view of the national high essay contest source of that content” (161).

Those likely to have polarized attitudes about essay on transience certain issues are those who have a sense of involvement with a group that is in school, associated with an essay on transience, “enduring” sense of self. These groups can include political, ethnic, religious, or other social groups. Those who identified themselves with particular groups were much more likely to say the writing eigth media gave unfair coverage of that particular group. Gunther’s research gives merit to freud essay on transience, what Joseph Klapper wrote in Public Opinion Quarterly in 1957. In looking at diversity essay competition the effect media had on a listener or viewer, Klapper called mass media a contributory agent in a process of reinforcement — or that the media were more likely to reinforce pre-existing beliefs than to change them. Klapper discussed the power of group membership when it comes to mediating information from essay media, and he said that communications that were opposed to the norms of a group an audience member belonged to what critical means to me, would be rejected, especially if the essay audience member highly valued his or her group membership. Thus, he says, “The typical audience member selects from the media’s varied fare those commodities which are in accord with his existing likes, and typically eschews exposure to other kinds of material” (Klapper 467). He went on to say that the audience member’s likes stem from his reference groups. Perloff alludes to what critical thinking to me, this as well in one of his studies, saying that when individuals are strongly committed to a position, “they assimilate or find support in evidence and information other people regard as ambiguous, inconclusive, and problem ridden” (238).

Studies on the hostile media effect have expanded on Gunther’s observation that group identity plays into the perception of media bias. Those whose sense of self is tied strongly into a group are more likely to demonstrate the hostile media effect (Duck et al.). Matheson built on this research with an experiment that asked Bosnian Serbs and Muslim partisans and a neutral group to respond to the coverage of the 1994 Sarajevo market bombing. Matheson found that “partisans’ perceptions of on transience, who is the villain and who is the what thinking to me victim stem from the motivation to distinguish between the in-group and out-group in such a way as to reinforce a positive and freud essay on transience, distinct in-group identity” (Matheson 123). After the seminal studies on the hostile media effect were published, Gunther and michael oshima diversity essay competition, colleagues investigated the freud larger effect of the phenomenon when it came to partisans estimating larger public opinion. Christen, Kannaovakun and Gunther stated that “hostile media perceptions are important only to the extent that they result in related attitude or behavior outcomes…” (425). Looking at the 1997 United Parcel Service strike, the researchers sought to find out whether groups on both sides of the strike — UPS workers and Teamsters — would exhibit the hostile media effect and what thinking means, if they did, how it would affect their perceptions of freud, public opinion. They predicted it could go in two directions. First, partisans who found media to be hostile to their point of view could perceive public opinion to follow the mediac overage they believed others were being exposed to (the persuasive press inference). Or, those who perceived media coverage to case approach, be biased could perceive public opinion to be a reflection of their own views (projection). The hostile media effect was replicated, with both the on transience UPS and Teamster partisans seeing news coverage as biased against their own groups.

But both groups did not feel that the hostile media would influence public opinion. Instead, both groups perceived public opinion to be a reflection of their own views (Christen et al.). Thus, it seems that this study adds fuel to the fire of those making claims of writing eigth essays, media bias. If they feel others think as they do, they feel more confident in airing those claims. Schmitt and colleagues write about the power of partisan opinions. “Their viewpoints can powerfully influence public opinion and public policy; they are the ones who campaign and lobby, who demonstrate, parade and picket, who promote their viewpoint in countless ways…” (623-624). Other studies have looked into projection bias and the persuasive press inference and how they interplay with the hostile media effect (Perloff; Gunther et al.; Gunther Christen). Recent studies have looked at how sources affect the freud on transience perception of critical to me, bias in partisans. Arpan and Raney carried out a study to find out whether news source resulted in the hostile media effect in partisans.

They asked research subjects to read a story about freud essay on transience their hometown college football team in one of three newspapers: the hometown newspaper, the newspaper covering the city of a rival team and a newspaper from a neutral town. The hostile media effect was replicated, with fans perceiving the article in all three newspapers as more biased against the home team than the rival team. The researchers also found that participants rated the story as less biased against their team when it was printed in the hometown newspaper than when it was printed in the rival-town or neutral-town newspapers. Schmitt and colleagues found that partisans who read information about genetically modified foods in what critical thinking means to me a newspaper story found the information to be disagreeably biased. But the hostile media effect disappeared when the identical information was presented to partisans in the form of a college student’s essay. Factors influencing audience perception. Watts and colleagues write that it is “primarily citizens’ partisan views that color perceptions of media fairness rather than assessments of actual bias” (147). But they acknowledge there are other factors at work when it comes to a reader, viewer, or listener coming up with an assessment that a story is biased. Freud Essay. Along with their preconceived notions, external factors contribute to american service national high, the notion that the media could be “hostile” to freud on transience, a partisan’s point of diversity, view. One group to blame is the freud essay on transience media itself, Watts and bad condition in school essay, colleagues said.

They said there is a new focus by journalists, candidates, and political pundits to look at the role the news media play in elections. This has led to increased coverage of news programs and essay on transience, journalists themselves, something the researchers refer to as “self coverage.” A study of such coverage found it focuses overwhelmingly on the alleged presence of a left-leaning bias. Watts and essay, colleagues concluded: “These results, then, suggest that the rising public perception of a liberal news media may have more to do with news self-coverage than with biases in valence news content” (Watts et al. Freud. 159). They point out that the rise in media self-coverage is proportional to the increase in the number of media outlets in the past 15 years. Another factor that Watts and colleagues studied was the public’s taking cues from conservative elites who allege a liberal media bias, perpetuating a notion that mainstream news channels use various techniques to advance a left-leaning agenda. Thinking To Me. They cite poll data that shows an increase in complaints by the public during the 1988, 1992, and 1996 presidential campaigns that news coverage in general was biased in favor of freud essay, Democrats. The percentage of the public claiming the press treated the Republican candidate unfairly increased 13 percent during the 1988 campaign, 22 percent during the league 1992 campaign, and 9 percent during the 1996 campaign. The rate of complaints about treatment of the Democratic candidate remained flat or declined each campaign. Watts and colleagues say studies of on transience, news coverage don’t support claims that Democrats were treated better in the press than Republicans. Rather, they say the decision that the press is liberal often results from case approach readers and freud on transience, viewers taking cues from in school essay others.

Because people don’t have time to freud, pay attention to and absorb all the political news coverage that exists, they look for shortcuts. They turn to figures who, in their mind, are trustworthy to take information from and michael oshima, form opinions. Freud. Thus, when candidates, talk show hosts, and other conservatives lodge accusations of a liberal media bias, members of the public taking cues from them are likely to adopt similar attitudes. Watts and colleagues write, “For conservative elites, in particular, phrases such as ‘the liberal media’ and ‘the media elite’ have become embedded in contemporary political culture and may possess considerable rhetorical weight. Liberal elites, in contrast, do not seem to have a comparable phrase” (151). The results support the writing grade essays findings of Giner-Sorolla and freud on transience, Chaiken, who said that the hostile media effect could lead a partisan to in school essay, declare a news broadcast to essay on transience, be biased even before he saw it by applying his prior beliefs about a media outlet.

Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken say: “Thus, partisans may have accepted the contention of fellow sympathizers that the mainstream media are biased” (167). In another study built on these findings, Watts and colleagues sought to oshima essay, find out whether conservative elites’ claims of liberal media bias came during periods when their candidates were subject to more negative press or when they were behind in the polls. The researchers found that claims of liberal bias in the news were more likely to come about when Republican candidates were receiving positive coverage and were ahead in freud essay on transience the polls. They suggested that the eigth grade essays use of the liberal media accusation occurs more frequently when Republicans are able to exert more control over their message. They say this proves that complaints about freud essay on transience news coverage are strategic to a certain point. Bad Condition In School Essay. In other words, conservatives lodge accusations that aren’t based in fact in order to exert control over a media message they have no control over. D’Alessio furthered the contention that cues are powerful in developing perceptions of media bias. D’Alessio explored how a group of research subjects categorized a news story they were told was biased before reading it. He was interested in identifying what structural parts of the news story those subjects deemed as being biased.

Those who were told an article was potentially biased were more likely to identify it as being biased. Those who were not cued were more likely to say their article was free from bias. D’Alessio asked subjects to circle the parts of the freud on transience news story they claimed contained bias and then rate the article as biased or free from bias. Though participants who were given a cue that the article was biased were more likely to use that term to describe the story, they didn’t mark more statements as biased. Thus, D’Alessio concluded that perception of bias is related to charges of bias, not actual bias, supporting the research of Watts and colleagues. “Together, their findings and ours suggest another form of what critical thinking means to me, cognitive simplification has been brought into play, this one related to the bandwagon effect, in which people simply ‘go along’ with majority positions” (291). D’Alessio’s study also showed that those claiming there was bias in a news stor y were likely to point to quotes that fall outside their latitude of acceptance as making a story biased. This puts journalists in a tough position, he said, because this perception of bias results from the freud on transience person who is bad condition in school essay, quoted, not the journalist. It shows that simply by offering supporting quotes from each side, a journalist is opening up him or herself to accusations of bias. Essay On Transience. For journalists who strive to be fair and objective, this finding is discouraging. Another cause of the in school essay perception of media bias to undergo examination has been the similarity of those whom partisan people tend to freud on transience, talk to.

Eveland and Shah carried out a study predicting that partisans who undertook discussions with other partisans would perceive a greater degree of press bias in the media. They found that Republican Party identification, strong partisanship, and political involvement were positively associated with perceptions of news bias. The extent to which these groups have political conversations with like-minded people significantly increases the perception that there is widespread bias. They write, “People who frequently discuss politics with others who share their views likely have distorted standards of writing grade essays, what constitutes unbiased media content” (113). These findings support those of Gunther and Klapper, who cited the role groups play in reinforcing ideas and sparking skepticism about the sources of media that challenge group ideas and norms. Questions of audience perception. In his book Tilted: The Search for essay on transience, Media Bias, David Niven acknowledges the literature that says claims of arab league, media bias are a matter of audience perception, not of the actual content of news.

But he raises questions about audience perception being the essay on transience sole cause of media claims. If personal politics were the driving force behind such claims, he said that there would be claims of bias by both Democrats and Republicans. Niven states: “Both Democrats and Republicans should see massive bias in the news because of the steady stream of two-sided information in foreign the media, half of essay on transience, which is sure to offend them,” (Niven 45) He does not substantiate with research his claim that information in the media is two-sided. Karlberg and Hackett also challenge the bad condition in school contention that the hostile media phenomenon is in large part to blame for partisan assertions that the news is biased and that journalists will insulate themselves from allegations of freud essay on transience, bias by oshima diversity essay competition, “playing it down the middle” and covering both sides. Freud On Transience. The two undertook a survey in Canada between respondents on opposite ends of the political spectrum (conservative/establishment and progressive/advocacy groups) asking them to identify weaknesses in media coverage. They sought to find out whether criticisms from the two groups would be mutually contradictory, which they said would be evidence of the hostile media phenomenon. The researchers found that criticisms of the grade two groups were not contradictory. “Both groups were critical of the media for insufficiently covering positive stores and freud essay, the social implications of economic policies (Karlberg Hackettp; Discussion section 5).

They went on study, to say, “The key point here is the intergroup similarity and essay, the indication that dissatisfaction with media performance cannot be reduced to foreign service national high school essay, perceptions of hostile ‘bias’” (Karlberg Hackett Discussion section 5). This is essay, one of the few studies undertaken to challenge the case study hostile media effect, but the study’s lack of focus on a specific issue may have failed to generate the passion and freud essay, feelings necessary among specific groups of partisans as previous studies have. Niven summarized the challenges media outlets face in today’s landscape. Whether perceptions of bad condition essay, media bias are a result of audience perceptions or true bias in the news, the media still must respond or face a dearth of readers and viewers. He said this pressure has forced media organizations back in time.

The partisan press died years ago because the demand for neutral, balanced coverage outweighed the demand for news catering to specific groups holding specific beliefs. America gave bir h to a press steeped in partisanship. Writing about the freud essay on transience press in the late 1700s and early 1800s, Sloan and Startt state: “Clearly, editors believed the overriding purpose of the michael diversity competition press was to serve a partisan cause” (73). They say the distinctive characteristic of the press from 1783 to 1833 was political partisanship, and they point out that newspapers played an important role during a critical stage in American politics. During this time, as the Constitution was being ratified and America’s democracy was being shaped, readers were “annoyed” when a newspaper would not take a partisan stand and freud, had little respect for an impartial editor. This continued throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, when circulation of large dailies was tied to political parties. But in eigth grade 1920, Walter Lippmann, editor of the New York World, called for the professional training of reporters in techniques related to objectivity: attributing information to official sources, balancing coverage by telling both sides of an issue, and on transience, offering context to eigth grade essays, news events instead of presenting facts in isolation (Sloan Startt). Objectivity has been the gold standard in freud journalism since then, even though public officials throughout modern history have challenged the press’s objectivity. But today, technology is eigth grade, giving viewers and readers more choices.

Along with the growing number of cable channels, people can find their own niche of freud, likeminded folk and news and information catered to bad condition in school essay, their interest on the Internet. Niven predicted that the popularity of conservative talk radio is the beginning of Republicans fleeing the mainstream media. He stated: “Ironically, the logical extension of the flight of essay on transience, conservatives from mainstream media is the rebirth of the partisan press” (Niven 49-50). This observation points to the growing potential for audiences to separate into niches based on their own preferences, and in michael diversity competition this case, based on their political views. Freud. Webster summarized the essay league social implications of audience fragmentation that could be sparked by partisans’ fleeing mainstream news media, saying a “worrisome prospect is that technology and advertiser-driven programming will reconfigure the mass audience into many small, relative exclusive communities of interest that never encounter dissident voices or different points of freud, view” (366). This study seeks to expand on previous studies done on the hostile media effect by examining whether preconceived notions about a media source make a difference in what thinking means to me perceptions of essay, media bias and whether they play into the hostile media phenomenon. To explore this question, an experiment was undertaken. To test for arab essay league, the hostile media effect, a newspaper story on a development related to on transience, the war in Iraq was presented to research subjects.

The same story was made to appear in three different made-up newspapers: The Conservative Times-Herald, The Liberal Times Media Herald and The Times-Herald. Research subjects received one of the three versions. Based on the literature, the writing eigth grade following hypotheses have been formed. Hypothesis 1: Partisans on both sides of the issue will rate the story that appears in the three sources as biased against their point of view based on their overall assessment of bias and on transience, how they feel each side is portrayed in the story. Hypothesis 2: Overall, partisans on both sides of the issue will rate satisfaction with the story as low and rate themselves as less likely to turn to thinking, the source in the future to get information. Hypothesis 3: The level of perceived bias within each group of partisans will correlate negatively with their level of satisfaction with the story and the likelihood they will return to that source for information on essay on transience, the issue. Hypothesis 4: Partisans on both sides of the issue are likely to go to media they deem friendly toward their views to get more information on the war in Iraq. Stimuli and research sample.

These hypotheses will be tested through an arab league, experimental design in which participants randomly receive a news story related to freud on transience, the issue of the michael diversity essay competition war in Iraq in one of the three stimuli mentioned above. The news story was about Cindy Sheehan, the mother of a fallen soldier who made headlines carrying out war protests at President Bush’s ranch in Crawford, Texas, and at the White House in 2005. The story is essay on transience, made up with quotes and information from study approach articles that appeared in The Los Angeles Times, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Washington Post, and on the Associated Press wire the day after she was arrested for freud on transience, protesting in front of the White House. The stories were found by carrying out a keyword search on “Cindy Sheehan” in Lexis Nexis. The composite story is critical, made to be as fair and balanced as possible by including information about Sheehan and anti-war protests as well as information about rallies staged in support of the administration that same weekend. The articles are formatted to appear as if they were printed out from the newspapers’ Web sites. The names of the three stimuli are selected to answer the question: Does media source play a role in the perception of media bias?

Will partisans (conservatives and liberals) deem a story biased simply based on the names of the newspapers? Made-up newspapers are chosen over existing publications because research subjects may not be familiar with the leanings the editorial pages some nationally circulated news publications are said to freud essay, have. Included in case study to learning subjects’ packet will be a pre-test seeking standard demographic information as well as questions asking about party affiliation, religiosity, and how much time they spend with media each day. To identify the independent variable, which is participants’ stance on the war in Iraq, subjects will be asked to what extent they support or oppose the war in Iraq. A seven-point scale will be included, with –3 being “Strongly oppose,” +3 being “Strongly support,” and zero being “Neutral.” The scale is adapted from essay on transience a similar 11-point scale that Schmitt and colleagues used in a study testing for the hostile media effect when it came to diversity essay competition, information on the issue of the development of genetically modified foods.

Subjects who identified themselves as a –3 or +3 were coded as having partisan attitudes. Those who identified themselves on the scale as –2, –1, zero, –1, +1, or +2 were coded as having neutral attitudes. Participants will be asked to read the news story in their packet and proceed to freud, the post-test, adapted from the questionnaire Schmitt and colleagues used in their study. To measure the dependent variable, which was perceived bias, subjects will be asked to essay, rate different aspects of the story on the same seven-point scale used above. Questions included, “Would you say that the essay portrayal of the war in Iraq in this article was strictly neutral, or was it biased in favor of one side or the other?” “Would you say the what critical thinking means to me portrayal of the opponents of the war in Iraq in this article was strictly neutral, or was it biased for or against freud on transience them?” and “Would you say the portrayal of supporters of the american foreign service school contest war in on transience Iraq in this article was simply neutral, or was it biased for eigth grade, or against freud them?” Two items will be included asking what percentage of the story is favorable to the issue of the war and what percentage is unfavorable. Questions will be also asked about the source the story appeared in. Subjects will be asked to rank on the seven-point scale how they felt future stories on the issue would be covered in the source they read, whether it would the The Conservative Times-Herald, The Liberal Times-Herald, or The Times-Herald. Another section of questions was included to understand whether partisans seek out media they see as friendly toward their views in writing eigth grade essays reaction to an article they perceive as biased. Questions included, “After reading this article, are you satisfied with the information provided?” and essay, “In the future, if you wanted find out more about the war in Iraq, would you be likely to turn to this source?” The final question asked the following: “Where would you go to get the most reliable information on the latest developments in high the war in essay on transience Iraq? Please rank the following choices.” Sources included cable networks such as Fox News and CNN; non-mainstream news sources such as “The Daily Show,” Rush Limbaugh’s radio show, Al Franken’s radio show, the in school essay Drudge Report and the Daily Kos blog; news magazines such as The Weekly Standard and The Nation; and mainstream newspapers such as The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. Conducting the test.

The researcher will undertake the experiment with a convenience sample: undergraduate students. A total of freud essay on transience, 30 students will be in attendance on the day the study will be administered in arab early January 2007. The researcher will offer no incentive to on transience, complete the survey other than to explain that students’ participation would help to better understand attitudes about news coverage of the war in Iraq. The questionnaires will be distributed randomly by teaching assistants blind to the hypotheses in class. Subjects will be given roughly 25 minutes to case study approach to learning, take complete the questionnaire. Standard debriefing procedures will be undertaken after the essay on transience questionnaires will be handed in to let subjects know that they will be deceived and that none of the news sources contained in study to learning their packets exist in real life. Expectations and Conclusions. Evidence of the hostile media effect. Both strong opponents and freud on transience, strong supporters would demonstrate evidence of the league hostile media effect. When it comes to questions of how opponents and supporters would be portrayed in the stimuli, both sides thought the story would be biased against the group they supported most.

For example, strong supporters of the war would show a much stronger perception of bias than strong opponents of the war. Freud Essay. When Vallone and colleagues (1985) carried out their study with Pro-Arab and Pro-Israeli students, a nine-point scale was used. Partisans were clustered more toward the approach to learning extreme ends of the scale than in the present study, in which partisans would be remained more likely in the center. Essay On Transience. Such results are expected in this study. Previous studies on the hostile media effect have used partisan subjects from groups in writing eigth which formal membership is required. In the Vallone study, researchers recruited members of essay on transience, pro-Arab and pro- Israeli student associations. Schmitt and colleagues selected partisans on the issue of arab league, development of genetically modified foods by going to annual meetings of groups with strong positions on the issue. Those who have done studies on the hostile media effect have recruited highly involved participants because the literature states that group membership is freud essay on transience, a high predictor of the hostile media effect. Christen and bad condition essay, colleagues argue that, “While attitude extremity may be necessary, membership in a formal group (with its attendant effects on freud essay, self-identity and depth of commitment) appears to be a sufficient condition for bad condition essay, the hostile media perception” (433). As a result, they say, partisans in more general audiences would not show as strong of essay, evidence of the hostile media effect.

While targeting highly partisan groups in this way helps researcher understand more about the bad condition in school essay hostile media effect and how it plays out, the results can’t necessarily be generalized to the rest of the population. The results of freud, this study and other studies on the hostile media effect should give journalists some hope. While a small and vocal group are making claims of media bias, the majority of the public who take in news and information sources seem to essay league, sense that media outlets are fairly neutral when presenting the news. It is freud essay on transience, unlikely that any publisher fears losing a substantial number of readers or viewers because of claims of bias — the level of discourse on the media today indicates that people are paying attention. American Contest. The rise of news and information sources, while fragmenting audiences, has the freud essay potential to draw more people into the national conversation than ever before. This expansion is the upside of segmentation — more diversity in voices.

Such diversity has the critical thinking means potential to lead to a better democracy. Freud Essay On Transience. But there are dangers with audience segmentation as well. A study by Mendelsohn and Nadeau found that exposing audiences to the same group of national opinion leaders and media messages led those who initially took varying stances on issues of national importance to become less varied in their opinions. The arrival of writing eigth grade essays, narrowcast media, they predict, will raise number of voices, which could be a good thing, but also enhance polarization and cleavages in public opinion, which could be a bad thing. Freud Essay. Such cleavages could result in an increase in study approach class politics, religious divisions, and party identification. Thus, it is important to be aware of the consequences of the hostile media effect as it relates to media choice and audience fragmentation. Diversity of voices must be balanced so that niche media don’t isolate people to the point they feel they don’t need to expose themselves to the diversity of viewpoints. While journalists can’t do much to freud essay, prevent perceptions of media bias, they can acknowledge it exists and critical means to me, do what they can to make the public aware of it. Arpan, L.M., Raney, A. An Experimental Investigation of News Source and the Hostile Media Effect. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, (2003): 265-282.

Berkowitz, B. U.S. Election Viewers Flock to Fox News for Results. ABC News. Nov. 3, 2004. Essay On Transience. http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/wireStory?id=224924 Collins, S. In School Essay. Crazy Like a Fox: The Inside Story of How Fox News Beat CNN. New York: Penguin, 2004. Christen, C.T., Kannaovakun, P. Gunther, A.C.

Hostile Media Perceptions: Partisan Assessments of Press and Public during the 1997 United Parcel Service Strike. Political Communication, 19, (2002): 423-436. D’Alessio, D. Freud Essay On Transience. An Experimental Examination of Readers’ Perceptions of Media Bias. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, (2003): 282-293. Dennis, E. How “Liberal” Are the Media, Anyway? The Continuing Conflict of Professionalism and national high school essay contest, Partisanship.

The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, (1997): 115-119. Duck, J.M., Terry, D.J., Hogg, M.A. Perceptions of a Media Campaign: The Role of Social Identity and the Changing Intergroup Context. Personality and freud on transience, Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, (1998): 3-16. Giner-Sorolla, R., Chaiken, S. The Causes of Hostile Media Judgments. Arab League. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, (1994): 165-180. Gunther, A.C., Christen, C.T., Liebhart, J. Chia, C.Y.S. Congenial Public, Contrary Press, and Biased Estimates of the Climate of Opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 65, (2001): 295-320.

Hickey, N. Is Fox News Fair? Columbia Journalism Review, (1998, March-April): 30-36. Jones, D. Freud. The Polarizing Effect of what thinking means to me, New Media Messages. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 14, (2002): 158-173. Jamieson, K.H. Everything You Think You Know About Politics…And Why You’re Wrong. New York: Basic, 2000. Karlberg, M., Hackett, R. Canceling Each Other Out?: Interest Group Perceptions of the News Media.

Canadian Journal of on transience, Communications, 21, 1996. http://www.cjconline.ca/viewarticle.php?=id=383 Klapper, J.T. Foreign Service High School Contest. What We Know About the freud essay Effects of Mass Communication: The Brink of Hope. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 21, (1957-58): 453-474. Matheson, K., Dursun, S. Social Identity Precursors to the Hostile Media Phenomenon: Partisan Perceptions of Coverage of the Bosnian Conflict. Group, Processes and Intergroup Relations 4, (2001): 116-125.

Medelsohn, M., Nadeau, R. The Magnification and Minimization of what thinking means, Social Cleavages by Broadcast and Narrowcast News Media. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 8, (1996): 374-390. Niven, D. A Fair Test of Media Bias: Party, Race and Gender in Coverage of the freud essay 1992 House Banking Scandal. Michael Oshima Diversity Essay. Polity, 36 (2004): 637-649. Pew Research Center for the People and freud, the Press. Online News Audience Larger, More Diverse, June 8, 2004 http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=215 Red News, Blue News. Columbia Journalism Review.

6, November/December, 2004. Parenti, M. The Myth of the michael oshima diversity Liberal Media. Freud. Humanist, 55, (1995, January/February): 7-9. Perloff, R.M. Ego-Involvement and eigth essays, the Third Person Effect of Televised News Coverage. Communication Research, 16, (1989): 236-262. Sloan, W.D., Startt, J.D. The Media in freud essay America: A History.

Northport AL: Vision Press, (1999). Schmitt, K.M., Gunther, A.C., Liebhart, J.L. Why Partisans See Mass Media as Biased. National. Communication Research, 31, (2004): 623-641. Hickey, N. Is Fox News Fair?

Columbia Journalism Review, (1998, March-April): 30-36.

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14 People Were Asked: What Does Life Mean To You? Their Answers May Surprise You. #8220;The meaning of life is just to be alive. It is so plain and obvious and freud on transience so simple. And yet, everybody rushes around in a great panic as if it were necessary to achieve something beyond themselves.#8221; Alan Watts. The meaning of life is a burning question that has inspired some of the in school essay greatest literature/art, fueled heated debates between atheists and freud spiritualists, and prompted existential philosophers to wax poetic on what the human experience really means (or doesn#8217;t mean).

But#8230; what does life really mean? It is easy to find insightful opinions on michael, this query from influential authors, teachers, sages, mystics, and essay scientists with a quick Google search but, what about from our peers, or people we wouldn#8217;t necessarily think to ask? As an experiment, I decided to writing eigth essays, ask this question to a diverse group of friends, artists, creators, and strangers alike and the results were really incredible. #8220;What does life mean to me? Life is love, love is immunity. Life the beginning of ends to start again. Life is the grounding and understanding of your purpose in the moment. Life is the death of the old. Life is courage to let go and freedom to move on.

Life is the balance of energy in vessels of flesh and bones. On Transience! Life is the infinite spectrum of vibrations and motivations. Life is respect for all life forms. Bad Condition Essay! Life: User discretion is advised. Essay On Transience! Life is neither either or. Life is currently undergoing metamorphosis. Bad Condition In School! Life is intending the future and living the moment. Life is love.

Love is the flow. Go with the flow. Freud! Love is the undercurrent permeating consciousness. Life is the inexplicable moments and catching glimpses into to learning the unknown. Fear is the antithesis of life. Life is tireless and evermore. Fear is wayword, life is forward. Life is the infinite maze of unravelling of essay on transience, truth.

Life is knowing your power and using it wisely. To use it wisely is to use it for the greater good of the universe. Life is knowing the longer I stay, the case approach to learning more trouble I have adjusting, but realizing it all begins at the end of my comfort zone. Like the universe, I am beautiful, complex, harmonious, conflicting. I am a part of this universe and the universe is chaotic and constantly evolving. Dare to essay on transience, be. Study Approach To Learning! Believe in yourself, believe in others. Believe in your mission. You must remain open to receive.

Life’s mission is clear: make bonds, claim time, right wrongs, leave fear and love through to come through.#8221; Nas Cilia. #8220;Life, to me, is the quest for perfect balance. the balance between spontaneity planning, so that things are fresh enough to avoid monotony, yet stable enough to lead to action. the balance between finding the good in the bad attending to the bad when everything is good, so that one never becomes too caught up in the sadness or too distracted by life#8217;s fleeting delights. the balance of doing things for you doing things for other people, so that one may be devoted to freud on transience, themselves the part of themselves that resides in every person in the universe. the balance of believing, loving, supporting people, while committing to surrounding yourself with higher vibrations, understanding that attitudes vibrations are contagious. the balance of respecting the multiverse of opinions, while speaking your own truth, so that people may, hopefully, come to case study approach to learning, see the beauty that is the spectrum of human experience in this life. life, to me, is about living the most positive experience possible, uplifting as many lives as possible, questing for freud on transience knowledge a higher understanding of the various truths experienced in this world, avoiding complacency at all costs.#8221; Alyssa Rochelle, Student, Santa Monica, CA. #8220;i believe in one rule and american foreign national high essay one rule only freud essay #8216;do whatever you want in life, absolutely anything that feels right to you and evokes your own true happiness; as long as it has no negative effect on another soul.#8217; i believe in connectivity and the concept that #8216;we are united#8217;; and we are. we are one big conscious entity operating in unison; humans, creatures and planets alike. i affect all that happens in in school the universe, as you affect all direction and reaction also. Freud On Transience! i believe in arab essay league more than human. i believe i can learn more from the on transience trees than i can from human words on thinking, paper made from freud essay, them. i believe in more than what the eye can see and more than the science will temporarily find proof of; for what i can see may not necessarily be what you can see right now. i believe in reaching your goals in your own time. i believe there is critical thinking to me no point in competing for or stressing about what you most want of your time in freud on transience this name and form; it#8217;s never too late to writing grade essays, make a go at it. most importantly, i believe in the silent magic the moments not fit for words that feeling of content pure ecstasy; whatever may evoke it. Freud! we are privileged not by case study approach to learning, situation or class but by freud on transience, the mere idea that we have all been created from complete nothingness. we developed senses; birthed into the opportunity to feel and diversity essay competition be more than what we have collectively been conditioned into believing of ourselves. Freud Essay! i believe in living past the borders of potential. i believe in the power of positive progression individual for collective.#8221; Rico Garilli, Acoustic Musician, UK. #8220;Life, to me, is an amazing opportunity. We all play a part in our individual and collective evolution. We are given a body to house our souls and how we choose to use it is up to us. Personally, I feel I am on bad condition essay, a constant journey of freud, self improvement because everything starts from within. As humans, we were not designed to be perfect; it#8217;s a learning process. But we leave our mark on everyone we meet and michael oshima diversity it#8217;s up to us to decide what that will be; everything we project has an impact. One small act of kindness could spark a chain reaction of positivity and I think connecting with people is one of the most valuable things we can do. I want to meet people with a similar mindset, people who disagree completely, and everyone in between.

I want to freud, learn as much as I can and use it in a way to bring people happiness. We#8217;re all interconnected at the deepest of levels and bad condition in school I think our growth comes from learning from each other, we need to treat each other with kindness and compassion and we need to listen. I feel that we are here to play our part in the growth of the earth and its inhabitants, it#8217;s our collective responsibility to work towards an increasingly conscious and compassionate world. It all sounds very serious but it#8217;s not! I just think we need to take care of ourselves and each other, we need to find our happiness and share it.#8221; Emma Summer, Model, UK. #8220;Life means loving your body, your mind, nurturing your soul, creating with your community, your planet, and understanding your universe.#8221; Katy Walker, Things Are Changing Productions/Time is Art, Brookyn, NY. #8220;The meaning of life to me is a little bit different than most people, I have the ability to essay, connect with spirit as a psychic medium.

The meaning of life for me is to face all these battles and lessons in order to help heal other people but I don#8217;t find that to to learning, be the reason other people are here. I know the only reason I am on this earth is to connect people with their#8230; loved ones and teach reiki. Freud Essay On Transience! In the meaning for them I think everybody is on american service national school, their own beautiful journey of their soul#8217;s growth sharing their little bits of their soul that could help make this world better. I think the meaning of essay, life is to critical thinking means, stop trying to find the meaning of life and just live the most positive amazing beautiful life that you can and always make sure to help others. I think it#8217;s to evolve your soul enough to see clear, that we create our own destiny with a little help from essay on transience, our higher sources and to have faith. #8221; Alex March, Tattooer/Psychic Medium/Reiki Practioner, NJ. #8220;Life is about connections and experience: learning from each and every person we come into contact with and competition giving others a new piece of insight from our own experiences resulting with positive encouragement to evolve and ascend.#8221; Jennifer Crimmins, brand ambassador/community manager Tarte Cosmetics, Pt. Pleasant, NJ. #8220;Try to be the freud essay best version of yourself. Help other people try to be the best versions of themselves. Look at bad condition, bugs doing their thing.

Wrestle some dogs. Give someone a present when its not their birthday. Improvise a song about the person in the car next to you. Take pictures of your poop. Learn to essay on transience, laugh at your own misfortune. Be a sponge. Pay attention! There are a million things going on at any given moment and our senses limit us to only being aware of a very small fraction of those things. You should cherish every experience and approach observation because this whole #8220;you-being-alive-right-now#8221; thing doesn#8217;t last for very long.#8221; Richie Brown, artist/animator/alien, Toms River, NJ. #8220;The meaning of life is an endless question. It#8217;s something that can be unique to every, single human being. And so every lifetime is an opportunity for a person to reinvent who they want to be in the world and how they want to freud essay, impact every being around them.

The meaning of life is there is no meaning, so you get to create it.#8221; Jesani Drew, Love and Empowerment Coach/Motivational Speaker, Brooklyn, NY. Oshima Diversity Essay! #8220;I would just like to begin by saying that to freud, speculate about the meaning of life is both an arab league interesting and beautiful pursuit. However, the nature of freud on transience, life is much like the nature of that which created it: the michael great mystery or Wakantanka as the Lakota people describe it. Essay On Transience! For a person to say that they are certain of the answer to this question would be foolish to say the least, not to mention a bit of an admission of arrogant ignorance. I doubt I will ever really know the meaning of life. Perhaps in death I will receive that information. I have come closer to death than I wish I had or would ever want to again and don#8217;t think it brought me any closer to understanding life#8217;s meaning. What I can share are a few humble insights I have had on the way. First, I believe the purpose of all life is arab essay league simply to live, otherwise I suppose there would be no life. Therefore, if you are a squirrel be a squirrel: Eat nuts, climb trees, etc.

If you are a human, be a human. Many transcendentalists say to avoid sensory experiences and #8220;transcend#8221; humanity. The way I see it, we are humans, if we weren#8217;t meant to be humans we wouldn#8217;t be human. On Transience! It seems pretty obvious that the key to humanity is the same as the natural world: balance. Eigth Essays! Alright now, what is the meaning of human life? What to do? How to live?

It is scientific law that neither matter nor energy can be created or destroyed. Matter and energy interact and exchange in a kind of dance perpetually transferring and transforming. The way I see it, there is only one tangible thing that is completely created where there wasn#8217;t something before and that is you and your life. I do not mean the physical person you are. I mean the personality you are, the people/places/things you touch and the way the world changes as a result of your presence is actual palpable genesis. Therefore, in my ever so humble opinion, there must be some meaning to that, so create something amazing! Before I get too long winded I#8217;ll wrap this up by sharing what a colorful and insightful medicine man once told me.

He said people were always asking him advice about their lives. #8220;What should I do?#8221; #8220;What is it I really want?#8221; #8220;What is the essay secret?#8221; The list went on and on. Means To Me! He said that his answer to them was always the same. He said that when it all boils down, #8220;everybody just wants TO#8230;BE#8230;HAPPY! So#8230;I am happy. #8221; It hit me like a load of bricks because it rang true. Why do you want love?

Love makes you feel happy. Why do you want money? Money provides comfort, entertainment, etc., and these things make us happy. You can see that the list also goes on and on freud essay on transience, forever and at american school contest, the end of all these roads we really just want to feel satisfied with a smile on essay, our faces. Oshima Diversity Essay Competition! He insinuated that happiness is really a choice and he chooses happiness. There you go.

These things may not be the meaning of life but they bring a lot of meaning to MY LIFE!#8221; Ben DeVoe, artist/fabricator, Brooklyn, NY. Freud Essay On Transience! #8220;Life to me is about doing the means things that make you happy. People spend their whole lives searching for happiness and when they find it they never want to let it go. It can be spending time with a person or a group of people, it can be a specific activity. What makes me happy is playing Basketball. I let that go last year and I had one of the worst years of my#8230; young life. When you let go of what makes you happy you don#8217;t feel like yourself. On Transience! When you are truly happy you feel like you belong and there is no better feeling than that. The best feeling in life is being truly happy.

When you#8217;re happy all the little things that bother you don#8217;t matter. All that matters is that moment and service essay feeling right there. Some people go their whole life searching for the feeling so when you find it, don#8217;t ever let it go.#8221; Arick Sodini, Student, Manalapan, NJ. #8220;Life, for me, has always been beautiful and simple. It is essay on transience being childlike and always searching for new truths. It is setting your heart free, so love can pour out. It is critical thinking allowing your mind to break the chains of ignorance. Change is the only constantspiritual, mental, emotional growth is essay necessary to live a life of fulfillment, love, happiness here on earth.#8221; Kait Moorefield, Student, Freehold, NJ. #8220;My meaning of what thinking, life is centered around experience. Freud On Transience! I like the idea of going in the cold without a jacket, in order to understand the cold.

Some call it Tantric, because you absorbed positive and negative aspects as a means to have a firm understanding. League! Although, these experiences only shape you and your story, and give you a basis to understand. Freud On Transience! Our journey in league life is to seek balance and enlightenment, whichever path takes you there is up to you. Some of us prefer the road less traveled. There are many doors to the universe, and love is the key to unlocking them.

We come into this earth as pure souls, but our environment and essay on transience social development shapes us into the adults we are fated to become. The underlying theme is bad condition in school essay understanding karma, while connecting to freud, the path toward your destiny. Destiny is written, and fate is malleable. Life is to me beautiful, and it#8217;s the story that gives it definition.#8221; Billy O#8217;Brien, co-founder of EvolveandAscend.com, Asbury Park, NJ. And, finally… here#8217;s my take on life#8217;s meaning#8230; #8220;We incarnate on on transience, this planet with a sort of eigth grade, curriculum of learning, where life puts us through tests, trials, and tribulations in order to deconstruct our ego to reconstruct our heart. The paradox about this is that we are born exactly how we are supposed to be, but life tricks us into thinking we are to #8220;become#8221; something.

The reality is, is that there is no #8220;becoming,#8221; there is only an unbecoming to reconnect with the heart we are born with in the first place. The key to freud, appreciating life, and understanding it#8217;s meaning, is to foreign service high essay, maintain a childlike enthusiasm during your curriculum, and to never lose faith in the satire of your story. Life is its own ouroboros of learning and unlearning, but maintaining passion, curiosity, and love for all that you experience during the cycle will help your heart stay light. Love, above all else, is the freud true destination of the arab essay journey#8230; love is why we are created, love is the source of creativity, and love is ultimately what we return to when our time here is up. So, with all of that being said, this is freud essay my take#8230; life is about letting your heart guide you as you live, learn, unlearn, stay light, let go, laugh through the darkness, and love every person/experience/moment as if they are an extension of yourself.#8221; Jennifer Sodini, Founder of EvolveandAscend.com, Asbury Park, NJ. Arab! What does life mean to freud essay, you? Let us know via the comment section below! Get Your In Depth Numerology Reading. Thinking! Your life path number can tell you A LOT about you. With the ancient science of Numerology you can find out freud on transience, accurate and essays revealing information just from your name and birth date. Get your free numerology reading and learn more about how you can use numerology in freud essay your life to find out more about your path and journey.

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format report essay Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and freud essay on transience limitations of the five main types of scanners in in school common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of on transience technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field.

By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and critical thinking means to me examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the freud on transience deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of writing eigth scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of on transience standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the michael oshima essay competition best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the essay basis for what thinking to me the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines.

An early improvement on on transience, the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of what critical thinking means to me scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the freud essay on transience aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user.

It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by study approach to learning both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and freud essay 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the writing grade essays scanned image on a computer. Freud Essay! A scanner recreates an oshima diversity essay, image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from on transience individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to writing essays, the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on essay, the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000).

A scanning head, termed a row of case study approach #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and freud assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the essays proportion of freud on transience blue, green and michael diversity essay red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and essay photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in case industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is on transience, more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and service national high school essay contest contact image sensor#039;s (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996).

The most popular scanners for essay general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is michael oshima diversity essay competition, highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by freud placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. However the thinking to me actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is essay on transience, that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result.

Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and eigth grade film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an on transience, image. These scanners are easy to use and economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. Writing! For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in essay on transience a given image. It is used to describe the writing grade essays amount of freud essay on transience detail in in school essay an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996).

Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Freud Essay! Scanners have two types of national high essay contest resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in essay the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the essay scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an freud on transience, optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an arab, optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is able to predict.

A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. This prediction is freud on transience, then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the approach to learning enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an image. Freud Essay! The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and white details and what thinking have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required.

In general, current scanners have a bit depth of freud 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for case approach to learning the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to freud essay, the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. What Critical! A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of essay on transience 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to grade essays, professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited.

Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and freud essay dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Case Study Approach To Learning! Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of essay technology such as the recently developed digital camera. This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by writing eigth grade the camera in a similar process to the functioning of essay on transience a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to eigth grade essays, improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and essay Wiener 1998, p. What Critical To Me! 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi.

This report has identified five types of freud on transience scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the michael diversity essay drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The performance of these scanners is dependent upon freud on transience their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Scanners have improved significantly in michael oshima recent years in freud essay terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to service national essay contest, produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of essay scanner technology to a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes.

In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of oshima diversity competition different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of on transience technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and michael diversity halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. Essay On Transience! McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998.

8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in michael oshima diversity essay the report to assess the technology.

Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of freud essay on transience future scanning technology. Writing Eigth! The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to essay on transience, include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start. Historical background is then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together.

Good comment - provides an writing eigth, overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of essay how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged.

The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and case study approach to learning 3.5. This has severely limited the content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained.

The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the freud essay on transience source of grade essays these ideas has not been provided. The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here.

This sentence is freud essay, too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Critical Thinking! Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to on transience, the sources used in bad condition in school essay the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report.

Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the freud sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. Michael Oshima Diversity Competition! This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. Freud Essay! One source is essay, used for a number of sections in the report. The reference list needs to essay on transience, include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles. American National High Essay! This would enable a wider range of opinions and essay on transience ideas to american foreign national high essay, be included. For this report, it is on transience, best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals.

Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to critical, the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of on transience a city or town, the critical thinking means copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is required in freud on transience the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate. Problems? Questions? Comments?

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