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kz resume Dachau est le camp modèle. Dachau est le premier camp de concentration construit par les nazis, qui le considéreront jusqu'à la fin comme le prototype des KZ. LE CAMP MODÈLE DE DACHAU. Située à une vingtaine de kilomètres au nord-ouest de Munich , la petite ville de Dachau , au c#156;ur de la Bavière , s'est construite autour d'un imposant château. Reference Essay. Au nord et à l'est de la ville s'étendent de vastes marais et des tourbières couverts d'une végétation sauvage. Dissertation Sur Le. Écrivains, peintres et artistes venaient volontiers, avant la guerre, chercher l'inspiration dans ce petit Barbizon de la capitale bavaroise . Le camp primitif (1933-1939) C'est là que les nazis décident, dès leur prise de pouvoir, de construire, au printemps de 1933 , leur premier camp de concentration. Essay. Ils chargent les personnes arrêtées pour des raisons politiques de remettre en état les vastes bâtiments d'une fabrique de munitions désaffectée depuis la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale. Cette création est annoncée par le Münchner Neueste Nachrichten du mardi 21 mars 1933 qui écrit, sous le titre:

Un camp de concentration pour prisonniers politiques près de Dachau : Le préfet de police par intérim Himmler a fait au cours d'une conférence de presse la déclaration suivante: Mercredi s'ouvrira près de Dachau le premier camp de concentration. Hume Political Sparknotes. Il a une capacité de 5 000 personnes. Film Essay. Y seront rassemblés tous les fonctionnaires communistes et #150; si nécessaire #150; les fonctionnaires marxistes et ceux appartenant au Reichsbanner , qui mettent en danger la sécurité de l'Etat; car si nous voulons éviter une surcharge de l'administration, il n'est pas possible, à la longue, de maintenir les fonctionnaires communistes dans les prisons d'État, alors qu'il n'est pas question non plus de les relâcher. Gates Essays. Nous avons donc pris ces mesures sans mesquinerie aucune, convaincus de rassurer ainsi la population nationale et d'agir selon sa volonté. Harvard Film Essay. Très vite, des échos se répandent sur ce qui se passe à Dachau . David Political And Literary. Ainsi le Journal des Travailleurs publié en Autriche écrit dans son numéro du 4 février 1934 sous le titre: Une cinquantaine de meurtres à Dachau : Londres , 3 janvier #150; Le Manchester Guardian publie les informations sur le camp de concentration de Dachau . Harvard Film Essay. Les 2 200 à 2 400 internés sont logés dans dix baraques. Of Books Essay. Il y a parmi eux une cinquantaine d'intellectuels, quelques représentants de la classe moyenne, 50 ou 60 nazis, environ 500 sociaux-démocrates, 2 officiers, quelques condamnés de droit commun, 15 étrangers; tous les autres sont des communistes.

Les ouvriers composent la très grande majorité des détenus. Harvard Film. Les fonctionnaires communistes qui refusent de livrer aux nazis des informations d'ordre politique sont enfermés dans des cellules. Uses Of Books. Celles-ci sont humides, sombres et non chauffées. Reference. Les prisonniers sont attachés à des chaînes scellées dans le mur. Uses Of Books Essay. De simples planches de bois leur servent de lit. Harvard Film Essay. Au mois de septembre, les internés ont été forcés de construire 21 nouvelles cellules. Millenium Scholarship. On pratique à Dachau les châtiments corporels.

Les prisonniers sont fouettés avec des nerfs de b#156;uf entourés de fil de fer et qu'ils doivent tresser eux-mêmes. Film Essay. On leur applique avec force de 25 à 75 coups de fouet. Essays 2010. Sans raison aucune, les communistes et les sociaux-démocrates sont battus à leur arrivée dans le camp. Reference. Suite aux traitements infligés, le communiste Fritz Schaper a été incapable de bouger pendant deux mois. Essay. Souvent, on harvard reference film essay, leur brûle aussi la peau avec des cigarettes incandescentes. Loss Essay. Parmi ceux ayant subi les pires sévices, il faut citer L. Reference Film. Buchmann, Georg Freischütz et le journaliste Ewald Thunig . 2010. Le communiste munichois Sepp Götz , incapable de se redresser après les coups reçus, a été assassiné. Harvard Essay. L'étudiant Wickelmeier a été abattu par balle, le communiste Fritz Dressel torturé à mort.

Autres détenus assassinés: le conseiller municipal Haussmann, Aron , membre du Reichsbanner , Willi Franz , le fonctionnaire communiste Buerk , de Memmingen - au total près de 50 personnes. Charlotte W. Newcombe. Le correspondant du Manchester Guardian détient les noms de neuf gardiens qui torturent et assassinent les prisonniers. Reference. Dès 1934 , l'opinion internationale est donc informée des traitements infligés à Dachau aux détenus raciaux (juifs surtout) et politiques. 2010. Pour rabaisser ces adversaires devant la population, les nazis leur adjoignent bientôt des criminels de droit commun. Film Essay. Un an essays and literary après l'avènement d' A. Harvard Reference Essay. Hitler , Dachau reçoit les SA de Röhm . Good Thesis On Homelessness. Peu après, von Kahr , le commissaire d'État bavarois, un septuagénaire monarchiste qui s'était tourné contre les nazis après avoir fait semblant d'accepter leur putsch, y est assassiné. Reference Film. Après l' Anschluss , Dachau reçoit plusieurs milliers d'Autrichiens partisans de Dollfuss et de Schuschnigg , mais aussi des communistes et des socialistes arrêtés dans la petite République annexée par Hitler . Millenium Essays. Plusieurs milliers d'israélites arrivent au KZ après l'assassinat, à Paris , du conseiller d'ambassade von Rath par le jeune juif Grynzpan . A ces premiers détenus se joignent des milliers de Tziganes , d' Homosexuels , de Témoins de Jéhovah , ainsi que des asociaux comprenant des vagabonds mais aussi des personnes arrêtées pour des raisons indéterminées. Harvard Reference Essay. Au total, des dizaines de milliers d'Allemands ont été détenus de 1933 à 1939 dans le camp primitif. Charlotte W. Newcombe Dissertation. La mortalité a été élevée, surtout du fait de la brutalité des nazis (bastonnades, fusillades, pendaisons, etc.), alors que le KZ n'était pourtant pas surpeuplé, et que la sous-alimentation était encore supportable. Le nouveau camp (1939-1945) Au début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le KZ est évacué.

Les détenus sont répartis dans différents autres camps, notamment ceux de Flossenbürg près de la frontière tchécoslovaque et de Mauthausen près de Linz en Autriche . Harvard Reference Film Essay. Seuls restent sur place quelques dizaines de détenus chargés de construire un camp beaucoup plus vaste. Le nouveau camp ouvre ses portes au printemps de 1940 . Gates Millenium Essays. Tous les KZ vont être construits sur le même modèle. Film Essay. Il se présente comme un rectangle orienté nord-sud, entouré d'une double rangée de barbelés, surmontée par places de miradors. Sur Le Changement Social. La vaste place d'appel fait face d'un côté à deux rangées de dix-sept Blocks destinés aux détenus, de l'autre aux bâtiments administratifs: bureaux, magasins, ateliers, cuisines, etc. Reference. Chaque Block comporte quatre chambres ( Stube ) à soixante-quinze lits disposés en trois étages superposés. Dissertation Sur Le Changement. Les deux premiers Blocks pairs sont réservés à la cantine, à des bureaux et à des ateliers.

Les deux premiers Blocks impairs sont affectés à l'infirmerie ( le Revier ). Reference Film. Chacun des trente Blocks d'habitation peut accueillir 300 détenus. Le KZ va s'inscrire dans une véritable ville comprenant: un QG de la Waffen SS , des casernes, des usines, des armureries, ainsi que des villas cossues destinées aux officiers et à leurs familles. W. Newcombe Doctoral. Cette ville, avec ses routes asphaltées et des voies ferrées, est entourée sur des dizaines de kilomètres par de hautes murailles. Harvard Reference Film Essay. Le site étant entièrement marécageux à l'origine, c'est le travail effectué dans la souffrance par les déportés qui a permis la construction et l'aménagement du complexe. Prévu pour 9 000 personnes à l'origine, le KZ comptera à l'automne 1944 plus de 35 000 détenus. L'administration du KZ. Le Mémorial Annuaire des Français de Dachau précise comment est administré le KZ à l'automne 1944 . Gates Millenium Scholarship Essays 2010. A cette date, les déportés allemands ayant été recrutés de force dans la Wehrmacht , les fonctions sont confiées à des déportés étrangers. Harvard Essay. La hiérarchie administrative, déjà évoquée pour les KZ de Bergen-Belsen et de Buchenwald , se retrouvera dans tous les autres KZ . Les différents commandants qui se sont succédés sont : Theodor Eicke, Hans Loritz, Martin Weiss et Eduard Weiter . Millenium Scholarship Essays. À la tête du camp est le Lagerälteste (doyen du camp), responsable de la discipline générale. Reference. C'est à lui que s'adressent les SS pour faire exécuter leurs ordres.

Il désigne pour chaque Block un chef de Block ( Blockälteste ) qui désigne à son tour pour chaque chambrée un chef de chambrée ( Stubenälteste ). Thesis On Homelessness. Le secrétaire du camp ( Lagerschreiber ) a la responsabilité du fichier (les SS y attachent une importance particulière), des questions d'état civil, de la répartition des détenus dans les Blocks . Reference Film. Il transmet aux SS les requêtes des détenus et les ordres de punitions aux prisonniers. Dissertation Changement Social. Il détient donc un pouvoir de fait considérable. Harvard Film Essay. Jusqu'à l'automne 1944 , c'est à Dachau le socialiste autrichien Emmerich Wenger , particulièrement affable avec les Français . Loss Essay Intro. Un Polonais lui succède, assez bien disposé envers les Français . Reference Essay. Le Lagerschreiber emploie une dizaine de scribes auxiliaires. On Homelessness. Il commande les secrétaires des Blocks ( Blockschreiber ), chacun étant assisté d'un ou de plusieurs scribes. L' Arbeiteinsatzkapo dirige la main-d'oeuvre. Harvard Essay. C'est lui qui affecte les détenus aux différents kommandos de travail ou qui les dirige sur un autre camp sur l'ordre des SS . Sur Le. Il détient un pouvoir redoutable puisqu'il établit souverainement les listes de ces kommandos. Harvard Film Essay. De terribles luttes de clans dressent les déportés les uns contre les autres, chacun cherchant à faire effacer son nom ou celui de ses amis des listes destinées aux kommandos dangereux. Essay Intro. À l'automne 1944 , l' Arbeiteinsatzkommando est Friedl Vollger , un militant catholique du Tyrol du Sud, qui ne cesse de manifester une grande sympathie pour les Français . Le Revierkapo est le responsable des services sanitaires.

Il exerce son autorité sur les innombrables médecins et infirmiers (déportés) des Reviers des Blocks . Reference Essay. Lui aussi a, en fait, la vie et la mort des détenus entre ses mains. On Homelessness. Car il peut sauver la vie d'un malade en l'accueillant. Essay. Et il peut soustraire un déporté à une grave sanction ou à la haine d'un kapo en le dissimulant dans le Revier . David Hume And Literary. Il peut alimenter le marché noir du camp en médicaments et en nourriture. Harvard Film. Les murs clos du Revier permettent, aussi, maints règlements de comptes et, par exemple, l'exécution de kapos particulièrement sanguinaires. Sur Le Changement. Les kapos représentent le dernier échelon de la hiérarchie administrative du KZ . Reference. Ce sont les chefs des kommandos de tous ordres chargés de la désinfection, de la boulangerie, du jardinage, des cantines, de l'entretien, etc. Charlotte W. Newcombe Doctoral. Chaque kapo a autour de lui une petite cour de protégés. La population du KZ. L'univers concentrationnaire a produit une société structurée et complexe. Essay. Le niveau supérieur comprend le Lagerälteste , le Lagerschreiber , l' Arbeiteinsatzkapo , et le Revierkapo . Good Thesis. Au-dessous viennent leurs auxiliaires, puis les kapos chacun avec leur clan. Essay. Ces catégories sont celles des privilégiés.

Ils portent des chaussures de cuir, les déportés ordinaires devant se contenter de sabots. Uses Essay. Ils ont le droit de porter les cheveux longs (les SS distribuent avec parcimonie une carte de cheveux !), le simple déporté ayant le crâne rasé ou strassé . Le déporté moyen constitue l'échelon inférieur de la hiérarchie. Reference Film Essay. Il a la chance d'être affecté durablement à un bon kommando, c'est-à-dire à un kommando où le travail n'est pas inhumain et où les brutalités des SS et des kapos ne provoquent la mort qu'accidentellement. David Essays Political Sparknotes. Il survit en volant modérément, en trafiquant discrètement, en évitant de se lier à tel ou tel kapo ou à tel ou tel puissant, car ces puissants peuvent perdre tout pouvoir à la suite d'un caprice d'un SS ou d'une conspiration d'un autre clan - et alors ces déchus subissent la vengeance de ceux qu'ils avaient opprimés, ce qui les conduit à l'inscription pour un kommando dangereux et souvent à la mort. Film. Vient enfin la classe la plus misérable, celle des uneingeteilt (les non-répartis), constamment à la recherche d'un kommando.

Avec les vieillards et les infirmes, ils constituent une sorte de sous-prolétariat, en butte à toutes les brimades, tout désigné pour les pires kommandos ou les transports vers les camps d'extermination. La vie quotidienne. Voici le programme journalier des déportés à Dachau pendant l'été: #149; de 12 h à 13 h : déjeuner (comprenant l'aller et retour au lieu de travail); #149; midi : 6 fois par semaine: 1 litre de soupe (avec carottes ou chou blanc); 1 fois par semaine: 1 litre de soupe aux pâtes; #149; soir : 4 fois par semaine: 20 à 30 grammes de saucisson ou de fromage et 3/4 de litre de thé; 3 fois par semaine: 1 litre de soupe. Les sanctions étaient les suivantes: privation de nourriture, station debout prolongée sur la place d'appel, travaux supplémentaires, exercices punitifs paramilitaires, transfert dans la compagnie disciplinaire, transfert dans un kommando de travail plus astreignant, bastonnade, flagellation, suspension par les poignets à un arbre ou à un poteau, emprisonnement dans le Bunker , mort pas assommade, par pendaison ou par balles, sans compter toute une gamme de tortures parfaitement étudiées. Weight. La bastonnade était la plus fréquente des punitions corporelles. Harvard Film. Paul Berben la décrit comme suit: L'homme devait se placer le haut du corps sur une sorte de table à feuillet concave appelée le Bock , les bras et les jambes étant attachés à l'engin.

Deux SS frappaient à tour de rôle au moyen de nerfs de b#156;uf préalablement trempés dans l'eau à effet de les rendre plus souples. David Essays Sparknotes. Le plus souvent 25 à 30 coups étaient appliqués, mais parfois davantage. Harvard Reference Essay. L'homme devait compter à haute voix les coups, et s'il ne parvenait pas à le faire ou s'il se trompait on thesis, recommençait à zéro. Film Essay. Quand le compte y était, le patient était détaché du Bock ; souvent il avait les fesses en sang. W. Newcombe Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship. On les lui badigeonnait alors avec de la teinture d'iode. Harvard Film Essay. Enfin, il devait faire une série de flexions des jambes pour assouplir les muscles , et annoncer qu'il avait reçu sa punition avec le motif de celle-ci. W. Newcombe Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship. Parfois la victime devait être transportée à l'infirmerie et était incapable de se mouvoir pendant plusieurs jours.

Mais les conséquences étaient encore bien plus graves lorsque des coups avaient été appliqués par mégarde ou intentionnellement sur les reins: des ablations ont même été rendues nécessaires. Harvard Reference. L'originalité de Dachau. Le KZ de Dachau présente des caractéristiques particulières qui le distinguent des autres camps de concentration. C'est, semble-t-il, lorsque les nazis décident d'utiliser les détenus pour la production industrielle au lieu de les exterminer sans profit pour le Reich , donc vers la fin de 1942 , que Dachau devient un camp modèle . David Hume Essays Sparknotes. Le régime est adouci dans la mesure où les kapos perdent le droit de vie ou de mort qu'ils détiennent: théoriquement, les exécutions ont lieu uniquement par ordre de la hiérarchie SS . Harvard Reference. De véritables médecins remplacent, dans les Reviers , le personnel non qualifié qui y avait trouvé des sinécures. Charlotte W. Newcombe Dissertation. Une salle d'opérations chirurgicales et une salle de soins dentaires sont installées. Reference. Dans la classification des KZ en trois catégories en fonction de leur dureté, celui de Dachau figure parmi ceux de la catégorie 1 , celle des moins pénibles. Vers la même époque, une maison close est installée dans le Block 31 . Gates Scholarship 2010. Cinq ou six filles, emprisonnées parce que prostituées, y exercent leur ancienne profession. Harvard Essay. Cette innovation est présentée comme un des adoucissements de cette période. Political And Literary Sparknotes. Les kapos et les droits communs sont les seuls clients, les politiques s'interdisant de fréquenter ce lieu d'humiliation. La route des marais. Avant la période où les détenus seront employés pour la production dans l'économie de guerre, les nazis s'emploient à rendre inhumaine leur condition en exigeant d'eux des travaux harassants et inutiles.

C'est ainsi qu'est construite la fameuse route des marais , magnifique autostrade qui part du camp. Film Essay. et y revient, après avoir traversé les landes et les marais déserts, sans aucune espèce d'utilité. Good Thesis On Homelessness. Paul Berben évoque dans quelles conditions cette route a été édifiée : L'organisation du travail était déplorable: les outils et les moyens de transport adéquats n'étaient pas fournis. Reference Film Essay. L'homme, remplaçant le moteur ou la bête de somme, était attelé au rouleau compresseur, à la charrue, au chariot lourdement chargé de pierres. Uses Of Books. De ses mains il arrachait les souches d'arbres et extrayait les cailloux du sol. Essay. Le travail se poursuivait par tous les temps, sous le soleil brûlant comme par les froids les plus vifs, sans protection, tandis que pleuvaient les coups et les insultes.

Les scènes qui se sont déroulées en certains endroits comme la Kiesgrube et le Plantage entre autres, et auxquelles des centaines d'hommes ont assisté, sont tout simplement horribles. Sur Le. Le camp disciplinaire (Straflager) Les revers subis par la Wehrmacht en URSS conduisent les nazis à recruter massivement des volontaires dans les pays occupés, ainsi que parmi les prisonniers de guerre. Harvard Film Essay. Plus d'un million d'hommes sont ainsi réunis, qui sont répartis dans des unités spéciales de la Waffen SS . Doctoral Dissertation. Parmi eux, beaucoup d'aventuriers et de criminels, qui supportent difficilement la vie du combattant. Harvard Film Essay. Les fautifs sont alors traduits devant les tribunaux militaires. Loss Essay. C'est à Dachau qu'est construit le camp disciplinaire ( Straflager ) qui les accueille, vaste bâtiment rectangulaire bordant la place d'accueil, du côté opposé aux Blocks des déportés. Reference Film. Ce Straflager comptera plusieurs centaines de détenus vers la fin de la guerre, notamment des Français engagés volontaires dans la Waffen SS . Uses Of Books Essay. Revêtus de vieux uniformes italiens, leur sort semble n'avoir guère été meilleur que celui des autres prisonniers. Les prisonniers d'honneur.

Si le Bunker traditionnel dans chaque KZ accueille, dans ses cellules froides et nues, des condamnés provenant du camp (déportés soupçonnés de menées clandestines, kapos fautifs, etc.), les prisonniers d'honneur bénéficient de cellules meublées relativement confortables. Harvard Reference Essay. Ce sont des opposants au régime que les nazis tiennent à conserver comme otages, peut-être en vue d'éventuels échanges ultérieurs, comme le pasteur Niemöller ou des officiers anglais de l' Intelligence Service . Changement Social. Ce sont aussi, par exemple, les dirigeants du mouvement légionnaire roumain qui ont tenté un coup de force contre le maréchal Antonesco allié d' Hitler . Harvard Reference. (Quand ce dernier sera renversé par le roi en septembre 1944 , ils seront libérés pour constituer un gouvernement roumain en exil à Berlin .) Les prisonniers d'honneur gardent leurs vêtements civils et leurs cheveux. Of Books. Certains peuvent recevoir des visites. Essay. Certains aussi sont gardés au secret, leurs noms ne figurant dans les fichiers que sous forme d'un numéro suivi de la mention détenu mâle.

Au printemps 1945 , ils sont rejoints par des détenus de Buchenwald , notamment l'ancien chancelier d' Autriche Schuschnigg , l'ancien président du Conseil français Léon Blum , des femmes et des enfants d'officiers impliqués dans l'attentat du 20 juillet 1944 contre Hitler . Avant l'arrivée des Américains , un transport regroupe ces personnalités, ainsi que Mgr Piguet , évêque de Clermont-Ferrand , le prince Xavier de Bourbon-Parme , un prince Hohenzollern , le pasteur Niemöller , etc. Weight Intro. Ils seront finalement tous libérés dans un village du Tyrol italien. Le Block des prêtres. De nombreux prêtres catholiques et pasteurs protestants sont arrêtés par les nazis dès leur arrivée au pouvoir, la plupart du temps parce qu'ils ont fait état, en chaire, des protestations du Saint-Siège contre les violations du Concordat, de l'encyclique Mit brennender Sorge de 1937 stigmatisant l'idéologie païenne du nazisme, des prises de position des évêques contre l' euthanasie , contre les exactions et les camps de concentration, etc. Film. Pourtant au début de la guerre, Hitler atténue sa lutte contre les Églises afin de ne pas s'aliéner la masse des croyants. Thesis On Homelessness. En 1940 , à la suite d'un accord négocié avec les plus hautes instances religieuses, il décide que tous les prêtres catholiques, allemands ou étrangers, retenus dans les KZ seront regroupés à Dachau . Harvard Reference Essay. C'est donc à Dachau que seront internés pendant toute la durée de la guerre des milliers de religieux de différentes confessions, occupant tous les échelons de la hiérarchie ecclésiastique. Les Blocks 26 et 28 leur sont affectés.

Le 7 décembre 1940 arrivent ceux de Gusen , le 8 ceux de Mauthausen , le 15 ceux de Sachsenhausen . Good Thesis. En 1944 , le Block 28 abritera 800 ecclésiastiques polonais (ils avaient été plus de 1 800 ), alors que les prêtres des autres nationalités, dont 300 Allemands, sont réunis dans le Block 28 et dans trois chambrées du Block 26 , la quatrième Stube étant transformée en chapelle. Harvard Reference Film Essay. L'accord conclu précise qu'une seule messe sera dite chaque jour, que la chapelle sera strictement réservée aux membres du clergé, que ceux-ci seront exemptés de travail et ne figureront pas sur les listes des kommandos extérieurs et des transports (vers la mort). Political And Literary. Leur nourriture est améliorée. Reference Film. Ils ont accès à la bibliothèque et reçoivent des sacs de couchage et même une demi-bouteille de vin par jour pour la messe. Weight Intro. Leur sort est donc beaucoup moins pénible que celui des autres déportés. Harvard Reference Film. Certains préféreront pourtant travailler, dans les bureaux notamment (jusqu'à ce qu'en 1943 une interdiction générale suive la découverte de la tentative d'un prêtre visant à faire parvenir à l'extérieur du camp un rapport sur ce qui s'y passe). Sur Le Changement Social. En fait, les SS opèrent une sélection; ainsi le sort des prêtres polonais devient bien vite pénible, tandis que les religieux allemands bénéficient des conditions les plus acceptables. Le cardinal-archevêque de Munich a désigné comme vicaire de cette communauté religieuse un prêtre allemand détenu. Les volontaires SS.

À l'automne 1944 , les SS recrutent de force plusieurs centaines de détenus qui leur paraissent aptes à porter les armes. Harvard Reference Film. Après deux jours de quarantaine, ils quittent le camp sous l'uniforme. David Hume Moral Political And Literary. Ils sont dirigés sur les formations disciplinaires du cruel général Dirlewanger . Harvard Reference. La plupart seront exterminés sur le front de l' Est . W. Newcombe Doctoral. Le langage impitoyable du KZ les a qualifiés de kommandos pour monter au ciel . La chambre à gaz. À la fin de juillet 1942 , les nazis donnent l'ordre de construire une chambre à gaz à Dachau (nom de code: Baracke 10 ), selon le modèle classique: local pour le déshabillage, chambre de douches camouflées et morgue. Harvard Reference. Pourtant, aucun document ne prouve que cette chambre à gaz a fonctionné, peut-être du fait du sabotage de l'équipe chargée de sa construction et de son entretien. À Dachau , il n'y eut que des exécutions par pendaisons ou fusillades. Millenium Essays 2010. Elles furent d'ailleurs peu nombreuses en comparaison des autres KZ . Les expériences médicales. L' Express de Neuchâtel (Suisse) du 16 janvier 1947 relate les expériences médicales effectuées sur les détenus par les médecins nazis: Les kommandos extérieurs.

Les kommandos divers. En 1944 , le camp central renferme 35 000 détenus. Harvard Film. 40 000 autres sont répartis dans 183 kommandos extérieurs. Ces kommandos extérieurs sont extrêmement divers. Good Thesis On Homelessness. Certains rassemblent plusieurs milliers de déportés: c'est le cas du plus grand d'entre eux, celui d' Allach , situé près de Munich . Harvard Film Essay. Dans d'autres kommandos, comme les camps de la forêt échelonnés entre Landsberg et Kaufering au sud d' Augsbourg , dans la vallée de Lech , sont parqués à partir de juillet 1944 plus de 25 000 juifs évacués d' Auschwitz (la moitié d'entre eux vont y trouver la mort). Gates Millenium Scholarship Essays. La comptabilité SS enregistre comme formant un kommando complet deux femmes Témoins de Jéhovah chargées de tenir le ménage d'un officier SS . Film. L' Annuaire des Français de Dachau indique que le réseau de ces sous-camps, les uns permanents et les autres temporaires (liés à l'exécution de certaines tâches: construction d'aérodromes, déblaiement de Munich , construction d'usines souterraines . Gates Scholarship 2010. ), s'étendait du lac de Constance à la province de Salzbourg en Autriche , et du voisinage de Nuremberg au Tyrol . Liste des kommandos. Allach - Allach/Karsfeld/Moosach - Allach-Rothwaige - Allersdorf-Liebhof - Ampersmoching - Asbach-Baumenheim - Aibing - Aufkrich-Kaufbeuren - Augustenfeld-Pollnhof - Augsburg - Augsburg-Haunstetten - Augsburg-Pfersee - Bad Ischl - Bad Ischl Saint Wolfgang - Bad Tölz - Baubrigade XIII - Bayernsoien Bayrishezell - Bichl - Birgsau-Oberstdorf - Blainach - Brunigsau - Burgau - Burghausen - Burgkirchen - Donauworth - Durach-Kottern - Eching - Ellwagen - Emmerting-Gendorf - Eschelbach - Feistenau - Feldafing - Fischbachau - Fischen - Fischhorn/Bruck - Freising - Friedolfing - Friedrischaffen - Fulpmes - Fussen-Plansee - Gablingen - Garmisch-Partenkirchen - Germering-Neuaubing - Gmund - Grimolsried-Mitteneuf-Nach - Halfing - Hallein - Hausham-Vordereckard - Heidenhaim - Heppenhaim - Horgau-Pfersee - Ingoldstadt - Innsbruck - Itter - Karlsfeld - Kaufbeuren - Kaufering - Kaufering Erpfting ( sous-kommandos de Kaufering Erpfting : Hurlach - Landsberg - Lechfeld - Mittel-Neufnach - Riederloh - Schwabbeg - Schwabmunchen - Turkenfald - Turkheim - Utting ) - Kempten-Kotern - Konigsee - Krucklhalm - Landshut-Bayern - Lauingen - Liebhof - Lind - Lochau - Lochhausen - Lohof - Markt Schwabben - Moosach - Moschendorf-Hof - Mühldorf - Mühldorf Ampfing-Waldlager V VI ( sous-kommandos de Mühldorf Ampfing : Mettenheim - Obertaufkirchen ) München - München Friedman - München Riem - München Schwabing - München Sendling - Neuburg Donau - Neufahrn - Neustift - Nürnberg - Oberdorf - Oberfohring - Ottobrunn - Oetztal - Passau - Puchheim - Radolfzell - Rohrdorf-Thansau - Rosenheim - Rothschwaige-Augustenfeld - St. Reference. Gilden/Wolgansee - St. On Homelessness. Lambrecht - Salzburg - Salzweg - Sandhoffen - Saulgau - Schlachters-Sigmarszell - Schleissheim - Seehausen-Uffing - Spitzingsee - Steinhoring - Stephanskirchen - Strobl - Sudelfeld - Traustein - Trotsberg - Trutskirch-Tutzing - Uerberlingen - Ulm - Unterschleissheim - Valepp - Vulpmes - Weidach - Weilheim - Weissensee - Wicking - Wolfratshausen - Wolfratshausen Gelting - Wurach-Wolhof - Zangberg. Le kommando d'Allach.

Le témoignage de Marcel-G. Harvard Reference Film Essay. Rivière (matricule: 73 945 ), futur rédacteur en chef du Progrès de Lyon , évoque le sort des déportés à Allach : La population du camp d' Allach , écrit-il, prévu pour 3 500 détenus, devait atteindre en mars 1945 14 000 détenus dont quelques centaines de femmes évacuées de Ravensbrück et d' Auschwitz . Good Thesis. Comme ailleurs, on reference, était à Allach un mort civil. Loss Intro. Retranché du monde. Harvard Film Essay. Sans nouvelles des siens, sans colis. Dissertation. Un matricule. Essay. En juin 1944, la majorité des détenus étaient des déportés soviétiques, allemands et polonais. Intro. À la fin du mois de juin et au début du mois de juillet 1944 des contingents de déportés français et de républicains espagnols arrêtés en France allaient grossir l'effectif des détenus d' Allach . Harvard Reference Essay. Il étaient arrivés après une longue marche en socques (sandales à semelles de bois) de Dachau , escortés par les SS et leurs chiens. Good Thesis. D'autres allaient suivre. Reference Essay. dans le courant du mois de juillet, quelques rescapés du convoi de la mort et au début du mois de septembre des N-N ( Nacht und Nebel , Nuit et Brouillard) évacués du camp tristement célèbre de Struthof . Les nationalités à Dachau.

Le Mémorial Annuaire donne des précisions chiffrées sur les nationalités des détenus de Dachau : Les Polonais et les Tchèques , premiers pensionnaires étrangers de Dachau , furent suivis à partir de 1940 par de nombreuses autres colonies étrangères: Norvégiens, Hollandais, Belges, Luxembourgeois, Français, Espagnols rouges soldats dans l'armée française ou arrêtés en France, Yougoslaves (Slovènes, Croates, Serbes), Grecs, Russes et Ukrainiens, Italiens, Danois. Millenium 2010. Cet afflux s'accompagna d'une sensible réduction du contingent allemand sans cesse écrémé pour les besoins de la guerre. Harvard Reference. 6 000 Allemands figuraient encore sur les listes lors de la libération, contre 15 000 Polonais, 13 500 Soviétiques, 12 000 Hongrois presque tous juifs des kommandos de la forêt, 5 700 Français, 3 200 Lituaniens, 4 000 Italiens, 2 000 Tchèques, 1 800 Slovènes, plusieurs centaines de Belges, Hollandais, Serbes, Croates, Espagnols, Slovaques, Grecs, Lettons, Luxembourgeois, 13 Anglais, 44 Albanais, 71 Norvégiens, 1 Japonais et même quelques Suisses qui devaient se sentir assez isolés à côté de ces colonies massives. Charlotte W. Newcombe Dissertation. Cette société concentrationnaire est constamment agitée par des conflits entre criminels de droit commun et politiques, entre groupes nationaux, et au sein de ceux-ci entre communistes et non-communistes, etc., si bien qu'à la fin de la guerre une quarantaine de SS et quelques dizaines de soldats suffiront pour maintenir en captivité plus de 35 000 personnes! Dans cet univers infernal, les gestes de solidarité ne manquent pas, pourtant.

Les anciens expliquent aux nouveaux arrivants comment éviter les violences des SS et des kapos , comment se comporter pour survivre. Reference Film. On s'efforce d'aider les plus faibles, les plus âgés, les plus malades, en collectant pour eux de la nourriture, voire des vêtements ou du tabac. Gates. Des prêtres français se font même enfermer dans les Blocks des typhiques pour assister les moribonds. Reference Film Essay. Beaucoup de témoignages rapportent de tels actes individuels, d'autant plus généreux qu'ils exposent leurs auteurs aux pires sanctions. Selon le Mémorial Annuaire , jusqu'en 1943 le nombre des Français a été extrêmement restreint: quelques politiques du Nord arrêtés en 1941 , des travailleurs libres, des prisonniers de guerre ou des requis arrêtés en Allemagne même. Uses Of Books Essay. À l'automne 1943 quelques résistants arrivent à Dachau , dont Edmond Michelet et le germaniste Joseph Rovan . Ce n'est qu'à l'été 1944 que le camp reçoit l'arrivée massive de Français : 2 140 le 20 juin, 255 le 26, 1416 le 5 juillet (c'est le fameux convoi de la mort : 2 400 prisonniers étaient partis de Compiègne , dont 984 étaient morts à leur arrivée à Dachau ), 317 le 7 juillet, 62 le 28 août, 2 406 venant de Natzwiller-Struthof le 4 septembre, 61 le 5, 1990 autres venant de Natzwiller le 6 septembre, et toujours du même KZ , 102 le 20 septembre, 401 le 21, 248 le 25, 97 le 27 septembre, 281 les 22 et 23 octobre, 45 le 25, 230 le 29, 36 le 31 octobre, 17 le 18 novembre, ainsi qu'une centaine de Français arrêtés à Metz , Saint-Dié et Lyon . Film Essay. Fin novembre et en décembre 1944 arrivent à Dachau les déportés provenant d'autres KZ évacués, notamment de Gross-Rosen et surtout de Buchenwald d'où arrivent 2 909 Français pour la plupart dans un état d'épouvantables moribonds, au bout de deux semaines de voyage dans des wagons de marchandises ouverts, à peu près sans nourriture et sans boisson . LES DERNIERS MOIS. Les derniers mois du KZ de Dachau sont marqués par une épidémie de typhus et par l'organisation d'une résistance des déportés. Le docteur André Fournier est médecin chef de Block lorsque l'épidémie de typhus exanthématique (qui s'ajoute aux épidémies endémiques de typhoïde et de tuberculose notamment) éclate. Millenium Scholarship 2010. En 1946 , il a décrit les débuts du drame. Harvard Film Essay. Il était alors médecin du Block 23 , Block qui se trouvait en quarantaine pour quelques jours encore à cause d'un cas de typhoïde . C'est la veille ou le lendemain de Noël 1944 , écrit-il, qu'arriva à la visite un Tzigane titubant et grelottant de fièvre. Uses Essay. Le diagnostic n'était pas difficile, d'autant plus que le piqueté rouge de l'exanthème apparaissait déjà sur son corps.

Au chef de Block , plutôt heureux de la nouvelle, je dis donc: Vous tenez votre quarantaine, car il a le Flecktyphus . Reference Film Essay. Le lendemain un autre cas fut envoyé au Revier et le docteur Kredit , hollandais, un homme et un médecin si parfait, qui devait lui-même mourir plus tard du typhus, confirmait le soir qu'il s'agissait bien de deux cas de cette terrible maladie. Gates 2010. Dans les jours qui suivirent, d'autres apparurent, trois ou quatre qui, malgré les doutes et les sarcasmes de l' Oberpfleger chargé de procéder à la visite, furent envoyés au Revier 15 , chez le docteur Ragot . Film. La crainte de la maladie commença alors à envahir les esprits; le chef de Block s'agita, signala la situation, commanda la chasse aux poux avec les pauvres moyens habituels: désinfection des couvertures, contrôle; une forte quantité de cette Russiapulver qui faisait honneur à la chimie allemande nous fut même distribuée. Thesis On Homelessness. Le docteur Ragot fit un rapport au médecin SS sur l'arrivée dans son Block du typhus venant du 23 . Harvard Film Essay. Le kapo du Revier fut prévenu et déclara qu'il en parlerait au médecin-chef SS . W. Newcombe Dissertation. Mais en ce temps-là celui-ci n'acceptait qu'on ne parlât de typhus que si la réaction de Weill-Félix , faite sur le sérum des malades, était positive. Harvard Film. Pour cela, il fallait envoyer ce sérum à Berlin ; la réponse revenait 15 jours après; quelque chose de très simple, comme on essay, voit. Harvard Essay. L'ordre de lever la quarantaine du Block 23 fut donc maintenu. C'est ici que ce qu'on peut appeler le crime commence. Millenium. Le jour même où la quarantaine finissait, on film essay, devait répartir les nouveaux arrivants entre le 25 et le 21 ; jusqu'au dernier moment, nous ne crûmes pas à ce déménagement.

Cependant, la maladie avait déjà pris au Block des proportions inquiétantes, une vingtaine de malades portaient des signes évidents de typhus . Millenium. Mais il était trop tard pour changer quelque chose à l'ordre donné. Reference Film Essay. Le lendemain, un dimanche (donc pas de visite médicale par surcroît), les docteurs Capella et Michel virent arriver au 25 , au milieu des autres, une lamentable équipe de typhiques, bien couverts au surplus de poux, que les gens encore sains allèrent semer dans tout le camp, les Blocks étant ouverts. C'est dans ces jours de fin décembre 1944 , début janvier 1945 que se joua le destin de milliers d'hommes, dont 50 % des Français du camp et nombre de médecins et infirmiers qui ne sont pas revenus. Gates Scholarship 2010. Paul Berben précise les pertes dues au typhus pour les Français : En octobre 1944 il y eut 403 décès, en novembre 997 , en décembre 1 915 , en janvier 1945: 2 888 , en février 3 977 , en mars 2 226 . Reference Film. Nous eûmes autant de morts en un jour au printemps 1945 que dans l'année précédente en deux mois. Dissertation Sur Le. En dépit de la surveillance permanente des SS et des kapos , des déportés courageux s'efforcent de saboter la machine de guerre allemande. Harvard. Marcel-G. Charlotte W. Newcombe Doctoral Dissertation. Rivière explique ce qui se passe à l'usine BMW d' Allach : Le sabotage actif consistait à détériorer les machines en introduisant notamment de la limaille ou toute substance abrasive dans les graisseurs. Reference Essay. Mais c'était une forme très dangereuse et impitoyablement punie de mort par pendaison sur la place d'appel. Gates Essays. La forme la plus courante de sabotage était le ralentissement des chaînes de fabrication, ce qui freinait la production. Reference. Ou la surproduction anormale de pièces, ce qui obligeait à de difficiles stockages alors que, freinée, la production des pièces complémentaires était insuffisante. Autre forme de sabotage: les quelques détenus chargés du contrôle des pièces ( les Prüfer ) rejetaient comme mauvaises de nombreuses pièces bonnes qui étaient alors retournées à la fonderie.

Par ailleurs, les déportés s'organisent pour pratiquer dans la mesure du possible la solidarité et pour tenter de se défendre si les nazis décident d'anéantir le camp avant leur fuite, afin de dissimuler aux vainqueurs les horreurs de l'univers concentrationnaire. Thesis On Homelessness. Les différentes nationalités constituent des comités de résistance clandestins. Harvard Reference Essay. Le Comité national français est présidé par Edmond Michelet , convalescent, qui se relève du typhus . Social. Les comités nationaux se regroupent en un Comité international , que préside le doyen du camp, le vieux militant communiste Oskar Müller , respecté par tous. Harvard Film. Des mesures sont prises, notamment pour détecter et neutraliser les mouchards, pour organiser des manifestations culturelles dans les Stube , etc., et, bien sûr, pour rester à l'écoute des informations militaires. Millenium Scholarship Essays. Quelques groupes de combat sont même mis en place dans les kommandos de travail. Mais les nazis tuent encore. Harvard Essay. Le 19 avril, à 11 heures, le général Delestraint, chef de l'armée secrète de la résistance française, est assassiné, sur ordre venu de Berlin , d'une balle dans la nuque. Changement Social. Le corps est immédiatement incinéré avec ses habits et tout ce qu'ils contiennent. Avec les ravages du typhus et la menace d'une destruction totale, les derniers mois du KZ sont dramatiques. Marcel-G.

Rivière décrit la dernière étape vue d' Allach . Le 20 avril 1945 , les déportés entendent dans le lointain le bruit du canon. Film Essay. Des avions alliés sillonnent le ciel. Uses. Le 22 , la chute de Nuremberg est connue. Reference Film. Le 23 , la direction du camp demande au service médical d'établir la liste de tous les détenus capables d'effectuer une marche militaire (soit 30 à 40 kilomètres par jour). Essays Political. Les différents comités nationaux se réunissent et décident de fournir le plus tard possible des listes aussi maigres que possible. Harvard Film. Le 24 , aucun kommando de travail ne quitte le camp. Changement Social. Le 25 avril, à 22 heures, ordre est donné de remettre immédiatement la liste des Russes . Les comités se réunissent aussitôt et donnent l'ordre d'opposer la force d'inertie à la volonté des nazis. Harvard Reference Film Essay. Le lendemain, les SS décident un rassemblement général. Uses Of Books. Sous la menace des mitrailleuses, une colonne des Russes quitte le camp vers minuit. Essay. En trois jours de marche, ils perdront la moitié de leur effectif.

Dans la nuit du 28 , les SS quittent le camp. Good Thesis. Le 29 , les déportés s'organisent sous la direction des comités ex-clandestins. Essay. Le 30 les sauveurs arrivent. Charlotte W. Newcombe. Ils sont américains. Reference Film. Le Comité international les reçoit solennellement. Essay Intro. Le camp central de Dachau a été libéré la veille.

Les déportés vont faire le difficile apprentissage de la liberté. Reference Film. Mais plus de 2 500 malades vont encore décéder entre le 29 avril et le 16 juin 1945 . Au moment de sa libération, le KZ compte: 3 000 Allemands, 12 000 Polonais, 6 000 soviétiques, 6 000 Français, presque autant d'Italiens, 2 000 Tchèques, 1 500 Slovènes, plusieurs centaines de Norvégiens, Danois, Belges, Hollandais et Grecs, 11 Anglais, 1 Albanais et quelques Suisses. Le 18 mai, le général Leclerc vient saluer les déportés. Hume And Literary. Il déclare avec émotion: En vous, ce sont des soldats que je salue. Film. Le rapatriement commence le 23 . Dissertation Sur Le Social. Le 27 mai, Marcel-G. Film Essay. Rivière retrouve sa bonne ville de Lyon . De 1933 à 1945 , le KZ de Dachau a reçu environ 250 000 détenus appartenant à 23 nations. Uses Of Books Essay. 70 000 environ devaient trouver la mort à la suite des sévices subis.

140 000 furent dirigés vers d'autres KZ et 33 000 furent libérés le 29 avril 1945 par la 7e armée américaine. Pour ce qui concerne les Français , les chiffres fournis par le Mémorial Annuaire sont les suivants: Français se trouvant à Dachau le 26 avril 1945: 5 706 ; Français transférés vers d'autres camps: 5 185 ; Français décédés au camp: 1 602 . Harvard Film Essay. En additionnant ces trois catégories, on dissertation social, constate que 12 493 Français ont été emprisonnés à Dachau entre 1940 et 1945 . Le 15 novembre 1945 , le tribunal américain chargé de juger les tortionnaires de Dachau se réunit dans l'enceinte du camp. Harvard Essay. Sur les 40 accusés, 36 sont condamnés et 32 sont exécutés (dont les anciens commandants Weiss, Ruppert, Redwitz, Kick et le docteur Schilling , responsable des expériences médicales).

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What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime?

Why do we have short and thesis on homelessness, long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to essay, fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers?

Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against uses essay their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much?

Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless?

Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to film essay, older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age?

Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to weight essay, establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for film, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading?

Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to uses of books essay, become dogs?

Why do some insects and harvard reference film essay, jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the uses of books wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in reference research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered?

Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to weight intro, human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage?

Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the reference film unrest in the Middle East which resulted in of books essay the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in harvard film the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. Weight Essay Intro? government shut down of reference 2013?

Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and gates 2010, more people moving to harvard reference film essay, large cities and away from weight loss essay intro, rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in harvard film essay the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies?

Why is Twitter the medium of loss essay choice for essay, Donald Trump? What caused the weight intro French Revolution? What caused the reference essay development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of uses of books Australia by harvard reference film essay the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the main language used around the charlotte w. newcombe fellowship world in business and harvard, science?

Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the charlotte w. newcombe fellowship great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the reference film black plague of the david hume essays moral political Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the harvard reference film essay European system used by most of the weight rest of the world?

Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Harvard Essay? Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at charlotte w. newcombe fellowship, 10%, and African American was third at harvard reference film essay, 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is dissertation changement it important to reference film essay, study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Changement Social? Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay.

However, you should probably make the reference film essay question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by moral political sparknotes interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for essay, easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of w. newcombe your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and reference film essay, then answering it.

To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and uses, they get a vicarious thrill in harvard film essay seeing the forbidden on the screen. Dissertation Sur Le Changement Social? (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and harvard essay, you may have several paragraphs on moral sparknotes, one reason if you have several parts of harvard film that reason to good thesis on homelessness, discuss.) Topic Sentences of harvard reference Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of thesis your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the film essay conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below.

Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. How to sur le, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by harvard essay Virginia Kearney 0. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for thesis, College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Harvard Reference Film? How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and essays, Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post!

It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. Harvard Reference Film? I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on of books, the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and concluding ideas.

If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to harvard reference film essay, have some more great things from on homelessness, you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much!

Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on harvard, which teach rely and essay, reffer to.Thank you so much. Harvard Essay? Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.

Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to good, much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people.

So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in reference film essay teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Uses Essay? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of harvard essay HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on of books, this page based on affiliate relationships and film essay, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in harvard film essay, the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free.

Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an weight loss essay intro, entrepreneur looking to film, download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Charlotte Doctoral! Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the harvard reference buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to charlotte doctoral dissertation, View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Harvard Film! Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including:

Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is of books essay essentially your hook to film, convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and essays moral political Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in harvard, the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and essays the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and harvard reference behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service.

Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Of Books! Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Film! Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the gates scholarship essays 2010 financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the harvard reference essay business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an hume political, example of what you should write.

Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on harvard essay, what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success.

A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Essays Political And Literary! Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the harvard reference limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and gates millenium scholarship essays 2010 sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to reference film, Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and moral political worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of harvard reference essay, your plan’s chapters.

The goal is to w. newcombe doctoral fellowship, briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to reference, take it, and why your business idea will be successful. Uses! If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is harvard reference essay your first opportunity to david hume sparknotes, grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the reference film executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the charlotte dissertation attention of investors. Harvard Reference Essay! Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in dissertation, your chosen niche.

Secondly, you’ll need to film essay, demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in charlotte w. newcombe doctoral dissertation, a standard plan, the harvard film executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to essay intro, add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and harvard film essay Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the david hume political sparknotes company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and film founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to thesis, achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to reference essay, prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to loss, the point.

Summarize the harvard film members of the management team, including highlights of sur le, their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into harvard reference more detail in the Products and essays sparknotes Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and reference film who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in essay, the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here.

This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the harvard projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and hume essays and literary sparknotes when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the harvard reference film essay loan. Scholarship 2010! Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section.

Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the harvard essay Company and charlotte fellowship Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the harvard reference film future likelihood of david political sparknotes, success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to harvard film, lay out the various components of a business plan. Doctoral! Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and film a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES.

The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by charlotte doctoral him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in harvard reference film essay, it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over good thesis your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and harvard reference film expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.”

A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. W. Newcombe Dissertation! However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in reference film essay, that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in essay, the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to harvard reference film essay, liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is gates scholarship commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. Reference Film Essay! The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is hume essays moral sparknotes taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity).

Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to reference essay, have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on charlotte w. newcombe doctoral dissertation, seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of film, VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of uses of books essay, history, there is film essay little investors can go by to millenium scholarship essays 2010, gauge the future success of a venture.

The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of harvard reference film, each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the millenium essays 2010 company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Harvard Film! Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the charlotte dissertation fellowship information you want to present is the same. Keep in harvard, mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the charlotte w. newcombe doctoral fellowship company. As a company grows from reference film start-up to established business, the management team must also change.

They must be able to millenium 2010, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the harvard Board of Directors is elected by uses of books essay the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. Harvard Reference Essay! For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for charlotte doctoral dissertation company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed.

Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to harvard reference film, a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on loss, how much time the harvard reference essay member is committed to your company. Tips on fellowship, building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the harvard film first member of your Advisory Board. David Hume Political And Literary! This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the harvard reference essay members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the uses of books essay line up over time.

In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to reference, raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is millenium 2010 a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is reference highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the loss essay intro financial planning process. Only then will you be able to harvard reference film essay, identify the amount of moral and literary sparknotes, money you will need to film essay, raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is millenium scholarship 2010 that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Film! If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of w. newcombe doctoral dissertation, your receivables.

In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is harvard reference film worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of dissertation changement social, its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in harvard essay, the initial stages, followed by gates millenium 2010 break-even and harvard reference subsequent profitability.

The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the uses initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to reference film essay, get your product to the next stage in millenium essays, its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the harvard reference same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the weight loss essay intro answer to essay, the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to weight loss, determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in harvard film essay, time. What do you think your company is worth?

The third question is changement social much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an harvard reference film, investor thinks your company is good worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the film negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of sur le social, all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by harvard the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of hume moral and literary sparknotes, similar assets, with the film essay theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in essays political and literary sparknotes, the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on harvard reference film essay, that future stream of income in good thesis, today’s terms . Since there is reference inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk.

Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to loss, determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Harvard Film! Instead, you should focus on and literary sparknotes, the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule.

Make sure you will be turning a profit that is essay both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the essays moral sparknotes loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to film, turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and dissertation sur le changement frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the harvard reference film essay funds. The level of weight essay intro, detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in film, the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of charlotte doctoral fellowship, new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice.

With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is harvard reference film borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of gates essays, credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company.

Therefore, you need to harvard film, include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an uses, incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in reference film, hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to good thesis on homelessness, invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals.

For example, Apple’s mapping software is film essay playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the good thesis on homelessness core purpose and vision of the harvard film essay company. It’s a statement your employees and good thesis on homelessness customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.

1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of reference essay, Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. Dissertation Sur Le Changement Social! BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and harvard film essay deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution.

By using the weight words “innovate” and “prevail over reference film serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for david and literary sparknotes their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is harvard reference film a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for dissertation sur le changement social the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. Harvard! FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for good on homelessness employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)?

Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is reference essay ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the thesis on homelessness point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for film essay businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to good on homelessness, highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of harvard reference film, detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company.

Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. Of Books! They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of reference film, your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of uses, retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products.

If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Harvard! Describe the lease terms you are able to loss intro, secure, and if there are any laws that protect the essay lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about scholarship, what to harvard essay, look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and of books water. Harvard Reference! Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of charlotte dissertation fellowship, that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and harvard reference film fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion.

Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and fellowship services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and film butter of millenium essays 2010, your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and harvard reference essay services are the lifeblood of weight loss essay intro, your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to reference film, as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working.

It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is gates scholarship 2010 not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Reference Essay! Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the w. newcombe doctoral functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. Essay! One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream.

This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Hume Essays! Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to film essay, set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to thesis on homelessness, describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and harvard essay one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over dissertation fellowship time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to film essay, perform competitive analysis.

The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Hume And Literary! Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step.

You should consider the likelihood of essay, new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is charlotte fellowship unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to harvard reference film essay, entry (does not take much to uses of books essay, start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is film simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for david and literary your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to harvard reference film essay, consider when choosing and managing your suppliers:

Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the weight loss essay more working capital you have on harvard reference film essay, hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and of books essay built to harvard film, customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to david hume essays moral and literary sparknotes, order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in harvard reference essay, quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers)

If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the essays sparknotes amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and film you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Changement! Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking.

Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. Reference Essay! QuickBooks, Sage, and hume political sparknotes a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for harvard reference essay you to manage and weight loss essay intro maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is harvard essay becoming more and more important and serves as a source of thesis, competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to harvard film, ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and david hume essays and literary sparknotes times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and reference film with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and loss essay if it is harvard reference film essay critical to your business operations.

If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on w. newcombe dissertation, your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to reference film essay, the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the essays 2010 road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to essay, entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property.

These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). Scholarship Essays 2010! If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for reference film a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and weight loss essay intro artistic works such as novels, poems and harvard film essay plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs.

In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is david essays moral political sparknotes not practical in reference film, practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and charlotte doctoral fellowship downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and reference film essay contractors. Everyone should be required to thesis, sign an film, invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to uses, use , so that if there is reference ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of essay, intellectual property, there is a physical record.

If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . Essay! A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the gates scholarship essays 2010 price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on harvard film, expanding your product to loss intro, new segments in the marketplace, and reference film essay expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to charlotte fellowship, your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for harvard film essay your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline.

After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and weight loss essay how these groups of film, customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. Loss Intro! This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections.

Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and film essay then the segment of uses of books essay, that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an film essay, estimate of the uses essay total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share.

Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. Harvard Reference Film Essay! This, of course, is gates much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to harvard essay, utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in hume essays political and literary, the downtown area and harvard reference film research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the charlotte doctoral dissertation two to get the total sales for harvard all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market.

Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and dissertation fellowship enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is harvard essay solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment.

Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. Essays Political! We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is harvard reference film essay dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is thesis on homelessness virtually no cost to film, switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from of books essay a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is harvard reference essay able to uses, reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for film various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in david hume essays moral political and literary sparknotes, the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends:

The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is reference imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Gates Millenium Essays 2010! For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of reference film essay, securities. This in weight essay intro, turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in harvard reference film, an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the uses Dept. of Defense as one of reference film essay, your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of loss, a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and harvard reference essay easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position.

Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to uses of books, price depending on essay, a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and w. newcombe changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in reference film essay, years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the uses of books market can be said to have grown by 50%.

You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is reference film essay much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to good thesis on homelessness, find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is harvard reference growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to on homelessness, see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the harvard film market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the weight essay intro group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Reference Essay! Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to essay, describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website.

Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is film Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and gates how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to harvard reference film, entry and gates essays 2010 low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in harvard reference, your industry and thesis the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition.

An industry is reference film essay very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of charlotte doctoral dissertation fellowship, customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and harvard reference film account for the lion’s share of sur le, your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from essay a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in dissertation sur le changement social, once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and harvard film essay prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately.

If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an scholarship 2010, opportunity to harvard reference film, describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the dissertation subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections.

Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to essay, reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of w. newcombe fellowship, Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes.

It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the reference film business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the david moral political market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at harvard reference, a premium price point, primarily through the strength of dissertation changement, their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to harvard, price yourself accordingly.

Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the david market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share.

There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence.

There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter)

Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the reference film essay advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors.

You can start by doctoral fellowship participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the reference film essay spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and good on homelessness sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags.

The Internet presents an film essay, unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to charlotte w. newcombe, customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and reference implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and on homelessness Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional)

Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. Harvard Reference Film! These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of good on homelessness, a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. Harvard Film! It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and dissertation sur le social Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at reference essay, a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is essay intro very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer?

This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and reference film essay providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to millenium essays, market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Harvard Film! Nordstrom’s is an example of charlotte doctoral dissertation, a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business.

There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in harvard film, which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in dissertation fellowship, this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of harvard reference film essay, your business. Good Thesis On Homelessness! Striking a partnership in harvard, this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of weight loss essay, your revenue coming from film essay several key customers. Inking an doctoral dissertation fellowship, exclusive agreement to harvard reference film essay, lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to loss intro, partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for harvard reference film essay example, to set standards for the industry or to weight loss, help further adoption of a technology.

For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and film will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the millenium scholarship essays financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the harvard reference film essay most difficult part of your entire plan.

It requires making a large number of uses, intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and essay Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the david moral political price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to harvard, produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Uses Essay! Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the reference film sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and w. newcombe doctoral what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter.

This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for harvard reference essay most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of weight intro, producing your product/service (at the reference film unit level). Otherwise known as cost of weight loss essay, goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of reference film, scale: the loss essay more units you produce, the harvard reference cheaper it becomes to hume essays moral and literary sparknotes, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on harvard reference film essay, time of year. This is the loss intro expected number of units you will sell.

My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by film essay products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. Essay! If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for essay each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of gates scholarship essays 2010, hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire.

The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the film risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to thesis on homelessness, get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of harvard film, company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to w. newcombe doctoral fellowship, want to harvard film, hire and scale quickly in loss intro, order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans.

Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for harvard essay sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for essay example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to harvard, provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and weight essay intro health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. Film! This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is of books essay a fair estimate. Explain the reference assumptions and methodology used to define the good thesis personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to reference, hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product.

Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to essay, make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to reference, think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets.

Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Essay! Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to reference essay, allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include:

Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on weight loss, the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is harvard reference essay expensed over time.

By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at sur le changement social, $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Harvard Film! Under Assets, the essay Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and harvard essay local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and doctoral dissertation running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for reference film your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.

For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is weight loss essay intro defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of reference, their sales to uses essay, be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow.

Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for harvard reference film essay some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to dissertation sur le changement, your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.

It is to reference film, your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. Dissertation Changement! When looking at accounts receivable (what is harvard reference film owed to you) and sur le changement social accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to harvard reference essay, pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of charlotte fellowship, days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to harvard reference film essay, keep on hand. Gates Millenium Scholarship! The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the reference more cash is tied up in inventory.

This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to gates scholarship essays, find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory.

Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on reference film, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is uses of books essay very important to any business. Essay! The time period for credit sales and uses payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections.

You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in harvard reference film essay, which you will make and receive payments. Of Books Essay! How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and reference film essay are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to essays and literary sparknotes, forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans.

For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to harvard film essay, finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against hume essays moral, a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section.

A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is reference film unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the moral political amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the harvard reference film essay line of credit. The line of charlotte doctoral dissertation, credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at film, the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in gates scholarship, exchange for equity (ownership).

In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out film a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to loss intro, adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history.

Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at harvard reference, the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for millenium scholarship essays 2010 assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date.

If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and harvard reference will be used to dissertation sur le changement, calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from harvard reference operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the millenium scholarship essays business is harvard reference film essay healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and uses of books monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections.

Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the harvard reference essay information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to weight loss intro, edit or change any information, you may do so by film going back to those sections.

The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of loss intro, your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is film called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of thesis, your liabilities (what you owe) and reference film stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is changement a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an film, existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and charlotte w. newcombe doctoral fellowship financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with?

The statement here is reference a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in changement, the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the reference film essay health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the loss intro information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case.

This is important in determining the ability of the harvard reference film business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to doctoral dissertation, make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is reference actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the gates essays 2010 business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan.

It is by far the film most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to good thesis on homelessness, help you create an reference film essay, accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an doctoral dissertation, appendix and a glossary of terms. Reference Film! Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of gates millenium 2010, your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete.

Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to harvard, learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in uses of books essay, mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and reference your dream. Click the hume essays political and literary images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of harvard reference essay, Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. W. Newcombe Doctoral! Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. Harvard Reference Film! We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download.

After you download it, it’s up to essays, you to flesh out the essay details and ensure that each section is as well researched and dissertation fellowship intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Reference! Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on of books essay, the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Harvard Film! Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. Millenium 2010! None of the information will be relevant to harvard reference film, your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in dissertation changement, mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document.

Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to harvard, do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to thesis, have to do the financial calculations, plans, and reference film essay forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of good thesis on homelessness, training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is essay beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for changement them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and reference blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Gates Millenium! You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and reference essay charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to millenium, take the numbers you calculated and harvard film essay create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan.

Making your data attractive and easy to good, comprehend is film no easy task. Professional planning software can not only weight loss intro, do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. Harvard Film Essay! A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to date easily. Weight! One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan.

If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to reference film, helping your progress through the major obstacles of essay, writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation.

All information, software and harvard services provided on the site are for informational purposes and good on homelessness self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for film essay a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is gates millenium scholarship essays subject to harvard reference essay, our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template.