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age essay old All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and cheap custom uk, efficient ways to essay on a christmas make payment online. Many people perceive old age as time for resting, reflecting and an opportunity to perform activities that beyond pursuing during their career period. The condition does not guarantee healthy living and is not always peaceful (Miller, 2009). Old age is defined as the age of an individual approaching or beyond the average lifespan of humans. The elderly are known differently depending on custom essays the situation. For example in 4 essays United States, they are referred to as seniors, in British they are known as elderly or senior citizens (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Cheap? The general illnesses and health irritations of this condition requires proper management to prolong life and postpone death of the elderly. Proper management of the condition involves considering psychological needs to avoid old age depression.
In addition, mental health is vital in the management of the condition. In relation to essay this, the study discusses old age depression in the aging process of the elderly. Aging and depression. Cheap Custom Uk? Observably, people face changes such as death of hamlet loved ones, retirement, increased segregation or medical problems they approach old age. These challenges cause late-life depression, a condition that if left untreated it can touches more beyond an individual’s mood (Godfrey Denby, 2004). Depression has various effects on the elderly, which includes deterioration in physical and mental health, memory and concentration impairment and deter the old from enjoying life.
Depression can be avoided and is not inherent in old age. Researchers claim that it is a treatable condition no matter the age of the affected. Psychologically, human brain transforms throughout life hence it is cheap custom essays, possible to make positive changes (Thomas, 2009). Old age depression causes the elderly to lose interest in various activities, to struggle with feelings of hopelessness and helplessness (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Old age depression makes the elderly find it difficult to utilize the day effectively in production. Depression’s symptoms influence each aspect of life such as individual’s energy, appetite, interest in work, sleep, relationships and hobbies. Majorities of the elderly do not notice depression symptoms despite being affected by the condition. As a result, they do not seek psychological or medical attention to manage the situation (Wattis Curran, 2006). Various reasons elucidate on why old age depression is normally ignored.
The first reason is that the case ethics with solutions elderly convince themselves for having reasons to justify the essays condition. Majority of the elderly will suffer silently because they think depression is inherent in old age (Godfrey Denby, 2004). The second reason is that the elderly are exposed to being isolated which triggers psychological process that eventually yield depression. Providing company to the seniors is particularly crucial in averting depression. Hamlet? Another reason is uk, that the 4 essays of rizal old rarely recognize that some physical illnesses are clear indications of depression. Realistically, the elderly normally feel unenthusiastic to discuss feelings or ask for assistance, which results to depression. The reason being the cheap essays uk fear of being rejected or rushing to the conclusion that they are affected by old age. Depression should not be depicted as an indication for weakness or character blemish (Godfrey Denby, 2004). The condition can affect any individual irrespective of the background or prior achievements in life. The elderly should know that physical illnesses, losses and effects of aging should not pin them down and and othello, subject them to living miserable lives. Old age depression is treatable through right support, self-help policies and proper management.
This implies that it is possible for the elderly to have a vibrant life. Major causes of old age depression include health problems, loneliness, reduced sense of purpose and cheap essays, recent bereavement. Health problems such as chronic or sever physical pains, cognitive deteriorations and physical damage to body image because of surgeries or diseases. Loneliness results from the declining social circle experienced by the elderly because of deaths or relocation. The elderly have restricted mobility, which hinders their social ability (Godfrey Denby, 2004). Reduced sense of purpose is caused by loss of identity because of retirement.
The fear of death, financial problems and anxiety are other causative factors of depression. Recent bereavement normally arises from recent deaths of family members, friends and spouse partners. According to on law and justice Thomas (2009), physical illnesses among the cheap custom uk old tend to aggravate the risk of depression. Of Rizal? Depression symptoms such as dementia can also occur as a psychological reaction to illnesses. Essentially, having the knowledge regarding medical problems inherent in depression among the uk elderly is vital in managing the condition. Any chronic illness, no matter the severity, can cause old age depression or worsen depression (Reynolds and essay on law and justice, Dew, 67). Some of the chronic medical conditions include Parkinson’s disease, stroke, thyroid disorders, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis.
Depressed seniors are more likely to engage in alcoholism than those who are not depressed. Depression tempts many elderly to use alcohol as a remedy to physical and emotional pains. Alcohol tends to divert the mind from the problem faced by the elderly and reduces loneliness. Some seniors use alcohol to cheap uk fight sleep disorders, which are symptoms of depression. The limitation of alcohol is reflective essay english subject, that it has short-term solution depression-based problems.
It can be perceived to be postponing problems, which resurface over uk time. Alcohol also worsens symptoms of depression, causes irritability and on high school, anxiety and damages brain functionality (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Another effect of alcohol is that it negatively reacts with antidepressants, which are essential in the medication of depression. Symptoms of depression vary from individuals with sadness and those without. The elderly people experiencing sadness show signs such as fatigue, loss of interest, self-isolation, sleep disturbances, low self-esteem and cheap, suicidal imaginations. With? The elderly who are free from cheap custom uk, happiness show symptoms such as hopelessness, apprehension, memory problems, irritability, slow speech and neglect of personal care (Miller, 2009). And Othello? Preventing old age depression. It is quite a mystery to know that old age makes an custom essays, individual unable learn a new skill and participate in life-changing activities. However, the brain’s functionality is a continuous process and changes every time (Godfrey Denby, 2004).
This reflects that the elderly have abilities similar to the young. Essay And Justice? Prevention and cheap custom essays, management of depression requires engaging in things that the patient enjoys, learning and acclimatizing to the environmental changes and essay about subject, living a physically and socially active life. Some forms of overcoming the cheap custom condition include exercising, connecting with people, bringing one’s life into balance and essay english subject, other self-help activities such as getting adequate sleep and proper dietary habits (Miller, 2009). Exercises as physical activity are potential for boosting the custom essays uk moods that result from depression. Some studies acknowledge that it is of rizal, as effective as antidepressants in overcoming depression. Exercises have one significant advantage compared to medication of depression. It does not expose the cheap custom essays elderly to and othello side effects when overcoming depression.
Helpful exercising tips might include parking cars away from stores, using the stairs and uk, taking a short walk. Connecting with others is extremely vital in widening the social circle. The social circle is much responsible for providing psychological support, which keeps depression away (Godfrey Denby, 2004). It is extremely difficult to overcome and maintain efforts in preventing depression individually. Reflective About? Social support is beneficial since it reduces chances of giving up with treatment and reduces time spent alone. To speed up the process of managing depression, the cheap essays uk elderly should invite relatives to live with them and maintain contact with loved ones (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Depression and the aging process. Researchers have justified the effects of depression on the aging process of the 5 paragraph essay carol human body.
According to some research, the frequent headaches, spasms, muscle pain, chest palpitations, emotional and cognitive indications contribute to the aging process (Thomas, 2009). Another recent study affirmed that the unnoticeable impacts of depression destroy the cellular structure of the custom human body, which may hasten aging process (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Researchers have also investigated how the condition reduces the length of telomere. Telomeres are the shielding caps at the endings of chromosomes. They are a revelation of aging when they certainly reduce in length over time. One typical characteristic of telomeres is that it is disposed to depression or stress. This implies that premature shortening of telomere indicate the commencement of the aging process (Godfrey Denby, 2004). Hamlet And Othello Essay? Depression and stress affect the normal functioning of the custom hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, also referred to as HPA axis (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). The HPA axis regulates how people respond to stress and depression. Study On Business? HPA regulates the response by controlling cortisol, which is the principal stress hormone.
The affected functionality of the cheap custom essays HPA axis results to extreme depression, which leads to 4 essays the shortening of the cheap custom telomeres. The resultant effect is the speeding up of the aging process. The elderly who are depressed experience shortening of about english telomere, which further aggravates aging that might eventually cause death (Miller, 2009). Depression and dying. Depression can be linked to death in various ways. For example, it can be a cause of death or resulting from bereavement (Wattis Curran, 2006). Among the elder extreme situation can influence suicidal thoughts because of its life threatening capability.
This is because it can result to development of diabetes type 2 and cheap custom uk, cardiovascular disease among the old. Additionally, the challenges encountered by the seniors as old age approaches are likely to influence suicidal choices (Miller, 2009). Researchers affirm that depression the substantial contributive factor to old age death. On High Dropouts? Notably, the consequences of uk depression are the causalities of death. This implies proper management of the depression symptoms will lead to a reduction in of rizal deaths that are linked to depression. Various age related issues like sleep problems, possession of firearms and essays uk, weapons that can cause death, inadequate social support, decline health standards and 5 paragraph on a, complicated life changes substantially contribute to high rates of suicidal deaths among the custom uk aged. Some theorist concluded that poor sleep quality cause old age death. The causality of poor sleeping habits is attributed to depression hence the depressed and aged are vulnerable to having poor sleeping pattern which might increase the 4 essays of rizal risks of death (Godfrey Denby, 2004). Cheap Custom Essays Uk? The elderly in possession of firearms and weapons that are life threatening are more exposed to depression-related deaths. It has been proven that firearms are the preferred method of committing suicide among the depressed who are aged.
Apparently, possessing a firearm increases the risks of suicide to anyone, not just the on a carol old. Inadequate social support among the aged who are depressed can cause suicide. The reduced sociability among the aged has an impact on social support needed to prolong their lives. Cheap? The young who are expected to provide social support are normally not available because of the change in lifestyle (Miller, 2009). As a result, the aged are left alone in rural areas where they experience high rates of essay and justice isolation and loneliness. Extreme rates of custom uk isolation and loneliness can affect negatively on the mental health of the aged. Essay? Thoughts of suicides are the cheap essays uk consequences of loneliness and the helpless state they are in when in reflective essay about subject the rural areas. Cheap Custom Uk? Deteriorating health condition such as infestation of old age-related illnesses such as Parkinson’s, stroke and heart diseases can cause the elderly to think about committing suicide.
The elder experiencing declining health conditions are at 4 essays of rizal a higher risk of suicide than those who have not been diagnosed with serious illnesses (Miller, 2009). Thoughts of death are frightening and seem to be a mystery among many people. Getting aware of the type of death one is likely die during old age is much worse and causes depression. Additionally radical life changes such as retirement or the decease of a loved one causes depression which increases the risk of committing suicide. Performing psychotherapy is highly essential in preventing old age suicides related to depression (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). The elderly have the opportunity meeting and freely interacting with trained health experts to deal with depression, suicidal thoughts and other health problems. Research reveals that different types of psychotherapy work effectively in managing old age depression. Moreover, the healthy and depression-free elders benefit most from psychotherapy than the already depressed. Combining psychotherapy and cheap essays uk, antidepressants can reduce development of suicidal thoughts among the elderly.
Some study conducted affirmed that approximately 80 percent of the 4 essays of rizal elderly suffering from depression has restored their normal mental state from the combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy. However, the elderly who are suffering from essays, depression and experiencing suicidal thoughts for the first time should seek medical attention from a doctor before the 5 paragraph essay christmas carol symptoms disappear. Custom Essays? Bereavement refers to all feelings, thoughts and and justice, behaviours undergone by people experiencing sorrow because of death (Godfrey Denby, 2004). The term is used interchangeably with grief describes the event of losing something such as job, loved ones and other noteworthy things that can result to changes in the mental state. The elderly also experience bereavement and grief during the aging process, which is likely to cause depression and eventually hasten their death. The elderly require strong and caring social association with other people for emotional support (Cole Dendukuri, 2003). Death can cause the essays association or relationship to the elderly to break, which fatally affects their emotions. In conclusion, old age depression might be caused by death of loved ones, retirement, increased segregation or medical problems. The various effects late-life depression includes deterioration in physical and mental health, memory and concentration impairment.
Depression’s symptoms influence each aspect of life such as individual’s energy, appetite, interest in work, sleep, relationships and hobbies. Old age depression is treatable through right support, self-help policies and reflective essay, proper management. Exercises as physical activity are vital for boosting the moods that result from depression. The social circle is cheap, much responsible for providing psychological support, which keeps depression away. Different age-related issues like sleep problems, possession of on high dropouts firearms and essays, weapons that can cause death, inadequate social support, decline health standards and serious life changes substantially contribute to high rates of suicidal deaths among the aged.
Cole, M., Dendukuri, N. (2003). Christmas Carol? Risk Factors for cheap custom uk, Depression Among Elderly Community Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The American journal of psychiatry , 78-89. Godfrey, M., Denby, T. (2004). Depression and older people: towards securing well-being in later life. New York: The Policy Press . Miller, C. (2009).
Nursing for wellness in older adults. New York: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Reynolds, C., Dew, M. (2006). Maintenance Treatment of Major Depression in Old Age. The New Journal of England , 78-85. Thomas, J. (2009). Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies.
New York: Springer. Wattis, J., Curran, S. (2006). Practical psychiatry of old age. New York: Radcliffe Publishing .
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Essay: A Summary of Research Involving Bioluminogenic Probes in Bioluminescence. The medical industry is constantly looking for ways to improve healthcare for the general population. One important facet of the healthcare industry is imaging. Being able to see inside the body and to essays uk more fully understand what is happening inside the body is one of the most reliable ways to determine a method of treatment for a patient. X-rays and other radiological methods are commonly used today to obtain images of the body, but these don’t often allow for understanding to be reached of chemical or other specific pathological processes. That is where the idea of bioluminescence comes in. On Business Ethics Solutions! According to Urano et. al.1, bioluminescence is a powerful tool that can be used to study complex chemical and pathological processes in the body, and uk, one of its advantages is that it doesn’t require outside lighting in order to achieve luminescence like fluorescence does. Using bioluminescence, a chemical signal can be stimulated deep inside the body and can be detected with minimal interference from the surrounding tissue. The biggest problem that scientists are facing today with implementing bioluminescent probes is the school dropouts, limitation of uk, current design strategies to deliver the bioluminescent material to the desired area of the body. On Law And Justice! Yasuteru Urano et. Custom Essays Uk! al. came up with a new idea to help solve this problem and potentially provide a wide range of useful bioluminogenic probes. In Yasuteru Urano’s experiment they proposed the idea of controlling the bioluminogenic substance aminoluciferin (AL) by using a moiety of a benzene which could transfer electrons to excite the luminophore.
This is case on business with done by a process they call bioluminescent enzyme-induced electron transfer, or BioLeT. Their goal experimentally was to investigate how electron transport affects the luminophore and therefore control the luminescence of the molecule. This concept can be observed in figure 1. As molecules are excited chemically, an electron is transferred from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). When this happens in a fluorophore or luminophore, an electron from the custom, respective group jumps up to the LUMO and en electron from the essay, benzene moiety drops down to fill its spot, releasing energy in the form of cheap uk, light. This idea to use luminophore comes from the process by which other fluorescent methods operate, namely Photo-induced electron transfer, as can be observed in figure 1-A. The BioLeT mechanism is similar, the only difference being the use of Luciferase in the place of outside light. As can be observed in figure 1-B, 2 substrates were prepared, substrate 2 being the urethane derivative of substrate 1. They then reacted aminoluciferin with photinus pyralis and found that even though substrate 2 has a bulkier group on the benzene moiety, substrate 2 showed a luminescence 70 times greater than substrate 1 even though substrate 1 was completely consumed. They concluded that even though substrate 1 reacted with luciferase, luminescence was not emitted in the process possibly because the essay, reaction took place faster than the luminescence process. Yasuteru’s team decided to call this process bioluminescent enzyme-induced electron transfer (BioLeT). Yasuteru Urano’s team next had the task to establish the cheap essays, feasibility and actual existence of this phenomenon. Hamlet Essay! This had to be accomplished in order for a reliable approach could be made to cheap custom essays uk develop probes that act by the process of BioLeT instead of traditional fluorophores.
To accomplish this they prepared a series of aminoluciferin derivatives containing different benzene moieties with different HOMO energy levels. Thesis Dropouts! They examined the difference between luminescence activity and the energy level in each HOMO (see figure 2). They found that the energy level of the cheap custom essays uk, HOMO on each benzene moiety played a large role in the luminescent activity of each molecule. As the 5 paragraph essay christmas carol, energy level of the HOMO increased, luminescent activity decreased, some of custom, which were nearly non-luminescent at energy levels -5eV and above. Of Rizal! This procedure validated the existence of cheap essays uk, BioLeT. Of Rizal! In order to prove that the BioLeT principle is useful for designing bioluminescent probes, Dr. Cheap Custom! Urano and his team developed their own probe using BioLeT luminescence as the subject, mechanism in their molecule. They decided to use NO as their target molecule because diaminobenzene groups react with NO in a way that creates a substantial change in HOMO energy levels. They named their molecule diamino-phelylpropyl-aminoleuciferin (DAL) and its structure and reaction mechanism with NO can be observed in figure 3. Custom Essays! They measured the HOMO energy levels of on law, both DAL and its reaction product, DAL-T, to custom essays be -4.68eV and -6.22eV respectively. They predicted that the product would be sufficiently different in the HOMO energy level to produce a sufficiently different intensity in luminescence.
The results were as expected, showing that DAL-T produced fluorescence that was greater than DAL by 41 times as can be observed in figure 3. Study On Business With! These results support the idea that the cheap essays, excited state regulated by BioLeT is essay subject occurring in DAL and DAL-T and that luminescence by DAL is quenched by the luminophore, again supporting the custom, operation of BioLeT. Dr. Urano later experimented with the detection of essay, NO in vitro using DAL which found a great increase of luminescence when addition of a solution containing NO or NOC7 was added, as can again be observed in figure 3-B. They found that DAL was converted to uk DAL-T as the product, as expected. DAL is selective only for NO, not reacting with other species to produce DAL-T and by 5 paragraph essay christmas carol extension luminescence.
The amount of NOC7 was correlated with luminescent activity and was graphed, as can be observed in figure 3-C. They conducted this experiment with rats, first injecting a rat with DAL and later with NOC7 into the rat’s peritoneal cavity. Images of the rats were taken 40 minutes after the injection with NOC7 and the luminescence intensity was quantified. Cheap Essays! The results of this experiment can be seen in figure 4. In these rats, DAL was distributed throughout the entire body, and thus could effectively monitor NO levels throughout the whole body. This experiment illustrates the application of DAL in vivo, and further illustrates the possibility of 5 paragraph essay christmas, creating bioluminescent probes using the essays uk, BioLeT process. The bioluminescent signal can be detected very accurately, even through tissue and hair. Hamlet Essay! This ability provides greater reliability over fluorescence probes for custom uk, in vivo imaging. In this article, Dr.
Urano demonstrates the possibility of using a new method for monitoring various biological chemicals in vivo. Just as fluorescent probes have been designed using their PeT properties to gather information in vivo, bioluminescent probes can be engineered using their BioLeT properties to do the same in an even more accurate and sensitive manner. The Work of carol, Yasuteru Urano. Urano’s area of research centers heavily in biochemical science, especially in pharmacology, biomolecular chemistry and custom essays, applied chemistry. He has largely spent his academic and professional life at the University of Tokyo where he conducted his undergraduate and graduate studies. He obtained his Ph.D. there in study ethics 1995 in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Studies. He then served as a post-doc fellow there from 1995-1997 under Professor Tetsuo Nagano. He then served as Assistant Professor from 1997-2005 and then Associate Professor from 2005-2009 in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Studies. During much of that time, from 2004-2008 he served under an additional research post at the school. He now serves as a Professor in the Graduate School of cheap custom essays uk, Medicine and also in english subject the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Tokyo. One of Dr.
Urano’s earliest articles was published in essays uk 1996, soon after his undergraduate studies were finished. This article emphasizes the role O-dealkylation mechanisms play in 5 paragraph essay on a christmas carol an oxidizing system depending on the different substrates available. They found that the oxidation determinant was if the substrate had a phenolic hydroxyl group at the ortho- or para- position relative to the alkoxy group in cytochrome P 450-dependent monooxygenases.2 Dr. Urano was interested in essays uk biological function early on in his career as a scientist. Dr. Urano published another article in christmas 1998 along with several other authors from the cheap, University of Tokyo that was of significance3. It currently has 140 citations. This article outlined an experiment they conducted where they examined the role that nitric oxide plays on the brain. In this experiment they used a fluorescent indicator to directly detect the presence of nitric oxide in of rizal samples of rat brain.
The samples were from cheap custom essays both acute cases and on law and justice, normal. They found that in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the acute rat brain sample showed fluorescence. This was later confirmed by cheap cell culture from the hippocampus. This was a significant finding because nitric oxide production has never been found in that area of the brain before. Study On Business With! This experiment also proved the usefulness of using fluorescence in biological assays because of its sensitivity and real-time ability to provide feedback. Another article published in the year 1999 improved upon the significance of the previously mentioned one, with 264 citations4. This article continues on the trend that Dr. Urano has developed in custom uk fluorescence over the years. In this report they outline how they developed and can use a fluorescent indicator for NO. This indicator is called diaminofluoresceins (DAF5).
These DAF’s react with a NO+ equivalent such as N2O3 formed by oxidation of NO. When they react they produce a highly fluorescent compound called triazolofluoresceins through nitrosation and dehydration mechanisms. If NO is not present these DAF’s will not react, making them useful for detection of NO produced by cells in vivo. One issue they ran into was the problem of statement on high school dropouts, pH, fluorescent ability is sensitive to changes in pH and the intensity will drop if the pH fluctuates too much. One additional benefit of this technique, however, is that it does not interfere with signal transduction inside a cell. In an article published in 2000, Dr. Urano helped to develop a biological fluorescent probe that reacts with zinc and cheap custom uk, improves upon the properties off 6-hydroxy-9-phenylfluorone5. Zinc plays an important role in the body. On Law! It is an important component of many protein structures, it plays a role in nerve signaling and plays a role in the controlled death of cells.
Even though it is known that zinc plays an important role in the cell, not much is known about the regulation of zinc in a cell, as opposed to calcium, sodium or potassium where much is known. Because of these findings, Dr. Yasuteru and others sought to develop a way to cheap custom essays monitor zinc levels in the body in hamlet order to observe and learn more about this important element of cellular function. They also made improvements on their previously formed fluorescent sensor molecules in cheap custom uk order to improve results. They found that the previous molecules had a slow complex formation rate as well as a small yield, so they decided to utilize fluorescein’s high-yield and created molecules they called ZnAF-1 and 4 essays of rizal, ZnAF-2. The structure of cheap custom uk, ZnAF-1 and ZnAF-2 can be observed in figure 5. They found that when not in the presence of Zn2+ there was little to no fluorescent activity, but when Zn2+ was introduced the fluorescent activity increased by ethics solutions 17-fold. The increase in fluorescent activity can be observed in figure 6. In 2001 Dr.
Urano and others conducted an in-depth study on fluorescein and custom uk, its chemical properties6. They concluded that the fluorescent properties of fluorescein come from the essay, benzoic acid moiety to cheap custom essays uk the xanthene ring and are controlled by a photoinduced electron transfer process. They measured the threshold to be around -8.9 eV, which basically serves as the on/off switch for the molecule as far as fluorescence is concerned. Using this information, they designed a probe using 9-[2-(3-carboxy-9,10-dimethyl)anthryl]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (DMAX) to detect oxygen. 5 Paragraph Essay On A Christmas! They have confirmed that this molecule serves as the most sensitive currently known for custom uk, O2.
The 9,10-dimethylanthracene moiety serves as a trap for oxygen that acts very rapidly. As expected, DMAX by itself is barely fluorescent at all, but when it is paired with oxygen its fluorescence gains much greater intensity. DMAX could possibly be a great fluorescent probe for oxygen in biological systems. The mechanism through which fluorescein works is shown in figure 7. The chemical structure of fluorescein can be observed in figure 8. In 2001 Dr. Urano and on business ethics, others synthesized fluorescent probes sensitive to anions7. At the cheap, time the only anion probes that were known only statement on high school dropouts functioned in uk organic solvents. In order to be able to have an application in a biological setting, the anion probe would have to essay english subject function under biological conditions including functionality in water at a neutral pH. In this report they introduce a fluorescent probe that is sensitive to anions and functions under biological conditions. The sensor molecule they designed is called 1-Cd111 with the fluorescent portion being made up of custom, 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. They found that ATP and ADP showed strong signals when they tested biological anions, but cAMP produced little response.
The mechanism for this reaction can be observed in figure 9. The introduction of an anion produces enough of an excitation to the molecule to cause it to fluoresce and emit light. This experiment provides great potential for biological imaging because anions play large roles in living organisms. Having the ability to monitor anion activity in real time in a biological setting can produce some very valuable biological and analytical appllications. In 2004 Dr. English Subject! Urano and others experimented more with NO8. This article currently has over 360 citing references. Essays! NO is an important messenger molecule both inside and outside of cells. Unfortunately, it is released in very small amounts and it is very reactive with certain molecules, especially thiols.
These facts have made it difficult to measure NO accurately in case study solutions vivo with the tools currently available today. Even fluorescein moieties have been lacking enough sensitivity to essays actively measure NO. In this report, a molecule called boron dipyrromethene is used and compared with fluorescein as a fluorescent probe for NO. The molecule they developed based off of boron dipyrromethene is called DAMBO-PH, short for 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-2,6-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, which they found to be a highly sensitive probe for NO. It initially has a very low fluorescence measurement, but when exposed to NO it fluoresced strongly due to and othello essay a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism. The development of this molecule was significant because they had to do some fine tuning of the molecule in order for it to function well independent of cheap custom essays uk, pH and to and othello avoid probe stacking. It was found that DAMBO was more specific to react only with NO and had higher reactivity at the same time. Dr. Essays Uk! Urano conducted even more research regarding NO. One notable article of his from November 2004 was again about improving upon the imaging techniques used to monitor NO activity. The techniques that have been discussed thus far regarding NO activity monitoring are limited by the fact that fluorescent probes emit a wavelength of light in of rizal the visible spectrum.
This area of cheap custom essays, wavelengths is 4 essays of rizal absorbed readily by body tissues and prevents observation in deeper tissues because the light is custom essays absorbed too quickly by tissue. Fluorescent probes that emit light in the near-infrared on reflective essay english subject, wavelength spectrum9 would be much more useful in this regard, and essays, so Dr. Urano developed fluorescent probes that are highly reactive to NO and emit light in the IR spectrum of light. He created the probes with two parts. The first is tricarbocyanine, an IR emitting fluorophore, and o-phenylenediamine as the essay on a, NO reactive portion. They called the chemical group diaminocyanines (DAC’s) which are classified into two types: DAC-P’s which are DAC’s with two propyl groups attached to allow the DAC through a cell membrane easily and DAC-S’s with sulfonate groups to make them highly soluble in water. The chemical scheme of these molecules is shown in figure 10. The absorbance spectra and emittance spectra of custom essays, DAC-S is shown in figure 11 with the presence of case with, varying amounts of NO. These spectra findings indicate that the photo-induced electron transfer process is regulated successfully in these molecules to produce light in the IR spectrum. This finding is cheap significant because at that time only one other probe was reported to produce IR wavelengths through regulation by photo-induced electron transfer. The ability of DAC to produce IR wavelengths has been observed to case ethics with solutions produce clearer results because of less interference from light absorbance in surrounding tissue.
Figure 12 shows the results of administration of cheap, NOC13 in the presence of DAC-P in on a christmas a rat kidney. The administration was given at increasing concentrations in order to allow for good comparison of fluorescence between doses. This new technique can allow for many future applications, especially accurate fluorescent imaging in deep tissues using infrared wavelengths. More research on fluorescein and developments on custom uk, creating finely tunable fluorescent probes10 was shown in an article published in October 2004 by Dr. Urano. In this article he shows how he isn’t afraid to think outside the box and challenge other people’s ideas.
Up until this point it was basically understood that the 4 essays of rizal, carboxyl group of fluorescein was indispensable to the function of the molecule, so nobody really messed with it. This was a mistake, however, because fluorescent probes have to be modified to fit different substrates in essays order to observe specific chemical activities in the body. Being able to modify the reflective about, fluorescein molecule to fit your need was essential in order to cheap essays uk achieve the desired goal. This is the main reason fluorescein was limited, because of the lack of design strategies to fit the hamlet essay, variety of needs. In this article, Dr. Urano breaks through the traditional form of fluorescein to achieve a new approach to fluorescein probes based on a photochemical basis. He shows that it is cheap custom possible to replace the carboxyl group with a different substituent and still have a functional fluorescent probe. He illustrates the feasibility of this idea by using this method to create a probe that is sensitive to beta-galactosidase which is the thesis statement on high dropouts, most widely used reporter enzyme. Custom! As can be observed in 4 essays of rizal figure 13, he first replaced the carboxyl group with a methyl group and fluorescence was still achieved. The same principle works with other substituents placed on the top benzene group, which adds much greater flexibility to future fluorescein moieties. In an article published in cheap custom December of 200611 Dr.
Urano discusses further the greater options that become available when the carboxyl group is replaced on essay, the benzene moiety of fluorescene. In this article he talks about a different molecule called tetramethylrhodamine. Custom Uk! This molecule has good potential for use as a fluorescent probe because of its resistance to pH, its excellent photochemical properties and longer excitation time and wavelengths. Thus far it has been used very little, perhaps because of hamlet essay, difficulty in modifying it to a useful probe. Here he applies the same principle he used before and synthesized a new derivative called hydroxymethyltetramethylrhodamine (HMTMR). Uk! They found that HMTMR displayed a large amount of absorbance and fluorescence in protic solvents but little in on law and justice aprotic or basic solvents. This led them to discover the thiol analogue (HySOx) which is less dependent on pH and cheap custom, functions similarly.
It was found that HySOx was sensitive to HOCl, a chemical generated inside phagosomes just after phagocytosis is completed. They then applied HySOx to help visualize phagocytosis of pathogens. English! As can be observed in figure 14, the activation of these phagosomes could be observed visually as the HOCl contained in the phagosomes reacts with HySOx and causes excitation and luminescence. They found that these probes can be useful to observe real-time phagocytosis in vivo. As was mentioned earlier, fluorescent dyes that can produce wavelengths near-infrared frequency are desirable because of their attributes of being less absorbed by surrounding tissues and low background autofluorescence. These properties make imaging much clearer and more accurate. These dyes have been utilized to diagnose various different diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.
The problem that is essays being faced with these probes is that most of them don’t function well in aqueous media because the molecules stack on each other and prevent efficient emission of luminescence. In 2012 Dr. Urano reported on the development of fluorescent dyes that are excitable in near-infrared wavelengths based on the rhodamine scaffold that was discovered in the previous mentioned experiment12. They used a strategy of lengthening the rhodamine ring to adjust the wavelength emitted by the molecule when it became excited and were able to hamlet and othello create several different rhodamine-based molecules that emitted near-infrared wavelengths, were efficient in aqueous media, and cheap custom essays uk, had good photostability. Case On Business With Solutions! They then took one of the essays, molecules they developed named SiR-700 and labeled it with an antibody to a glycoprotein known to be specific for malignant gliomas called tanascin-C (TN-C). They then injected the and othello essay, compound into a mouse prepared with human malignant meningioma cells.
The fluorescent signal of the molecule was observed later after 24 hours. The fluorescent imaging can be observed in figure 15. The signal amazingly remained observable for 10 days. This displays the huge developments he has made in creating probes that are resistant to photobleaching and can last for a long time in vivo and still display an essays uk, accurate image. Dr. Urano’s history as a scientist has been largely devoted to on law biological imaging. His background in biochemistry, pharmacology and applied chemistry has given him an edge in using chemical knowledge to come up with new ideas to improve the way diseases are observed and custom uk, accurately diagnosed. With each passing year he has improved upon his previous studies and experiments to produce greater results that have very useful applications, especially in the field of medicine. Other studies done in this field. Intra-cellular processes are very important to be able to understand, especially when it comes to genes that get turned on that result in essay on law disease, such as cancer, autoimmunity and cheap custom, chronic inflammatory diseases.
Dr.’s Gross and Piwnica-Worms have conducted research where they engineered a luciferase called IkappaB alpha-FLuc. In a living cell this reporting luciferase gave feedback regarding IKK activation, which is a critical regulatory control point for the activation of a DNA transcription factor called NF-kappaB which has been linked to many diseases. This IkappaB alpha-FLuc reporter now provides continuous feedback of IKK activity in reflective essay english subject vivo and provides a reliable way to monitor NF-kappaB signaling and potential signs of disease. The intra-cellular processes mentioned earlier are especially important in the field of immunology. The transcription factor NF-kappaB mentioned earlier is one of the key transcription factors involved in B cell activation in cell-mediated immunity.
Clarification of these intracellular events is very important in order for us to understand how immune reactions are stimulated, controlled and halted. As Negrin and cheap custom uk, Contag mention in their article, the pathophysiology regarding grafts is essay a subject that is cheap custom essays uk currently being researched. Bioluminescence imaging has great potential to be a reliable modality for reflective, observing cell trafficking and gaining greater understanding of biological systems relating to immunity and grafts. Further manipulation of the luminescent protein luciferase has yielded wider possibilities of applications in intracellular gene analysis. In Hattori and Ozawa’s article, they detail how they use a new strategy called split-luciferase complementation. This technique enables protein-protein interactions to cheap custom essays be detected intracellularly in living cells. This technique has a wide variety of possible applications, such as phosphorylation monitoring, G-protein-coupled receptor screening, and even Ph monitoring in addition to observing protein-protein interactions. Dragulescu-Andrasi et. al. further emphasize the importance of reflective, being able to essays identify and on law, understand various interactions between proteins in the cell. They describe a system using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer that makes it possible to identify protein-protein interactions not only in culture, but in deep tissue in custom essays a living organism. They outline the potential usages of this system to investigate protein-protein interactions in the context of reflective essay about subject, target validation and cheap custom essays uk, drug screening in a patient.
The potential usage of essay on a christmas carol, this technique is wonderful, especially because of its non-invasive requirements. Wehrman et. al., generated a sequential reporter enzyme that works to report beta-galactosidase activity in cheap essays vivo using luminescence. This was accomplished using a caged D-luciferin-galactoside conjugate which must react with beta-galactosidase before the luciferin can be released to create luminescence. They state that one benefit of this method, besides the non-invasiveness that comes with using bioluminescence, is the ability for the probe to remain fully active even when it is outside of the hamlet and othello, cell since beta-galactosidase is able function without the aid of intracellular enzymes. Custom Essays Uk! Because of this ability, antibodies conjugated to the recombinant beta-galactosidase can be used to detect extracellular antigens or other endogenous cells in vivo, which provides applications that weren’t previously possible with older methods. In an experiment conducted by Hickson et. al., a useful method using bioluminescence has the on business with, potential to deliver rapid and cheap essays, sensitive feedback regarding drug efficacy and therapeutic action. Using a modified version of luciferin called Z-DEVD-aminoluciferin, they measured the amount of luminescence delivered after injecting this modified luciferin into cancerous animals prior to treatment with docetaxel.
They also had a control group who were not injected with docetaxel. Z-DEVD-aminoluciferin is cleaved by essay on law caspase-3, which is released in essays uk apoptotic cells, which in turn releases the luciferin and results in luminescence. Light was detected in significantly greater amounts in the group that was treated with docetaxel. What was even more significant to note was that these significant readings which occurred at approximately 24 hours after treatment confirmed what a caliper measurement showed nearly 4-5 days later. This helps to illustrate the possibility bioluminescence has in terms of testing drug functionality in vivo. Knowledge of how a drug is working can be obtained many days before older methods could measure. Van de Bittner et. 4 Essays Of Rizal! al. conducted an custom essays uk, experiment using bioluminescence and related it to hydrogen peroxide.
It is known that hydrogen peroxide is generated by living organisms to kill invading pathogens and to maintain immunity. The specifics on hydrogen peroxide’s general effects on aging and health are largely unknown largely attributed to the difficulties of being able to study it in vivo. About English Subject! In their experiment they report on their use Peroxy Caged Luciferin-1 which serves as a bioluminescent probe that selectively reacts with hydrogen peroxide, causes the release of luciferin and consequently creates luminescence. Because of the sensitivity and selectivity of Peroxy Caged Luciferin-1, a real time image of cheap custom essays uk, basal levels of hydrogen peroxide can be observed. The effects of hydrogen peroxide, in addition to all kinds of other chemicals, on 4 essays of rizal, aging, disease and health can now be observed where previously it was impossible.
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