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periodical essay Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics. The world of the english periodical essay: Social networks and discourse communities in eighteenth-century London. (University of Sheffield ) Received : July 2006, published March 2007 (HSL/SHL 7) The backdrop for the study reported in this paper is a long-term interest in the role of for a global, social ties and community in influencing the social behaviour and practices represented by language use. The database used for this is a network of eighteenth-century men and women in London between approximately 1670 and 1760, centred on Joseph Addison (1672?1719) and represented by an electronic corpus of early eighteenth-century texts written by members of this network (Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts). Accordingly, my exploration of language use and social influence has been grounded in social network analysis, which affords an analysis of the proposal ways in which the associations that are formed by global essay, actors, such as coalitions, support the pursuit of particular goals and in particular projects. This work has exposed the role of coalitions in maintaining language practices in a community. In particular, the coalitions formed around Addison?s and Steele?s Spectator project between 1710 and 1714 was instrumental in harvard english providing pressure for actors to adhere to a set of norms associated with the powerful members of the coalition. In this paper, attention shifts to the question of discourse styles and concern practices that may be associated with particular registers or genres.
The question is how these register-oriented practices are related to the linguistic behaviours associated with social networks. For example, it is interesting to ask whether the practices that we observe to be shared by members of the network who were also involved in the Spectator coalition are characteristic of the wider community of periodical writers. In this instance, it would be interesting to examine the harvard extent to which people outside the a hook for a warming social network, like Daniel Defoe, nevertheless appear to subscribe to the practices and norms adhered to by periodical essayists in general, including those of the Spectator writers. I submit that social networks provide the harvard proposal scaffolding for the study of discourse communities in a particular milieu such as early eighteenth-century London. The primary data is for prostitution provided by english, the essays sub-corpus in global warming essay the Network of harvard english, Eighteenth-century English Texts corpus (NEET).  Of the literary community in hazards by junk early eighteenth-century London, Dobree and Davis (1969:220) observe that ? after the harvard thesis proposal restoration, with the papers edition rapid development of a well-organized literary community in London, the author-reader relationship was correspondingly transformed, and the writer was able to direct his observations to a body of readers whom he could easily visualize, and with whom he might almost be said to converse ?. They go on to comment that despite this new literary and literate world, ? it was some time before these new conditions led to any considerable growth in essay writing ? . However, they do suggest that the last decades of the seventeenth century set the conditions in harvard which writers begin to conceive the particularly interactive ? what I have called the intersubjective ? style of appeal and address to the reader that typifies the essay as exemplified by the Spectator and Tatler . The periodical essay is financial crisis essay recognized, to all intents and purposes, as a new genre in the early eighteenth century. It is not entirely novel of thesis, course, but has its antecedents in other forms and practices (which I won?t rehearse here). On Writing? I am interested in examining the extent to which members of the social network participate in the practices of a wider discourse community of essay writers in the period. In order to compare the roles of social networks and discourse communities in shaping language use, I examine the meaning and harvard english proposal use of research on writing, a set of english thesis, linguistic features in the letters and essays of the men and women in the NEET corpus. This study will allow us to ascertain the extent to which writers adhere to financial crisis essay styles and conventions that may be established with the practice of writing a particular genre or register (however implicitly). The research questions for the present study are informed by a study of the emergence of intersubjective comment clauses and their development as discourse markers ( you say, you know, see ) in letters and harvard english prose drama using the ARCHER corpus (Fitzmaurice 2004). It also builds on my study of the grammar of stance in the NEET letters subcorpus, specifically of modal expressions, epistemic and attitudinal stance verbs ? hope, think, know, wish, desire ? with complement clauses (Fitzmaurice 2003).
In this paper, I expand on various aspects of these findings, using the NEET corpus to explore the a good statement use of stance verbs with both first and second person subjects as comment clauses in essays. As stance expressions become routinized in discourse, it would seem reasonable to harvard proposal expect them to diffuse into different registers. Fitzmaurice (2003, 2004) demonstrated that these expressions do occur in the involved, subject-centred register of letters. Their occurrence in eighteenth-century essays might be taken to indicate the extent to which the essay of the a hook essay period might occupy a stylistic space that is not as distant from english thesis proposal, letters as that occupied by about for senior, the essay?s present-day counterpart, academic discourse. The following questions thus guide the study: How does the distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters compare with that in essays produced by the same actors?
Do speakers recruit epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find for harvard english thesis proposal, use in comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects in on health hazards caused essays as well as in letters? To what extent can the distribution and use of first and second person comment clauses in individual essays be regarded as consistent with the linguistic practices and thesis choices characteristic of a discourse community of essay writers? The last question is the most tentative and exploratory, and a complete guide 14th edition perhaps can be only partially addressed by the work reported in this paper because linguistic practices comprise a suite of choices that together distinguish the harvard english proposal genre of the discourse community. In the sections that follow I first discuss social networks and the ways in which the periodical writers in early eighteenth-century London might be regarded as constituting a discourse community. I then outline the research procedure followed, and then present and discuss the findings and offer some directions for further investigation. 2. Social networks and discourse communities. S ocial networks analysis (SNA) provides the basis for examining the ways in which actors cooperate in specific projects in order to achieve certain goals.
A social networks approach examines the ways in which the nature of ties between individuals shapes linguistic behaviour. Accordingly, classically, strong, dense, and multiplex ties promote the statement for prostitution maintenance and strengthening of linguistic norms. The sum effect is to create a cohesive community marked by a dense web of ties. In the literature, weak ties are associated with fluid linguistic behaviour, where actors do not have strong social networks that promote the adherence to linguistic norms. The notion of ? network ? adopted here is a technical one, developed in the fields of anthropology, social psychology, sociology, epidemiology, business studies, economics, and recently, in harvard english thesis proposal sociolinguistics, to thesis for prostitution describe the harvard english thesis relationship between individuals and the social structures which they construct and research on writing inhabit (Boissevain 1974; Wasserman Galaskiewicz 1994; Milroy 1987, Milroy Milroy 1985, Milroy 1992). English Thesis Proposal? A ? network ? refers to a group of individuals whose connections to one another are made up by social ties of varying strengths, types and lengths. The network that defines these individuals is not necessarily closed; one individual might also be connected to somebody that nobody else in the network is connected to. The degree of global crisis essay, proximity or closeness between actors might be measured in terms of the nature of the ties that connect them. Harvard Thesis? The parameters on which strength of ties are calculated are: longevity of relationship geographical proximity formal social relationship in terms of comparative rank (social equal/superior/inferior) type of relationship (intimates/equals/acquaintance; friendship/competition) inferred from the nature of documentary evidence for the relationship (in the form of texts and other evidence connecting the a hook for a warming essay actors, such as correspondence, memoirs, collaboration in pamphlets, editions and plays).
T hese four parameters represent a combination of english proposal, subjective and objective criteria.  The calculation of essay about, these ties and the characterisation of the group in terms of the values attributed to the ties between actors provide a structural basis for inferring and understanding social influence, both of one actor upon another, but also of the network as a whole on other networks in the community. The processes taken to underlie influence include ? relations of authority, identification, expertise and competition ? (Marsden Friedkin 1994:3). T he social networks formed by and around Joseph Addison provide the basic design and rationale for harvard english thesis, the construction of the NEET corpus. Addison was a key exponent of the periodical essay form in the period, and with Richard Steele ( bap. 1672, d. 1729) , launched one of the most successful examples of the eighteenth-century periodical, the Spectator. Previous work has examined in a hook warming detail the impact of the Spectator coalition on the language and culture of the period (Fitzmaurice 2000a). The men behind The Spectator formed a group which developed identifiably political and literary ties to thesis proposal achieve particular goals, which include personal success and fame. Addison?s own pursuit of the protection and sponsorship of powerful men like Halifax and Somers demonstrates quite clearly the usefulness of social networking, as does Pope?s pursuit of Addison himself in 1710. The coalition was also allied with a particular political grouping, the a hook global warming Whig parliamentarians and government managers, who saw themselves as forward-looking and progressive in comparison with the Tories. In terms of language, this group made itself, via its involvement (however peripheral) with The Spectator , emblematic of polite, modern English.
A ddison?s own network consists primarily of people who are old friends, colleagues and enemies, who share correspondences, political convictions and thesis proposal loyalties, who collaborate in publishing projects and who contribute to the same periodicals. Of course, NEET also includes individuals who are not connected with Addison and his projects. The inclusion of people outside the financial crisis network makes sure that the harvard thesis behaviour of the group can be compared with that of the out-group. Despite the fact that NEET?s design is principally informed by the social networks formed by Addison, the caused food corpus also captures important aspects of a particular discourse community of the time. English Thesis? Many of the participants in writing papers a complete guide 14th the Spectator coalition collaborated on other periodical projects.
In addition to working together on the Spectator project, Steele, Addison and english thesis proposal Jonathan Swift (1667?1745) had earlier cooperated in developing the Tatler . Addison was highly successful in recruiting young writers to the Spectator group (and to the Whig cause), adding Alexander Pope ( 1688?1744) , Eustace Budgell (1686?1737) , Ambrose Philips ( bap. 1674, d. 1749) , Thomas Tickell (1685?1740) , and John Hughes (1678??1720) to the coalition . Steele and essay about for senior Addison also sought contributions from Pope for english, their next venture, The Guardian , yet Addison worked more or less solo on The Freeholder . A year after the closure of the a hook warming essay Spectator , Steele and Swift conducted a public and vituperative row over their respective political affinities. Their quarrel was occasioned by an unflattering portrait of the proposal Duke of Marlborough in the pages of the Tory Examiner , which Steele, in writing research papers edition the Whig Guardian, attributed to Swift.  The Examiner was launched in the summer of 1710, and drew the thesis participation of prominent Tory politicians like Henry St. Writing Research Guide 14th? John (1678?1751) , who provided much of the paper?s political impetus, Francis Atterbury (1663?1732) , as well as civil servants like Matthew Prior (1664?1721) . Harvard English Thesis? Swift?s contributions to The Examiner comprise thirty-three essays written from a Tory point of view ? to assert the principles, and justify the proceedings of the new ministers ? . The paper was published on a good thesis Thursdays from 2 November 1710 (no. 14) to 14 June 1711 (no. Harvard? 46, jointly written with Delariviere Manley, c. 1670?1724, the subsequent editor). Swift's essays were each answered in The Medley on the following Monday by Addison's friend, the Whig MP Arthur Mainwaring (1668?1712) . Swift provided savage satirical portraits of the Whig ministers like Thomas Wharton, prompting the launch by the Whigs of another instrument intended to a good blunt its force, the Whig Examiner . Addison was recruited to respond to the Tory political attacks, but it was closed after five issues (Dobree and Davis 1969:89). Although the Spectator and Tatler continued to be regarded as the most influential periodicals of the time, there was another more overtly political and much longer lived periodical that commented on the party wars and appealed to the man in the street.
This was Daniel Defoe?s A Review of the harvard english thesis proposal State of the British Nation (1704 ? 1713). In addition to these papers, there were other party-sponsored periodicals, including the Mercator which was designed to support Robert Harley against the Wig British Merchant (Dobree and Davis 1969:96), as well as Steele?s The Englishman (July ? November, 1715). T he early years of the eighteenth century evidently witnessed the blossoming of periodical essay writing. Not all political essay writing appeared in the periodical papers, however. All of the people I?ve mentioned wrote essays for research papers a complete guide 14th, pamphlet publication as well as for periodical publication. In addition, essay writing on religion, philosophy, literature, and society thrived at the same time that political essay writing held sway. The essay seemed to harvard proposal be the big new thing in the literary community, building on the foundations set by Dryden?s literary criticism, as exemplified in his Essay on Dramatick Poesie (1684). In form the eighteenth-century essay occupies a stylistic space between the on health by junk food letter and the dialogue. Essay authors tend to adopt a persona, exemplified most vividly by the Tatler?s Isaac Bickerstaff. They also typically appeal to the reader directly in adopting conventions that seem to be more characteristic of the harvard english thesis proposal letter or of the newspaper feature than of the a good thesis statement for prostitution essay now conceived.
To the extent that there is a recognizable set of practices associated with essay writing and production at the time, I will invoke the idea of the discourse community to describe the behaviour that the essay writers of the period observe. T he discourse community is a concept developed in applied linguistics and rhetoric research to capture the shared conventions and practices observed by people in a shared field or occupation (e.g. Swales 1988, Johns Swales 2002). Particular discourse styles and practices are associated with particular registers, such as academic writing or corporate management. These practices and conventions may not necessarily be explicitly prescribed but they must be sufficiently valued to be upheld as norms of the domain, and targets for participants new to the field. Thesis Proposal? How might this definition apply to the periodical writers of the eighteenth century? Periodical writing requires the production of a commodity ? the periodical paper ? that meets the demands of a publication produced and research papers guide distributed at regular intervals for a readership interested in harvard proposal current affairs (however this is defined). The practices that would seem to cast periodical writers as a discourse community include their adherence to a set of genre or register conventions, recognition of practices which members would easily identify, and adherence to a rhetoric and style designed for periodical publication on the one hand and for writing research papers a complete guide edition, a periodical audience on the other. The existence of a discourse community presupposes a consensus on what constitutes genre or register practices. The techniques and data afforded by harvard english, a corpus linguistic approach to a good for prostitution the study of eighteenth-century texts provides the harvard english thesis proposal opportunity to examine the extent to which register or genre appear to concern citizens shape writers? linguistic choices.
Now we ought to make a distinction between writers who regularly produce work for periodicals ? publications produced regularly in order to be delivered at a fixed time ? and those writers who were not constrained by having to write on a prescribed topic to tight timelines. Steele, Addison and english Defoe are all writers whose habits were formed and regulated by writing papers guide, the necessity to turn out a paper on time, every time. Although Swift, Pope, Prior and english proposal Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap. Statement For Prostitution? 1689 ? 1762), were asked to contribute to periodical papers, and though Swift and Montagu, for a short period were each responsible for the production of a periodical, their work was not confined to the medium of the periodical. They also all published essays as single one-off pamphlets. As such, we might classify them as essayists first and english thesis as periodical essayists second. The NEET corpus includes the essays of a good thesis for prostitution, these writers, including their work for proposal, periodicals. However, NEET also comprises essays of people who were not part of London?s popular periodical writers but who nevertheless produced essays for for a warming, publication, sometimes a long time after their completion. Mary Astell (1666?1731 , though known to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.
1689, d. 1762) , was not connected with Addison and his circle. Harvard English Proposal? However, from 1696 with her publication of the controversial essay, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies for the Advancement of their True and Greatest Interest , she was established as a serious, not to say notorious, essayist. This event set her on a brief career as a Tory political pamphleteer (1697 to 1709). A serious theologian, Astell began exchanging letters with the Cambridge Platonist John Norris (1657?1712) , rector of Bremerton, who published their correspondence in 1695 under the title Letters Concerning the Love of God . Susanna Wesley (1669?1742) is altogether different from the warming essay other writers of harvard english, essays collected in NEET. On Health Hazards Caused By Junk? Her essays were first circulated in manuscript form, and were not published in print until long after her death. This practice of manuscript publication meant that the circulation of the texts was not managed in thesis the same way that commercial publications like the Spectator were. Additionally, unlike the Spectator which was easily available to anybody from commercial outlets like print-shops and coffee houses, Wesley?s essays were transmitted from individual reader to reader only by association. William Congreve ( 1670?1729) and John Dryden (1631?1700) are essay writers, though their essays appear in different domains from the a hook global others. Harvard English Proposal? Specifically, their critical essays appear as prefaces or epistles dedicatory. On Health Hazards Caused By Junk Food? They explicitly address patrons (in the english proposal case of Dryden) or patrons and critics (in the case of Congreve).
Their essay work predates by almost a decade the about for senior essays that surface in harvard english the popular periodicals. Congreve?s Amendments of financial, Mr. English? Collier's False Imperfect Citations, etc. (1695), shares with Astell?s Serious Proposal the notoriety that attends controversy. Although John Dryden was dead by global, 1700, his work is also collected in NEET because he was so influential on the literary careers of Addison and harvard english thesis proposal his cohort. His essays are foundational in that his work predates that of for a global warming, all the others. Sutherland remarks as follows on his work: The easy and familiar tone of Dryden in the various prefaces that he wrote for his plays was partly due to many of those pieces being addressed to individuals in harvard english thesis proposal the form of thesis, dedications, but also to his awareness of the fact that most of his readers had already seen his plays, and that to english this an acquaintanceship already existed. Global Warming Essay? Long before he had reached old age, however, Dryden?s conversational manner had become habitual with him, and in this, as in so many other directions, his influence on english proposal the age must have been considerable (Sutherland 1969:220). As we shall see, it is possible that it was Dryden?s essay style that provided the standard for the intersubjective style that the periodical writers seek.
Let me try to distinguish between the social network that has as its centre one of the founders of the Spectator , Joseph Addison, and for a global essay the more elastic alliance represented by a discourse community of english, essay writers. To do so, I present below two diagrammatic representations (Figure 1). The first is Addison?s social network around about 1711. Note that I have included the names of individuals who have very indirect or tenuous connections with members of Addison?s network (Mary Astell, via Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; Sarah Churchill 1660?1744 , via Matthew Prior). I n contrast is the representation of London?s essay writers (Figure 2). There does seem to edition be a central cohort, which pretty much coincides with the essayists in the Spectator coalition. This central group includes Addison, Steele, Pope, Swift, Prior, Congreve and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Thesis Proposal? The others have nothing to do with the Spectator , but arguably are part of the writing guide edition discourse community by virtue of their participation in harvard english thesis proposal essay writing and publication. As mentioned above, Astell and global financial essay Defoe, as political journalists, are more likely to be more established members than Sarah Wesley, whose circumstances of harvard proposal, work place her on the very fringes. Note that Sarah Churchill, as an aristocratic memoirist far removed from the world of publication for profit, is absent from this picture.
Similarly, Edward Wortley is absent as he is on health caused by junk food not an essayist and hence does not participate in english the world of periodical publication. 2.1. Discourse communities and intersubjectivity. In the light of the discussion of discourse communities and social networks, I offer two hypotheses in this study. First I suggest that the practices of a discourse community will be more influential than network ties on the linguistic choices that writers exercise in a particular register or genre . For example, Defoe?s essay style will be more compatible with that of the other periodical writers than not, despite his exclusion from their social networks. Hazards By Junk Food? In other words, the english thesis proposal discourse community to which the essay writers belong (whether they know it or not) will provide a more compelling model and set of practices than social ties. Further, I expect that writers who are not part of the a good thesis for prostitution discourse community will not exhibit the same linguistic choices or behaviour in their production of the same register or genre.
Secondly, I suggest that the more established the discourse community, the harvard english thesis proposal more consistent the practices across its exemplars. In terms of the study reported here, this means that styles will be conventionalized as part of essay writing. Essay? For instance, essay writers will exhibit similar choice and use of the constructions under investigation. Among the characteristics of essay writing of the period is the formal use of and english proposal appeal to the audience or to the reader. In formal terms, the appeal provides the framework of the writing guide 14th essay, so it is not unusual for the arguments put forth in an essay of the period to have an addressee. English? Congreve?s essays and hazards caused by junk food Dryden?s essays clearly have the framework of an address or a letter. Harvard English Proposal? Others may not adopt such a formal generic frame, but may inscribe the appeal to an audience in rather less explicit ways. For example, the research writer may seek to engage the audience by involving it directly in argument and debate by constructing sympathetic or contrasting views or positions and attributing them to the audience or reader.
Attribution can take many forms, from the explicitly situated quotation expressly ascribed to the addressee, to the more implicit presupposition of opinion. The latter shows up as a reporting expression governing a clause containing the opinion, or more overtly, as a comment clause used parenthetically. The verbs used in these constructions are verbs that we associate with discourse markers in harvard thesis present-day English, including know, say, see and about concern citizens find . Subjective clauses will have first person subjects and intersubjective clauses will have second person subjects, as illustrated in the examples in 1. a. Harvard Thesis Proposal? I know [? you are no stranger to sentiments of tender and natural affection], which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) b. For Senior? You know [ ? it is harvard english thesis proposal natural to financial have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness], and I am at present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) For the purposes of this study then, intersubjectivity has to do with the representation of speaker stance as addressee stance, and thus involves the transformation of propositional meaning from new information to presuppositional meaning. Expressions that we ordinarily associate with the harvard english thesis proposal self-expression of the speaker can be used to attribute particular attitudes, knowledge, and stance to an addressee or interlocutor. For example, though infinitive and a good thesis for prostitution that- complement clauses governed by harvard english thesis proposal, mental verbs, comment clauses, and modal verbs are usually associated with the speaker?s rhetorical self-positioning, these same resources may be marshaled for the speaker?s rhetorical construction of the interlocutor?s perspective or attitude. So, there is a difference between using an explicitly subjective epistemic stance marker such as a complement clause governed by an epistemic verb like know and the first person (as in 1a above), and what I suggest is an essay about concern for senior intersubjective stance marker such as a complement clause governed by know with a second person subject, as illustrated in example (4b) above. I am interested in whether e ssays will exhibit the same use of subjective and intersubjective comment clauses, in terms of both manner and frequency. I used the harvard proposal letters and essays subcorpora of the NEET corpus in order to compare the essay on health hazards caused by junk extent to which genre or register considerations override idiolectal characteristics. The details of the subcorpora are summarized in Table 1:
Dates of births and deaths. Table 1. Numbers of words in thesis individual subcorpora (letters and essays). Monoconc, a commercial concordancing package, was used to conduct a search of the letters and essays subcorpora for lexical expressions with know, see, find, suppose and imagine . All frequencies were normalized to a good thesis statement for prostitution occurrences per 100,000 words to permit comparison of harvard thesis proposal, frequencies across text samples of different sizes. The analysis included looking informally at the distribution of constructions across individual essay writers, as well as across registers as a whole. 3.2. Linguistic features. The following specific constructions were investigated: first person singular ( I ) and plural ( we ) subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in about for senior the examples in english proposal (2): a. I know [ that one in financial essay your Lordships high Station has several opportunities of english thesis, showing Favour to your Dependants as one or your Generous temper dos not want to be reminded of it when any such offer] (Addison to Charles Montagu [alet143]) b. I know [you are no stranger to sentiments of tender and natural affection, which will make my concern very intelligible to essay for senior you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) c. Harvard? I find [I am very much obliged to your-self and him, but will not be so troublesome in my Acknowlegements as I might justly be] (Addison to Wortley [alet02]) d. we see [they are seldome listned to by the Audience, and that is many times the ruin of the Play: for, being once let pass without attention, the for a essay Audience can never recover themselves to understand the Plot (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) s econd person subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in the examples in (3) below: a. You know [it is english thesis natural to have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness, and I am at present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter] (Pope to research on writing Ford [bplet017]) b. But when e're they endeavour to rise to any quick turns and counterturns of Plot, as some of them have attempted, since Corneilles Playes have been less in vogue, you see [they write as irregularly as we, though they cover it more speciously] (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) c omment clauses (or parentheticals) with first and second person subjects as illustrated in (4) below: a. You see , my Lord, how farr you have pushd me; I dare not own the honour you have done me, for feare of showing it to my own disadvantage (Dryden to english John Wilmot [jdlet004]) b. yet (to the Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of times in every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Swift, The Abolishing of Christianity in England 1708. A Good Statement For Prostitution? [asess002]) c. But I fear it was kidnapped by some privateer, or else you were lazy or forgetful; or, which is full as good, perhaps, it had no need of an answer; and I would not for a good deal, that the former had miscarried, because the inclosed was wonderfully politic, and would have been read to you, as this, I suppose , will, though it be not half so profound (Swift to Stearne [aslet006])
It is harvard english proposal important to about concern for senior citizens note that I did not exclude from consideration expressions that included modals or modifiers in the stance verb phrases or comment clauses. Accordingly, included were expressions such as those illustrated in (5): a. During the Time her Cause was upon Trial, she behaved her self, I warrant you, with such a deep Attention to harvard proposal her Business, took Opportunities to have little Billets handed to her Counsel, then would be in such a pretty Confusion, occasioned, you must know , by acting before so much Company, that not only I but the whole Court was prejudiced in her Favour; . On Health Hazards Caused By Junk Food? (Richard Steele, Spectator No. English Proposal? 113, Tuesday, 10 July 1711 [rsess010]) b. Writing Papers 14th Edition? However it be, I don't know , I say , why this Prejudice, well improved and carried as far as it would go, might not be made to thesis proposal conduce to the Preservation of many innocent Creatures, which are now exposed to all the Wantonness of an writing research guide ignorant Barbarity (Alexander Pope, On Pastorals, The Guardian No. 40, April 27, 1713 [bpess004]) c. Therefore I should imagine the next animal in size or dignity would do best; either a Mule or a large Ass; particularly if that noble one could be had, whose portraiture makes so great an ornament of the Dunciad, and which (unless I am misinformed) is yet in the park of harvard english thesis, a Nobleman near this (Alexander Pope, City Of the Poet Laureate , 1737 [bpess014]) d. If I must suppose there are great Numbers of Ladys in these narrow circumstances, I will suppose at by junk food, least one in Twenty of them to english thesis proposal be handsome enough to make the thesis rest of their Sex desirous of harvard english thesis, looking like them (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Nonsense of Common-Sense No. 2, 1737 [mmess005]) Note that the research modification includes negation ? quite common with know in collocation with the first person. 4. Results and discussion. F igure 1 summarizes the relative distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in harvard english letters and in essays by essay caused by junk food, the same actors. Note that the grammatical context specified for this analysis consists of the verb governing a tensed subordinate complement clause with a zero complementizer. Figure 3. Distribution of first person stance verbs with zero complement marking in harvard thesis proposal letters and essays ( know , see , find , suppose and imagine ).
The figures are quite small overall ? unsurprisingly for lexical strings ? but the difference between the frequencies for each register is striking. First person verb phrases with know occur nearly three times more often in letters than in essays, first person verb phrases with find occur five times more often in letters than in essays, and first person verb phrases with suppose occur about four times more often in letters than in on writing essays. Harvard English Thesis Proposal? However, more striking in light of our discussion about the stylistic positioning of essays in on writing the period as involved and engaged with the reader is the english proposal fact that these stance features occur in essays at all. Their presence would seem to suggest that the for a global warming essay essay in the period is participating in the work of expressing opinion, as illustrated in the examples from Defoe?s Review with know and find in (6) below. T able 2: Frequencies of first person subject stance verbs (per 100,000 words) a. I know nothing remains for me to do but to sit down pleased and thankful, though I am Eke to be among those who are like to english thesis enjoy the least share of the blessing by the Union. On Writing? (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. IV, NO.
21, DEFOE'S PART IN THE UNION OF SCOTLAND AND ENGLAND, 1707 [ddess013]) b. My opinion of satire is that first of all the harvard english thesis character should be just, which in these cases can not be pretended; secondly, that the thing satirized be a crime; thirdly, that the research papers guide language, though keen, be decent-in every one of english thesis proposal, which these authors are faulty. How far they will please to pursue the scurrility, they best know, but I find even Whig and essay concern Tory abhors the harvard english proposal method taken by them both. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. VIII, No. 180, The Nature OF SATIRE, 1712 [ddess008]) T he second question for investigation concerned the use of epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and on writing find in harvard english thesis comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects. The salient stance verbs occur far less frequently in comment clauses than in verb phrases governing subordinate clauses, as is clear from Table 3. Table 3: Frequencies of first person comment clauses (per 100,000 words).
The occurrence of first person comment clauses in letters and essays is summarized in Figure 4. Figure 4. On Health Hazards? Distribution of first person comment clauses in letters and essays. Although the first person comment clauses are generally more evident in english proposal letters than essays, it is striking that comment clauses with I see occur only (and then infrequently enough) in essays. It is important to make the point that the comment clause does not carry a denotative literal meaning. Instead, ? I see ? might be construed as ? I surmise ? or ? I understand ? in these contexts. (The most common occurrence of ? I see ? in both registers is unsurprisingly as a sense verb with a simple noun phrase direct object.) In addition, the writing papers a complete 14th edition stance verbs find and imagine occur in first person comment clauses infrequently in both registers, but just slightly less often in essays than in letters. This situation contrasts with the slightly more established presence of know and suppose in first person comment clauses in letters. The examples in (7) illustrate the range of uses to which the stance verbs are put in first person comment clauses, again, in the essays subcorpus. Harvard English Proposal? In each case, the essay concern effect of the first person comment clause is to express the opinion of the speaker ? and thus stamp a perspective or interested position on the presentation of the english proposal information conveyed in the essay. Three of the examples, (7a), (7c) and (7d), are from periodical essays. In the first case, the persona represented is not the writer?s, but that of the paper?s subject, the abused wife.
Similarly, in global financial (7c), Steele represents the Whig opinion of one of the Spectator?s characters, Sir Andrew Freeport, against the Tory Sir Roger de Coverley. In these cases the comment clause is employed to give flesh to the opinions voiced by the actors. In the case of (7d), the persona is an Italian impresario who proposes to export to England, Italian opera singers and harvard proposal cooks to feed the desires of the British people. Crisis? This essay is harvard thesis presented as a letter to the editor of the journal; it is evident that in essay hazards food keeping with the periodical community?s practice of constructing letters for the body of the paper, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ensures that her paper addresses the english topic of imported culture by relying on the same. a. To maintain myself by an honest servitude (having really no other dependence) is essay on health hazards caused by junk food what I would gladly accept of, and which I count, by many degrees, a heavenly life to that slavish one I now live; yet even this attempt, I know , will be attended with almost insuperable difficulties (Daniel Defoe, Review No. English Thesis Proposal? 96, An abused wife?s appeal, 1705, [ddess021]) b. These, with some Additions, would have made up such a Sum, as, with prudent Management, might, I suppose , have maintained an hundred thousand Men by Sea and Land (Jonathan Swift, The Conduct of the on health hazards caused food Allies [asess005]) c. YOU may attempt to turn the Discourse, if you think fit, but I must however have a Word or two with Sir ROGER; who, I see , thinks he has paid me off, and been very severe upon the Merchant (Richard Steele, Spectator No. Harvard? 174 [rsess015]) d. No Nation, I find , is more fond than this of Novelty and essay Variety: As for Novelty, I am sure no such Thing was ever attempted before, or so much as imagined, not even by any of our Travel-Writers; and harvard english proposal as for Variety, one may easily see we have an inexhaustible Source (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , The Nonsense of Common-Sense No. 3, 1737. [mmess005]) e. This, I imagine , was the chief reason why he minded only the clearness of his satire, and the cleanness of expression, without ascending to those heights to which his ?own vigour might have carried him (John Dryden, A Discourse ? Satire [jdess002])
Examples (7b) and (7d) do not invest the speaker with a persona separate from that represented by the author. I t is worth turning to a hook essay the analysis of the extent to harvard english which comment clauses with second person subjects occur in research a complete 14th the two registers to ascertain the role of the thesis proposal audience in the two. Figure 3 captures the essay on health hazards caused by junk relative frequencies of intersubjective comment clauses in the two registers. Figure 5. Thesis? Distribution of writing research a complete, second person subject comment clauses in essays and letters. The distribution of second person comment clauses seems to follow the pattern observed for first person subject comment clauses in the two registers. However, there were no instances of suppose with the second person subject in a comment clause. Indeed, there were no instances of the harvard proposal second person subject with suppose governing a subordinate clause with a zero complementizer in essays, and only negligibly so (0.2 per 100,000 words) in this construction in letters. This suggests quite strongly that while suppose can be used as a subjective stance verb, it cannot be used by a speaker to assess the knowledge or opinion of the person being addressed. Warming? However, suppose can be recruited in collocation with the impersonal third person pronoun some with as and english thesis proposal the hedging modal may , as in essay caused by junk food the following example taken from Addison?s Freeholder essays: a. These Potentates who, as some may suppose , do not wish well to his Affairs, have shown the greatest Respect to his personal Character, and testified their Readiness to harvard english thesis proposal enter into such Friendships and Alliances as may be advantageous to his People.(Joseph Addison, Freeholder No. XLVI, Monday May 28 1716 [aess020])
Addison?s expression, favouring neither speaker nor addressee, has the effect of hedging. However, the guide 14th inclusion of the epistemic verb in a comment clause invites the inference that it is being used to draw attention to the negative intentions of his subject, namely, ? [t]hese Potentates ? . Swift uses the verb as an imperative with a following comment phrase, for Argument sake, and a complement clause marked by that as in (8b). b. Suppose , for Argument sake, that the Tories favoured Margarita, the Whigs, Mrs Tofts, and the Trimmers Valentini, would not Margaritians, Toftians and english thesis Valentinians be very tolerable Marks of Distinction? (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing Christianity , [asess002.txt]) S wift?s use is more explicitly intersubjective as it implies the active intellectual engagement of the reader in the arguments put forth in the essay. The imperative is arguably a risky rhetorical choice as it might be construed as bullying or hectoring if used in writing research guide 14th edition discourse that is markedly polemical or satirical. Examples of the ways in which the essay writers deploy comment clauses intersubjectively are offered in (9). a. Harvard Thesis Proposal? My Lord, whatever you imagine , this is the advice of global financial crisis, a Friend, and english thesis proposal one who remembers he formerly had the honour of some profession of Friendship from you (Alexander Pope, Letter to on health hazards caused by junk a Noble Lord on harvard english proposal the occasion of some Libels written and propagated at Court , 1732 [bpess013]) b. Turn but your eye to the park: the thesis statement for prostitution ladies are not there as usual, the church is thesis thinner than ever, for it is the mode for privy councils, you know , to a hook for a essay meet on Sundays (Daniel Defoe, Review: Petticoat Government [ddess017]) c. Thus, you see , your Rhyme is uncapable of expressing the greatest thoughts naturally, and the lowest it cannot with any grace: for what is more unbefitting the Majesty of Verse, then to call a Servant, or bid a door be shut in Rhime? And yet you are often forced on this miserable necessity. Proposal? But Verse, you say , circumscribes a quick and luxuriant fancy, which would extend it self too far on every subject, did not the essay by junk food labour which is required to well turned and polished Rhyme, set bounds to it. Yet this Argument, if granted, would onely prove that we may write better in Verse, but not more naturally (John Dryden, An Essay of Dramatick Poesie [jdess001]) A lthough Pope?s Letter , written in 1733, was designed to english respond immediately to a verse attack against him by John, Lord Hervey, it was published only in 1751 (Cowler 1986:433).
Pope?s more public and lasting retort was the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot which appeared in January 1734/5, a year after he wrote the prose Letter . Cowler characterizes the Letter as a ? straightforward, restrained, personal response ? which ? instead of transcending the personal and temporal, bears hard upon it ? (1986:435). In the extract quoted in (9a), Pope explicitly yet ironically acknowledges the possibility that his noble addressee might interpret his comments as hostile, which of essay on health caused by junk, course they are. The effect is withering. Defoe?s use of harvard thesis proposal, you know in (9b) assumes a confiding, gently conspiratorial not to say patronizing tone as he constructs the habits and interests of a government made up of women. Needless to say, the audience he designs for his address is male rather than female. In (9c) John Dryden exhibits the language that prompted Sutherland to financial crisis essay remark on harvard english thesis proposal his conversational style as ? I habit ? . He constructs a dialogue between his reader and himself, attributing attentiveness and understanding ( you see) and opinion ( you say ) in an unfolding argument about writing in research a complete edition verse. Interestingly, he adopts the possessive pronoun your to harvard english proposal modify ? ?Rhyme ? , but here it serves a familiarizing function with generic reference rather than specifically attributing possession (or a position) to writing guide edition his reader. English? The effect of the use of the second person comment clauses is to establish an interactive tone, drawing focus away from the speaker-subject and essay hazards caused by junk food his stance. L et us now turn to the closer examination of a verb with first and proposal second person subjects in the essays in order to discover whether their functions distinguish them as stylistic options that serve the essay genre. In other words, is it reasonable on the basis of a hook for a global warming essay, these features to suggest their role in harvard proposal contributing to a nascent essay style that comes to be typical of the periodical essay? I?ll examine the a hook for a global warming essay distribution and use of know in thesis proposal essays as compared with its occurrence in letters in an exploratory gesture in this paper.
Figure 6. Distribution of know in essays and letters. Fi gure 6 captures the distribution of on health food, know with first person singular and plural as well as second person in thesis proposal stance verb phrases with zero complementizers and in comment clauses. Crisis Essay? The reason for adding to the inventory of constructions know with first person plural subject we was to find out whether the reader?s participation in the discourse of the english essay shows up in other ways, and ways in which it does not occur in letters. Table 4: Frequencies of know (per 100,000 words). As is evident from the research a complete 14th edition figures in Table 4, although know with first person singular and second person subjects occurs more frequently in letters than in the essays, know with first person plural subject occurs only in the essays, even if infrequently. Let us examine the ways in which we know is used in the essays, as illustrated in proposal (10) below: a. We know the Dutch have perpetually threatened us, that they would enter into statement for prostitution, separate Measures, of a Peace . (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) b. Harvard English Thesis Proposal? And I am the more inclined to this Opinion, because we know it has been the essay about concern constant Practice of the Jesuits to send over Emissaries, with Instructions to personate themselves Members of the several prevailing Sects amongst us (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) c. I think it is not fair to argue from one Instance, perhaps another cannot be produced, yet (to the Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of times in every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) d. Perhaps he was afraid it might give Offence to the Allies, among whom, [ for proposal, ought we know] , it may be the Custom of the Country to believe a God (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of writing research a complete guide edition, Christianity [asess002]) I n the examples in (10), taken from harvard proposal, Swift?s essays, Conduct of the Allies and Abolishing Christianity , we see the phrase used as a stance verb phrase (a, b), and as a comment clause (c, d). The stance phrase seems to be deployed in global crisis order to situate the dominant position of the interest group for english thesis proposal, which the writer speaks.
Its choice represents a move by the writer to establish affinity and loyalty to a position or to an identity. In the case of (10a), we and us have the same referent, namely, the financial English people. In (10b), Swift distinguishes the singular from the plural; he uses the singular I to harvard english proposal mark his conscious choice of an opinion on the basis of a good thesis for prostitution, popular intelligence. The effect is to underline the unity of the writer?s position with that of the constituency of protestants for which he speaks and whom he addresses. In (10c), we know is used as a comment clause in an aside as a gesture to his readers of their common knowledge.
Example (10d) represents an emerging use in a comment clause, for thesis proposal, aught we know , an idiomatic expression also used frequently by Defoe and Dryden with the first person to statement inject an intersubjective comment into a claim or statement. In (11), I illustrate briefly, the harvard english uses of on health hazards caused food, we know by Susanna Wesley, Defoe, and Dryden. These three writers deploy the expression as a stance verb phrase more often than the other writers. This fact requires further investigation in order to discover whether their preference for the expression is a function of the subject matter or whether it is a feature of their essay writing more generally. Susanna Wesley conjoins know with feel , and preposes the object pronoun it to allow a cataphoric construction in which the harvard thesis proposal object is elaborated in a formal fashion.  a. But this we know and feel, that they also fell and thereby broke the union between the divine and human nature, forfeited their interest in God, became servants to Satan, and global financial subject to death temporal, spiritual and eternal (Susanna Wesley, Remarks on the Rev. Whitefield [wess006]) b. ? Lord, ? said she, ? we are at the greatest loss imaginable, we must not appear to have the least concern about harvard thesis, him, we know the Whigs will oblige us to push at his destruction, if possible . ? (Daniel Defoe, Minutes of the Negotiation of Monsr. Mesnager at the Court of England during the Four Last Years of the Reign of Her Late Majesty Queen Anne [ddess023]) c. For a Play is still an imitation of Nature; we know we are to be deceived, and research we desire to be so (Dryden, Essay [jdess001]) D efoe deploys the stance verb phrase in the representation of a statement by Queen Anne about the exiled deposed king in France.
And in Dryden?s Essay , he allies himself with the audience at a play, sharing the knowledge of harvard proposal, being willingly deceived by the suspense of reality in drama. In these examples in (11), we know is used fairly literally to refer to a general belief or intelligence, which the writing research guide 14th writer shares about a state of affairs. When we know occurs as a comment clause, it appears to function in a more formulaic, perhaps idiomatic manner to signal unity among writer and addressee of position and stance. 5. Concluding observations. T here is not space or time to elaborate these results further here. However, there are some observations to be made: essays (like letters) exhibit the expression of speaker stance through epistemic verb complements, with first and second person verb phrases. Letters exhibit the more frequent use of harvard, comment clauses than essays do, and the letters exhibit more frequent use of both subjective and intersubjective comment clauses than essays. However, the global financial crisis essay essays exhibit a wider range of harvard, comment clauses than letters, including first person plural subject comment clauses.
Is it fair to essay concern citizens conjecture that comment clauses with second and first ? particularly first person plural ? subjects are features that typify the early eighteenth-century essay? It is clearly too soon to say, although the fact that the essays appear to adopt these expressions prompts the wider and more fine-grained analysis of other intersubjective features that might be regarded as marking the english proposal essay?s situation as a genre that leans towards the involved, highly interactive personal letter in its form and in its appeal to its readership. If we look briefly at individual preferences, it is clear that conclusions must be at best tentative because the numbers are so low in general. However, Dryden alone exhibits a tendency to use subjective and intersubjective comment clauses with the epistemic verbs examined. Thesis Statement? In particular, his use in the Essay on Dramatick Poesie alone accounts for harvard proposal, one third of the occurrences of I know as a comment clause; one sixth of the uses of I say as a comment clause, and more than half of the occurrences of you say as a comment clause.
This is particularly striking because Dryden?s essay predates the research a complete writing of the others by at least a decade if not longer. Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Richard Steele, Alexander Pope and harvard thesis proposal William Congreve adopt a practice that echoes Dryden?s, but theirs is essay food much more tentative and sporadic in terms of frequency and harvard english distribution across their writing. It is worth noting that these men are in the thick of periodical publication in London, and it is conceivable that their practices begin to mark the community norms associated with the a complete 14th periodical essay in particular. Curiously, Joseph Addison does not participate in the practice to any discernible extent, and it will be necessary to thesis look more closely at his essays, together with those of the essay about concern for senior group just mentioned, across the different periodicals between 1709 and 1715 to track the emergence of a set of practices that could confidently be argued to characterize the periodical essay. The women essay writers, Susannah Wesley, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Mary Astell require further scrutiny to determine properly whether they adhere to particular patterns of use, whether shared with their male counterparts or not. There is thesis proposal much to be done. However, what is striking is that there does appear to be some merit in 14th edition looking at patterns of language choice that might be associated with a discourse community involved in the production of essays, and in harvard english thesis proposal particular periodical essays. The fact that the writers of these periodicals appear to share preferences with respect to stance expressions and comment clauses suggests that the production of the genre is the mechanism that overrides the role of social ties with respect to language choice. This is supported by the observation that Defoe and Steele behave similarly despite the absence of social ties, and that Dryden and Defoe behave similarly despite the absence of essay by junk, a social tie, and that Dryden and english Swift behave similarly despite the absence of a social tie.
Accordingly, looking ahead, I am interested in ascertaining a range of features as diagnostic for practices by the periodical discourse community. This involves selecting a range of constructions, lexico-grammatical as well as discourse structures, for investigation. This need not be started from scratch, but can be based on the register-based studies conducted in guide edition the field. Harvard English? In order to fine-tune the notion of the discourse community of periodical essay writers, it will be useful to differentiate periodical essays from other (occasional, subject-specific) essays for systematic examination. The analysis must also include a study of dates of publication as well as publication history of the periodicals and manner of transmission in order to establish the emergence of discourse practices that mark this community, and a good for prostitution the ways in which social relationships interact with discourse community to shape language use in the period. Boissevain, Jeremy. 1974. Friends of Friends: Networks, Manipulators and english Coalitions. New York: St. Martin?s Press.
Carley, K.M., D. Krackhardt, 1996. ? Cognitive inconsistencies and non-symmetrical friendship ? , Social Networks 18 , 1-27. Cowler, R. (ed.). 1986. The Prose Works of Alexander Pope. Vol II: The Major Works, 1725-1744.
London: Basil Blackwell. Dobree, B. and N. Davis, 1959, repr. 1976. For Senior Citizens? English Literature of the Early Eighteenth Century. English? Oxford: Clarendon Press. Fitzmaurice, S. Essay On Health Hazards Caused By Junk Food? 2004a. Harvard English? ? Orality, standardization, and the effects of print publication on global the look of Standard English in the eighteenth century ? . In: Dossena, Marina and Lass, Roger (eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology . Bern: Peter Lang. 2004: 351-383. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004b. ? Subjectivity, intersubjectivity, and the historical construction of interlocutor stance: from stance markers to discourse markers ? . Proposal? Discourse Studies 6/2. Essay? 427-448. Fitzmaurice, S. 2003. ? The Grammar of stance in early eighteenth-century English epistolary language ? . In: Charles Meyer and Pepi Leistyna (eds.), Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use . Amsterdam, Rodopi. English? 2003.
107-131. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000a. ? Coalitions and the investigation of social influence in linguistic history ? . EJES ( European Journal of English Studies ) 4/3. 265-276. Fitzmaurice, S. Global? 2000b. ? The Spectator , the politics of social networks, and english thesis language standardisation in a hook for a warming eighteenth-century England ? . In: Laura Wright (ed.), The Development of proposal, Standard English, 1300-1800 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 195-218. Hyland, K. 1999. Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing . Harlow, England: Longman/Pearson. Johns, A.M. and research guide 14th J. M. Swales.
2002. Harvard Thesis? ? Literacy and disciplinary perspectives: opening and closing perspectives ? . Journal of English for Academic Purposes 1. 13-28. Johns, A.M. 1997. Text, Role, and Context: Developing Academic Literacies . New York: Cambridge University Press. Marsden, P.V. and N.E. Friedkin. 1994. ? Network Studies of Social Influence ? . In: Stanley Wasserman and Joseph Galaskiewicz (eds.) , Advances in Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and for a Behavioural Sciences . London: Sage Publications. Milroy, James. 1992. Harvard Thesis Proposal? Linguistic Variation and Change: On the Historical Sociolinguistics of English . Oxford etc. Blackwell.
Milroy, James Lesley Milroy. 1985. Authority in Language: Investigating Language Prescription and Standardisation . Global Financial Essay? London etc.: Routledge Kegan Paul. Milroy, James Lesley Milroy, 1997. ? Network structure and english linguistic change ? . In: N. Hazards By Junk Food? Coupland A. Jaworski (eds.), Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook . London: Macmillan. Milroy, Leslie, 1994. ? Interpreting the role of extralinguistic variables in linguistic variation and change ? . In: G. Melchers N.L. Johannsson (eds.), Nonstandard Varieties of Language . Stockholm: Alqvist Wiksell.
131-145. Sutherland, J. 1969. English Literature of the Late Seventeenth Century . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Swales, J. 1988. ? Discourse communities, genres and English as an international language ? . World Englishes 7/2. 211-220. Wilke, H.A.M. (ed.). English Thesis? 1985. Coalition Formation . Advances in Psychology 24. New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Willer D. and about B. Anderson (eds.). 1981.
Networks, Exchange and Coercion: The Elementary Theory and its Application . Harvard English Thesis? New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Zeggelink, E. 1994. ? Dynamics of structure: an individual-oriented approach ? . Social Networks 16 . For A Global? 295-333.  For details, see Fitzmaurice (2004a), and other references.  To introduce a degree of flexibility into the characterisation, I have judged each parameter for each relationship on a five-point scale. Harvard English Proposal? The overall calculation of ? proximity ? is then a mean of the aggregated scores: greatest proximity = 1, least proximity (greatest distance) = 5.  For a detailed account of the quarrel, see Chapter 3 of Fitzmaurice (2002).
 Although this is an essay, it has the look and thesis for prostitution feel of a sermon, in which the speaker invokes the congregation?s experience and beliefs and yokes those with her/his own.
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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an account of someone’s life written by another person. A biography can be short in the case of few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an thesis extra mile and include more details to make an interesting read. Global Financial. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to harvard proposal know how to come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in statement for prostitution, it.
The lives of many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to english thesis proposal capture in warming essay, the biography and thesis proposal, what to leave out. The length of a hook for a global essay, a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. The length will determine the nature of information and harvard proposal, how extensively it will explain the life of a person. On Writing. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about english a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the person’s childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A person’s date and place of birth, at times with the a good thesis statement for prostitution, date and place of death as may be applicable The person’s major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of a person and harvard english thesis proposal, their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an global essay individual in the community.
A lengthy biography will bring out more details of a person’s life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out more clearly especially the details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be. The target audience will also dictate the harvard english, nature of the information that is to be included. Research On Writing. The relation of the audience to an individual will have an impact on how the information is presented and thesis proposal, the important details that they could be interested in. In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to a good thesis statement be included. This mostly happens in the case of a several paged biography. You will have to scrutinize the person in a more detailed way and establish more people relating to the person.
Focusing on the uniqueness of an individual can do wonders in this case and this might turn out to be inspirational to many people. The field that the thesis proposal, person has majored in or had majored in ought to influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the contribution of the global, individual to english their field of study. A biography is on health food meant to analyze a person’s life and interpret it as well. A good biographer will try to join the dots and explain certain actions and events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in clearly bringing out the significance of a person’s life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds.
Biographies are usually written in english thesis proposal, a chronological order. Some biographers could also draft them in on writing, a themed order that is early life, educational background, a person’s achievements or accomplishments. But some especially the short ones will focus on one area in a person’s life. There are several sources of information that could aid one in writing an astounding biography. Harvard English Proposal. These sources of information can be grouped into either primary sources or secondary sources.
The primary sources of caused by junk, information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about. This is also considered as a primary source of information. Harvard English Thesis. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about. Select the individual you want to write about Search for the basic facts that relate to a person’s life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this.
Think about the details to add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the person’s life. Choose the global financial crisis essay, area in a person’s life that you want the biography to revolve around. Some guiding questions that could aid you in harvard english, this include; What’s the thesis, most interesting bit about the person? What is the significance of the individual to the society and the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for the description of the harvard, individual? What actions or life events bring out the qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the crisis essay, individual or brought out the thesis proposal, best in them?
Did they face obstacles or take some risks in for prostitution, life? How did they handle the obstacles and did they happen to be lucky? What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to the way people view certain aspects of life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of action that transformed the way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in harvard thesis proposal, general? Carry out some additional research on global financial essay, the internet to answer some of the questions mentioned above.
Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. After getting everything in order, you can proceed to write the biography. We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in order to get the drift. A biography template is meant to specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. For this purpose to be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the ones provided on this site.
The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and this should be in great detail to thesis avoid the risk of the writer missing out some important facts. On Writing. The templates available on this site will help you capture all of the details. The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the thesis proposal, bush. Going round one idea or item will make the biography boring to read and it is prudent for the writer to be straight to the point. Global. By doing this it will be easier for the readers to skim through and find the details they might be interested in with lots of easy. The writer will also save his/her time and concentrate on writing other things.
The general sections of any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the person An account of their early life The person’s family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the individual. A professional Biography Template. A professional biography is a statement that could either be short or long that is written about a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and interesting for the readers to identify with the person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is harvard english thesis proposal a little bit different. A professional biography template is meant to ease the process of generating printed professional biographies especially for an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions. Essay Caused By Junk Food. Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of proposal, one’s early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on your education, mention any academic awards or the clubs and societies that you were part of. Any work experience while in on writing, school. Talk about how creative and innovative you are with coming with solutions to the problems that you have faced as an individual, mention any situation that you were self-reliant in coming up with solutions Mention qualities that make you stand out for instance, being independent, principled or discerning to increase your trustworthiness.
The following tips will enable you to harvard thesis come up with the best professional biography; Be brief and precise to the point. This is to enable the essay about citizens, reader to easily and english proposal, quickly get to know about you. Financial. Be spontaneous in your writing Be as expressive as possible and avoid too much of self-editing while drafting the professional biography in the initial stages to capture as much information as possible Be friendly but not too informal Be as interesting as you could in order to get the attention of proposal, many people out there Write it in third person. A Hook For A. Talk about thesis proposal your life as if someone else were describing it. This site offers you a professional biography template that could aid in making the generation of professional biographies an global financial easy and less time consuming task. You can also check out sample bios to english proposal figure out how to go about the whole process of coming up with a professional biography.
A personal biography is writing guide a short account of english proposal, who you are, your credentials and your notable accomplishments in life. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. Concern For Senior Citizens. The use of personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to harvard easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an introduction of yourself.
Remember to write it in third person and include the year that your professional career started to research be relevant. You could give a list of any relevant specializations in your field. State your educational facts and credentials. Mention the harvard thesis, degrees that you have pursued and the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for your career and mention the name of the society that you are legally a member of. Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in your practice.
Remember that the information ought to be relevant to by junk the audience being addressed. Harvard Thesis Proposal. If you happen to be an author you could mention the magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works. Essay On Health Hazards Caused. Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in progress that people should lookout for in the near future. Don’t forget to mention your current place of residence. As you age, it is thesis good to keep on updating your biography to reflect who you are at present time. You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to easily and in a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on the important details. We also provide sample biographies to for a warming give you a feel of what your end draft should look like. If you have kids and you want to let them in on famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for kids.
These will help them know the notable people who help shape the world to what it has become to be.
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Reflective essay to discuss the nursing process and how it was applied in the clinical area in wh_0. Reflective Essay to harvard proposal, Discuss the Nursing Process and how it was Applied in the Clinical Area in which I was Placed. This is a reflective essay to demonstrate the nursing process and for prostitution, how it was applied in. The clinical area in which I was placed. Atkinson et al (1983, p2) describes The. nursing process is a system of planning the delivery of nursing care, consisting of four. steps: Assessment, Planning, Implementation and Evaluation. This is a client.
focused assignment; therefore I will choose a client whom I have participated in. providing nursing care for. I will discuss the nursing process, how it was applied and. the context in which it was done. I will use reflection to compare my findings to how. literature states it should be done. I plan to show an understanding of holistic care and. how it is used in each stage of the nursing process. Holistic care is an. approach to harvard english thesis proposal, healthcare which treats the individual as a whole person in relation to. their needs (Hinchliff et al, 1998).
In order to maintain confidentiality I have provided my client with a pseudonym. I based this assignment on Mary, who is a 72 year old lady and suffers with. osteoarthritis which is a degenerative disorder in bone and cartilage (Hinchliff et al, 1996). She had fallen at home and thesis, was presented at the Accident and Emergency. department by emergency services. After a short stay on Medical Assessment she. was transferred to the unit for rehabilitation following her fall. I spent seven weeks.
on a large intermediate care ward. The ward is nurse led with very little medical. intervention. The NSF for Older People (2001 p.3) defines intermediate care to. provide integrated services to promote faster recovery from illness, prevent. unnecessary acute hospital admissions, support timely discharge and maximise. independent living. Harvard English Proposal. There is a great deal of input from essay on health hazards by junk, a large team including. physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers as well as nurses. Initially an. assessment is made through Intermediate Care Assessment Team (ICAT) in order to.
find whether clients meet criteria to be accepted on this particular unit. Its aim is to. provide a multi-agency, integrated service approach to meeting the needs of. vulnerable older people who have complex health and social care needs. ICAT.
follows up referrals from both acute and community settings and english, assessments are. made relating to clients physical, social and mental health. Clients on the unit will be. over 65 years and live within the trust area. They will be medically fit for discharge. from acute settings, although must have needs which affect their activities of living. (AL’s). The unit uses Roper-Logan-Tierney’s (1996) ‘Activities of Living’ model as a. basis for assessing and identifying needs. Mosby’s Nurse’s Pocket Dictionary defines assessment as ‘An appraisal or judgement.
made about one particular situation or circumstances, A stage of the nursing process. involving the essay on health hazards by junk collection of information and thesis proposal, data relating to essay hazards caused by junk food, patients and their. healthcare needs’ (Mosby 2002, p.31). Why do we assess? The purpose of. assessment is manifold but is essentially undertaken to identify risk and harvard english thesis proposal, highlight.
problem areas in order to provide a platform for global financial possible future intervention. (Hinchcliffe et al, 1998). After the harvard thesis decision was made by ICAT and Mary came to the. ward, I participated in her admission process. As per trust policy I collected the. relevant data collection documents and essay about for senior, produced Mary’s folder ensuring each.
document was in the correct order. My mentor and I referred to the client’s case notes. which contained past medical history, investigations and doctors notes etc. We. transferred information from recent documents, such as full name, date of birth, address and next of kin. Under supervision of my mentor I was instructed to gather. information by assessing Mary based on documents which made her personal file. Both myself and my mentor introduced ourselves to Mary who was sitting at her bed. side in a cubicle.
In an attempt to establish a therapeutic relationship with my client I. firstly orientated her with new surroundings such as visiting times, lounge, dining. areas. Involvement and relationship with another is both necessary for harvard english the enactment. of orientation and development of the therapeutic relationship (Glasser, 1965, cited by. Perry et al, 1991). Using an informal manner I went through each part of the. assessment. I used skills in observation, open ended questions and listening in an. attempt to retrieve as much information possible, particularly in Activities of Living.
This helped to build a composite picture of my client and research on writing, allowed her to proposal, introduce. new facts that might be pertinent. By Junk Food. The questions posed by english assessing in the. individuality component of the on writing model (such as how, how often, why and when) furnished information not only about the way in which the person carried out each. activity of living but also the knowledge and beliefs she held about it (Newton, 1991). I carried on assessing weight, nutrition, and physiological observations. Due to the. nature of the ward the new single assessment process has recently been introduced. DoH (2002a) states that single assessment will provide better and more efficient. access to cares services.
It will minimise duplication of assessments by agencies and. save older people from having to repeat their personal details and needs to a range of. professionals. Thesis. On gathering individualised data, it then must be interpreted. The needs. identified were specifically related to mobility and a good, pain, both of which affect AL’s. Strengths identified such as family support are also a valuable resource when.
proceeding through the thesis proposal next stage of the nursing process which is care planning. This stage of the nursing process is to develop a plan of care and determine what. approach should be used to help with identified problems. During the planning phase, the nurse applies the skill of problem solving and decision making. Setting priorities, writing goals and essay caused by junk food, planning nursing actions also make up this phase (Atkinson et al, 1983). The ward held a care plan file, which held care plans for a range of different.
problems. English Thesis Proposal. These could be used as a guide and had to a hook for a global warming, be individualised relating to harvard thesis, each. specific client and their needs. Writing Guide. On reflection, I felt this was a good idea, particularly. for myself as a student to refer to, however it could present an opportunity for care. plans to become less individualised should they be used incorrectly, which. consequently, could have an adverse effect and defeat its objective. Archibald (2000) explains that Nursing models have been used to english thesis proposal, provide systematic care delivery. stemming from a desire to organise care coherently, enabling the plan of care to be. used and continued by essay about citizens others. He goes on to suggest that since the harvard introduction of.
models, nursing practice has become more patient centred and holistic. Daws (1998) agrees that the essay nursing care plans play a vital role in promoting a holistic and. individualised approach to care delivery and providing an essential tool for. documenting needs and preferences. With reference to Mary, goals were set to. increase mobility, increase confidence in harvard english thesis proposal, mobilising and to reduce pain caused by. osteoarthritis. Due to the nature of this ward care plans usually determine discharge. outcomes. Targets are set for a maximum rehabilitation period of 28 days. Reasons for.
this are due to the fact that patients are not acutely ill and need very little medical. attention. Instead, they have a great deal of input from physiotherapists, occupational. therapists who work closely with clients both individually and in small groups. Newton (1996 p.29) states Goals of Nursing care must be realistic and achievable.
and reflect the research papers a complete edition patients goals for living, so they must be set in english, close partnership with. the patient and based on assessment of the individuals AL’s and on writing papers a complete 14th edition the nursing. knowledge associated with them. The care plan is initially implemented by nursing. staff who will also take into account client centred outcomes. The easy care (single. assessment) document allows the client to say what they would like to harvard thesis proposal, achieve. A Hook For A Global. All. key players will acknowledge care plans at english, some point, therefore they must have easy.
access to the information they need, laws and standards mandate that care plans be. specific, clear and a hook global, legible (Alfaro-LeFevre, 1998). In order to english thesis proposal, keep Mary involved in. her care, goals were agreed with her. This is to ensure patient autonomy but also to. give Mary a clear picture of what will be expected of her during her rehabilitation. period. On Health Caused. It was established that the goal set for pain was highly prioritised and so. analgesia was reviewed by harvard english thesis proposal a doctor. This ensured Mary could proceed concentrating.
on client centred outcomes. The Oxford Dictionary for a good statement Nurses (1998, p.313) defines implementation as the stage. of the nursing process in english thesis, which the patients individual care plan is utilized and. executed, in collaboration with other members of the healthcare team . Hand over. was a good source of information used in order to find whether the care being given is. right for the patient. The ward used pre written handover sheets which were kept.
updated by the ward clerk, this allowed more time to write important details in a short. space of time. Essay Concern Citizens. Sometimes nurses do not have enough time to read charts and look up. common problems during their shift. When you have time to prepare for the shift, you. feel more confident, more competent and can begin giving care in harvard english proposal, a timely fashion. (Alfero-LeFevre, 1998). With reference to Mary care was continued to be monitored. and assessed, this mostly happened via handovers but also from every patient. encounter. I would see this as an essay on health hazards, opportunity to assess both physical and mental.
health, I found that myself as a student could make a valuable contribution to the care. being given. All care was documented and english proposal, signed and papers guide, Mary’s assessment/care plan. file was kept at the foot of the bed. All of the contents are legal documents and can be. referred to by health professionals who participate in the care being given but can also. be viewed by Mary and her family. DoH highlights this within the essence of care.
document (benchmarks for record keeping) (2001, p.3) stating that patients are able. to access all their current records if and when they choose to in a format that meets. their needs. It is safe to say that the english thesis stages in the nursing process are not in essay on health by junk, complete. isolation from each other, I found from observing care given that each stage overlaps.
the next. It is at harvard thesis, this stage that clear direction is given about what is to be done for the. client and by whom it should be done. Since the entire MDT was based in the same. unit, the communication was excellent. This ensured a timely advantage for patients. and for for senior citizens tasks to be delegated to harvard english thesis, the correct healthcare professional. A Hook Global Essay. Handovers were.
essential tools in this phase as information could be exchanged between nursing staff. and the rest of the MDT, and further strengths and weaknesses could be highlighted. Tasks were allocated to each member of the team on english specific days at specific times. The patient was also kept well informed of their care via a board in her room which. gave the days and times and activities to be held. All input from therapy staff was. documented by form of writing research papers a complete 14th edition report and harvard thesis, handed over to papers 14th edition, nurses on harvard english completion.
Weekly. MDT meetings were held, which allowed the research team as a whole to discuss plans of care. At this point social workers are updated relating to proposal, their area of care and look into the. possibility of services post discharge. Mary was kept updated of this information. which can only a hook for a global be implemented on thesis proposal her consent. This is the global essay final stage in the nursing process, which occurs continuously while. providing care. Evaluation refers to goals which were set, any reassessment and. documentation relating to specific goals. Harvard English Thesis Proposal. In Mary’s case this was her care plans.
Therefore the questions would be asked: Is the client in pain? How well does the. client mobilise? Is the client confident in mobilising alone? This phase also involved. re-assessing Mary in relation to AL’s, and hazards by junk food, so by using the Roper, Logan and english proposal, Tierney.
(1996) model, a staff nurse updated this information by essay for senior explaining the process to my. client and asking her views on each topic relating to AL’s. Tierney (1998) suggests. that this particular model is positively balanced, and english thesis proposal, has been one of the most popular. in the United Kingdom. Research On Writing. Wimpenny (2001) agrees stating It is certainly the best. known and most widely used model in this country. Generally the model had worked. well as a basis for Mary’s care planning, and proved in the evaluation stage that.
progress was made and the model was excellent in relation to english proposal, most physical and social. aspects of care. It was documented and handed over that my client had appeared to. have progressed in all that was set. Newton (1991, p.181) confirms this by stating. Value is also placed on observablee behaviour as an indication of the a good thesis need for. nursing and the basis of evaluation of the effects of nursing. Proposal. On reflection, I found. that the care plans were maintained well. The intervention of therapy staff and their.
role in meeting the specific goals was a key factor in Mary’s progression. At this point. and in order to encourage a timely discharge my client and her family were informed. of a home visit. This would prove to writing guide, the MDT whether her progression in hospital. reflected on her own living environment, therefore determining an english, expected discharge. date and thesis for prostitution, which services/equipment if any are needed to ensure the discharge is safe.
Archibald (2000) believes evaluation should take place in collaboration with the. patient and family. This happened on the unit via progress reports or case conference. which were organised by members of the MDT in a private setting and family were. welcomed to be involved on thesis proposal consent of the client. The evaluation of care was fully. documented by the nurse and the MDT agreed that goals had been met. Therefore the. plans were discontinued as it had been established how my client would manage at. home and the only risks identified were eliviated by equipment provided by.
occupational therapy. After a discharge date was set the nurse made appropriate. arrangements for transport via an ambulance and liaised with a family member in. order ensure a safe arrival at home. As both care giver and observer, I found that the care planned matched the care given. Collaboration between the Multidisciplinary Team and working closely with patient. and family enabled outcomes to be achieved. This experience has taught me the.
importance of holistic care in relation to the nursing process and how an effective. therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional allows more. information to be retrieved, thus creating a more precise and individualised care plan. To care for a person holistically requires ongoing assessments – utilizing knowledge, attitudes and on health food, skills. Improving assessments and patient involvement in care is. highlighted in the essence of care document (DoH, 2001b). The fact that the MDT. were based within the same unit allowed a more timely advantage for english thesis both patient and.
staff , allowed maximum communication to all concerned and worked well in hazards by junk, relation. to discharge planning. Harvard English Thesis Proposal. My client had commented how she enjoyed the 4 weeks on the. ward. I think that the social aspect of the ward helped a great deal.
Mary was. encouraged by the whole team and maintained as much independence possible. throughout her stay. I have benefited as a result of this placement, as it has taught me. the importance of the nursing process. I have become more efficient in thesis statement, collecting. information from the client and utilising it appropriately in english thesis, order to care for the client.
in a holistic way. Archibald, G (2000). A Post Modern Nursing Model. Nursing Standard . Vol 14 (34) p40-42. Alfero-Lefevre, R (1998) Nursing Process: A Step by Step Guide . 4 th Edition. Research On Writing. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Arnold, A. (1991) . Nursing : A Knowledge Base for Practice, London: Hodder Stoughton. Atkinson D and Murray M. (1983) Understanding the Nursing Process. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Daws, J. (1998). Harvard Proposal. An Enquiry into Attitudes of hazards by junk Qualified Nursing Staff towards the Use of Individualised Nursing Care Plans as a Teaching Tool. Journal of Advanced Nursing 13:134-146.
Department of Health (2001) Single assessment process , http:// www.doh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/ SocialCare/SingleAssessmentProcess. Department of thesis Health. (2002a ) Essence of Care : Patient Focused Benchmarks for Clinical Governance . London: Department of research Health, Department of Health (2002b) National Service Framework for Older People: Intermediate Care: Moving Forward . London: Department of Health. Glasser, W. (1965) Reality Therapy . New York: Harper Row, Hinchliff, S. Harvard. Norman, S and Schober J. (1998) Nursing Practice and Healthcare: A Foundation Text , 3rd Edition. London: Arnold Publishers Ltd. Hinchliff, S., Montague, S and Watson, R. (1996) Physiology for Nursing Practice, 2 nd Edition.
London: Balliere Tindall, Mosby’s Nurses Pocket Dictionary. (2002), 32 nd Edition. A Hook For A Warming. London: Mosby, Newton, C. (1991) The Roper-Logan-Tierney: Model in Action. Basingstoke: Palgrave M c Millan. Nursing and Midwifery Council (2002) Code of Professional Conduct . London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Oxford Minidictionary for Nurses (1998), 4th Edition.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Roper, L. Logan, W and english proposal, Tierney, A. (1996) The Elements of Nursing 4 th Edition. Global Financial Crisis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Tierney, A.J. Harvard Thesis. (1998) Nursing Models:Extant or Extinct? Journal of a good thesis statement Advanced Nursing. Vol 28 (1) p77-85. Wimpenny (2002) The Meaning of Models of Nursing to Practising Nurses . Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol 40 (3) p346-354.
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