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book reports on a Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of essay textbooks most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to of respondents think and essay textbooks write critically about to do by cotton what they’ve read. In the textbooks early elementary grades, extra support is dissertation given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and inexpensive textbooks other book details. Thesis Ugm? But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and textbooks high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. Of Respondents In Thesis? At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to inexpensive essay textbooks develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Thesis Ugm? Before you write, read.

There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at essay textbooks, your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about on creative for students significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to essay write. Writing? Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.

After reading the essay textbooks book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the thesis ugm proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and inexpensive essay textbooks publishing. Religion? In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. Essay? An outline is good a great prewriting tool for essay textbooks, book reports. And Prejudice Love Essay? Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Essay? Evaluation and Conclusion.

In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for essay faithful dog, each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for inexpensive textbooks, book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Thesis Ugm? Most book reports begin with the textbooks basic information about the book: the essay dog book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the essay author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to dog read it. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? In the faithful dog body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the textbooks book is dog about. This is inexpensive textbooks your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an by cotton mather, overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot.

Specify who tells the textbooks story (point of view) and dissertation the tone or atmosphere of the essay book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the in law major conflict or problem the inexpensive essay textbooks main characters are trying to dog solve. Textbooks? You can also write another paragraph about the pride love other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to essay tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and love and marriage conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of inexpensive essay any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Thesis Ugm? Book Reports on inexpensive textbooks, Non-fiction.

If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to huck finn thesis devote the body of your book report to essay a description of the book’s subject and essay faithful the author’s points of view. Inexpensive Essay? Use the chapter headings to thesis ugm help you present the textbooks author’s ideas and good by cotton arguments in an orderly manner. Inexpensive Textbooks? As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by report for students, the author. Instead, choose the inexpensive essay main ideas and religion the ones most interesting to you. Inexpensive Textbooks? If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Profile Of Respondents? Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Inexpensive? You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is in law here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the inexpensive book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses?

Did the and prejudice love book hold your interest? What did you learn from the essay book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the dog book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the inexpensive textbooks book. Religion Thesis Editors? Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and textbooks Publishing.

After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to on workshop on creative follow the next three steps of the essay writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by of respondents, reading your book report aloud or to inexpensive a friend for feedback. Thesis Ugm? As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for inexpensive textbooks, book quotes and writing the religion thesis editors book title. Give enough time to revising and inexpensive essay textbooks editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an pride and prejudice love essay, expository essay, although it can be written in inexpensive other forms.

In some cases, a teacher will ask students to love essay take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the inexpensive essay last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Dog? Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. Inexpensive Textbooks? If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to to do Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report.

Time4Writing offers online writing courses for inexpensive textbooks, kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and thesis ugm pairs each student with a certified teacher for essay, personalized writing instruction. Report On Workshop Writing For Students? Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.

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My Ed.D. thesis proposal: What does it mean to be ‘digitally literate’? I submitted the second version of my Ed.D. thesis proposal a while back now. I had to re-submit as I failed the first submission. This was a bit of a shock to the system, never having failed anything academically before. It was actually partly my supervisor’s fault – who has now left the University of Durham and doesn’t have a doctorate himself… :p.

I was advised to wait until I had the marks back for the thesis proposal before posting it on my blog. Upon reflection, I could see this was a sensible thing to do, so now I’ve heard back and essay textbooks, I’ve passed I’m going to post it in pride love and marriage its entirity. I received 63% for the following, which isn’t disastrous but less than I would have hoped for. Because it’s my second submission, however, the mark that’s recorded is 50%. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? At the essay to do good by cotton end of the day, I’m not overly concerned: my Ed.D. overall is pass/fail… #128578; The comments on the following were: This is a solid proposal which provides a detailed reflection of the relevant literature in which the proposed study is to be grounded. Although covered in less detail than the literature section, the proposal provides an appropriate methodological base for textbooks, the research. The proposal suggests a cross-cultural component and it is important in this context that similarities as well as ‘discrepancies’ are identified and that the study does not become unmanageable.

In general this is a good solid proposal. The proposal itself follows after the ‘tag’ cloud that is indicative of its contents (courtesy of TweetClouds) What does it mean to be ‘educated’ and ‘digitally literate’? The impact of and prejudice love essay ICT and the knowledge society upon education in the 21st century. Society is textbooks changing at an unprecedented rate. The nature of the family, how we connect with other people, the ways in which our leaders are held accountable, and and prejudice love and marriage essay, the extent to which the media controls our lives are fundamentally different even from 25 years ago. Members of inexpensive textbooks every culture and thesis ugm, society have the world of everyday experience mediated by technologies, traditions and cultural norms or expectations. (Petrina, 2007:168; Achterhuis, 2001:71) The technologies which mediate life in the 21st century in first-world nations are powerful communicative devices and are developing at an incredibly fast pace. This means that the way in which the inexpensive textbooks world is understood and in law, presented to essay individuals can be somewhat incoherent and thesis editors, is certainly very different from that of previous generations. In turn, unless they are willing to change to adapt to the needs and inexpensive essay textbooks, future requirements of learners, schools are in danger of becoming, ‘even more quaint and shaky against the backdrop of technology.’ (Smith Curtin, 1998:227) Schools are the love link between generations: they bridge the essay textbooks gap between the knowledge and skills of the previous generation and that of the next generation. One of the thesis ugm roles of inexpensive essay textbooks educational institutions is to ensure that young people have the knowledge and in law, skills for the world of work.

But education is not simply about inexpensive essay textbooks preparing young people for their working life, as evidenced by recent ‘personalising learning’ initiatives that have emerged across the western educational landscape. There remains something more holistic about the education system that aims at producing ‘educated’, ‘literate’ citizens. As we discover more about in law how the brain works and about how students learn best, so what we mean by an ‘educated’ person changes. Technology also has a role to play in inexpensive textbooks this, as for essay faithful, some educational thinkers it to a great extent redefines what it means to be ‘literate’. Schools, therefore, are increasingly investing in and exploring educational technology in an attempt to ensure that they remain relevant to the world outside the school gates. Whilst there is a top-down drive to adopt such technologies, however, their pedagogical use is still being worked out at inexpensive, a grass-roots level. With society in a state of flux and essay faithful, of radical transformation schools need to find a way of bridging the gap between their traditional role and the technologically-mediated world in which their pupils now inhabit.

It is an open problem about which Jacques Delors (Delors, 1996a:172), president of inexpensive essay textbooks UNESCO wrote in 1996: …there is a decisive issue at pride and prejudice love and marriage essay, stake here, and it is important that schools and universities should have a central place in a profound change that is affecting the whole of inexpensive essay textbooks society. There is essay no doubt but that individuals’ ability to access and process information is set to essay become the determining factor in their integration not onlyinto the working environment but also into their social and cultural environment. The concept that shall be discussed in what follows as ‘digital literacy’, therefore, would seem to be a key one for schools and individuals who want to play an profile of respondents in thesis, active role in the ‘knowledge society’. There is a tension at the heart of school life between preparing students for an uncertain future whilst continuing traditional notions of what constitutes a school. Successfully resolving this tension should result in educational institutions producing ‘educated’ young people who are ‘literate’ within the domains they shall operate, both now and in the future. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? However, due to the scale of social change witnessed over the last 25 years, coupled with the almost exponential rate of technological development and uptake, resolution of this tension is becoming increasingly difficult for schools.

What does an ‘educated’ person look like in the 21st century? Are traditional literacy skills enough? Although some work has been done in attempting to good make a traditional curriculum more flexible, coherent and relevant, few explicit identifications of essay textbooks what constitutes a literate, educated person in the 21st century have been made (McCain, 2005:49). Having a clear focus as to what it means to have the requisite tools for life in the 21st century – to be ‘digitally literate’ – would enable schools to synthesise the traditional and the new more effectively. Whilst definitions are both historically and culturally situated (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8), it should be possible to identify common usage, at least implicitly, of what educators and policy makers mean when they talk about being ‘educated’ – and therefore ‘literate’ in a 21st century sense. Of Respondents? In contrast to the view satirised by Charles Dickens’ character of Gradgrind in Hard Times (‘Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts’), to textbooks be ‘educated’ in the 21st century is of respondents a more slippery idea to pin down. There is inexpensive little agreement as to religion thesis editors what the purpose of education is in the 21st century. Inexpensive Textbooks? Some thinkers on the topic are instrumentalists, seeing education as a means to thesis ugm a (usually vocational) end, whereas others stress the essay textbooks importance of the process. Likewise, as has been argued extensively, (Barton Hamilton, 2000:11-12; Muller, 2000:56; Delors, 1996b:85) ‘literacy’ ranges across domains and of respondents in thesis, applies to inexpensive textbooks much more than reading and pencil-and-paper writing. Agreement upon essay faithful dog what it means to be a ‘literate’ person, therefore, is also difficult to inexpensive textbooks find.

To have some clarity as to what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ will help move on the debates taking place at all levels in the western education system. Instead of these conceptions being an updated version of what was learned at school by the previous generation, there needs to profile in thesis be a thorough review of the needs of both students and the workplace. An active examination of the possibilities offered by new (educational) technologies should inform this review in order for it to be as forward-looking as possible. The views of stakeholders and interested parties need to be analysed and compared in order to discover motivations, potential conflicts and areas of agreement. Essay? Once these notions of what it means to thesis ugm be ‘literate’ in essay the 21st century have been resolved then the way forward for pride and prejudice, education to move towards new pedagogies and ways of textbooks working should become clear. At present, however, the lack of clarity as to what it means to dissertation in law be ‘digitally literate’ means that teachers are subjected constantly to inexpensive new proposals and reforms that aim to resolve the tension between the old and the new. Without an idea of the purpose of essay faithful dog education, it would seem that these efforts are ultimately doomed to fail. To explore claims that traditional notions of literacy are not sufficient for 21st century education.

To analyse policy documents from government down to inexpensive textbooks school level in order to discover the level of coherence in evidence. In Thesis? To highlight discrepancies between pedagogy and practice regarding educational technology in schools. To survey briefly the situation in other countries regarding digital literacy skills. To come up with workable, 21st-century definitions of what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ (i.e. literate in the 21st century) Despite Tony Blair’s famous commitment to ‘education, education, education’, the Labour government in the United Kingdom is notoriously cagey when it comes to defining and inexpensive essay, setting out the purpose(s) of education and thesis ugm, schooling. Inexpensive Textbooks? Implicit in many of the pronouncements made and reforms undertaken is dissertation in law a focus upon the financial well-being of the individual, and therefore the nation. Achieving ‘economic well-being’ is even enshrined in the compulsory Every Child Matters agenda to be implemented by schools (HMSO, 2003). Leaving aside the use of inexpensive textbooks education as a vehicle to economic prosperity, however, at least one of the purposes of schooling must be to produce ‘educated’ young people. What is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century, however, is difficult to religion thesis define. In the inexpensive past this was much more straightforward, defined by the educational elite.

Today, however, even leading educational thinkers such as David Carr (2003:11-12) have difficulty in pinning down a notion of what it now means to be ‘educated’: The best we can so far say is that to be educated is to thesis editors come to appreciate or value for their own sake the non-instrumental or teleological (intrinsically valuable) features of those forms of knowledge, understanding and skill for which a reasonable educational case has or can be made. Just to have studied or have some knowledge or skill, however, does not make one educated. One must be able to communicate one’s learning in a meaningful way and put it into practice. Carr argues that the notions of ‘education’ and ‘schooling’ need to be untangled (Carr, 2003:15,134), much in the same way that clarification needs to be sought over the difference between being ‘educated’ and being ‘literate’. Inexpensive Essay? With the multiplicity of ways in in thesis which knowledge can be communicated in the 21st century comes new literacies to be able to transmit and receive knowledge in textbooks these new ways. It has been fashionable of late to profile of respondents ascribe to ‘literacy’ those characteristics that would have traditionally gone under the guise of being ‘educated’. Inexpensive Essay? (Delors, 1996a:174; Snyder, 2002:181; Rodriguez Illera, 2004:49-50) Literacy, with the emergence of new domains of dissertation application such as ‘computer literacy’ and ‘visual literacy’, has enjoyed an elevation in status. From being seen originally as being able to read and write or as a means to gaining an education, it is now widely regarded as an end in inexpensive itself. Dissertation In Law? An understanding of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century should lead to essay a greater understanding of what it means to by cotton be ‘educated’, if indeed the inexpensive essay textbooks latter is something over and above the former. According to religion the Oxford English Dictionary, the inexpensive adjective ‘literate’ means, ‘acquainted with letters or literature; educated, instructed, learned.’ To many educational thinkers, however, this is an outdated definition.

In 1958 UNESCO defined literacy as ‘the ability of an individual to read and write with understanding a simple short statement related to his/her everyday life.’ The difficulty with both these definitions is that they categorise people as either literate or illiterate allowing for no shades of grey. Essay To Do Mather? Literacy is defined on a ‘macro’, global level without an understanding of inexpensive textbooks literacy within a given domain or for and prejudice love, a specific purpose. Essay? There is in thesis no scope with these definitions to be able to describe an individual as literate when it comes to pencil-and-paper-based reading and writing, but almost ‘illiterate’ when dealing within a domain mediated by technology. Understood broadly, literacy can be an elusive human construct: it means different things and involves different skills depending upon the culture and time period within which an individual operates. Whilst in the western world ‘literacy’ has traditionally meant the ability to essay read and thesis ugm, write with pencil and paper, this makes a nonsense of societies with oral traditions and records. Postmodern educational thinkers have therefore attempted to deconstruct ‘literacy’, understanding it to consist in essay many different ‘literacies’. Religion? The main stimulus to this, as Kellner (2002:163) attests, is the widening use of technology in society: As technological convergence develops apace, individuals need to textbooks combine the skills of critical media literacy with traditional print literacy and new forms of multiple literacies to access and navigate the new multimedia environments. This depends on an enlarged view of literacy, one that goes beyond the faithful dog mere functional skills set out in UNESCO’s 1958 definition.

Literacy becomes ‘gaining the skills and knowledge to read and interpret the text of the world and to successfully navigate and negotiate its challenges, conflicts, and crises,’ (Kellner, 2002:157) ‘the application of… knowledge for specific purposes in specific contexts,’ (Scribner Cole, 1981 – quoted in Rodriguez Illera, 2004:51), a ‘set of social practices’ that are ‘historically situated’ (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8,13). Literacy in the postmodern view is a fragmented notion: contextually dependent and culturally constructed. New literacies are being formed all the time (Reilly, 1996:218). This has led to the compartmentalisation of different forms of literacy such as ‘computer literacy’, ‘visual literacy’, and ‘critical media literacy’ which served to demonstrate how, for example, an extremely literate person on the traditional view could be ‘illiterate’ when it comes to communicating with the aid of technology. Whilst the postmodern deconstruction of literacy has been useful for inexpensive, purposes of clarification, something about the original holistic meaning of ‘literacy’ has been lost. Literacy is reduced to a science, as training within a given domain. There remains something of a binary distinction between those who are literate within a domain and essay good by cotton mather, those who are not.

UNESCO’s most recent definition in its 2004 position paper (UNESCO, 2004:13) recognises and addresses the limitations of both its own 1958 position and that of postmodern thinkers: Literacy is the essay textbooks ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and religion editors, compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. This definition is an Hegelian-type synthesis of the original, 1950s holistic definitions of literacy, and its more fragmented definition under postmodernism. Literacy is a process, not a state (Rodriguez Illera, 2004) and as such underpins abilities within a given domain. It is better, therefore, to talk of someone having or lacking literacy skills within the domain of digital technologies, rather than ascribing to them a state of being ‘digitally literate’ or ‘digitally illiterate’. Shades of grey within each domain are recognised which build towards an essay, overarching global ‘literacy’. As evidenced above, recent definitions of profile in thesis what it means to essay textbooks be ‘educated’ by those in control of education in the UK are hard to profile come by. Elsewhere in essay the western world they are more forthcoming, however.

A representative statement is of respondents in thesis enshrined, for example, in the definitions set down by essay, Michigan State University as part of its VISION 2004 reorganisation: An educated person is someone who has learned how to acquire, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, understand, and communicate knowledge and information. An educated person has to develop skills that respond to changing professional requirements and profile in thesis, new challenges in society and inexpensive essay textbooks, the world at large. He or she must be able to take skills previously gained from serious study of one set of problems and apply them to another. Editors? He or she must be able to locate, understand, interpret, evaluate, and use information in inexpensive essay textbooks an appropriate way and ultimately communicate his or her synthesis and understanding of that information in a clear and accurate manner. That is to say that being an ‘educated’ person involves taking skills and knowledge from one domain and applying them to another, as well as making links between areas of knowledge and keeping up to date with developments within one’s field and those which affect it. This definition appears to have more in common with traditional conceptions of wisdom than it does with those of literacy (Town, 2003:54). Put simply, becoming literate can be thought of as acquiring the skills to and prejudice be able to participate in the discourse of a particular domain, whereas becoming educated is to inexpensive be able to range across domains and dissertation in law, synthesise the knowledge that has been gained.

The domains of knowledge within educational schools have traditionally been subject-based. Teachers are teachers of one or more specific subjects and the knowledge, if not the textbooks skills, learned are particular to that domain. However, as Muller (2000:2) states, knowledge is intrinsically social – which means that the boundaries and constituent elements of domains of knowledge are socially determined and defined. As a result, literacies change as societal definitions of domains of knowledge change. In Thesis? We view knowledge within a given domain through the lens of current literacies (DiSessa, 2000:65) meaning that what an individual can know and understand is limited by and dependent upon inexpensive textbooks their use of semantic and dissertation, technological tools.

Limiting the ‘micro-literacies’ that make up the more holistic view of literacy (‘macro-literacy’) is to limit the ability of the individual to access some of the inexpensive essay textbooks knowledge within a given domain. Dog? For example, using the ‘micro-literacy’ of familiarity with some digital technologies could allow Geography students to communicate in real-time with other students around the world. The knowledge they would gain from essay, this would be of essay dog a different order from that which they could construct from the inputs of inexpensive textbooks teacher and profile in thesis, textbook. Each ‘micro-literacy’ the students develop counts towards a more global Geographical ‘macro-literacy’. In turn, this would feed into an ever-higher ‘macro-literacy’ that enables the student to function in the world they inhabit. Essay? To be ‘educated’, therefore, could be understood as making links between various domains, which in turn depends upon both micro- and macro-literacies. Macro-literacies cannot be developed without first developing micro-literacies.

If knowledge is information contextualised within a given domain, and domains are dependent upon cultural and societal factors, then knowledge is affected by the rate of change of a society. When the rate of societal change and essay faithful dog, technological innovation is reasonably slow – or at least relatively stable – educational institutions are able to predict what an inexpensive essay textbooks, educated person will look like in ten to fifteen years’ time and prepare students accordingly. When the thesis rate of societal change and technological innovation increases, however, these predictions become less accurate and strategies have to employed in essay textbooks order for educational institutions to be able to function. In practice this means schools sitting on a spectrum somewhere between reactionary measures and furiously attempting to keep up with the latest initiatives. The difficulty that schools face, as Bourdieu (1988, cited in Snyder, 2002:178) notes, is that to transform the present one must have a secure grasp upon it. Given the ‘precariousness’ of contemporary life this is difficult to achieve: the ‘sociality’ of knowledge means that domains of knowledge and of enquiry are constantly shifting. Essay? As a result educational institutions walk a tightrope between anticipating the world which their students will inhabit and introducing them to the knowledge and skills that have been and are currently being used by society. The rate of essay change of society in the 21st century is being driven to a great extent by developments in technology. As the OECD report Learning to love and marriage essay Change: ICT in Schools (2001:9) noted, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has changed the essay textbooks way we live and communicate with one another:

The ubiquitous presence and utility of ICT in religion modern life are having a significant impact on the way we live, and even on the notion of an educated person. It has led to the concept of the knowledge society – sometimes also called the learning society or information society. There is a widespread awareness that these developments have profound implications for education, and that schools must change, but as yet little detailed consideration of the extent of the change needed and the advantages that ICT can bring. The growth of the knowledge society and the pervasiveness of the technology represent a major challenge and a major opportunity for education. Education has a pivotal role to play in society as it is the link between past and future generations. In the essay past this link has been relatively easy to achieve, as the knowledge and skills useful to acquire would vary only slightly within a generation. In the brave new world of digital technology, however, fundamental shifts in required knowledge skill sets and knowledge can occur several times within a generation. The most important skill one can have in a world where knowledge has a ‘half-life’ (Machlup, 1962) is to learn how to learn, to have a secure framework or scaffold upon which new knowledge can be grafted and discarded when necessary. This changing nature of knowledge has been described by dog, Siemens (2006) as knowledge having ‘broken away from its moorings, its shackles’. Inexpensive? Nowhere is this more evident than in the realm of educational technology where, using the tools already available in most schools, learners across the world can communicate, interact and share.

The feeling amongst many writers uneasy with current western-style education systems is that tools which can (and in thesis ugm most cases should) be used to radically transform the way young people are educated in essay the future are being used to prop up the existing system. Tools which should be used to create new literacies are being shoehorned to supplement or gloss those of the past. Some writers talk of these digital tools being retro-fitted to religion outdated pedagogies to produce what could be termed ‘School 1.5’ instead of ‘School 2.0’. Ironically, when these tools do not lead directly to huge learning gains, at least on such measures as school league tables and the like, it is the tools themselves rather than the pedagogy and education system which are blamed. Using relevant technologies is essential in 21st century education when it is the principal way by essay, which the world is mediated to individuals; new pedagogies need to be constructed to use the tools and technologies invented and used outside of the school gate. When tools such as online read/write reference resources become more accessible than books and profile in thesis, lecture notes, a shift occurs in inexpensive the way that learners conceptualise not only research, but the world itself.

As many authors have noted, we use technology to shape the world – but tools, technological or otherwise, also shape us (Burnett, 2002:145; Apple, cited in Darder, et al., 2003:454; Demetriadis, et al., 2003:34; Provenzo, et al., 1999:40; Sutherland, et al., 2004:6) Although he could not have envisaged the online worlds available to us through the Internet, the effect of such tools on learners is put perhaps most succinctly by Dewey (1925, quoted in Blacker McKie, 2003:235): A tool is a particular thing, but it is more than a particular thing, since it is a thing in which a connection, a sequential bond of nature is embodied. It possesses an objective relation as its own defining property. Its perception as well as its actual use takes the mind to of respondents in thesis other things. The use of textbooks educational technology, then, mediates the experience of learners with regard to education and to knowledge, but then so does the use of dissertation any tool. This process of human-created tools mediating human experience has an impact upon education: learners need to textbooks be able to use and shape these tools for their own ends. Thesis Ugm? To be ‘educated’ involves being able to leverage semantic and technological tools across domains in order to make connections. To view the possibilities and potential impact of educational technology requires a re-imagining of teaching and learning. Even with a reconceptualization of what it means to essay be ‘educated’ and ‘literate’ in the 21st century, what does not change is the human element in learning, a thread that winds its way from the Socratic dialogues through to 21st century classrooms and thesis editors, (virtual) lecture theatres. Although there were fears in the early 1970s when computers first began to be integrated into the mainstream that society would become dehumanised, the former still serves as a tool to the latter.

In fact, using ICT is textbooks more than just a tool, as computers and other digital devices are flexible enough to adapt to the user and present them with many different communication and processing options. It is perhaps better visualised as a plethora of editors many intellectual tools. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? This nuanced view is unfortunately missing in much of the essay to do good by cotton mather discussions surrounding educational technology and the use of computers in schools more generally. Lemke (2002:45) perhaps demonstrates the most balanced understanding of the ways that educational technology can be used to enhance learning. New technologies can often do the job of simulating and talking about the typical activities of the community far better than the average teacher in the average classroom.

Technologies will not, however, be able to substitute for direct participation, nor will they be able to replace thoughtful guidance of essay textbooks students’ critical reflection and analysis, nor the emotional encouragement of achievement and creativity that live teachers provide. The difficulty is that the majority of educators do not understand the revolutionary potential of ICT to their day-to-day teaching. What they see as akin to the television or overhead projector has, if not the ability to ‘blow up the school’ (Papert (1984), cited in Cuban, 1986:72), then certainly the ability to help create an dissertation, environment where learners can construct their own educational tools. Textbooks? Micro-literacies can be thought of religion as having the ability to create, or at least modify, tools in order to make sense of the knowledge within a given domain. Teaching youngsters how to use existing, outdated tools when a culture is undergoing radical change, is at best anachronistic (Claxton, 2002:23). Educational technology is not the answer to everything – a teacher’s pedagogical outlook and teaching ability is still the biggest determinant factor in the quality of a learner’s education – but technology does allow different kinds of ‘ecologies’ to be created.

These are more likely to be focused on learning than on ‘teaching’. (Burnett, 2002: 145) ‘Learning ecologies’ demand a different approach to textbooks education than has been possible previously, and is reflected in some of the ‘personalising learning’ agendas that have made their way into policy in some areas of western education. Instead of the school or teacher-centred model of learning that mass education has been built upon thus far, a learner-centred ecology has been mooted, especially by constructivists. The driving force behind this has been the possibilities opened up by love and marriage, ICT, which has driven curriculum change (OECD, 2001:15) and a rethink of what we mean by ‘literacy’. The difficulty lies in what Levin Riffel (1997:18) call the ‘logic of confidence’: schools can remain fundamentally unchanged so long as they are seen as embodying the right kind of activities and processes. Instead of inexpensive taking steps to improve learning, tests are taken as a substitute. And Prejudice? Progress is measured by teachers becoming adept at inexpensive essay, getting learners through examinations at increasingly higher levels. As politicians also have an interest in these examination results, the whole system becomes somewhat of a charade. Given this barrier, the greatest bequest of ICT to education thus far may have been simply to essay faithful dog point out how stale and boring traditional teaching actually is (Burniske Monke, 2001:258). Inexpensive Textbooks? Whilst educational systems remain in the straightjacket of results and are inextricably linked to dissertation a country’s political system, the possibilities of new technologies are likely to be directed towards existing hegemonic power structures. Essay Textbooks? However, as Blacker McKie (2003:241) argue, ICT may provide the perfect, invisible, weapon: a tool presented as neutral, but actually fundamentally value-laden and used to perpetuate the of respondents position of the elite within society.

Whilst those in positions of control can manipulate the education system and the political process to continue their hegemonic power, then the potential of technology and other innovations are likely to be minimal. Whilst the use of technology is not inevitable, as a society we have made a decision to put it at the centre of our culture – much in the same way as we did with the automobile in the 1950s. (Balle, quoted in Eraut, 1999:89) To ‘jump off the wagon’ and consider a change of direction (Apple, quoted in Darder, et al., 2003:456) would involve a radical change in our civilization. Educators need, therefore, to use the tools available – especially those being used outside the school gates, the cultural experiences of the majority (Beavis, 1998:242). To do otherwise is to prepare young people for a reality that no longer exists – something that is perhaps best illustrated by the following tale told by Benjamin (1971, quoted in Tiffin Rajasingham, 2003:117), …a prehistoric tribe… decided to introduce systematic education for its children. The curriculum was specifically designed to meet particular survival needs in the local environment and so included such subjects as sabre-tooth-tiger-scaring-with-fire. But the climate of the inexpensive textbooks region changes and the sabre tooth tigers perish. Pride And Prejudice Love And Marriage? Attempts to change the curriculum to meet new survival needs encounter stern opposition. There will always be opposition to major reforms or a new direction: tradition and textbooks, the status quo are powerful conservative forces.

But education in the 21st century is about using knowledge and making connections to create educated people in a sense relevant to today’s society. To be ‘literate’ is a relative notion depending both upon essay to do good the domain within which one is operating and the relevance of that domain to contemporary life. Uniquely, in inexpensive the 21st century we could be faced with a literacy problem despite over 99% of people in good mather western society being able to read and write. Whilst it will remain possible, at least for the time being, for individuals to be considered ‘educated’ without using ICT, these individuals will miss out on a large chunk of what it means to essay be ‘literate’ in the 21st century. The micro-literacies they lack, involving the ability to connect and understand the world mediated by digital devices, will serve as barriers to essay dog communication and expression. Technology introduces new ways for humans to communicate and create, introduces new micro-literacies that contribute to the wider ‘macro-literacy’ construct and, as a result, redefines what is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century. What does it mean to be an inexpensive textbooks, ‘educated’ person in the 21st century? Is there such a thing as ‘digital literacy’? How do ‘micro literacies’ feed into essay to do by cotton wider ‘macro literacies’?

What is the most appropriate learning theory for the 21st century? The proposed thesis will be non-empirical; policy documents, official reports, and scholarly works will provide the data required. Whilst this negates problems surrounding ethical treatment of research subjects, issues remain as to how to approach and make sense of the data. There are two main methodological paradigms to make sense of research data: the quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. A purely quantitative approach assumes that objective descriptions of ‘reality’ can be made and that context-free generalisations are possible. A purely qualitiative approach, on essay the other hand, denies any reality external to that created by the enquirer. On top of to do mather this resides dialecticism, a meta-paradigm dependent upon the first two – and Pragmatism, more an heuristic to guide research using these paradigms. To attempt to understand domains, societies and inexpensive, digital spaces within the confines of a positivist quantitative paradigm would seem to be overly-restrictive. When discussing the physical world it is possible to hold a post-positivist approach, acknowledging the reality of the external world whilst holding that our relations to it can only ever be subjective.

When discussing arenas that include digital spaces and connections, however, it is difficult to see how even this nuanced view of the profile of respondents in thesis positivist project can be sustained. On the other hand, the inexpensive qualitative paradigm also seems to suffer from thesis ugm, a poverty of descriptive power when it comes to the ‘blended’ digital/physical arenas that constitute the ‘knowledge society’. People do agree upon the way the world is, connect meaningfully, and experience things in broadly similar ways. To take a blindly poststructuralist/postmodernist view and to insist on the subjectivity of the external, therefore, would be to lose the ability to describe blended arenas and spaces in a meaningful way. A dialectical approach, meanwhile, whilst appearing attractive in synthesizing approaches, seems teleological which is something to be avoided. Textbooks? Certainly given the radically democratic nature of the Internet, for faithful dog, example, no individual or group can direct the ends of the essay masses. At the same time, the technology itself does not dictate what it is used for; this depends upon the human user(s). Perhaps the dog best approach to take, therefore, is the Pragmatic one.

This is a ‘multi-methodology’ that looks to understand the world from many viewpoints, therefore building up a more coherent picture. This fits in well with the idea discussed above of ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ literacies and also gives more of a picture of what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Pragmatism was originally formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce in the pragmatic maxim: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of essay our conception of the thesis ugm object. (quoted in Potter, 1996:94) By this, Peirce meant that concepts (and therefore knowledge statements) emerge from the effects of things such as tools and objects. We need, therefore, to know how tools – digital and otherwise – are actually being used rather than how it was that they were intended to be used. Objects and concepts cannot be separated and considered to have a separate ‘reality’ from the sum total of the inexpensive effects they have upon and marriage people and the environment. Inexpensive Essay? As a result, considering these effects from in law, multiple points of essay textbooks view allows us to understand better those objects and concepts. In terms of ‘digital literacy’ this means analysing how government pronouncements work in practice, how policy documents translate into ‘reality’, and considering how representative are surveys and studies making claims about learners in the 21st century. The thesis, then, shall include data collection in the form of analysis of policy documents from government down to grass-roots level.

An adaptation of the thesis ugm eight-step process outlined by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) shall be considered as a model to inexpensive move from research question through to analysis. This, briefly stated is: Formulation of essay by cotton research question(s) Outline of purpose of mixed research Selection of research methodologies Data collection Data analysis Data interpretation Legitimation Final report with conclusions drawn. The data being collected in inexpensive textbooks this non-empirical thesis comes from a multitude of sources. Essay? As a result, the Pragmatic method will allow for research from essay, various backgrounds to be juxtaposed and synthesised where appropriate to give a bigger and more coherent picture.

Steps 4-6, data collection, analysis and interpretation will therefore be somewhat combined rather than in distinctive ‘steps’. Step 7 (Legitimation) will have to come at essay faithful dog, the same time as Step 3 (Selection of inexpensive textbooks methodologies) to give credence to the entire project. This will result, therefore, in religion a five-step process: Formulation of research questions(s) Outline of purpose of research Selection and legitimation of textbooks research methodologies Data collection, analysis and essay, interpretation Conclusion. This process within the Pragmatic framework will allow an understanding to inexpensive textbooks be gained of how the many stakeholders, interested parties and pressure groups within the UK education system conceive of ‘digital literacy’ and what it means to be ‘educated’. A multi-methodological approach should ascertain the extent to which these conceptions are diverse. Dissertation In Law? At times, ‘hard’ data – such as that provided by research from a predominantly quantitative perspective – will be analysed and at others a ‘thicker’, more descriptive perspective will be required. The thesis will not attempt to essay make general and sweeping claims about the whole education system but instead, where appropriate, highlight conflicts, disagreements and disparities in the wording and implementation of policies surrounding digital literacies. This should inform what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Finally, a comparison shall be drawn with other countries in terms of varying approaches to 21st century education and what it means to pride and marriage essay be ‘digitally literate’.

Difficulties shall certainly arise here in terms of ease of access to policy documents below governmental level. However, where it would seem that the policies and incentives evident in another country or culture would benefit the inexpensive educational system in England and Wales, these shall be highlighted. Those countries that it would be worth researching initially, it would seem, are Singapore (government commitment to digital infrastructure), the United States (for purposes of comparison), and another European country such as Sweden or Norway. This, whilst not the dissertation in law main focus of the thesis, should nevertheless give a flavour of global links, issues and concerns and inexpensive essay textbooks, situate the rest of the discussion in a context. The proposed thesis shall focus upon editors the concept of ‘digital literacy’, using a Pragmatic method in textbooks an attempt to understand the educational landscape within which it resides in religion thesis editors England and Wales. Textbooks? By comparing and faithful, contrasting research, governmental policy documents, the textbooks views of essay mather various groups within education and on the fringe, and what goes on inexpensive in schools, a broad view of what literacy means in the 21st century should be obtained. These shall then be compared and contrasted both internally and with other countries, especially economic competitors to the UK as a whole. Achterhuis, H. (2001) Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn (Indiana University Press) Apple, M. (2003) ‘Is the New Technology part of the of respondents in thesis solution or part of the problem in essay textbooks education? (in A. Darder, M. Baltodano R.D. Torres, The Critical Pedagogy Reader; London) Barton, D. M. Hamilton (2000) ‘Literacy Practices’ (in Barton, D., Hamilton, M. Ivanic, R. (eds.), Situated Literacies: reading and thesis ugm, writing in context, London) Beavis, C. Textbooks? (1998) ‘Computer games, culture and curriculum’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Page to Screen: taking literacy into the electronic era; London, 1998) Blacker, D. Thesis Ugm? J. McKie (2003) ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (in N. Blake, et al. (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education; Oxford, 2003) Burnett, R. Essay? (2002) Technology, Learning and Visual Culture (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: Communication, Innovation and Education in the Electronic Age, London) Burniske, R.W. L. Monke (2001) Breaking Down the Digital Walls: learning to teach in a post-modem world (New York) Carr, D. (2003) Making Sense of Education: an thesis ugm, introduction to the philosophy and inexpensive essay textbooks, theory of education and teaching (London) Claxton, G. (2002) ‘Education for dissertation, the Learning Age: A Sociocultural Approach to Learning to Learn’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Cromer, A. (1997) Connected Knowledge: Science, Philosophy, and essay, Education (Oxford) Cuban, L. (1986) Teachers and Machines: the classroom use of technology since 1920 (London) Delors, J., (1996a) Choices for education: the political factor, in thesis ugm J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France) Delors, J. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? (1996b) The Four Pillars of Education, in J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France, 1996) Demetriadis, S., et al. (2003) ‘ Cultures in negotiation’: teachers’ acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools’ (Computers Education, 41, 2003) Dickens, C. (2007 ed.) Hard Times (London) DiSessa, A.A. (2000) Changing Minds: computers, learning, and literacy (London) Eraut, M. (1991) Education and the Information Society: a challenge for European policy (London) Friedman, T.L. (2005) The World Is Flat: the profile in thesis globalized world in inexpensive essay the 21st century (London) Johnson, R.B.

A.J. Onwuegbezie (2004)’Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come’ (Educational Researcher, Vol. 33, No.7, 14-26) Kellner, D.M. (2002) ‘Technological Revolution, Multiple Literacies, and pride and prejudice love, the Restructuring of Education’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Lemke, J.L. (2002) ‘Becoming the Village: Education Across Lives’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Levin, B. J.A. Riffel (1997) Schools and the Changing World: struggling toward the future (London) Machlup, F. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (New York) McCain, T. (2005) Teaching For Tomorrow: teaching content and problem-solving skills (Thousand Oaks, California) Michigan State University (2004), VISION 2004 statement (http://www.msu.edu/unit/provost/Educated_Person.htm, accessed 3 October 2007 – cached at inexpensive textbooks, http://tinyurl.com/38f3am) Muller, J. (2000) Reclaiming Knowledge: social theory, curriculum and education policy (London) OECD (2001) Learning to Change: ICT in Schools Okan, Z. (2003) ‘Edutainment: is learning at risk?’ (British Journal of pride love and marriage Educational Technology, 34:3) Petrina, S. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? (2007) Advanced Teaching Methods for the Technology Classroom (New York) Postman, N. (1993) Technopoly: the surrender of essay faithful culture to technology (London) Potter, V.G. Essay? (1996) Peirce’s Philosophical Perspectives (New York) Provenzo, E.F., et al. (1999) Computers, Curriculum, and Cultural Change: an in law, introduction for teachers (London) Reilly, B. (1996) ‘New Technologies, New Literacies, New Patterns’ (in C. Fisher, D.C. Dwyer K. Essay Textbooks? Yocam (eds.), Education and Technology: reflections on computing in profile classrooms (San Francisco) Rodriguez Illera, J.L. (2004) ‘Digital Literacies’ (Interactive Educational Multimedia, number 9 (November 2004) Siemens, G. (2006) Knowing Knowledge (http://www.knowingknowledge.com, accessed 24 August 2007) Smith, R. P. Inexpensive? Curtin (1998) ‘Children, computers and life online: education in a cyber-world’ (in I. Snyder, Page to Screen, London) Snyder, I. (2002) ‘Communication, Imagination, Critique – Literacy Education for the Electronic Age’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Stonier, T. C. Conlin (1985) The Three C’s: children, computers, communication (Chichester) Sutherland, R. Essay Faithful Dog? InterActive project team, ‘Designs for Learning: ICT and inexpensive essay textbooks, knowledge in thesis editors the classroom’ (Computers Education, 43, 2004) Tiffin, J. Inexpensive Essay? L. Rajasingham, (2003) The Global Virtual University (New York) Town, J.S. (2003) ‘Information Literacy: definition, measurement, impact’ (in A. Martin H. Rader (eds.), Information and IT literacy: enabling learning in the 21st century, London, 2003) UNESCO (2004) ‘The Plurality of Literacy and and prejudice and marriage, its Implications for Policies and Programmes (France) Wow Doug – looks pretty darn impressive to me. Also looks like a heck of a lot of work. Well done! How dare they fail your first submission – it was a masterpiece ;o) PS love the quotation in your new header – very amusing :oD. Thanks for the praise, Jenny and Lisa! #128578; @Lisa: This is essay textbooks actually the one of which you kindly agreed to proof-read a draft.

Have you noticed that the quotation in the header changes when you refresh the page? :-p. I subscribe to George Siemens elearningspace and received an email today, with a link to your blog. It’s come at an opportune time, I’m considering concept papers for my ed.D. as well (at Nova Southeastern Uni). Pride And Marriage Essay? For a course leading up to my concept paper, I wrote papers on social networking, globalisation and technological progress as well as trends in inexpensive textbooks education. ON another note, where I teach ( an International School in essay Kuala Lumpur) is inexpensive essay moving towards at 1:1 program. We’ve visted 3 different schools, where terms such as “21st century learners” and thesis ugm, “21st century literacy skills” are mentioned, however not articulated. I loved your proposal, similar to inexpensive textbooks the direction where I am heading. Hi Bron, glad you liked the proposal and to do good by cotton, you found it useful! #128578;

George Siemens has linked to inexpensive textbooks this proposal, but for some reason it doesn’t seem to have shown up with a trackback… :-s. Thought your proposal was great. I’m starting my research for my Ed.D in primary schools in dissertation in law the West of Scotland. My topic is very similar to yours, ‘The impact of life on literacy practices: Digital Literacy in primary schools’. I’ll send you my first paper soon. I’ll send you my first paper soon.

That would be great Jane – thanks! It’ll be interesting to compare and essay textbooks, contrast not only primary/secondary issues, but those of the Scottish/English systems. #128578; I#039;m leading an initiative at my universtiy that aims to define and deliver Digital Fluency as a core graduate attribute. 6 months into this work and people here are now getting really interested in the concept and thesis ugm, its relevance to essay textbooks 21st century learning. Let me know if you#039;d be interested in this -happy to share what we#039;ve learnt so far. That sounds very interesting! With Jane at the Primary level, myself at thesis editors, the Secondary level and you at University level, we’ll have it all covered. Do get in touch via the contact form directly to let me know what you’re up to. #128512; quite impressive, indeed. would like to inexpensive know what the evaluators thought to be the missing 37 % ? I sympathise on the failure thing.

Check out my post on the subject. I reckon this is a good topic, but potentially broad. There’s certainly a wealth of material on the blogosphere that you could use. There are quite a few analogies with functional literacy that can be drawn. First if all: your work looks very good. I don’t understand what your evaluators might want more… I’m working (and it will be very probable also part of dissertation my PhD..) on a project about the concept of “digital competence”. We are developing also tests and essay, other assessments. Maybe it could be useful share our works…

1. Is DL the same at all age levels (e.g., high school graduate vs college graduate)? 2. Is DL the same for all professions? 3. Who is to define DL — you? Pretty subjective and not very research based. 4. Put all research results in a table to profile see which one says what skill is needed. 5. Won’t your results be outdated almost by the time you’re finished? Thanks for the questions and feedback. My response: 1. That’s certainly something I’ll be looking at. My gut feeling is that they’d all be on the same spectrum, yes.:-) 2. I’d need some counter-examples to prevent me simply saying ‘yes’.

In the same way that ‘literacy’ ranges across domains, so ‘digital literacy’ does, I think. 3. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? I’ll be looking at how others have defined digital literacy and whether definitions of other terms come close to what I’m getting at. I’ll be looking for consensus, common sense and tentative suggestions, not dogmatic statements about what I believe – so I hope it will be research-based and moving towards some type of objectivity. :-p. 4. Thesis? I’m not entirely sure what you mean by this. Could you elaborate? 5. Perhaps, but hopefully not! Also, I’m undertaking the Ed.D. for a variety of essay reasons. One of the editors strongest is for my development and so I interact with a wide range of inexpensive essay literature and resources.

It’s as much about me grappling with issues as it is about contributing something original.:-) 4. If you’re going to research what others say about DL and what skills are included in those definitions, then it makes sense to put that info into a table so that you can compare visually across columns/rows. I’m due to start my Ed.D next year. Of Respondents In Thesis? It’s really interesting and useful to read your proposal. At present I’m considering focusing on the relationship between the primary school and parents (stakeholders) in essay textbooks light of the Ed changes since 1988. Your proposal is impressive.Incidentally,I just passed my Ed.D proposal.I am studying at the university of Sheffield.I am focusing on boys and literacy.But I am curious:How can a non doctoral research supervisor manage the work of a doctoral student?

@Andre: Exactly! I haven’t been too impressed with the and prejudice lack of urgency in finding myself a new one, either… #128577;

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Research Topics in inexpensive essay textbooks, English Literature. Research topics on English Literature initially start off broad and then narrow down and you come up with your thesis. Using any of the research topics listed to the left (gender, comparisons, historical background, politics, and religion) can take you almost anywhere. Thesis Editors? Choose your general topic based on inexpensive textbooks, your literature class you're writing for. If it's a class focused on gender, start there and then branch out to something like my example of how the roles of men and religion, women are portrayed. Knowing first your general topic and then what kind of essay textbooks, essay or paper you're researching for (argumentative, persuasive, etc.) can help you decide what to do with it next when it comes to narrowing it down. Remember this isn't concrete. Your topic can grow and completely change as you research.

Choosing the literature topic is just the key to getting started. Advice for thesis ugm, Writing Papers or Essays. If you've chosen your research topic and need help writing your paper, check out my hub on a book that just might be your savior that also gives some writing advice based on the book. Topics For English Literature Research Essays. When it comes to English Literature, there's no end to the topics that you can research on that novel or other piece that you've been reading. The easiest way to get an idea for that next research topic on English literature for your essay is to inexpensive textbooks start broad and then work toward making it more specific and interesting for your readers. Essay Good Mather? Here are a few examples of inexpensive essay textbooks, research topics in literature to get you started (for a more extensive list of essay, research topics in literature, please check out the link that can be found at the bottom of essay textbooks, this article):

How are the roles of men and of respondents in thesis, women portrayed in inexpensive, the novel? Are they distinctly different? Do they have equal rights? What gender expectations do they follow or fight against? 2. Comparisons between genres.

How does each genre tell its story? What are the differences and similarities between the two? Is one more effective than the other? Who is the author and what is their story? Were there controversies associated with him/her or their work? What is the significance of this novel in the time it was written? How does it reflect the society and beliefs of its time? What issues in politics does this novel address? Discrimination? Rights?

Equality? How is this novel religious? What beliefs is it promoting or questioning? 6. Comparisons between two characters. This can be between characters in the same novel or two different ones. How are their differences and thesis ugm, similarities important to the novel? 7. Comparisons between two novels.

If the inexpensive essay novels seem completely different but represent the same genre or come from the same time period, this may be something you want to explore. 8. Allusions within the novel. What are some significant allusions within the religion thesis editors novel? These could be religious, refer to inexpensive other novels or authors, etc. How is this important to understanding the novel and its place in English Literature? What are some of the most notable criticisms out there? What is profile of respondents in thesis your response and how does it compare to essay textbooks other critics out there? What are important symbols in the novel?

How are they significant? English Literature Research Projects. The following can also be used for pride and prejudice love and marriage essay, any other type of research projects for English Literature where you need to find your own topic. How to Find an English Topic to Research For Any Project. So, you’ve finally made it to essay your last year at your university and you’ve got one last thing to thesis ugm do before you leave: the inexpensive essay textbooks dreaded Capstone Project.

Have no fear; although it is time consuming and stressful work, it is possible to turn all that work into something fun, as long as you choose the right topic in English literature to write about. The key to dissertation going out with a bang with a fantastic Capstone is to choose something you actually care about. Of all the inexpensive essay textbooks aspects of this project, choosing the right research topic is absolutely key. Choose the wrong one, and you may not meet the pride essay requirements or, worse, you may dislike it enough to have to change it halfway through the essay textbooks class. For the first time in four years, teachers are giving you the profile of respondents in thesis reigns and having you decide what you want to write about. No more prompts telling you what to do, except for the guidelines for your project, and no more focusing on essay textbooks, one aspect of a novel that the prof tells you to.

So don’t freak out, think of it as the best part of your university experience yet. Essay Good Mather? Now’s the inexpensive essay time to love and marriage essay show your stuff and let everyone see how much of a successful English literature nerd you’ve turned out to be. If you can do it yourself, you’ve proved yourself worthy of inexpensive essay textbooks, that snazzy degree they’re about to hand you in a couple months. Of course if you’ve made it to this point, there’s no way you’re not worthy. Example of a Researched Essay in English Literature. My Capstone class was titled “The Age of pride love essay, Novels” and textbooks, focused on the rise of the novel during the eighteenth century. Basically, we looked at how the novel developed into what we see as a novel today, considering how writers presented and executed their works of fiction, who influenced them, and dissertation in law, how they influenced others. Essay? We also looked at literary techniques such as psychological realism and the differing roles of men and women in the formation of this most popular form of writing.

My class was focused on topics such as psychological realism and gender roles so this is something that I kept in the back of my mind as I read through the novel I chose to pride and prejudice love essay research. How to essay Get Started on an English Literature Paper. I’m going to use my own experience in the Capstone Project as an example for how to choose a research topic in English literature. I know your Capstone won’t be on the same topic, but it’s still important to know the basic focus of the class in order to get to your literature research topic. Look at the prompt for your English class and see what sticks out to you.

After reading through the required reading in my class, I decided to veer away from faithful, novels of formal realism and go into the Gothic realm with M.G. Lewis’s The Monk , which was completely unexplored in the class. Textbooks? Not only do I love Gothic literature, but this was a great way for me to draw comparisons with the books of the thesis ugm same period without doing the inexpensive essay textbooks same old thing we were doing in dissertation in law, the classroom. I was killing two birds with one stone, as they say; getting to read a novel in inexpensive essay textbooks, the genre I’m most interested in while still exploring the same prompts the class was focused on. Sometimes, if you're stuck on an English literature research topic, starting at dog, a completely new angle can help you find something really interesting to work on. After you get to know the ins and outs of what your class is about, it's easy to go off in inexpensive essay textbooks, another direction and work your way back into what you've been learning about. This journey can bring you into whole new realm of possibilities to research. How to Brainstorm Writing Ideas for dissertation, Essays. Now, as you read the book of your choice (or your professor's), focus on one or more aspects from your English literature class prompt so that your research topic relates to the actual class you’re taking. I decided to focus on chastity within the novel and how the gothic novel portrays male and female chastity versus the inexpensive essay novels of formal realism.

This English literature research topic took a lot of work to get to. Faithful? Don't be afraid of setbacks or having to start over. The best way initially is to write down a broad topic to research and then list any information relevant to that topic. Essay Textbooks? It doesn’t matter how insignificant the piece of faithful, information may seem, list it. Then go through and see what interesting conclusions you can make from the information. Looking at gender, how are males portrayed versus females? Looking at essay, genre, how is the gothic novel different from a formal realism novel? Putting things out on paper is the profile in thesis best way to get it all out in the open and free your mind that’s jumbled with information. Once it's on paper, you can actually look at it all and textbooks, piece it all into one neat picture (through words of course) that anyone can understand.

Without doing this, it’s like trying to put together a puzzle with all of the pieces turned down, so you aren’t sure which ones actually go together. Ideas on Getting a Research Topic. If the brainstorm step doesn't work for you, just write down any questions you have about the novel. In Law? If you noticed that there was a lot of inexpensive, religious references and ideas in the novel, maybe you'd be curious to thesis know the inexpensive author's biography and see how that plays a significant role in in law, the piece. For my own example, I could have asked myself what is gothic or how did eighteenth century England define chastity? After this brief research, go back through your notes and see if you can come up with an interesting topic you can do further research on for that English literature essay.

Writing Research Essays in textbooks, Literature. What is the religion editors most difficult part in writing a research paper in literature? Tips for Researching Topics on English Literature. Looking at inexpensive essay, what you’ve put together in your brainstorm, it’s easy to see where you need to do research on the novel. No one wants a paper full of generalizations so take each topic you can't automatically define and start researching it. Do you know how to define gothic or formal realism? Research it. What were the love and marriage essay gender expectations for this time?

Research it. Essay Textbooks? You want to go as in depth into in law your topic as possible, which involves even more research than reading two or three novels. It also doesn’t help to learn some background on inexpensive essay textbooks, the author. Were they a rebel or a strict conservative? Was this novel popular? How did it affect the to do by cotton mather readers of its time?

For example, Lewis was actually brought to court for The Monk because it was seen as a bad influence for his female readers. This is textbooks something not only interesting but relevant to the topic of female chastity in my chosen English literature research topic for my essay. Doing some background research on essay good mather, the novel like this can bring ideas together into inexpensive essay a thesis for your paper and lead you in pride and prejudice and marriage, a solid direction for your actual research for your paper. If you haven’t finally figured something out by this point, you may have to consult your professor. Outline of an Example for an English Research Essay. Thesis: Lewis’s novel completely undoes the essay plots, tropes, and thesis ugm, principles of Richardson and Fielding’s formal realism, not only through its use of superstition and other Gothic elements, but also in the development and resolution of each of these character’s stories. Instead of providing a positive example, The Monk gives a horrifying one to instill fear in its readership to preserve the inexpensive essay same virtue. 1. What is a gothic novel? 2. Pamela Andrews. 3. Joseph Andrews.

4. What is profile in thesis formal realism? 5. What is a gothic novel? 6. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks? Gothic novel versus formal realism. 8. Joseph Andrews. 10. Pamela Andrews.

How do you know it's a good research topic on English literature? Test it with an outline. If you aren’t sure you’ve got the essay by cotton mather right topic to come up with a twenty-some-odd page essay, outline what you’ve got so far. I like to do a very basic outline, starting with my thesis (in its rough draft form of textbooks, course) at the very top. Next I write what each paragraph will be about.

If it’s a twenty page paper, you may write about two to editors three paragraphs a page so you will need to have at least 10 paragraphs. Knowing what each paragraph is supposed to be about, making writing their topic sentences a little easier. Sometimes you may find that a research topic is broad enough to be able to split into two paragraphs, this is handy if you couldn’t initially list at inexpensive essay textbooks, least ten topics. For example, just saying Pamela Andrews for one of my paragraph topics doesn't cover what I want to say. I may just give a brief overview of her character or provide why her character is significant to formal realism. Example of a research topic turning into profile of respondents a topic sentence:

1. What is a gothic novel? “It is inexpensive essay textbooks important, when studying this novel, to examine what defines a Gothic novel in thesis ugm, relation to eighteenth-century definitions of novel-writing.”. This leads to questions of “why is this important?” and, of course, “what is Gothic?” which brings you into the paragraph and gives you your first two major points you need to cover. Just remember that the key to inexpensive essay choosing a research topic for English Literature is to start broad. Read the novel and remember to focus on your own class's focus or on whatever interests you most. From there, you can branch out to profile of respondents in thesis almost any research topic, it just takes some work to get there.

List of Research Paper Topics in Literature. The amount of potential research paper topics in literature are nearly endless. Here is a good start at inexpensive essay textbooks, coming up with topics of your own with a few examples for inspiration. The Gothic Novel: What is faithful dog Gothic Literature? What Is Style in English Literature? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links.

by Virginia Kearney 16. How to essay Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. shah zaib yousafzai 5 weeks ago. Helpful information to write a research paper.

I want to slect symbolism in pride and prejudice essay, tale of two cities by Charles Dickens. But couldn't find out the exact statement. . Can you help me plz. very informative it help me a lot of inexpensive essay textbooks, selecting an topic for my master proposal article thanks you so much. Plz suggest any topic about English literature for my project. any good topic about the difficulties of students in English subject? sir i do want to essay faithful get help regarding my topic for reseach,would you plz help me. Jannat butt 4 months ago. I need a good and easy topic for my synopsis in English literature plzzzx help me any one. i need a research about (the old man and the sea)theme of hope , please any one help me. khalidmehmood 6 months ago.

please help to suggest the topic about english literature,, i want to write a thesis . very helpful informations thank you so much. Carolinrini 8 months ago. I have taken the changeling and the duchess of malfi comparison as my research topic can u pls help me. Really useful and genuine. I need a current topic for research in English Language rather than Literature. I need a good topic on Literature. Please help me anyone.. For sometime now, I hardly read, just scan, but this one I did. Very cohesively propounded on inexpensive textbooks, the art of writing. For those still seeking help, like myself:

1-need to read the text. 2-get familiar with the essay main events. 3-know the characters. 4-the various roles played by the characters. 5-overall impression of the inexpensive text - tragic,comic,tragic-comic,none. 6-get the undertone on : politics,gender,economy,religion; read on the period of the writer; compare with yours. 7-note the various plots within the main. 8-be aware of the language impact with reference to the readers' and writer's time. 9-read on current affairs - find the topics most interest you. 10-befit the topic in your text.

Hopefully you guessed the right one. Dr Anupma Srivastava 3 years ago from India. Informative hub. It is really very tough to choose topic for writing. Very informative and helpful for the beginners/strugglers . you have put your ideas in a very systematic manner that will help others to choose their topics of research. Thesis Ugm? thanks. Please share more topics.

plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz suggest me any good english literature topics for inexpensive essay, my thesis and profile, also for my two friends ,i have to submit my thesis in the first week of july. I hate research papers, especially for English literature, but this was really helpful for me to come up with my own essay topic. Omg you saved me. Essay Textbooks? My teacher told me I had to come up with 4 research topics on English Literature to write about over the next month. I am a fan of English Literature but I had no idea how to thesis ugm go about finding research topics on essay, the subject. and now I do. Thanks, Lisa! bhise pradeep 4 years ago. It is wonderful page. very useful tostudent. busyguru 5 years ago from U.S.

Wonderful advice on organizing your thought process before committing concrete idea to paper. :) ravindrapatil 5 years ago. good ideas for beginners in the area of research in English studies and encouraging at the same time. thank you! James Paterson 5 years ago from of respondents, Scotland. Great Ideas and information, thanks for sharing. jimmy. LisaKoski 5 years ago from WA. Thank you! I fixed the typo ;) Cheds 5 years ago from Maine. This is a wonderful hub packed full with information that will be useful to me, and many others. Nice work!

You do have one typo at the beginning. You left out the textbooks T in Suggested. Woops! Joan Whetzel 5 years ago. For my college Lit class, my topic was a comparison of short stories by O. Henry. Though therer are plenty of thesis ugm, other authors our there who have written short stories that can also be compared. I love your other suggestions though, and like angela_michelle, I wish I'd had this article available when I took that lit class.

Angela Michelle Schultz 5 years ago from United States. Oh boy, if only had I had this when I was going for my english degree. Would have been so helpful. Essay Textbooks? LOL Great job! Anastasia Kingsley 5 years ago from Croatia, Europe. Lots of great detail, original photo (with lovely pink fingernails) and plenty of examples, much like a well thought out recipe. Dissertation In Law? Bookmarked and inexpensive, voted up + beautiful. Judith Hancock 5 years ago from UK. There's lots of thesis ugm, useful information, as well as some great practical examples.

This would be useful for anyone who was totally stuck with how to start their project or those who just wanted a bit of inexpensive textbooks, direction. Bev 5 years ago from Wales. Very comprehensive - lots of ideas for jumping-off points. I should imagine that mindmapping would be a good tool to be able to see patterns or links within the topic. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is in law a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Inexpensive? HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on faithful dog, this page based on inexpensive textbooks, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and profile in thesis, others.

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968 words essay on Alcohol and its effects. Essay on Alcohol and essay textbooks, its effects. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant- it slows down the body#8217;s functions and its effects are similar to those of a general anaesthetic. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the active ingredient in all alcoholic drinks. If you take any alcoholic beverage and remove the ingredients that give it taste and colour, you get ethyl alcohol. Remove the water from ethyl alcohol and you get ether.

Ether is an anaesthetic that works on the brain and puts it to sleep. The same symptoms surgical patient experiences under ether are those experienced by a person drinking alcohol. Alcohol consumption is dog, a learned behaviour- no one likes the taste of alcohol at first. People drink out of curiosity, because of custom (let#8217;s #8220;toast#8221; the bride and groom), or o escape from an inexpensive textbooks unpleasant feeling with a sense of well- being and euphoria. Alcoholics are perceived as being weak people or as having bad habits. Thesis Ugm. Alcoholism is the disease produced by the repeated misuse of ethyl alcohol. It is a Primary disease: it is not caused by some underlying psychological or moral flaw.

It is inexpensive, a chronic disease: it does not go away with time. Good By Cotton Mather. It is a Progressive disease: it does not improve as long as one continues to drink. It is essay, a potentially Fatal disease, if the drinking is not interrupted. Image Source: wonderful6pack.files.wordpress.com. A primary characteristic of an alcoholic is a loss of control- once an alcoholic starts to drink, he or she is not able to predict things or situations in a normal way. Thesis Ugm. There are at least 300,000 alcoholics in Australia and 1 person in essay, 10 who drinks at and prejudice love and marriage, all will become an alcoholic. 1,600,000 Australians are affected either personally, or within their family by abuse of alcohol. Approximately 25% of people who drink alcohol have problems during their life. Once alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream, it is rapidly distributed throughout the body. It affects almost every cell, every organ, and every level of human functioning, .The most profound early effect is on the central nervous system, where it acts as a sedative, producing relaxation and sense of well-being.

It impairs the intellect, physical abilities and metabolism. When alcohol is inexpensive textbooks, taken regularly, in religion thesis, large amounts over inexpensive essay, many years, permanent physical damage will occur. This damage is often aggravated by the lack of vitamins because most alcoholics have poor eating habits. Alcohol can also damage the liver, brain and other parts of the nervous system. In the final stages of alcoholism, parts of the brain are permanently damaged and confusion, disorientation and DT#8217;s result. Any chemical that alters mood, feelings, co-ordination, perception, or behaviour, alters the cells in the brain and disrupts their normal chemical behaviour. When alcohol enters the blood stream it travels to thesis editors, the brain. Alcohol can affect millions of nerve cells and change communication patterns throughout the brain. Inexpensive. Alcohol can impair vision, distort hearing, muddle speech, impair judgement, dull the body#8217;s senses, disturb motor skills, and reduce co-ordination.

Deep inside the brain alcohol can affect the religion areas that control aggression, hunger and thirst, pleasure and pain, and body temperature. These effects are produced because alcohol inhibits blood from transporting oxygen to brain cells. When brain cells are deprived of oxygen, they become impaired and possibly die! That#8217;s brain damage. Inexpensive Essay Textbooks. Because the brain matures more slowly than other organs of the profile in thesis body, it may be even more susceptible to certain permanent, irreversible effects of textbooks alcohol. The hypothalamus is the portion of the brain that controls lour automatic reflexes: breathing, heartbeat, and essay faithful dog, other bodily operations over which an individual has no conscious control. When alcohol is inexpensive, present in essay good mather, the blood stream it directly affects the hypothalamus, possibly damaging it, particularly during the adolescent years. In addition, alcohol has a profound effect on the frontal lobe- the part of the brain that allows us to analyse and program our behaviour.

It also allows us to convert experience to memory and is responsible for the formation of our #8220;self-image#8221;. These processes require a tremendous amount of textbooks energy. The depressant nature of alcohol directly lowers die energy centre in the brain. Essay Faithful. Those who lower the energy levels in the brain by using alcohol or other toxic chemicals, lose not only textbooks mental capacity, but their ability to realise they have lost it. Profile Of Respondents. Adolescence is inexpensive essay, a time of changing attitudes, perception and behaviour. Peer pressure is very strong and the need to belong and to be accepted often leads a young person to yield to these pressures. Adolescence is religion thesis editors, also a time of fluctuating psychological and physical growth. Brains cells (neurons), are especially important during this developmental period and inexpensive textbooks, must be protected. The brain is the only organ or body part not equipped with pain fibres nor has it the ability to produce new brain cells should they die!

Alcohol and the unborn child. Alcohol is pride and prejudice love and marriage, carried from inexpensive essay, your blood through the placenta and enters your baby#8217;s blood, circulating through your foetus. Essay Good By Cotton. Your baby is then dependent on your excretory system to remove the alcohol. Exposure to textbooks, alcohol can represent a serious risk to your child. Women who drink during their pregnancies double the risk of having a baby born with physical or mental handicaps. Foetal Alcohol Effects refer to birth defects as a result of alcohol use during pregnancy. Thesis Ugm. These may include: poor co­ordination, poor sleep patterns, jitteriness, learning disabilities such as hyperactivity, short attention and behavioural difficulties. Most of these are problems that will last a lifetime. Foetal Alcohol Syndrome is die most serious condition associated with drinking during pregnancy. It is characterised by low birth weight, small head, mental retardation and failure to thrive and grow properly.

A recent study has found that a father#8217;s drinking habits during the month of his child#8217;s conception can affect his baby#8217;s birth weight. Essay Textbooks. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages:

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essay novosibirsk Russian culture, traditions, holidays, family and daily life, Russian mafia, copyrights and pirates in inexpensive essay Russia, upbringing, laws, customs and superstitions, medical aid, education, business, Perestroika and its influence on Russian society in general. Russian Brides Cyber Guide. 9 simple rules for. dating Russian women (send blank email) EVERY man must know that! What people say about Russian Brides Cyber Guide.

I appreciated your web site - even though I did not use it for the women search. I am a Russian man living in US, married and have a son and a daughter - wonderful kids. It is just very interesting to read it. You have such a good understanding of the Russian life and delivering it to profile of respondents in thesis, public - that amazes me! Anatoli, Russian professor, physicist from Novosibirsk living in essay textbooks Houston. Hi, just wanted to thank you for your site. Faithful Dog! The information about Russia.

and Russians and their way of thinking is just excellent. I am a Russian. living abroad and will be taking my partner to Russia for the first time in. 2 weeks time - it will be very interesting for inexpensive him to read this information. prior to our trip. Thank you once again! I'm a 16 yr old Australian student and dissertation I would like to thank you for a fantastic site! I'm am currently working on an assignment on International business.

I was asked to choose a country to research and write an inexpensive essay, essay about their cultural customs and traditions etc. I chose Russia as my father is currently corresponding with a lady living in the Ukraine and will be going to thesis ugm, meet her in a couple of months, so I thought I would learn about the Russian ways. So thank you, you have been a great help! I think your web site about Russian women is very interesting and very informative. It's well thought out and essay textbooks well set up. As someone that is researching this for possible use in the future, I have learned a lot from your web site.

It covers some of faithful dog, just about everything. Y our site was refreshingly straight forward and very helpful. I am adopting two older Russian orphans and I want know as much as I can about Russian culture so I can know how to help them adjust. I came on your site under 'Russian Culture' search and it has been the gold-mine of information I have been looking for. As you know, culture is not just small differences but a total experience.

This is essay textbooks what I wanted to get a feel for. I know several Russians and Eastern Europeans and warm though they are, I sense that they don't think I would understand if they told me the profile, truth so they are guarded in what they say (possibly they are right, but only partially.) Even though I was already crazy about my kids, your literature has given my so much more appreciation of them and confirmed that my wife and I made a good decision to essay textbooks, adopt in good mather Russia (If you think a Russian bride is inexpensive expensive, try a Russian Adoption!). Thesis Ugm! I truly believe that they will make a great contribution to my family and to inexpensive textbooks, my country too. I understand the communications I've had with my daughter much more now, why she is often guarded and timid and why my son is such an outgoing BOY. Of Respondents! I have a better understanding of inexpensive essay, how to approach each one, how long it will take them to get adjusted to American ways, how to conduct myself when I go to get them, how to explain the differences they will experience (Siberia to mather, Los Angeles! Can you imagine?!). And I haven't even finished reading all your material yet. If my children have half the common sense that you demonstrate in the writing on textbooks your site, then I've hit the jackpot as a parent! Thank you again Elena.

I am a 20 year old female who just happened to pride and prejudice love, find your site while researching Russia. Your site has been more useful in telling about what life in Russia is really like than any of the other sites I have found. Textbooks! I love how open and honest you are about everything and I am amazed that you are able to and prejudice essay, be so insightful, observant and objective about what Russian life is like. I was fascinated to read about what a Russian woman's day is like. I wish people from inexpensive textbooks other countries had sites similar to yours. I'm very happy for you that you found the Love of religion thesis editors, Your Life and that you two have had two beautiful children together. Inexpensive Essay! I wish you all the best! My name is Julia, I'm a Russian doing my studies in London. I'm writing to express my admiration with the information on Russian culture you posted on your website www.womenrussia.com. I believe you are the author. Well, it couldn't have been more genuine, authentic and unbiased.

I even sent it to my foreign friends in the department of Russian studies, who are used to essay faithful, second source materials only, for some hands-on experience. That's about it really. Good luck with your business venture and family life. I am a Girl Scout leader in the USA. I was doing some research on the family life in other cultures. Your insight on your culture was very informative and realistic. My girls will be thrilled to read about how the family life is in your culture. It's just incredible! I got no words! That's all true! You're perfect, Elena!

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You did a very good job providing education about a very misunderstood topic. Russian culture has a long history and tradition and Russians are very proud of it. Russians consider themselves as a well educated nation. They read a lot, books are cheap, and one can afford to buy 5-10 books a month without serious damage to a family budget. Russians are also big fond of live performances at theatres and dissertation in law since tickets are affordable (prices in cinemas and theatres are comparable), they enjoy attending theatres: opera, musical, ballet, drama etc. Usually every city has a few theatres. The theatre culture was developed during the Soviet times when tickets were sold through schools and enterprises: cities were divided into areas and there was a theatre agent responsible for each particular area. The agent would bring tickets for distribution to essay textbooks, every enterprise and school in pride and marriage his area and inexpensive essay textbooks the person responsible for culture sector would organize collective visit to the theatre.

I think it was an excellent system since people had the opportunity to attend theatres from the early age, starting from attending performances in a Muppet theatre, then moving to the Youth Drama Theatre, then to in thesis, Drama, Musical and Opera, according to their age. Also attending performances in essay textbooks a company is always much more fun, which contributed to the popularity of theatres. Thesis Ugm! This is how most Russian people have developed their taste for live performances. Movie theatres are also becoming popular in Russia and they are equipped with the inexpensive essay textbooks, latest sound systems. Faithful Dog! When Russian people talk about movie theatres, they will usually say cinema; if they talk about theatres, they mean live performances. During Soviet times there was a well developed system of community work and in textbooks every group (class at thesis editors school, department at work etc) would be also a person responsible for sport, education, political information of the group etc. People that were doing community work were given benefits (free or discounted travel, ability to buy deficit goods, ability to receive a better apartment from the government for essay textbooks free etc) - remember, there was no private property until Perestroika, everything used to belong to the state, which was controlling distribution and essay would award the most active citizens. Unfortunately the textbooks, system of volunteering was broken with Perestroika but Russians still have that great community spirit (which sometimes goes to the lengths a westerner would consider as infringement). Russian culture is in thesis non-individualistic. Essay Textbooks! The power of an individual in Russia is profile of respondents much less than in the west and most deals are pushed through family, friends and acquaintances.

Russian saying is, One is not a soldier in the battlefield. In Russia, one still needs to essay, know people in power to make things work. Thesis Editors! This is inexpensive why they maintain more friendships than an average westerner. They often have to rely on their friends to help them out. You know someone who knows someone who is in dog power; this is the way they have the things done.

If you know the right people, you can have the inexpensive essay, most difficult things done with little effort. In my life, a few times I ran into dead ends where there was nothing I could do in the straightforward way; the people were right to refuse me, according to the official rules. But once I could find people who knew someone inside the system, a month wait would turn into just a few hours wait or they would find a place for me where they said the rules would not allow them to thesis, give me one. Foreigners would just give up; Russians believe there is always a roundabout. The majority of Russians consider themselves as Christians, and belong to Russian Orthodox Church. It's a great achievement for the country where atheism was the official state religion for more than 70 years. Frankly, most of inexpensive essay textbooks, them are not true believers.

They appreciate Christian moral values but do not follow them. Religion is not a real part of their life. To Do Good! Russians are more aware of inexpensive, horoscopes than the Bible. Church service in and prejudice love and marriage essay Russia can be attended any day of the week and essay textbooks performed every day 2 or 3 times (early morning at 3 a.m., then at 8 a.m. and in law then in the evening at essay textbooks 7 p.m.). Essay! People usually attend the church just to essay, light a candle and quickly pray.

They do it to ask for religion thesis something to happen (a business deal, an exam) or to remember a close person who is dead. People do not have to be a member of the church to inexpensive essay, do it and they do not have monthly contributions to the church. Church survives selling candles and reminder notes and charging for to do mather services such as baptizing, weddings and funerals. Church marriage is not official in textbooks Russia. A couple has to thesis ugm, register their marriage with government authorities first to be allowed to have church ceremony performed. Medical aid and education in Russia are free, though Russians joke that education becomes less and less free with every year. One can still get a university education for free by inexpensive textbooks passing the entrance tests (exams), but the universities have to decrease the profile, number of students studying on a free basis because of poor state financing. Since both education and culture facilities used to be widely available, Russians can be considered a highly cultured nation. Their general knowledge is very good: they know a little bit about virtually everything.

At secondary schools, they study not only the history of essay, Russia but also the world history, including American and European history. In the same secondary school course (11 years school qualification is mandatory in dissertation in law Russia) they study world literature, world music, and world geography. Textbooks! Many books of thesis ugm, western authors are mandatory reading in the course of inexpensive textbooks, literature (in Russian translation of course). The standard secondary school program includes studying of religion editors, a foreign language for textbooks 6 years (grades 5-11), usually it is English but also can be French, German or Spanish. Most subjects in the course of faithful dog, a secondary school are mandatory for inexpensive all schools throughout the whole Russia, and only since recently there are some subjects that students can choose in addition to the general course. On the entrance exams at pride and marriage essay universities and colleges only questions from the general course of the secondary school can be asked.

Universities and colleges accept students according to the results of entrance tests, and not according to their marks at school, though having excellent marks can help (for example, you would only have to textbooks, pass 1-2 exams instead of regular 4). Intellectually, Russians are interesting people to talk to and enjoy deep subjects. In Thesis! Philosophy is still a mandatory subject when you study for a degree and one of the 3 compulsory subjects for PhD qualifying exam (the other 2 are foreign language and the specialty itself). At the same time the inexpensive, majority of Russians don't have what you call in the west good manners. Their manners are not bad, they are just Russian. Russia is quite a tough country and Russians usually do not hesitate to say what they think in a way that doesn't leave room for any misunderstandings. During the faithful, Soviet period having good manners was considered as a bourgeois survival. Russians are very straightforward.

When they meet or phone each other, they seldom spend time on questions like How are you? and go straight to the point. They are not rude, it's just a way of doing things. Having a university or college degree is common. Inexpensive Textbooks! Russia has the highest educational level in the world (more than 40% of the total population have college or university degree). Since Perestroika, the system of higher (university) education is slowly deteriorating as well as the editors, medical aid system, which used to be among the world's best. The problem with Russian education is that it was always rather theoretical and unrelated to textbooks, practice.

Therefore, it's common for a person having an engineering degree to work in sales, or one with a chemical background to find himself in marketing. In the in thesis, old days having a degree was an essay textbooks, end in itself. Profile Of Respondents! They are trying to change the educational programs now, but it will take years to build the system. It's not of any wonder if a woman with university degree works as a secretary. Having a Ph.D. is also not a big deal, and inexpensive essay textbooks doesn't give you a big advantage; good knowledge of English will provide you with a better competitive edge.

The position that one has in a company is not as important as the company in which he or she works. Thesis Ugm! Foreign companies and even foreign public/charity organizations are considered to be the best employment. Having your own business in Russia is a big challenge. Inexpensive! The tax system works in the way that if one has a small business (individual private enterprise), he must pre-pay taxes before he receives permission to act. It's unbelievable, but it's true: one is supposed to thesis ugm, estimate his future income, and pre-pay taxes proceeding from the assumption. Then he gets a permission to start his business activity; but he must run to the tax department the second he earns 1 Ruble more profit than it was estimated and paid in advance. Otherwise it will be considered a hidden profit, and one can easily get a fine of the size equal to 200% of the amount of the hidden profit. I understand that it sounds funny, but it just works like this.

The authorities are suspicious towards owners of small businesses. The bigger enterprises have a more convenient tax system. In 2000 the government announced united tax of inexpensive essay, 12% on profits, and even said the hidden (*black*) capitals may be legalized if the owner pays this 12% tax. At the same time there were comments from top government officials that this is only a temporary retreat, and the progressive tax system will be brought back as soon as people get used to and prejudice love essay, paying their taxes. Actually, the inexpensive essay textbooks, government hoped that people would start paying tax and in thesis show their real profits - but Russians know their government. They don't want to essay, be easily trapped by showing off their true income, and then be obliged to pay again enormous taxes of the in law, past (up to 90% in different taxes on profit - state, region, city and essay textbooks others). Collecting taxes is still the essay, biggest concern for the Russian government. Essay! Most serious investors of so called New Russians transfer their capitals abroad (of course, it's illegal, but there are so many ways to take a roundabout). This 12% united tax attracted many foreigners to become Russian residents.

In Moscow and St. Petersburg, there are sizable communities of expatriates that live there mostly because of the low taxes - investors etc. Other westerners live there because of the low cost of living; on a western disability pension one can live in religion Russia as a king. They even have their own expatriate newspapers in English! Before the year 2000, the Russian tax system was very complicated. Inexpensive! Counting all the taxes supposed to be paid, the total amount could reach 90%, including taxes on the salaries for employees. To pay 100 rubles to an employee, an employer had to pay about 80 rubles of tax to the state: pension funds, social insurance, medical insurance and so on. There were many federal, regional and city's taxes, which were different from essay good by cotton one region to another. Inexpensive Textbooks! The system made companies have double accounting, and sometimes double salaries - an official one and dissertation so called black cash salary. Another reality businesses face in Russia is organized crime, which often has close connections with authorities.

Small and medium businesses have to pay about 10% of the profits to raket. Nowadays many businesses prefer to employ commercial departments of police organizations or private security companies, which are in reality just a camouflaged raket. They will help you in a case of textbooks, bad debts, problems with business partners or criminal situations like robbery etc, providing you a roof. Essay! All criminal cooperations have official businesses registered, and essay textbooks you pay them an official fee additionally to unofficial. It was a very funny case in Ekaterinburg at spring 1999, when one of the cooperations registered their association as OPS. In Russian it is a common abbreviation for organized crime syndicate (Organizovannoye Prestupnoe Soobshcestvo). To Do Mather! The guys from OPS explained their name differently as Public Political Union (Obschestvenno Politicheskiy Soyuz). Textbooks! It was one of the of respondents, most famous and big groups in the city, and inexpensive textbooks the choice of such a name demonstrated that the religion editors, guys were feeling absolutely comfortable with their status. Well, you consider us as OPS? You've got it. If you have some problems with your business partner, your roof (krysha) will meet with the textbooks, other guy's roof, and they will try to settle your business problems trough mutual discussion.

If they can't get right, they may apply to in law, an unbiased source - a person in law (v zakone), who will take a decision, usually quite just. This decision is final, and you can't apply against of it, or get rid of it. There is an official way of settling the essay textbooks, problems through a state court, but it's almost out of use: it's long, unpredictable and rather pathetic. But businessmen are in a better situation than the people that work as employees. With all the headaches and stress, they still have some money and considerably good living standards. Government employees, particularly medical doctors and teachers, do not receive their salaries for months, sometimes up to 6-8 months. It does not mean that they don't receive salaries at all. It started in profile early 90th, first as delays with payments. So the first time one received his salary a week later, then next month - 2 weeks later, and so on. Eventually it happens that in June you receive your salary for last December.

One receives some money regularly, and he can survive, though the government owes him thousands. This way was quickly picked up by the other organizations, and now even if one works for essay a private company, he might not receive his salary on time. Essay Dog! The government constantly promises to fix outdated payments, and pay pensions and inexpensive essay textbooks salaries to people working in thesis a budget system on time, but for many years it's only promises. Russians are smart. They have so many difficulties and problems in essay textbooks life, that they can easily find a roundabout way for anything. They don't have a deep respect towards any law, including traffic rules. Dissertation! Russians are of some the inexpensive essay textbooks, most reckless, but at the same time skillful, drivers, and the most careless pedestrians in the world. A famous Russian comic, Mikhail Zadornov (it's also quite a coincidence that he is a name-sake of profile of respondents in thesis, a former Russian minister of economy; once in textbooks a foreign encyclopedia they mixed up their photos - at the article about a minister was published a picture of the famous comic; well, nothing to worry about - Russian economy is also a very funny thing), so, this famous comic said: The state steals everything it can from people. The people steal everything they can from the state.

Stealing is not considered to be a big deal as long as you have not been caught, and don't steal from your friends or the people you know. Stealing from pride and prejudice love one's work place was considered for years as an essential skill of well being. During the essay textbooks, Soviet time there was such a phrase: Everything around belongs to the public (nation), so everything around belongs to me. There was no such term as private property, that's why Russians don't care about intellectual property either. No other country in the world has such abuse of love and marriage, pirate software, video and audio records, CDs etc exposed for sale on every corner. They used to publish books of Western authors, and the authors found it out only when started to receive letters of thanks from Russia. Inexpensive! The pirate production is religion thesis editors very cheap, for example a CD with the newest version of inexpensive essay textbooks, Microsoft Office or Windows will cost you $4 or less, the faithful, same is applicable for any other software product. The information from my sites was stolen many times. Essay! If foreign based services remove offensive sites (or take care that stolen information is good by cotton removed) within 24 hours, Russian ISP's advised me to contact the thieves and try to regulate the matter myself. I would understand if it was paid subscribers whose money they did not want to lose, but one of the textbooks, sites was hosted by a free service provider www.narod.ru , and the result was the dog, same: Yes, we also think it's bad, but we are not authorized to solve such problems.

Apply to the site owner. Articles from my Russian site are stolen regularly, I stopped counting. One of my agents also reported a book published in Belarus that was an exact copy of the information from the website. There is no way you can get the thief back. (I recently started placing them on the Black List though :-) Russians are used to a situation where everything is unpredictable and essay textbooks unstable. They live in a society where anything can happen, and don't wonder when the national currency loses 25% of it's value 3 days after the president's public promise that there won't not be any inflation in the nearest future because the situation has never been more stable. Dissertation In Law! They have to adapt to new rules and laws quickly, and they manage successfully with this task. After The Black Monday (17 August, 1998) when the government announced default, and the ruble fell dramatically, people from any Western country would run to change the government. Russians ran to exchange rubles for dollars.

Actually, the crisis of 1998 made good for the country: when imported products became unaffordable, the Russian industry had favorable conditions for textbooks development and could occupy the profile, large part of the market. Currently economical situation of Russia is stably improving. Russians had to make the long journey from the essay textbooks, total control of the Soviet times to the total uncertainty of the thesis ugm, current situation. Essay Textbooks! Their life has changed extremely, and if taking peoples' happiness means of measurement, it definitely changed for the worse. The older people are very sorry for the Soviet times, when everything was understandable, predictable and stable.

One could not get a much better life than the others with all his talents and hard work, but he was confident he would have the necessary minimum: a place to profile of respondents in thesis, stay, a job, free good quality medical aid and affordable prices for goods, his children would have free education and free access to any sport and cultural facilities. Well, guys, it was not such a bad time! Nowadays people have lost those advantages of the socialist state, and they have yet to have the full advantages of Western capitalism. The majority of Russian people do not really understand the huge difference in the life in Russia and on the West. Textbooks! Russians do NOT consider their life as miserable. Essay! They feel that things are changing for the better and everything's starting to work out in their country. President Putin with is desire to clean up and stop corruption is very popular in masses. Inexpensive Textbooks! The frantic desperation of early 90th, when there was no food in shops, and late 90th with their economical roller coaster, is no longer there. The child birth rate is on the raise, which is a sure indicator people feel more confident about their future.

Russians like to thesis ugm, emphasize their different attitude towards material values and consider themselves as sincere, cordial, understanding and unselfish. Inexpensive! They like to talk about specifics of Russian soul or mysterious Russian soul, and repeat the famous phrase of a Russian poet You can't understand Russia by and marriage essay your mind. Generally, Russians love their country. They can criticize it severely, but if you try to do the essay textbooks, same they will defend it furiously. They feel like citizens of the largest county in thesis ugm the world, which has rich history and deep cultural roots, and they are proud of it. Daily life for the majority of Russian women is very much the same.

One gets up at 7-8 a.m. depending on working hours of essay, her company. Factories and plants usually work from 6-8 a.m., and offices and shops from 9-10 p.m. After a simple breakfast (normally just a sandwich with tea or coffee), she goes to thesis ugm, catch a bus/tram/trolleybus/underground train. Most Russians live in flats in inexpensive outskirts (sleeping zones), work in the center of the city, and have to in thesis, spend from 30 to 90 minutes to reach their working place. Public transport is always overcrowded during the peak time, and inexpensive textbooks she does not have any chance to essay, have a seat. People in textbooks the transport are like fishes in a can, some of them are touching her, but it's quite normal - there is nothing one can do. People in transport are always unfriendly and irritated, though if you are pregnant, with a small baby in hands or very old, they will offer you a seat. Normally the working day is thesis ugm 8 hours with one 30-60 minutes lunch break. If one works for a state enterprise, she may have a few tea pauses - there is a poor discipline on those plants, one can easily leave her job to settle some personal problems.

Working for a private company means a better salary than working for the state, but also staying after hours often or from inexpensive essay textbooks time to time. Leaving her work at 5-7 p.m., she has to make her way all the way back home using the same overcrowded public transport. Love! Having a car is still considered to be a kind of luxury, and even if the essay textbooks, family has a car, it's always the husband who drives it. The price of the cheapest new brand car is about USD 5,100, with the average women's monthly salary 3000 rubles (about USD 100). Thesis Ugm! One can afford to textbooks, buy a second hand car but it's very expensive to keep it on the road. Essay Faithful Dog! You will also have to use a paid secure night parking or have a garage, both options will make an average woman run out of inexpensive textbooks, money. Using public transport makes one twice as tired. During the cold season (November-March) it will also make you cold because you can't move there, and it's the same temperature inside as outside.

So if it's -20°C outside, it's probably -18 in thesis ugm the bus. I used to have my own car, and used to go to work by bus, and I can say for sure - public transport exhausts you. After arriving at textbooks her stop on her way back home, the woman usually goes to the nearest shop to buy some food - bread, milk and meat. Russians don't go shopping once a week, they buy products when they are finished. In Thesis! One must buy or provide his own plastic bags in a shop, they seldom give the inexpensive essay, bags away for free. Carrying bags home also doesn't make the woman relaxed - even if it's only a few kilos and few hundreds meters (usually homes are within 0-2 miles from shopping areas), you still feel it. The woman arrives home completely exhausted. If she has a child, she must fetch him from the kindergarten on her way back.

If she has a family, she must make food for it. Cooking in Russia is more complicated and takes much longer, not only because of different recipes, but also because of the lack of half-ready products. There are half-ready products on of respondents in thesis the market but they are mostly imported and therefore expensive. After the inexpensive essay textbooks, supper, the family can watch TV for a couple of hours, then they go to bed. Some people regularly visit gyms, probably about the same proportion of population as in the west (which means most people don't). Weekly movies or dining out are rare, discos or night clubs are more popular but still unaffordable for faithful many people. Entertainment is expensive, and usually they it is limited by visiting friends or relatives on essay the weekends.

Generally, the pride love and marriage essay, daily life of inexpensive, a Russian woman can be described as *home - work - home* or *home - work - shops - home*. You can say that it's normal for the life in good by cotton mather any western country as well, but there is one big difference: even small things in Russia require much more efforts. Small things that will take you a couple of minutes, in inexpensive essay textbooks Russia can take you half an hour or even the to do, whole day. For example, I know about a case where a foreign company refused to inexpensive essay textbooks, pay 1-day salary to a Russian employee that she spent in some government committee in order to essay good mather, obtain the necessary information requested by essay textbooks the foreign boss. You could just make a phone call; there was no need to go there in person to get the profile of respondents, information, said the foreign boss. For a Russian, it is crystal clear that a phone call will not get you the complete information on the government procedure, nor the inexpensive essay, government officials would supply such information via fax or mail it to you for free.

Such practice is dissertation in law normal for western world but is a complete alien for Russian officials. A stop on inexpensive textbooks you way home to buy milk would take you two minutes; in Russia it can take a woman 10 times longer, since she has to specially walk to profile in thesis, the shop and inexpensive essay there stand in a queue (most shops in to do by cotton Russia, especially in regional cities, still sell over the counter and bill items manually). This *time rule* is applicable to textbooks, everything: getting things done in Russia takes longer and requires more effort. The word convenience was not in favor when the current system of Russian life was designed. The problem is not the availability of goods (food and goods are in essay good mather abundance) but poor logistics. Another thing about Russian daily life - they do not really enjoy it. They get awakened not to textbooks, enjoy a new day but to cope with today's problems. There is little comfort and contentment. Russians are used to essay good, minor everyday difficulties, and they don't even bother them anymore.

Russian daily life is tough, and it's probably the reason why they smile so seldom. Essay! Rarely you will see a smiling face in a bus or on the streets - the fact that usually makes foreigners wonder. A Russian, living in Russia, might argue some of the points I discussed here, but a Russian, living abroad, will agree with me. There are differences that a person living in Russia cannot realize, and they involve not only better cars and homes (New Russians have it all!) but the in thesis, very basic values of existence. I believe the main difference in Russian and western way of life comes from those base beliefs: western life is built on inexpensive essay textbooks the cult of enjoy , Russian life is built on the base of God endured, so we have to endure too . Westerners live to enjoy; Russians live to endure . This cultural paradigm can be demonstrated by profile of respondents the difference in religious rituals in western and Russian Christian churches: there are no benches and amphitheatres in Russian Orthodox churches. The whole 1-2 hour service people are supposed to spend standing shoulder-to-shoulder in a badly lit, stuffy, one-level room, where one struggles to textbooks, see the priest.

Many people stand on their knees during the service. Russian Christian church service promotes humility through enduring; while a western Christian church service promotes integrity and enhancement. The very word enjoy has some indecent flavor in Russian: it is something that is not very appropriate, but done nevertheless. A Russian would usually say I love/like [doing something] rather than I enjoy [doing something]. Therefore they love (like) some things but doing them does not result in the feeling of contentment - this is actually what I mean by saying They don't enjoy it. Which of course doesn't mean Russians don't know how to have fun! They do know how to dissertation, have fun, and many Russians abroad miss exactly Russian limitless fun (as comparing to essay, reasonable, appropriate western fun). Also, the English phrase to have fun is hardly translatable to Russian, since Russians do not make their purpose to have fun or enjoy. Fun is thesis editors just something that happens without plans, when people are happy and cheerful. In general, Russian people are much more spontaneous and playful that westerners.

The keyword to Russian family life is inexpensive textbooks dependence. The family life is and prejudice love and marriage built on dependence, and Russians are attached to their family members. The roots of this situation are in the way of inexpensive essay, being. Faithful Dog! Russians live in small apartments in large blocks, with 2-3 generations living together. It's normal when grown single children live with parents, and even when married children with spouses stay with one of the parents. During the Soviet time one couldn't buy an apartment (Russians call them flats), he could only receive it from the state. The apartments were given to inexpensive essay textbooks, people for free, according to the time they worked on the enterprise. One should only pay a small fee for pride love and marriage essay communal services. The state norms for giving the textbooks, apartments were rather tough, with 5-8 square meters for a person. A family with 2 children of the same gender would get only two-room apartment of thesis ugm, about 30 square meters (kitchens, bathrooms and passages were not taking into account). A divorced woman with a daughter would get only one-room apartment.

Nowadays one can buy an inexpensive essay, apartment, and the state does not give apartments to people for pride and prejudice and marriage essay free anymore. Buying an apartment is unachievable for the majority of inexpensive essay, people because of small salaries. One of my friends, 38-year old single woman, still lives with her mom in one-room apartment, and they have zero chances to get a better one unless she gets married and leaves. Editors! (Which is also doubtful as there are 10 million (!) more women of inexpensive essay textbooks, marriageable age in Russia than men and all men who wanted to get married are normally married by the time.) Living in small apartments together with parents and/or children makes Russians take care of dissertation, each other. They have to be considerate and ready to essay textbooks, compromise. One has to essay, adapt to the family lifestyle and rules. Any person has his own limit of patience and acceptance of the essay textbooks, things but Russians have much higher potential limits. Essay Good By Cotton Mather! If compare those limits with thermometer, Americans have 20-degrees thermometer, and when they reach this point, their emotional thermometer just fails to work further. For them it's a critical situation.

Russians have 100-degrees thermometer, and in the same situation, which is unacceptable for an American, they will act as if nothing happens. That's why I think that Russian women have the inexpensive, proper skills to make good wives. Dissertation In Law! They usually do not let situation to come to the point of inexpensive, no return. It does not mean that they give up their goals easily, but they try to reach them in a different, less complicated or roundabout way. They do not intend to prove their point, and the result is of more importance than the dissertation, rightness.

You won't even notice how it happened that you eventually did what she wanted! And it does not mean that the woman is devious or the essay, like; for her it's just natural. Well, coming back to Russian family life. Russians get married early, at the age 18-22. Thesis Ugm! Because they don't really care much about making a career (see Myth 2 for details), they don't wait until they are independent.

Young couples usually stay with wife's or husband's parents during the inexpensive, first years of marriage. Being single in Russia puts a label on a woman. If she is over 25 and still single, it means that something's wrong with her. Not any amount of money she earns or her career successes can give her high social status, if she is not married. From the other hand, it's not such a fortune for a woman - to be married in and prejudice love essay Russia.

A decent woman is supposed to inexpensive textbooks, stay at home, while her husband is allowed to spend time with friends in cafes, restaurants and discos. All housework is also women's responsibility, and it's quite a lot if taking in consideration the lack of home electronic utilities. Of Respondents! About 80% of Russian families do not have even an automatic washing machine and microwave. Russian society is inexpensive essay pretty male dominating. Infidelity is common in to do good Russia. Women outnumber men, and a guy can easily find somebody for affairs. Sleeping around is a kind of honor for a man.

Women are not supposed to do it to be respectable, but still, guys find partners, so I believe that the girls just keep quiet. One of inexpensive, my male friends of 38 years, who has probably about 30 new partners every year, aged from dissertation 18 to 40 (he is not married, at least!) , well-traveled and well-educated guy, a former national level sportsman, told me once in inexpensive textbooks a frank impulse: The only good thing about Russia is girls. Beautiful, gentle and accessible. For the women agreeing on casual sex is the way of attracting a partner that she hopes may later offer her commitment. Single girls all desperately want to find a worthy man and get married. Marriage for Russian women is the religion, same type of thing as career for western women - it gives them a respectable social status.

One of the most prominent Russian traditions is hard drinking. Essay Textbooks! It does not mean they all are alcoholics; Russians are just drinking more alcohol when they are drinking. It's applicable more in profile in thesis particular to men though women also drink much more than it's accepted on the West. Drinking a bottle of vodka for three, or a bottle of vine for each is normal and is not considered as excessive. Refusing to drink as much as the inexpensive textbooks, rest of the dog, company is considered as disrespect. The favorite men's drink is Russian vodka, the favorite women's drink is Soviet Champagne - a decent Russian sparkling vine.

Russians have poor taste in vines and prefer sweet vines. Drinking until one falls is inexpensive all right. The parties usually take place in private apartments, and majority of the guests stay to and marriage essay, sleep overnight occupying all free space on essay coaches and the floor. The next morning the party may continue. Hangover, named in Russian pokhmel'ie, is supposed to essay faithful, be cured by drinking a small amount of alcohol (opokhmelitsya). Inexpensive! It does provide some relief but thereafter people usually can't stop.

Small shops on the streets (kiosks) selling mostly alcohol and chocolate, work 24 hours 7 days a week, and the party can get extra drinks any time if they think they did not have enough. (The diary of a foreigner working in dissertation Russia) Was drinking with Russians. I think I'd better die. In the morning came Russians, and essay said we should opokhmelitsya. I'd better die yesterday. Russian drinking traditions are very much a cultural thing, and the person who drinks and does not become drunk is always respected.

It's called he can drink. The more you drink and don't fall down drunk, the more your friends will respect you. Many business deals are solved while drinking together, it's probably one more reason why women don't succeed in making careers. Drinking alone is considered as being an alcoholic, drinking in company is encouraged. Russians do not drink without a reason. It does not mean that they do not drink just when they want, it means that every time they want to drink they bring up a reason. To Do Good By Cotton Mather! It can be anything - from buying a new thing (in this case they call it obmyt - in literal translation to wash the new thing) to celebrating the weekend. The process of drinking is specific.

The glasses of inexpensive, all company members must be full, then somebody should propose a toast - what for the company is pride and prejudice love and marriage going to inexpensive essay textbooks, drink this drink. Toasts can vary from trivial Na zdorovie or Budem zdorovy (For our health) to any other wish or somebody's desire: Za udachu (For good luck), Na dorozhku (before leaving - For the way), Daj Bog ne v poslednij raz (Hopefully it's not the last time when we drink, with God's help) etc. After the toast people clink their glasses with each other and drink their drinks. Everybody must finish his drink, otherwise it means that he does not support the toast. The next toast follows in 5-10 minutes. The biggest Russian holiday is New Year (1 January). During the Soviet time people were not allowed to celebrate Christmas (Russian Christmas is thesis ugm 7 January), and inexpensive New Year was the most cheerful holiday. The next holiday is the Old New Year (13 January). Russians had a different calendar before February 1918. The difference between Julian (the old Russian) and Gregorian (European) calendars was 13 days, and after the Soviet government adopted Gregorian calendar Russians started to celebrate many holidays twice: according to the new style and in law the old one.

Non-official Men's Day is 23 February, it is a public holiday called The Homeland Defender's Day. Inexpensive! All men in Russia are liable for call-up (including reservists), so they all are celebrities. On this day women usually give men small gifts. Official Women's Day is 8 March. On this day men give women gifts, usually flowers.

Men also are supposed to religion thesis, do all the inexpensive textbooks, housework, this is pretty nice - at least once a year women can take a break and forget about pride and prejudice love and marriage, all those dishes, cooking, kids, take a magazine and relax on the coach. 1 April is non-official the Day of Laugh. People tell jokes to each other, newspapers and essay TV publish funny stories and jokes. Essay! The motto of inexpensive essay textbooks, this day: Do not trust anybody on 1 April (Pervoye aprelya - nikomu ne veryu). 1 May is the Day of Labor. During Soviet time there were huge demonstrations on this day, as everybody was obliged to thesis ugm, show his loyalty to the state; now only communists organize meetings on this date. 9 May - Victory Day. Essay Textbooks! 2-day public holiday (8-9 May), the day when Nazi Germany capitulated in 1945 after 4-year war with Soviet Union and other countries. Pride Essay! Soviet Union lost 20 million people in the war.

The minute of silence announced on the Central TV in the memory of deceased at 9:00 P.M., and inexpensive essay textbooks fireworks thereafter. 12 June - the Independence Day. It's an official holiday but Russians are not used to it yet. They spend this day on their dachas - small plots in pride and prejudice countryside where they plant some vegetables. 1 September is the Day of Knowledge - it's the beginning of essay, a school year. Thesis Editors! Children go to schools with flowers for teachers, there are meetings before the classes start - nice and exciting. 7 November - the Day of October revolution (25 October according to the old calendar). It's still an official holiday in Russia though there is inexpensive essay not such a huge celebration as it used to be during the religion thesis, Soviet era. 12 December - The Constitution Day. This day the essay, first Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted in 1993 (previous Constitutions were all Soviet Union's). It is a recent public holiday, and profile there are no special customs connected with this day.

Russians LOVE to celebrate. They adopted the Western holidays such as St. Inexpensive Textbooks! Valentine, Catholic Christmas (they celebrate Christmas twice - Catholic and Orthodox) and Halloween. Dissertation! They also appreciate Chinese New Year, Muslim and Jewish holidays, as Russians are very tolerant to other religions. When there is a public holiday, the textbooks, weekend is shifted towards the holiday: if the holiday is on Thursday, Sunday will be the working day and Friday the by cotton, day off. The same when the inexpensive textbooks, public holiday is on Tuesday: Saturday becomes the working day and profile in thesis Monday the day off. If the inexpensive, holiday is on Wednesday, there will be no long weekend.

There are quite a few long weekends every year, which many Russians use to in thesis, travel, locally and abroad, the essay textbooks, others spend holidays on their dachas (country-side houses). We are interested to hear from you! Click here to contact us. Russia - geography, population, economy, the essay good mather, state, statistics, Russian revolution, and Russian history. Ukraine - statistics and world rankings: geography, population, health and education, economy, and society.

Myths and Reality - There is too much prejudice towards Russian brides - Russian women seeking men for essay textbooks marriage, both positive and negative. I call this prejudice myths, and consider them one by one. The Universal Crib On Finding A Russian Wife - the most compressed, step-by-step guidance on finding, courting and marrying a Russian woman. Why Russian Women? - If you decided to find yourself a Russian wife, you would be inundated with questions of the type Why Russian Women? from everybody you cared to share your idea with. Surprisingly, every Russian woman you are writing to will ask the same question: Why do you want to find a wife in Russia? After a while, you might start questioning your own sanity in doing the thing which everybody, including your dates in this Internet rendezvous, consider strange enough to religion, request explanations. Here you will find some ready-to-use answers for your family, friends and Russian women you are writing to. Immigration scams: ARE YOU AT RISK? - Any man who even remotely considers the idea of textbooks, marrying a Russian woman will face the question of essay to do by cotton mather, immigration scams: that a woman will marry him with the only purpose of inexpensive essay, gaining residence to in law, his country, and will divorce him soon after the marriage. Is it true that there are many Russian women that will marry a man only for the purpose of inexpensive essay textbooks, immigration? How common are immigration scams in marriages with Russian women? The latest E-book of Elena Petrova:

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