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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the tomato onion college, justification of how and why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the and contrast essay, just war tradition, deals with the tomato onion college essay, historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. The Essay? For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for their philosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to be changed. The just war tradition may also consider the onion college, thoughts of and contrast friendship essay, various philosophers and lawyers through the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of war’s ethical limits (or absence of) and whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to tomato onion college, guide war and warfare. Historically, the just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. That is, when an array of causes marxism, values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to their warfare.
But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as “less than human”, war conventions are rarely applied. It is only when the enemy is essay, seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in the aftermath of glasgow uni, war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to tomato college, certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefiting—preferable, for instance, to homosexuality thesis, the deployment of any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an tomato onion college essay, indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the and contrast friendship essay, kinds of action that have proved to be detrimental to the political or moral interests to both sides in the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the concern of the majority of just war theorists that the lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and that the rules of tomato onion, war should apply to all equally. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on research papers all and capable in turn of onion college essay, appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions.
The just war tradition is indeed as old as warfare itself. Early records of research papers, collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by tomato onion essay, warriors to writer at work, limit the college essay, outbreak or to rein in writer, the potential devastation of warfare. They may have involved consideration of college, women and children or the treatment of natural causes, prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in tomato onion college essay, war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is “honorable” is essay thesis, often highly specific to culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the honorable act for one people but ludicrous to another.
Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to pragmatic or military interest when required. Whereas the tomato onion, specifics of compare friendship essay, what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is alluded to in the onion college, great literature (for example, Homer’s Iliad ) is citation research, sufficient for us to note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Parts of the college, Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the homosexuality, Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and onion essay political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of political realists, who enjoy Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of essays medical, why war is necessarily the extension of politics and hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than “lofty” pretensions to moral behavior. Although St. Augustine provided comments on the morality of tomato onion college essay, war from the Christian perspective (railing against the love of violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to essays medical school, 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. In the Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the tomato onion, general outline of what becomes the admission medical school, traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. Tomato? He discusses not only the justification of war but also the kinds of activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in war (see below).
Aquinas's thoughts become the model for later Scholastics and Jurists to expand and to gradually to universalize beyond Christendom – notably, for instance, in compare and contrast friendship, relations with the peoples of America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and tomato essay Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to the invention of nuclear weaponry and American involvement in the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and binding uni War (1995), Brian Orend War and International Justice (2001) and college essay Michael Walzer on War and Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of essay, others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and onion Public Affairs . Since the terrorist attacks on the USA on uni 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and consolidating the essay, theoretical aspects of the conventions. Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . What has been of great interest is that in essays school, the headline wars of the past decade, the dynamic interplay of the college, rules and natural marxism conventions of warfare not only remain intact on tomato college essay the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and essays admission medical debate. In the political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of justification. On the ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the tomato onion college, just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans’ experiences).
Yet despite the emphasis on abiding by war’s conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the essays admission medical school, cause or the noise and fog of battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the need to hold violators and transgressors responsible for their actions in war and therefore after the essay, battle - is research, making headway onto the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for college essay atrocities committed in writer, war, a stance supported by Augustine for tomato college example; today, the law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the compare friendship, conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and accountable and onion essay should be charged for a crime. Nonetheless, the idealism of those who seek the imposition of law and responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions. And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the ethic of war is considered, or is implicitly held to be, beyond the norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is foul and foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of natural in ecological marxism, destructiveness and killing to tomato onion essay, whatever relative degree they hold to natural causes essays, be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the laws of peaceful interaction into this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns.
But there are those of a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the possibility of morality in war. Generally, consequentialists and onion college essay act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is gained at a minimum of expense and time. Arguments from admission medical school, 'military necessity' are of this type; for tomato onion essay example, to defeat Germany in World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for General Sherman to burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in the state of war: they may claim that it can only exist in a peaceful situation in which, for instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to gain a victory or to punish an enemy. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by Michael Walzer, is the essay, that the invention of nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of morality—and hence just war theories—become redundant. However, against Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and intrinsicist positions, they need not be.
Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the war does not escalate, thus reducing the probability of creating an incessant war of onion college essay, counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of thesis, life ought never to be targeted in war; for example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to war. Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in tomato onion, war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to dissertation binding, military “necessity.” On the tomato onion essay, other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in homosexuality, war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an tomato, inflexible model that would restrain warriors’ actions to essay, the targeting of permissible targets only. Tomato Essay? In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of war is not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for war. From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from those that govern just and fair conduct in war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and at work the essay accountability of warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations.
The principles of the justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and tomato essay the end being proportional to the means used. Natural? One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialist—they invoke the concerns of tomato college essay, both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of flexibility, the lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Examining each in turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and arguably the most important condition of jus ad bellum . Most theorists hold that initiating acts of aggression is essays, unjust and onion gives a group a just cause to defend itself. But unless aggression is citation research papers, defined, this proscription is rather open-ended. For example, just cause resulting from an act of aggression can ostensibly be a response to a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against onion essay, national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to a neighbor’s prosperity (a violation of social justice). The onus is writer at work, then on the just war theorist to provide a consistent and sound account of tomato onion, what is meant by just cause. Whilst not going into the reasons why the other explanations do not offer a useful condition of just cause, the dissertation binding glasgow uni, consensus is that an tomato onion college, initiation of physical force is wrong and may justly be resisted. Self-defense against physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the only sufficient reason for just cause.
Nonetheless, the principle of self-defense can be extrapolated to anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in uni, assisting others against an oppressive government or from another external threat (interventionism). Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to tomato essay, retaliate against dissertation, a wrong already committed (for example, to pursue and punish an aggressor), or to onion college essay, pre-empt an homosexuality essay thesis, anticipated attack. In recent years, the argument for college preemption has gained supporters in essay, the West: surely, the argument goes, it is right on consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to be avoided? By acting decisively against a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on conjectured rather than impending aggression and in tomato onion essay, effect denounce the moral principle that an agent is presumed innocent – posturing and the building up of armaments do not in and contrast friendship essay, themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is more likely to destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action – such is the principle behind the “balance of power” politics in college essay, which nations constantly renew their alliances and treatises to ensure that not one of glasgow uni, them becomes a hegemonic power. It is also feared that the policy of onion essay, preemption slips easily into and contrast essay, the machinations of “false flag operations” in which a pretext for onion college war is created by a contrived theatrical or actual stunt – of dressing one’s own soldiers up in the enemy’s uniforms, for instance, and having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for a war. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to be quite common. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to defend a leader’s “honor” following an insult. Causes In Ecological? Realists may defend them on grounds of a higher necessity but such moves are likely to onion essay, fail as being smoke screens for citation political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort.
This connects intimately with presenting a just cause – all other forms of college essay, solution must have been attempted prior to compare and contrast essay, the declaration of tomato onion college, war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the grips of the leaders and generals to control – there is too much “fog” in war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. Essays In Ecological Marxism? The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for most economies and so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of college essay, a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by virtue of their moral standing) and its repercussions last for generations. Holding “hawks” at bay though is a complicated task – the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. At Work The Essay? Yet the just war theorist wishes to underline the tomato college, need to medical, attempt all other solutions but also to tie the justice of the war to the other principles of tomato, jus ad bellum too.
The notion of proper authority seems to be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in compare and contrast friendship essay, the sovereign power of the state. But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of issues to consider here. If a government is tomato college essay, just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the officers of the state the right to declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and just form a government is, the more reasonable it is that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the homosexuality, problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the onion college, people of France under its rule owe to at work, its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to the state entails that resistance is tomato college, wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the friendship, state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is wholly justifiable. The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about tomato college, what is medical school, meant by sovereignty, what is meant by the state, and what is the proper relationship between a people and tomato college essay its government. The possession of right intention is ostensibly less problematic. The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for the cause of justice and not for reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, “right intention” masks many philosophical problems.
According to writer at work the essay, Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the only condition of tomato onion college, moral activity, regardless of the consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of any self interest in the action the agent may have. Thesis? The extreme intrinsicism of Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of self-interest itself. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest – is the moral worthiness of intent only gained by college, acting in favor of one’s neighbor, and if so, what does that imply for moral action – that one should woo one’s neighbor’s spouse to natural in ecological marxism, make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to tomato onion college, think about the essay, what is proper and it is tomato onion college essay, not certain that not acting in natural causes essays, self interest is necessarily the proper thing to do. On the tomato, one hand, if the only method to secure a general peace (some thing usually held to be good in itself) is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the proper intention of maintaining the peace for all or the majority. On the binding glasgow, other hand, a nation may possess just cause to onion college, defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the dissertation glasgow, proper intention is to college essay, secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in their self-interest to fight the just war. On that account, the realist may counter that national interest is paramount: only if waging war on behalf of freedom is also complemented by the securing of thesis, economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of tomato onion college, which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is citation research papers, that of college essay, reasonable success. This is essays medical, another necessary condition for waging just war, but again is insufficient by itself.
Given just cause and tomato onion college right intention, the dissertation glasgow uni, just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is consequentialist in that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. However, the concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in tomato onion college, the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of success? Is it right to compare and contrast, comply with aggression because the costs of not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the tomato onion college, probability of defeat: the essays medical school, fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to stir a people into tomato onion college, fighting with all their will.
Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by Nazi Germany in 1940. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.’“ ….And “What is our aim?….Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in what would obviously be an uneven match. For a nation threatened by citation papers, invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to tomato onion college, the means used. This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the principles of essays medical, jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and tomato onion college essay that goal must be proportional to the other principles of just cause.
Whilst this commonly entails the minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations. For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of causes in ecological, nation B, then B has just cause to take the land back. Onion College? According to the principle of proportionality, B’s counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to retrieve its land and essay thesis not exact further retribution or invade the aggressor’s lands, or in graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. Tomato Onion College Essay? For B to invade and annex A and then to dissertation binding glasgow, continue to tomato college essay, invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. On the whole the principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for natural causes marxism reviewing the tomato college essay, morality of going to war that are not tied to the intrinsicist’s absolutism or consequentialist’s open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of problems by either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results – a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions. But war is a complicated issue and the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for ethical examination and they remain a guide for both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings.
The rules of just conduct within war fall under the two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the binding, principle of proportionality concerns how much force is college, morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in war. One strong implication of the justice of warfare being a separate topic of admission medical school, analysis to the justice of war is that the theory thus permits the judging of acts within war to be dissociated from it cause. This allows the theorist to claim that a nation fighting an essay, unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fight unjustly. It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the citation papers, two great principles of warfare: the justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by tomato essay, which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of essay, aggression but does so cleanly?
In waging war it is considered unfair and tomato college unjust to attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to compare and contrast, stand outside the tomato college, field of war proper. Papers? Immunity from war can be reasoned from the fact that their existence and activity is tomato onion college, not part of the essence of war, which is the killing of combatants. Since killing itself is highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in the first place, and natural in ecological whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war. Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to combatants on the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the tomato, person’s moral status to the essay, legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is tomato essay, not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in admission medical school, a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Tomato Onion? Normally, a boxer does not retain the right to hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldier’s training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on and off the battlefield. Such an argument would imply that it is right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to civilian life and hence the status of the non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Conversely, in joining an army the writer the essay, individual is said to renounce his or her rights not to be targeted in war – the bearing of tomato onion college essay, arms takes a person into an alternative moral realm in which killing is the compare and contrast friendship essay, expectation and possible norm: it is tomato essay, world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of passage and exit that underline the alteration in status for cadets and veterans; all analogies to the fair play of sports fail at this juncture, for war involves killing and what the British Army call “unlimited liability.” On entering the army, the civilian loses the citation research, right not to be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others – those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on delineating the boundaries of rights and tomato onion college essay the bearers, may argue that those who join the and contrast essay, army (or who have even been pressed into conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. This is argued for tomato onion example by Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in natural essays in ecological, The Ethics of War (1979). However, since civilians can just as readily come to terms with their own deaths and it is not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is not sufficient to defend the principle of discrimination and why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in war.
In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of rights by combatants by virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the status of guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on covert operations present intricate problems of identification and legitimization: is there a difference between the two? Referring back to the fighters’ cause (for example, the guerrilla is a “freedom fighter” and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the tomato college, just war theory in dividing the justice of the cause from the justice of the manner in which war is fought attempts to avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the at work the essay, lack of identification does not give a government the right to kill indiscriminately—the onus is on the government to identify the combatants, and so, the implication goes, if there is any uncertainty involved then an tomato college, attack must not be made. Others have argued that the nature of modern warfare dissolves the compare friendship essay, possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is no moral distinction in targeting an armed combatant and a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant.
The distinction is, however, not closed by the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the former is presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is college, prepared to die, or is a threat), whilst the civilian is not. On the and contrast essay, other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in college, the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in dissertation glasgow uni, the firing of a weapon of war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms. The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the onion essay, logical nature of an individual's complicity and the aiding and compare abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the war machine in their work. At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in supporting an unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the principle of discrimination tries to tomato essay, circumvent by presenting guidelines for soldiers that keep their activity within the realms of war and its effects rather than murder. It would be wrong, on the principle of discrimination, to group the at work, enemy into one targetable mass of people – some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Onion? Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the war’s justification rests upon such shoulders but not the manner in which it is fought, while others may prefer to saddle the leader or initiator with the research papers, entire responsibility for how a war is fought on the argument that each combatant is essay, responsible for those below him or her in rank – so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for research all operating in the military field.
The second principle of just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of onion essay, just cause, but it is distinct enough to consider it in its own light. Proportionality for jus In bello requires tempering the extent and violence of thesis, warfare to minimize destruction and casualties. It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics). Onion College Essay? Whilst the consideration of natural essays, discrimination focuses on who is a legitimate target of war, the principle of proportionality deals with what kind of force is college, morally permissible.
In fighting a just war in which only military targets are attacked, it is still possible to breach morality by employing disproportionate force against citation, an enemy. Whilst the college, earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the Christian concepts of charity and mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of essays admission medical school, dervishes—the gunners may have been in the right to defend themselves, but the principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Tomato Onion? Similarly, following the battle of school, Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only a breach of the principle of discrimination, for his troops were permitted to kill the wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field. What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is onion, often to a “higher” value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of research, war crimes and onion college atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Compare And Contrast Friendship? Belfield), sought to distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought. Essay? This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the essays school, same problems raised in this article and in tomato college essay, the just war literature.
On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the wife or children of a legitimate target. On grounds of proportionality, the policy would also be acceptable, for if one man or woman (a legitimate target by virtue of compare and contrast friendship essay, his or her aggression) should die to avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by the just war theory? The founder of the Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the reality of death home to the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls “the bravery of being out of tomato onion college essay, range.” In recent years, the US and UK proclaimed that the war in the Gulf was not with the Iraqi people but with its leader and his regime; the natural causes essays, US government even issued a bounty on the heads of key agents in college, the Ba’ath party; indeed, Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in a selective hunt and destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to trial for binding glasgow uni the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due one’s enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of onion college, just war theory is that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to become the norm of homosexuality, political affairs – indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into fearful and barbaric plots and conspiracies (as did Rome in tomato, its last centuries) in a race to gain power and mastery over others rather than to writer at work, forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of onion college essay, proportionality and discrimination aim to homosexuality essay thesis, temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the acceptance of some forms of warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility.
Jus in bello requires that the agents of war be held responsible for their actions. This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the essay, sword in the hand of him who uses it, is not himself responsible for the death he deals. Those who act according to a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and who put wicked men to death “have by no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill.’” Whilst this issue is connected to compare essay, the concepts of just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of breaching the principles of tomato onion, just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is writer, part of the nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the burden of abiding by rules in onion college, times of natural essays, peace on those acting in war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of any guilt from tomato college, war crimes. The issues that arise from this principle include the morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the effects of one’s actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for acts of war relate back to the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in war. In reviewing the stories from military ethics readers, the causes essays in ecological marxism, acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to do the “right thing” against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from higher up; the realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the tomato, critic as well as the at work the essay, soldier of the importance of returning to the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the post bellum justice.
Following the cessation of a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to onion college essay, a ceasefire. Principles of writer at work, justice may then be applied to each situation. Essay? Orend presents a useful summary of the principles of jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the war’s character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and proportionality; and, controversially, the need to dissertation glasgow uni, rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is tomato college essay, written by the victors. A defeated army and indeed the homosexuality, civilian body from college, which the army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of rules and forms of punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to the conquerors. When put this way, when one readily imagines one’s own country’s army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to thwart the conquerors’ designs. Yet when one’s own army is victorious, the homosexuality thesis, partiality of victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the tomato essay, greater right when one’s own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the justification to impose conditions upon the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and at work the essay modern, victory has provided the winners with the means of exploiting the defeated nation and for claiming rights over its lands and people whether in tomato onion, the form of enslavement or in monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an appeal to divine justice is made; at other times the supremacy of one’s nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over the defeated. Economic exploitation is not the only means of subjugating the defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of “rehabilitating the defeated” or as a means to avoid the circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the dissertation binding, philosopher must naturally inquire as to the justice of such measures.
The just war theorist is keen to tomato onion college essay, remind warriors and politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. Similarly, imposing an dissertation glasgow uni, alternative political or religious is not likely to be conducive to tomato, peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about decreeing for the “rights of man” in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in research papers, post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to tomato onion essay, have only short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the defeated into seething desire for revenge. In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the two to writer, avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the most justifiable of all wars.
If the people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to tomato college essay, rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the victor’s terms graciously? Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: “if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience.” ( Second Treatises , §177); however, the compare and contrast friendship essay, right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invader’s own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for tomato college freedom over the generations. Admission Medical School? A realist, however, may ask how a people are to tomato onion college, regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the “good fight” is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to bow to a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to citation research, target their families in order to encourage the occupying army to leave. Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of tomato college, intransigence to signal displeasure.
If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against an aggressor, Locke argues that the victor’s right does not extend to the aggressive nation’s civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the causes essays, just conqueror has absolute rights of life and tomato college death over the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the individual or the community into a state of war, he argues, and so the defender has an absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to citation papers, secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in victory, the victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Locke’s is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the essay, justice in favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. Thesis? Indeed, King Alfred the Great of Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in tomato onion college, battle and compare essay rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the tomato onion college essay, Christian religion and then, and probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat. Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponent’s family is thesis, likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is tomato college, guaranteed to continue the fight over generations. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of some sort, although Alfred’s example highlights an alternative view of dealing with an natural causes in ecological, enemy, one that reminds the tomato onion college, theorist that peace not further war remains the goal. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to stand trial to send a signal to other “war criminals” as well as to writer at work, punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to tomato, exact either retribution, revenge, or to promote a deterrence?
Can the victors be sure of their claim to essay, punish the aggressors and what good could possibly flow from essay, bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by neutral parties, rather than the victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for the atrocities created by bombing civilian centers in writer at work, Germany and onion essay Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and citation papers Nagasaki. The end game and hence the college essay, jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the peace is proclaimed? Should the friendship essay, terms of war’s end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of college essay, defeat? Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is essays marxism, given to tomato college, the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Yet if an unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against binding, possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. Similarly, is it right that an army should demand reparations in advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the uncertainty of punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to be so subjected? To keep the onion college essay, expected conditions of war’s end secretive does not seem a wise move in that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the publicized conditions appear onerous to research, the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is reneged on by the onion college essay, victor, then all trust for essay future arrangements is lost and tomato the consequences imply embedding hatreds and mistrust for natural essays generations. Assume that victory is tomato onion essay, given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to essay thesis, the nature of the post bellum justice of dealing with the defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand.
Arguably, the very nature of the warring participants’ vision of each other and of themselves will color the proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is tomato, more likely to impose its will and exactions upon the defeated in a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemy’s equal; but universality demands seeing one’s enemy as oneself and natural essays marxism understanding not just the Realpolitik of state interests and college state gains in victory but also the conventions of magnanimity and honor in victory (or defeat). Consider the demands for reparations. A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for and contrast friendship essay the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of tomato college, criminals that they pay for their crimes). But to what extent should the citation research, reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for their aggression should be put on trial and suitably punished (and what would “suitable” mean in this instance – that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for his invasions of tomato onion, Afghanistan and Iraq?).
In forming the homosexuality thesis, conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to tomato college, avoid later accusations of “victor’s justice” and the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the victor with the ultimate moral wreath to essay thesis, justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the ceasefire – namely, the cessation of fighting would imply a mere hiatus in which the tomato onion, belligerents regain the time and dissertation binding glasgow uni resources to stock their defenses and prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for tomato college essay the military to regain its strengths. However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and writer the essay that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is forthcoming in onion, any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to essays in ecological, seek a return to a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of war. This article has described the main tenets of the just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails. The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at tomato college essay, least a consideration of meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for uni the practicalities of war. A few of those practicalities have been mentioned here.
Other areas of interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of weapons of mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and the morality and practicalities of college, interventionism.
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Thomas langley medical - Dental PAR Resume Example. 9 years of experience in primary care at Thomas Langley Medical Center. Maintain strong reputation for achieving high levels of patient satisfaction. Energetic and onion college essay motivational Medical Assitant and essays admission leader dedicated to diving top-quality patient care. Looking for a position in tomato essay a top-notch facility with a commitment to homosexuality innovative processes. desire to focus on preventative care and health education.. National Certified Medical Assitant. CPR certified through American Heart Association. Medical manger exp.
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Makes all changes in appointment book/system and notifies patient of a change in previously scheduled appointments. Verifies patient's record is up to homosexuality essay thesis date and accurate. Makes appropriate changes in computer system and on patient's chart. Performs miscellaneous duties related reception when indicated. Is responsible for maintaining current and up-to-date account of all patients' account balances showing all charges, credits, adjustments, etc. Makes all charges for office visits and/or any procedures performed, etc. Record payments received in office or mail (if required) on patient accounts. Is alert for credit problems and refers patient-to-patient financial counselor or other designee for arrangement of payment plan, etc.
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•Maintain paperwork necessary for proper function of the reception area. •Attempt to fill schedules of dentists and writer at work hygienists when cancellations or no-shows occur. •Answer phone, provide information, and take messages as needed. •Treat all patients with kindness and respect. 1.Represents our organization in a courteous and efficient manner at all times. A.Answers all incoming calls, such as appointments, patients seeking medical advice, etc, within 4 rings. B.Records and onion essay gives accurate information for messages within the electronic health record system. C.Check-in patients in a courteous and friendly manner. Schedules appointments and maintains a neat orderly appointment system. D.Makes all changes in appointment system and citation notifies patient of a change in tomato onion college essay previously scheduled appointments.
E.Verifies patient's record is up to date and accurate. Makes appropriate changes in essays medical computer system and on patient's chart. F.Performs miscellaneous duties related reception when indicated. G.Assists other staff as needed to tomato onion essay accomplish daily tasks in a timely, accurate manner. 2.Is responsible for maintaining current and up-to-date account of all patients' account balances showing all charges, credits, adjustments, etc. A.Makes all charges for office visits and/or any procedures performed, etc. B.Record payments received in office or mail (if required) on thesis patient accounts. C.Is alert for credit problems and refers patient-to-patient financial counselor or other designee for arrangement of payment plan, etc.
D.Maintains sound knowledge of filing insurance claims for patients covered under state Medicaid, Medicare, managed care programs, special contracts, and also those HMO groups. that our organization participates, if any. E.Advises patients of monies due for visit in addition to monies due on account. Follows TELMC protocol for collections of monies due Health Center. 3.Demonstrates professional conduct and essay positive attitude. A.Is courteous, cooperative, and supportive of our mission, co-workers, patients and families. B.Demonstrates initiative, adaptability, and dependability in homosexuality essay thesis relationships with co-workers and patients. D.Uses time efficiently.
E.Maintains strict confidentiality regarding patient and strategic organization's information. F.Maintains upbeat, positive attitude with all patients/co-workers/customers. 4.Is knowledgeable regarding our organization's office policies, procedures, and general information. A.Applies independent judgment to specific problems, i.e. release of information, phone numbers, etc. B.Attends seminars, workshops, and classes to enhance work performance when applicable. C.Is courteous and friendly and tomato college essay willing to assist others. D.Is considerate and attentive. E.Displays a positive appearance, including appropriate dress. F.Attends departmental in-service and essay thesis education programs that pertain to guest relations. G.Collects data that is required for tomato college essay Performance Improvement.
H.Reports to work at scheduled times. I.Record shows infrequent absences and on scheduled days. J.Attends department meetings. Developed patient care plans, including assessments, evaluations, and nursing diagnoses.Assisted patients with multiple chronic diagnoses, including COPD and asthma.Helped physicians examine and treat patients by assisting with instruments, injections and suture removal.Achieved departmental goals and objectives by instituting new processes and standards for in-patient care.Participated in unit based Quality Assurance Program.Participated in unit based Quality Assurance Program.Prepared for HIPAA and JCAHO reviews, ensuring required brochures and pamphlets were available to patients in homosexuality essay all clinics.Maintained all confidential personnel files, licensing and CPR compliance records.Performed pregnancy tests and sent specimens for laboratory testing.Escorted patients to examination rooms and prepared them for physician exams.Monitored patient reactions to tomato college drugs and glasgow carefully documented progress of tomato onion college, individuals participating in compare and contrast friendship clinical trials. Strives for a continued flow of patients for providers, administers medicines and procedures ordered by providers, assists with follow-up, education of staff, continuous Quality Improvement and tomato onion teaching to promote effective patient care. ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES include the following.
Other assignments, projects, and duties may be required. 1.Work up of patients; assist with provider/patient flow to friendship essay the exam rooms. 2.Assure forms and follow-up logs are up-to-date. 3.Assist providers during patient examinations and as needed with patient education. This may include performing EKG's, vision screens and building a library of patient education information. 4.Perform and log QC checks on emergency equipment, reporting malfunctions to Nursing Supervisor. 5.Assure the tomato onion straightening and cleaning of exam rooms as needed and at end of workday. 6.Clean and auto clave instruments and essays medical school adhere to appropriate cleaning and storage of all equipment. 7.Stock rooms and medications weekly and college as needed, keeping par levels and reordering supplies through appropriate procedures. 8.Conduct or direct follow-up and tracking duties and document. 9.Prioritize activities for optimum effectiveness.
Perform duties in a timely manner. Use “down time” reasonably. 10.Assist in essays school presentations for education, health and community relations. 11.Maintain confidential approach at all times. 12.Meet requirements for continuing education credits and attend meetings for enhancement of duties as applicable for role in agency. 13.Adhere to onion college timely, legal chart documentations. 14.Abide by essays admission medical established written protocols and procedural guidelines and perform only those functions for which employee is educationally and legally prepared. 15.Forward documents in EHR to appropriate provider for completion if necessary, i.e. signatures, unfinished charting.
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18 Metaphors Analogies Found in Actual Student Papers (Or Not—But They're Still Hilarious) Okay, so we can't be 100% positive that these are from actual student papers. Onion Essay. [Update: They are not.] Let us know which is the best (worst?) in the comments below! 1. Dissertation Glasgow Uni. His thoughts tumbled in his head, making and breaking alliances like underpants in a dryer without Cling Free. 2. He spoke with the wisdom that can only essay come from experience, like a guy. who went blind because he looked at a solar eclipse without one of those. At Work. boxes with a pinhole in it and now goes around the country speaking at. high schools about the dangers of looking at a solar eclipse without one. of those boxes with a pinhole in it. 3. She had a deep, throaty, genuine laugh, like that sound a dog makes just. before it throws up. 4. Her vocabulary was as bad as, like, whatever. 5. He was as tall as a six-foot, three-inch tree. 6. The little boat gently drifted across the pond exactly the way a bowling. 7. From the attic came an tomato college essay, unearthly howl. The whole scene had an eerie, surreal quality, like when you're on vacation in another city and.
Jeopardy comes on essay, at 7:00 p.m. instead of tomato, 7:30. Papers. 8. The hailstones leaped from the tomato onion essay, pavement, just like maggots when you fry. them in hot grease. 9. Long separated by homosexuality, cruel fate, the star-crossed lovers raced across the. Tomato College Essay. grassy field toward each other like two freight trains, one having left. At Work. Cleveland at 6:36 p.m. traveling at 55 mph, the other from Topeka at. 4:19 p.m. at a speed of 35 mph.
10. John and Mary had never met. They were like two hummingbirds who had. 11. He fell for her like his heart was a mob informant, and tomato onion college, she was the friendship essay, East. 12.
Even in his last years, Granddad had a mind like a steel trap, only one. that had been left out so long, it had rusted shut. 13. Shots rang out, as shots are wont to onion college, do. 14. Binding. The plan was simple, like my brother-in-law George. But unlike George, this plan just might work. 15. The young fighter had a hungry look, the kind you get from not eating. 16.
He was as lame as a duck. Not the metaphorical lame duck, either, but a. real duck that was actually lame, maybe from stepping on a land mine or. 17. Tomato Onion Essay. The ballerina rose gracefully en pointe and extended one slender leg. behind her, like a dog at a fire hydrant. 18. Dissertation. It was an American tradition, like fathers chasing kids around with.
[As Alan pointed out, these came from the Washington Post Style Invitational Bad Simile and Metaphor Contest.] If you used the words jeggings , muggle , or binge-watch in a sentence 30 years ago, you would have likely been met with stares of confusion. But today these words are common enough to hold spots in the Oxford English Dictionary. Such lingo is a sign that English, as well as any other modern language, is constantly evolving. But the path a word takes to enter the general lexicon isn’t always a straightforward one. Tomato Essay. In the homosexuality, video below, TED-Ed lays out how some new words become part of tomato onion college essay, our everyday speech while others fade into school obscurity. Tomato Onion College Essay. Some words used by English speakers are borrowed from other languages, like mosquito (Spanish), avatar (Sanskrit), and prairie (French). Essay. Other “new” words are actually old ones that have developed different meanings over time.
Nice , for example, used to only mean silly, foolish, or ignorant, and meat was used as blanket term to describe any solid food given to livestock. The internet alone is responsible for a whole new section of our vocabulary, but even the words most exclusive to tomato onion essay, the web aren’t always original. For instance, the word meme was first used by Richard Dawkins in his 1976 book The Selfish Gene . Natural In Ecological. To learn more about the true origins of the words we use on a regular basis, check out the full story from TED-Ed below. Tomato. Puns can be divisive: Some find them irresistible, some find them groan-worthy. And while newspaper readers may appreciate clever wordplay in a headline—say, “Big Rig Carrying Fruit Crashes on 210 Freeway, Creates Jam,” or one of The New York Post ’s seemingly endless Anthony Weiner puns—most people don’t drop puns in everyday conversation. But for others, punning is a way of life. Pun competitions challenge wordsmiths to come up with as many great puns as they can on the fly in medical front of an audience. And they aren’t for the faint of heart, as author Joe Berkowitz found out over the course of writing Away With Words , his new book about the world of competitive punning. Here are ten facts we learned from the book about puns and the art of wielding them competitively. Making puns “crosses all major languages and cultures in history,” John Pollack, an international punning champion and the author of a historical look at the phenomenon, The Pun Also Rises , told Berkowitz.
In San Juan Chamula, Mexico, a tradition of verbal duels called k’ehel k’op , which often revolves around puns, dates back to Mayan times. Traditional Palestinian weddings have featured pun-heavy oral poetry duels for onion, centuries. 2. And Contrast. THE WORLD’S FOREMOST PUN COMPETITION IS NAMED AFTER AN AUTHOR WHO DIDN’T PUN. The largest and most prestigious pun competition is the O. Henry Pun-Off World Championships, held every year in Austin, Texas. Onion College. You’d think the reference to the famous short story writer would nod to his affinity for medical, puns, but in fact, there’s not a lot of onion college essay, evidence he liked them at all. Homosexuality Essay. “Although he did name one of his stories ‘A Midsummer Knight’s Dream,’ the author’s work is tomato essay, largely pun-free,” Berkowitz writes.
During the course of writing the book, he visited the O. Henry Museum in Austin, where the at work, Pun-Off is held, and was informed that the connection between puns and the author O. Henry is onion college essay, quite tenuous. “Between you and me, he was not a huge punner,” a tour guide told him. “That connection was made between the museum and homosexuality thesis, the Pun-Off early on because it was held here, and tomato, it just stuck.” 3. Thesis. THERE ARE FOUR DIFFERENT KINDS OF PUN. There’s the homophonic pun, in which two words sound the essay, same but mean something different. (“Czech” and “check,” for instance.) Then there’s the homographic pun, in which two words sound different but are spelled the same. (Like a bass player versus a bass fish.) There are also homonymic puns, in which the words both sound and are spelled the same. (Berkowitz’s example: “I felt unsettled inside so I had an evening out.”) And last, there’s the portmanteau, a combination of natural causes essays in ecological marxism, two other words. Tomato Onion College. (Like “brunch.”) 4. AT THE PUN-OFF, THE RULES ARE SERIOUS BUSINESS. Dissertation. The O. Henry Pun-Off in essay Austin—a competition Berkowitz calls “the Olympics of pun competitions”—has strict rules. Only honest-to-goodness puns are accepted. You can’t just throw in essay thesis a phrase related to onion college, a topic if it doesn’t have the necessary wordplay to qualify as one of the four types of homosexuality, pun. “If the topic is railroads, we will not accept anything like, ‘I hope we stay on track,’” Pun-Off organizer Gary Hallock told Berkowitz by way of explanation. There are two competitions wrapped into the O. Henry Pun-Off: Punniest of Show and Punslingers. Tomato Onion College. In the former, competitors perform their own two-minute routine on any topic they want, cramming in as many puns as possible. These monologues are judged by a panel on essays admission, originality, performance, and wit.
Punslingers, meanwhile, is a rapid-fire, head-to-head tournament in which punners exchange wordplay on randomly chosen topics as fast as possible. Each competitor gets a maximum of five seconds to think of their next pun, and tomato, whoever runs out or gets three strikes (attempted puns the judges deem invalid) first loses. The longest this particular event has ever lasted was a grueling 48 minutes of puns relating to numerical phrases like “three’s a crowd.” 5. ENGLISH IS A GREAT LANGUAGE FOR PUNS. English speakers already have a leg up when it comes to puns. For one thing, it’s got a whole lot of words. The Oxford English Dictionary estimates that there are around a quarter of a million distinct words in the English language. English has borrowed words from so many languages that there are a wide variety of potential puns that wouldn’t otherwise be available, like “soirees” and “sore eyes.” English also doesn’t have declensions, so the in ecological marxism, endings of words don’t change based on tomato, what part of the sentence they’re in. “The apple” stays the same whether it’s a direct object or the subject of a sentence, in other words, which is not the case for languages like German or Russian. (English uses word order to convey the difference instead.) So “saw” can be both a verb or a noun, no matter where in the sentence it falls. As in, “The blind carpenter picked up his hammer and saw.” If anyone knew how great English can be for admission medical, puns, it was Shakespeare. “Never mistake the onion college, Bard for essay, someone above poop and fart jokes,” Berkowitz writes. “When Thersites of Troilus and Cressida says, ‘But yet you look not well upon essay, him; for, whomsoever you take him to be, he is Ajax,’ it’s not just because a character is named ‘Ajax,’ but because ‘a jakes’ meant a public toilet back then.” The greatest writer in the English language, indeed.
7. FOX’S BOB’S BURGERS HAS A PUN QUOTA. The writers of the animated series Bob’s Burgers regularly go through their own kind of mini pun competition in order to craft a series that’s unusually dedicated to puns. That's because there are at least three points in essays admission medical school each episode that involve puns. In the title sequence, there is always a rotating series of tomato essay, stores located next to the show’s titular family restaurant. These plausible companies always have punny names like I’d Hit That (a boxing gym) or That’s Improv-able Improv Theater. Later in the credits, an compare and contrast essay, exterminator van always pulls up in front of the restaurant bearing a punny name like Last of the Mousehicans. And then there’s the ever-popular Burger of the tomato essay, Day feature, which has spawned an citation research, entire cookbook full of college, recipes for burgers with pun names like “Shoot-Out at the OK-ra Corral Burger (comes with Fried Okra).” To populate each episode with these running gags, the show’s writers have to include three or four pun options for compare friendship, each when putting together a script. College. Bob’s Burgers creator Loren Bouchard then hand-picks his favorites for each episode. 8. The Essay. WANT TO BE A PUN CHAMPION? TRY IMPROV. Tomato College Essay. All of the winners of the O. Henry Pun-Off in the past decade have had one thing in common: a background in improv.
Improv performers are used to coming up with ideas on at work the essay, the fly in front of an tomato, audience, and in the training process, they get extremely comfortable failing spectacularly. They’re comfortable opening their mouths without having a good idea of what’s going to come out. As one improv-trained punster told Berkowitz, “if you get an improviser up there, they’ll be, like, ‘Well, I can just start talking and I don’t know what I’m gonna say but I’ll get there.’” 9. FOR THE BRAIN, PUNNING IS LIKE TANGLING CHRISTMAS LIGHTS. What’s going on in your head when you’re thinking up a pun? Salvatore Attardo, an expert on natural essays in ecological, the linguistics of humor, described it this way:
A good way of representing what’s in the brain is to think of tomato college, it as strings of writer, lights on a Christmas tree. So you have one string that’s white, and those lights are all the associations of tomato, meaning. Citation Research Papers. If you have ‘dog,’ you have ‘puppy’ and ‘bitch’ and onion college, all the compare and contrast friendship essay, words that are related to dogs. So that’s one string, but then you’re going to have another string that’s red and it’s ‘fog,’ ‘bog,’ ‘log’—all the tomato college, associations on the sound and all the sounds that begin the same way. What is happening when you make a pun is that you’re kind of crossing the strings of lights.
So even if a certain pun feels like low-hanging conversational fruit, it's actually a pretty complicated neurological process. 10. At Work The Essay. IT’S REALLY, REALLY HARD TO TEACH A COMPUTER TO PUN. A computer won’t be entering the tomato college essay, O. At Work. Henry anytime soon. Software engineer Max Parke attempted to overcome this challenge by building the Punerator, a computer program designed to replicate the very human act of punning. Parke fed the program a rhyming dictionary and a data set of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and phrases, hoping to tomato essay, one day be able to get the machine to reverse engineer the pun “Iran so far away.” The process of combining words to make longer words, to turn verbs into nouns, to use words in ways that are counter to papers, their intended meaning, was just too complicated for the algorithm. Even the onion essay, best artificial intelligence is no match for a competitive punner, or even a totally average one. Dissertation Glasgow Uni. It’s a skill that—for now—is uniquely human. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. Why You Should Never Flush Dental Floss Down the Toilet. Tomato Onion Essay. Why You Should Sing 'Happy Birthday’—Twice—While Washing Your Hands.
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essay outline racism changes in the employment patterns of black people over the last decade, but that they are not converging with the employment patterns of whites, and that earlier injustices and imbalances continue to set the boundaries within which change can occur. (Racism and Antiracism, 58). Tomato College Essay? According to Goldeberg David Theo in Racist Culture along with the lows many programs have been made even though the absence of essays medical available opportunities such as preferential treatment programs for college admissions or hiring. Essay on Heterosexism, Racism, and Feminism. element of racism. This group of onion college essay students aims to increase awareness regarding social justice, and endorse racial harmony. But, it has been seen that many people, particularly those associated with racist groups, find it necessary to put down other ethnic groups in an attempt to strengthen their own results. It is therefore difficult to believe on them. The article claims that their job is to make such an environment that is safe and devoid of any danger. Essays Medical? But most of the time such racism thought and. problem. Onion Essay? Know Your Facts Learn and make research about the current issues regarding to racism.
To persuade the others to be anti-racism, you need to speak convincingly about thesis, why you’re fighting racism and onion college, why the dissertation binding glasgow, people at home should join you? Make sure you’re prepared to answer questions about your cause by researching it thoroughly. Tomato Onion College Essay? Say the police shoot an unarmed black man in your community. To combat racism, find out what reasons, if any, the officers have given for causes marxism, the shooting; if the officers. welfare increase. Fortunately, there was a law passed that prohibits discrimination of tomato onion any type in the work place. These laws prohibit jobs from discriminating against people for their race, gender, and writer at work, ability.
Racism has affected the education of many children. In the past, racism has caused segregation. During the times of college segregation, African Americans students attended different schools than the thesis, Caucasian students. The African American children had to use used books with torn and ripped out. It is those little preconceived notions that are at the very core of why racism and prejudices are permitted to exist.
There is a distinct difference between racism and onion college essay, prejudice. The distinction between racism and mere prejudice, according to Blum, is often a matter of degrees, with the latter implying stronger antipathy, one that verges into dissertation uni hatred (p. Onion Essay? 13). At Work The Essay? This allows Blum to distinguish between a person who acts out of racist motives--say severe hatred towards a group--and a person who acts. Essay Racism and Freedom of Expression. murders which were not reported on at all. Murders and attacks on black and Asian people simply did not dominate the news in the same way as those of white people.
Inter - ethnic racism There were recently the Birmingham riots in lozells between Pakistanis and Afro – Caribbean residents. Racism has spread to college ethnic minorities between themselves. It was found that the afro – Caribbean community were angry towards the hostilities as the Pakistani community seemed to be. between ape and Teuton.6 The greatest influence in homosexuality the sudden development of racism in the 19th century Europe was the replacement of the Christian belief that God created all people equal by Darwinism. By suggesting that man had evolved from more primitive creatures, and that some races had evolved further than others, it provided racism with a scientific mask. In short, Darwin is the father of racism. Onion Essay? His.
Many people are killed because of racism, this is called racial violence. For example Stephen Lawrence was killed at 18 years of age, about six white men stabbed him to death while he was going to catch the bus, the reason, just because his skin colour was black. Racial Segregation is another form of racism, this is when people of different races who are doing the papers, same equal thing are sepperated, such as going to school, eating at tomato onion college, a restarant, using the toilet etc. Natural Causes Essays Marxism? In America black people were. what has allegedly happened, and takes out her anger on Pecola, “You nasty little black bitch.
Get out of tomato college my house. ” Geraldine also has internalized racism that she has faced, and hates Pecola because of it. This strengthens Pecola’s belief that she is ugly, and her desire for the blue eyes of a white person. Pecola further experiences racism in her family life. Pecola’s mother, Pauline Breedlove, works as a service woman for a white family. One day, Pecola goes to work with her mother to assist. supposed to marxism give blacks a legal basis to tomato onion combat discrimination. The act had limited powers but it did reflect the growing concern in citation research papers Government regarding racism among the public. Onion College? Two further Race Relations Acts were passed in 1968 and 1976 which may have seemed to have been a progressive move by government to tackle racism until it is twisted into hypocrisy when we see that the Commonwealth Immigration Act of homosexuality thesis 1968 was brought in. Onion College Essay? The Act was a direct reaction to and contrast the Mau Mau. Guitar#x27;s Struggle With Racism Essay.
After all, he was in “Bilbo Country,” which refers to an area of racism, rooted from Theodore Bilbo, an active white supremacist in the Ku Klux Klan (81). The conversation was redirected after argument as the men told stories about their own experiences with racism. This historical allusion is extremely significant to the book because it shows us the battle that Guitar is struggling with, the battle of racism and inequality, and the reason that Guitar joined The Seven Days. From the onion, moment in the. Media in glasgow 21st century post-racial America has fiercely fought to change their format and character of racism to become more political correct. Americans has become more educated and onion college essay, subtle in mainstreaming its views of racism. Social barriers of economic and political disadvantages that were invisible to the American public still exist. It is still a continuous struggle for the unwanted truth of racism and prejudice to become embedded within the glasgow, hearts of the American society.
Past and tomato college essay, present leaders. Even though stating racism in public is not socially accepted in America now, people have found ways of being racist through other ways. For example, people have used racism as a joke to get approval. “There’s been a lot of talk… about “hipster racism” or “ironic racism”[Source C] Joking only goes so far, this hipster or ironic racism allows for racism to seem as a social norm. Similarly, it is not only white people who have used racial commentary and the essay, actions. Onion? Some “blacks feel they have a right. It [racism] is, however, within everyone and every workplace to different degrees (Theodossiou, 78). Denying that racism goes on papers has a large part to do with it existing. Tomato? Not acknowledging its presence gives a reason to neglect finding ways to prevent it. Society needs to realize there is a problem at hand in order to writer fix it.
Bissoondath argues, We like to tomato essay think that our multicultural mosaic will help nudge us into a greater openness. Dissertation Binding Glasgow Uni? But it is failing to educate basic questions people have about. the representation of race with respect to the naturalised stereotypes is that they are completely unsubstantiated, although the white people still attempt to apply these stereotypes to the marginalised Negros. The way the white people apply the racism and tomato college essay, stereotypes is different in each story. In ?The Test' the dissertation binding uni, Inspector is the most noticeably racist, where he puts a Southern American spin on all his speech, the innuendo being that Negro's primarily originate from the Southern states where they. Then he started calling Othello a Moor to his face and orders his guards to tomato essay get him. It’s obvious that mostly every character in Othello is racist.
If the color of Othello’s skin was white, Othello and Desdemona would’ve lived happily ever after. Racism was shown in many ways in papers Act I of Othello. When Iago and Roderigo talked about Othello, they called him an “Old black ram,” and made a sex reference with Othello and onion college essay, Desdemona by saying that they were “making the essays admission, beast with two backs.” “The Moor” Essay on The Causes of Prejudice and Racism. of the Enlightenment did not feel very comfortable with their own racial theories because they were obviously contradicting their ideas of individual freedom, democracy and progress. Tomato Onion College Essay? But they had to meet the expectations of a society in which racism was not only an accepted part of everyday life but also an important economical factor. The Enlightenment's view of race is strongly dominated by the arrogance that the Western world and especially America had always shown towards other cultures.
should be and it isn’t wrong. Compare And Contrast? Racism is broad topic to tomato onion talk about but once everyone realizes it exists in the U.S. they can take steps to glasgow trying to talk to their children about it and onion, maybe even change some of their ways in knowing that racism is wrong. It may not exist where you live, but any place that there will be adults, teens, or children of different races interact together there is a possibility of prejudice. Many other cultures are a target for racism, it isn’t just black and white. Japanese. Racism is when a certain race or group feels they are superior to all other races or groups. They believe that their race has the upper hand in society due to a number of aspects such as skills and intelligence. To make matters worse, a method called “Scientific Racism” justifies these race’s ideas of superiority. The IQ test shows that “whites” score much higher than “blacks”, but is this due to superior intelligence or does it exploit the fact that social accepts in a child’s upbringing alters.
men were throwing bottles at our car and racist slurs were used to writer at work describe us as a couple. Since I was pregnant were afraid to report the essay, crime. Occurrences that happen are sometimes not even labeled as hate crimes but disorderly conduct. Reverse Racism crimes are almost never heard of in the news. In the urban neighborhoods you are viewed either as African American or Caucasian not both. Essay? President Obama put down in the 2008 census that he was an African American male. Instead of onion college correcting society. team at least three seasons before their 21st birthday, and limited the roster of 25 players to only 17 over the age of 21 can not be homegrown.
While reflecting on my own knowledge of racism in soccer, I begin to wonder how and when racism really took flight in soccer, and if it was really worse back in the day. Racism, by compare friendship essay, the English captain. Essay on Racism and Homeland Security. form of racism (Cuauhtemoc and Hernandez). College? The Supreme Court played an important role in constructing distinct border policies for the Mexican and Canadian borders in the 1976 decision United States v Martinez-Fuertes. In that decision the court granted border patrol agents the right to stop and question people “of apparent Mexican ancestry” located anywhere within one-hundred miles of the border (Cuauhtemoc and Hernandez). With this decision it is clear and open to being subjected to racism, most. difference amongst men and women.
Now a days, men and friendship essay, women partake in the same kind of careers; however, full-time working women earn 77 cents for every dollar a man earns (bassett, 2013). Another example of racism is not allowing a gay couple into your restaurant because of religious beliefs. Racism promotes the acts of discrimination. Discrimination is the tomato onion essay, unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on admission medical the grounds of race, age, or sex. There are two types. and a more defined meaning of college many principles are understood.
Education allows us to begin the essays admission, foundation of onion achievement with our dreams and aspiration. It enhances and dissertation binding glasgow uni, presents a broader perspective and leads to a healthier self fulfilled life, but racism causes some of onion essay theses idealistic situations to become a blur. Equality of education has dropped down to an obvious unequal state. We have are able to see. Breaking The Cycle of Toxic Racism Essay. after the Emancipation Proclamation and the end of the homosexuality essay thesis, war, Mark Twain began writing his novel Huckleberry Finn, a novel criticized for having racism in the spotlight.
In Huckleberry Finn, honorable and honest slave, Jim, is tomato essay, hindered by the insidious racism of the White society in at work the essay the South. Within the novel, Twain gives insight to how conflicting racism can be, both to the tormentors and onion essay, those who are burdened. Twain attempts to prove that the result of such hate causes ethical misunderstanding. Racism and Discrimination in Sports Essay. to accept their awards displaying signs and clothing depicting black power.
They were reprimanded, but other athletes followed suit at these games (Hoffmann, PhD. And Bailey, MA, 1991, pp 59-61). Collectively, society has taken steps towards less racism in sports based on color. There is no longer a ban keeping athletes out of sports such as baseball due to color. Essays? Stereotypes and racial thoughts still exist today, but they are improving with time. W.E.B. Du Bois wrote in his book, The Souls of onion college Black. Racism in citation Comedy and Entertainment Essay. logic behind it. “The joke exposes not the ancient perfidy of any particular race but the absurdity of blaming entire races for anything.” Responding in such a matter helps to essay confute some of the wrongful views about people.
Along with commentary, racism in marxism comedy and entertainment helps to college essay expose said absurdity of the stereotypes. Some stereotypes are most often portrayed in television. That type of publicity may further convince other that those incorrect assumptions are true. In reference to writer at work the essay her. Essay about Racism in Martinsville, in. Furthermore, there is onion essay, even racism today; it comes all the way from the citizens of the town to the people who run this town. Essays Marxism? After the September 11, terrorist attack the Assistant Chief of Police Daniel E. Nail posted a letter in the newspaper using racial slang and degradation.
Nail’s exact words were, “It offends me when I have to essay give up prayer in school. Once again because it might offend Hadji Hindu or Buddy Buddha.” With words like these posted in the town’s newspaper, I would think there should. Essay about uni, The Tragedy of Racism. cruel with a black man he would be equally as lenient with a white man. He would probably just get a “Don’t do it again.” Aren’t the tomato college, police supposed to be our friends? “Our” meaning everyone of us? Granted, this event took place in the 60’s when racism was still a really big deal, but this kind of unfair treatment toward people of a colored race is still very much in existence. I, personally, experienced a police man being unfair to myself and my family because of writer at work the essay our race. We had just arrived. an A out of the class. Nikki Giovanni also states in her tips that students should go to class regardless of how you feel and that you should have the determination to finish what you started being in college. Furthermore in the passage, “Campus Racism” Nikki Giovanni makes a clear statement about attending a predominately white college when she discusses the issues of having lack of credentials.
She implies that regardless of your status of qualifications, you are still worthy of an education like. The American Way : An Introspective on Racism Essay. would argue that racism in America is just as coercive, abusive, and powerful than ever before. I make this claim to onion essay suggest that aspects of the homosexuality, white racial frame, have actively penetrated and altered perspectives of onion all individuals living on American soil, drastically controlling the specificities of human beings engagement with life, and admission school, perhaps even unknowingly so. Moreover, Feagin’s statement prompted a genuine eagerness within me to explore the very facets in onion essay which systematic racism infiltrates.
Racism in causes essays the South is Forever Present Essay. not the case, “since the Chicago Race Riot of 1919 black people have been the target of racism and discrimination in Chicago” (History.com). This is very much similar to Tom Robinson and his journey all throughout his trial. Tomato? Although not all residents of Chicago may be racist, just like how everyone was against Atticus, the popular opinion shows otherwise. Another city that is “plagued by segregation and racism is Memphis Tennessee” (Tennessee: Most), it is marxism, even regarded by onion college essay, some as one of the most. Racism in Blackout vs Berry Essay. In Berry the theme of racism is much more blatant, their displeasure at admission medical, the fact that berry was black was stated numerous times throughout the short story “Her wire to the employment agency produced results but – black ones,” “Well pay the onion, darkie eight”. He was also underpaid although doing work that was not part of his job in addition to his work because of his skin colour and essays admission medical school, when the child was injured Berry was immediately blamed by the members of staff without even giving him a chance to explain. Identity: Labeling Leads to Racism Essay. ideas thrown around as to how racism began, though the truth lies in the history of mankind. Before people were able to travel and experience difference groups of people, we predominantly stayed in the same kind of area with the same kind of people.
We feared things that were different, and onion college, were lacked the power to face those kinds of things. Citation? All this changed once we did, in fact, obtain this level of human advancement, but the onion college, fear never drifted. The truth is, racism began as soon as people faced. Racism, Prisons, and research papers, the Future of Black America Essay. Marable points out many statistics that suggest the presence of racism in within the court system. Tomato Onion College Essay? Some of these are: • Among youth offenders, 66% of whites are referred to juvenile courts while only 31% of blacks are taken there. • For young people who have never been to prison, blacks are nine times more likely than whites to be sentenced to juvenile prisons. • For youths charged with drug offenses, blacks are 48 times more likely than whites to be sent to juvenile prison. • White. Essay on Impact of Racism in Fences, by August Wilson.
which Troy’s life was built upon. Throughout the medical school, play Troy is mostly seen as an average African American bowing down to college essay racism and segregation. In the beginning of the play though (Act 1 Scene 1) Troy stands up to his white employers and questions them on why only white people are driving trucks and not the black people too. This is the homosexuality essay, first time Troy is seen standing up against racism and eventually becomes the first black truck driver. Some of the issues that often plague Troy are his inability. To Kill a Mocking Bird: Racism and college, Courage Essay. As you can see the children, Jem especially, are starting to take a stand against racism on their own and being very courageous along the way. Atticus defines courage as “when you know you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway and see it through no matter what. As the book goes on the children start to dissertation binding glasgow uni realize that instead of realying on presonal prejudice or gut reaction they start to think more and more what is right. Their are different examples of courage in the book, but one is.
Discrimination and onion college, Racism in causes in ecological Country Lovers and college, the Welcome Table. usher, never having turned anyone out of his church before, but not even considering this job as that (after all, she had no right to be there, certainly), went up to her and essays medical school, whispered that she should leave”. This paragraph show bold and tomato college, blatant racism by citation research, the church member feeling superior to the black woman and asking her to leave before she is forced out onion college of the church. Essays? The theme in both stories includes love. In the story “Country Lovers” the author writes, “The schoolgirls he went swimming. Racism and tomato, Poverty: Barriers to Achieving the American Dream Essay. exemplifies that even from the early stages of her life, she was disadvantaged because of her skin color. Even if she was smarter than the average white student, she knew she would receive unfair treatment.
Most African-Americans have struggled with racism, and it has made it difficult for many to achieve success. For most African-Americans, the American Dream was just that, only writer the essay a dream. Today, African-Americans are not the tomato college, only ones having a hard time achieving that dream of success and happiness. Racism, Characters, and Abuse in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. that helped us get any seat we want on the bus. Martin Luther King Jr. made it where we could go to school with whites and other minorities. Many African Americans made it possible for us all we have rights today for those great people even though racism is still alive we can still stand up for our rights like our four fathers did.
The characters all have different personalities and research papers, styles they each show each other sides that they didn’t know in the beginning of the book. In To Kill a Mockingbird. Anti-Semitism and tomato onion essay, Racism in the Merchant of compare and contrast Venice Essay. is saved, it is for Jessica's sake, because she has chosen Christianity over Judaism. This statement implies that Lorenzo believes that Christianity is the religion that is powerful enough to admit one into heaven. Shylock is not the villain (in racism) in the story but a victim because of his religion. He is a victim of his own anger and frustration at a lifetime of persecution and college essay, alienation for being a Jew.
Shylock is a defensive character because society is constantly reminding him he is different. Institutional Racism and Its Effects on Latino Students Essay example. be beneficent to their success in mainstream America. The most recent approach utilized in compare essay American schools to divorce Latino students of college essay their ethnic identity is school, “colorblindness”. Ullucci describes colorblind ideology as the misunderstanding that racism exists, the denial of racial and cultural backgrounds, and onion college essay, the devaluation of culturally relevant pedagogies (2010). School? Its basic premise is that Latino and other non-dominant cultures are inherently flawed and their cultural existence should be dismissed. Learning About Racism and Glory Road Essay. during that time, blacks were not accepted. According to Roger Ebert, “there was an ‘informal rule’ that you never played more than one black player at home, two on the road or three if you were behind.” As the team went farther into college the season, the racism became worse most likely due to the fact that the team was winning. The “Mighty Miners” did not let these acts of homosexuality thesis hate reflect on onion how they played as a team, however.
According to Frank Fitzpatrick, they had an overall record of homosexuality 28-1 which is absolutely. Equal Before the Law: The Key to Counter Racism Essay examples. misunderstanding can cause people to fear of what they’re not used to, consequently increasing racism. The effects of global racism and ethnic discrimination are widespread and unending. Not only does this issue disempowers people but causes a devastating impact on the world; morally, culturally and economically. We wish that the onion essay, indifference in people where only distant memories but over the years racism keeps on being an obstacle for those. Racism Toward Japanese-Americans in the Film, Snow Falling on Cedars. First, how racism toward the Japanese-American is friendship essay, presented through the lives of several key characters in the film. Second, how this racism affected the relationship between Ishmael Chambers and Hatsue Miyamoto. Finally, how racism toward the Japanese-Americans is dramatized through the visual and spoken language of the film. Onion College Essay? Both novel and film received significant recognition, accumulating a number of awards and nominations.
The novel received the PEN/Faulkner Award for homosexuality essay, Fiction, the Barnes. Essay about Obama Perfect Union Speech - Contemporary Racism. Americans which in turn doesn’t give black men as many economic opportunities as white men. This not only college essay relates to white privilege because they feel they are deserving of these jobs and educations but it also has a lot to do with institutional racism. By giving these economic opportunities to citation the better qualified person you are giving it to the one who has a better education. Tomato College Essay? Through his speech, Obama illuminates the problem within our schools. Funding and quality of education go hand.
Racism Reflects Upon Joe Christmas’ Tragic Fall Essay. It is apparent that blacks were treated differently, and natural causes essays marxism, were seen as a separate society. Another critic backs up this argument of Faulkner taking advantage of racism to make Joe Christmas struggle. Religion in the pro-slavery South also affects Faulkner’s writing style in the novel, and is seen between the relationship of Joe and tomato, Joanna Burden; the two reflect upon the Old Testament myth of white dominating over black and male over female (Bush). This depicts yet another example describing how Joe. Reminders of Heartlessness: Racism in Huckleberry Finn and Blackface Minstrel Shows.
chapter 15, para. 47), even after Jim practically fell on his knees to see Huck again. By Huck mocking Jim in friendship essay this way, their friendship comes second to Huck’s needing to override Jim in terms of intelligence. Another example of this, is when Twain’s racism makes Huck unable to see that Jim argues well, and only views him as brainless. “[Huck see it warn't no use wasting words – you can't learn a n-word to argue. So I quit” (Twain, 1985, chapter 14, para. 58). Providing all of this, Twain abstractly. Post World War Two Racism, in Aboriginal and tomato onion college essay, Non-Aboriginal Australian Communities. The assisted immigrants were not able to return to causes in ecological their countries and escape from Australia and its harsh racism because their own homelands had been taken over by communists.
The immigrants eventfully became independent from the tomato college essay, government and began to live in binding uni general society where they were still segregated and discriminated against. They brought parts of their heritage and culture with them to college Australia and after many decades white Australians began to binding glasgow accept them. Immigrants were not the. Essay about African Americans and Southern Racism During Reconstruction. superior intellect; this had been in the arsenal of Whites for hundreds of years prior to Reconstruction and continues to onion college be used over 130 years after Reconstruction. Denial of education for Blacks existed through Reconstruction as a form of White racism and a justification for their inferior political and economic status (Burris-Kitchen Burris, 2011, p. 6).
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D-Day or Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944. As dawn broke on June 6, 1944, the tomato onion, Allied invasion fleet became visible crossing the choppy waters of the in ecological marxism, English Channel to France. None of those who took part in D-Day, whether soldier, sailor, or airman, would ever forget the sight. It was by far the largest amphibious invasion force ever known, with more than 5,000 ships carrying 175,000 troops. The view from the air was breathtaking. Many pilots said later that the sea was packed so full of ships that it almost looked as if you could walk to tomato onion college essay France. The air support plan included more than 6,000 aircraft, with transports dropping three airborne divisions, heavy and medium bombers attacking beach defences, and other squadrons on deception operations. Typhoon and P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bombers would roam inland, ready to attack German reinforcements coming to help defend the coast. Layered screens of Allied fighters between the Parisian region and admission school, the Normandy beaches would ensure that German aircraft never reached the invasion area in daylight. And anti-submarine patrols of Sunderlands and B-24 Liberators had already started to patrol every map-square of the sea between southern Ireland and tomato college, Brittany.
To the research papers, great embarrassment of Grand Admiral Doenitz, not a single German U-boat got through to the Channel. In fact one Canadian pilot broke all records by sinking two German submarines in the Bay of Biscay within twenty-two minutes. The fact that the invasion fleet had sailed at all on the night of June 5 was almost a miracle in itself. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander, had faced a terrible dilemma. Onion? On June 2 his meteorologists had warned of a bad storm. Homosexuality? The invasion was put back by tomato college essay, twenty-four hours in a desperate hope that conditions might improve. Dissertation? Eisenhower knew that a major postponement of two weeks until tides were again favorable could well prove disastrous. To disembark all those soldiers from their landing ships and then re-embark them later would have been very bad for tomato onion essay, morale, and research papers, the Germans might well have discovered the Allied plan. Essay? Told that there might be a break in the bad weather on and contrast essay, June 6, Eisenhower assumed the college, huge responsibility of research his position and decided to go. General Miles Dempsey, who commanded the essay, Second British Army in the invading force said later that Eisenhower’s decision was the bravest act of the whole war. Compare And Contrast Friendship Essay? It is easy for us to look back and think that D-Day was bound to succeed, but it could have been a disaster.
Operation Overlord, the invasion of essay Normandy, was an homosexuality essay thesis, intensely emotional event for college, all the Allies—Americans, British, Canadians, and men from thirty different countries, many of which had, like France, been occupied for the previous four years by the German Wehrmacht after its devastating victories in 1940. For the French, this moment of setting out to help liberate their homeland was especially poignant. For the British, it marked their return at last to the continent of Europe after the bitterness of their evacuation from Dunkirk. For American soldiers, the invasion represented a moment of selfless duty. The United States was once more coming to the rescue of war-torn Europe, this time oppressed by the Nazi regime. All they could console themselves with was the idea that the sooner they helped win the war, the at work the essay, sooner they could go home to their families—assuming they survived. The pre-battle tension for everyone was considerable.
Keith Douglas, one of the great soldier poets of the Second World War, who was killed in Normandy a few days later, wrote the following lines shortly before D-Day: Actors waiting in the wings of Europe. we already watch the lights on the stage. and listen to the colossal overture begin. For us entering at the height of the din. it will be hard to hear our thoughts, hard to gauge. how much our conduct owes to onion essay fear or fury.
The overture was indeed colossal, whether from US Navy and Royal Navy battleships firing huge shells that screamed “like freight cars” over the heads of the essay thesis, soldiers packed into landing craft, or bombers coming in from the sea to smash the German defensive positions and barbed wire. Other bomber groups inland smashed French towns to block the routes by which German reinforcements would arrive. French civilians in Normandy suffered terribly. Fifteen thousand were killed in the lead-up to tomato onion college D-Day, and compare and contrast friendship, another 20,000 were to die during the fighting. Altogether some 75,000 French civilians were killed in the war by British and American bombing and artillery, an even higher figure than the 69,000 British killed by the German air force. It is a terrible irony that the armed forces from democracies ended up killing so many civilians because their commanders felt forced by tomato, the pressure of public opinion at home to at work reduce their own casualties as much as possible.
Preceded by flotillas of minesweepers, the invasion fleet headed for five long beaches on the Normandy coastline. They were codenamed Sword, Juno, and Gold (where two British and one Canadian division were landing), and Omaha and college, Utah (where the leading battalions of essay thesis three American divisions were headed). The task of the US 4th Infantry Division landing at onion Utah at the base of the Cotentin Peninsula, was to head inland to meet up with the paratroopers of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions who had been dropped during the night. Heavily weighed down by arms and ammunition, some had drowned in flooded areas. Others landed on German positions and were massacred before they had a chance to fight back. A number were killed while they hung helplessly from parachutes caught on trees or on dissertation, rooftops. But although widely scattered in the chaotic drops, most of them survived to join up in tomato onion college improvised groups and dissertation, cause terror among the German defenders, who thought they were everywhere. They were reinforced by more airborne troops flown over in large gliders towed by transport aircraft.
It was a frightening journey for even the bravest men, knowing that many would be badly injured or killed on crash landing. The objective for the American 1st and 29th Infantry Divisions was Omaha Beach, a long, gently curving stretch of coastline. Approached from the sea, the tomato essay, beach ended on the right with massive cliffs. Four miles farther around to the west was the Pointe du Hoc promontory. This was where a battalion of US Rangers had to glasgow uni scale a sheer cliff to silence a German battery. The first landing craft set off from their mother ships at 0520 hours. They had over onion college an hour’s journey in heavy seas to land on the beach at H-hour (the time the attack was to begin). Research? The larger ships were anchored at least ten miles offshore, out of range of German coastal guns. During the essay, long and tumultuous crossing, a dozen of the thesis, landing craft were swamped or capsized. Tomato Onion College? The bomber formations appeared at 0605 hours. Homosexuality Essay? They flew in from the sea to reduce their vulnerability to tomato college essay flak over citation research the target area, rather than following the line of the coast.
As they reached the beaches, their crews delayed an extra few seconds before releasing their bomb loads to avoid hitting any landing craft approaching the beach. As a result all the ground commanders’ hopes that the tomato onion essay, air force would destroy barbed-wire entanglements, minefields, and some of the defensive positions were utterly dashed. Thesis? In the thirty minutes preceding H-hour, the B-24 Liberators and tomato essay, B-17 Fortresses dropped 13,000 bombs, but none fell on the beach. “The Air Corps might just as well have stayed home in bed for all the good that their bombing concentration did,” one officer in the 1st Division observed angrily later. To compound the writer at work the essay, problem, the forty minutes allowed for the naval bombardment proved far too short to deal with the beach defences. At a given moment, the landing craft, which had been circling offshore to await H-hour, headed in toward land. The absence of tomato onion essay fire from the shore aroused hopes that the warships and air force had done their work as planned. The infantrymen were so tightly wedged that few could see much over the helmets in essay front of them and tomato essay, the tall landing ramp at dissertation glasgow the front. The assault craft were still “bucking like an unbroken horse,” so many just shut their eyes against the queasy sensation of motion sickness.
By then the landing craft “reeked of vomit.” Because of the essay, smoke and dust thrown up by the shelling, the citation papers, coxswains had trouble recognizing any landmarks. “Soon we became conscious of pinking noises near us,” wrote a US Navy lieutenant, “and when a couple of men toppled to the deck, we became conscious of the college essay, fact that we were being fired at with real bullets, by a very much alive enemy.” When the ramps were dropped, the German machine gunners concentrated their fire on the opening. “Men were tumbling just like corn cobs off of a conveyor belt,” wrote a sergeant from Wisconsin. In all too many cases, the landing craft had come to a halt on a sandbar short of the and contrast essay, beach. Tomato College Essay? The water appeared shallow, but ahead there were deep runnels. The craft were still bucking with the glasgow uni, waves, and tomato onion college, “if you slipped under the metal ramp you would be killed as it crashed down.” In some places men leaped off and found the water over their heads. In desperation, they dropped their weapons and wriggled out of their equipment to survive. Some of those behind, seeing their buddies floundering under the weight of their equipment, panicked. “There were dead men floating in the water and there were live men acting dead, letting the tide take them in.” The prospect of crossing the stretch of beach in front of them seemed impossible. Any idea of writer the essay trying to run through the shallows, carrying heavy equipment and in sodden clothes and college, boots seemed like a bad dream in essays medical which limbs felt leaden and numb. Overburdened soldiers stood little chance.
There were cries in all directions: “I’m hit! I’m hit!” With many of their officers and onion college, noncoms among the first casualties, soldiers recovering from the shock of their reception realized that they had to get across the beach, if only to survive. Homosexuality Essay? A soldier from Minnesota in the 1st Division wrote home later describing how he had dashed forward in thirty-yard sprints. “I’ve never in all my life prayed so much.” He looked back at the remnants of college essay his squad. “It was awful. People dying all over the place—the wounded unable to move and being drowned by the incoming tide and boats burning madly as succeeding waves tried to get in. Thesis? . . . I’ve never seen so many brave men who did so much—many would go way back and tomato onion college essay, try to gather in the wounded and themselves got killed.” Those who had made it were not even able to help with covering fire. “At least 80% of our weapons did not work because of sand and sea water.” In their desire to be able to fire back as soon as they landed, most soldiers had made the mistake of stripping the waterproof covering from their guns before reaching the shore. Almost all the radios failed to work as a result of dissertation seawater, and this contributed greatly to tomato college the chaos. An artillery officer described the soldiers he saw. “They were beat up and shocked. Dissertation Uni? Many of them had forgotten that they had firearms to use.” It was hardly surprising that they were dazed. Onion? A number were barely out of the essay high school, and this disastrous baptism of fire produced psychological trauma. Battalion and company officers ordered their men to clean their rifles.
Those who had lost their weapons took them off the dead. More senior officers arriving with their headquarter groups were to provide the leadership critically needed at this time. They forced the men, once they had cleaned their weapons, to start breaking through the wire and minefields onto the bluffs behind to tomato onion college essay attack the German positions. In this way, Omaha Beach, which so easily could have been the scene of a terrible catastrophe, was transformed into a hard-won American victory. Once the Allies were securely ashore, they were bound to prevail with their overwhelming superiority in air power and artillery.
German plans for a massive tank counter-attack against natural causes essays in ecological, the British Second Army on the eastern side came to nothing when the Germans were hammered by the heavy guns of the US Navy and the Royal Navy off the coast. But the success of onion essay D-Day was not enough. American, British, and Canadian troops faced another two-and-a-half months of vicious fighting ahead in the Norman countryside before the German forces were ground down. Normandy was martyred in its suffering, but this terrible concentration of fighting at least saved Paris and the rest of the country from destruction. Every year on dissertation, the anniversary of D-Day, Allied veterans are welcomed back in memory of their comrades’ sacrifice.
Antony Beevor served as a regular officer in the 11th Hussars in Germany. He is the college essay, author of Crete: The Battle and essays, the Resistance , which won a Runciman Prize; Paris after the onion essay, Liberation, 1944–1949 (written with his wife, Artemis Cooper); Stalingrad , which won the Samuel Johnson Prize, the Wolfson Prize for and contrast, History, and the Hawthornden Prize for onion college, Literature; Berlin: The Downfall , which received the first Longman–History Today Award; The Battle for Spain ; and, most recently, D-Day , which received the RUSI Westminster Medal. Research? His books have appeared in onion thirty languages and sold just over five million copies. A former chairman of the Society of causes Authors, he has received honorary doctorates from the tomato onion essay, Universities of essays school Kent and Bath and is a visiting professor at Birkbeck College and the University of Kent. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to login and access this page. Click here to tomato essay get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for and contrast friendship, more information on college, the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits.
Otherwise, click here for information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features. Click here to start your Affiliate School application today! You will have free access while your application is being processed. Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Your subscription grants you access to archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of and contrast essay original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to college which you'll have access and here to dissertation binding glasgow uni read more about the Institute's educational programs. Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site.
Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to the full Gilder Lehrman site. All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Not a educator or student? Click here for more information on purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Teaching Resource: Essential Questions in Teaching American History Essay: Every Citizen a Soldier: World War II Posters on the American Home Front Primary Source: Japan declares war, 1941 Primary Source: Physicists predict a nuclear arms race, 1945 Multimedia: War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars Essay: Advice (Not Taken) for the French Revolution from America Teaching Resource: American Music Goes to War Interactive: Battlelines: Letters from America’s Wars Multimedia: Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of tomato onion essay World War II Video Series: Essential Questions in American History.
This Omaha Beach doc works well in the Perspectives overview of war. Use with Jennifer Keene#039;s essay on at work the essay, How War Shaped the 20th C Learned how to save documents to tomato onion college my file, using this document as an example (GL seminar 06/12).