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book report contents Centre for french on past times Academic Success. A report is my name by sandra cisneros essay, a systematic, well organised document which defines and analyses a subject or problem, and french, which may include: the cisneros essay record of a sequence of french times, events. Outline Exercises. interpretation of the essay on past times significance of bald endangered, these events or facts. evaluation of the facts or results of research presented. On Past Times. discussion of the 3d printer thesis outcomes of a decision or course of french essay, action. Reports must always be: Various courses require you to write reports (as opposed to persuasive essays), notably business and french essay on past times, scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of what a report should look like, so it is important that you check with your course tutors and course documentation as to bald eagle endangered essay the report format and essay on past, content expected. In addition, there is at times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and “assignments” are, so again check within your department. Bald Endangered. Much of the advice given in Guide 1.01, How to french essay times write an essay, also applies to essay quotes reports. French Essay Times. Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the outline exercises topic, question or case, that you know what the purpose of the french essay times report is, and who it is being written for. The clearer these things are in 3d printer master your mind, the french essay on past times easier the report will be to write and the more effective it will be. When you are researching, planning and ideas essay 6th grade, eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in writing it: is it to inform; to argue; to persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to see in the report and what will they do with it?
You first need to times decide your basic framework. With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and ideas persuasive essay, start to french on past times group these together. You may find the research papers Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Start to french on past divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and my name by sandra cisneros essay, continually ask yourself if everything is relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. From your prior knowledge (from reading and lectures), you should be able to put together a fairly basic structure. Times. You will now be able to research paper plan your research. Ask yourself what you need to find out, maybe in essay times the form of questions that need to essay exercises be answered, then approach your reading from this starting point. If you have specific information to look for, it will make your reading easier and less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Try not to gather too much information.
Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is not 100% relevant. When you’re making notes, always try to summarise the main points as concisely as possible. Remember to make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in order to be able to correctly reference these. Essay Times. Make a record of the for a persuasive essay research methods you used. Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Below are the french essay on past possible components of a report, in endangered the order in on past which they would appear. Check within your department which of american of 2013, these you should include.
This should normally include the title, your name and the name of the french essay tutor to whom it is ideas persuasive, being submitted, date of essay times, submission, your course/department, and if applicable, the name of the research person and/or organisation who has commissioned the on past report. Avoid “fancy” fonts and essay italics quotes, effects and essay on past times, don’t include any clipart. Acknowledgements (usually just in long reports) A list of people and organisations both within and thesis, outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Contents page (always included in reports of french essay, 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of papers, all the sections and french on past, sub-sections of the assassination paper report. Don’t forget to put the french page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the main index. Make sure that the headings in this list correspond exactly with those in thesis your main body. It is best to do your list of french essay on past times, contents right at the end. Outline Exercises. Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the task; your specific objective and purpose of on past times, writing. Outline. Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is a vital process to go through in your planning. If it is group work, who exactly is responsible for french essay on past times what?
How long have you got? What is american, your task timescale? Why are you writing the report? What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the french essay on past report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to assassination see?
Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the information was gathered. Materials and french essay times, methods (included if applicable) Similar to the best american essays procedure, but more appropriate to french essay scientific or engineering report writing. Master. The following advice comes from Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in on past times longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is italics quotes, a very brief outline of the on past times report to give the of 2013 potential reader a general idea of french, what it’s about. Bald Essay. A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in french separate section) main conclusions and recommendations.
Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the task/brief and that you are going to cover everything required. Essay Quotes. Indicate the essay on past times basic structure of the italics report. French Times. You should include just a little background/context and indicate the reasons for school papers writing the report. You may include your terms of reference and french on past times, procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Your introduction will often give an indication of the conclusion to american of 2013 the report. Essay. Main body/findings (always included) This is the bald eagle endangered substance of your report.
The structure will vary according to french on past times the nature of the high papers format material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to clearly indicate the french times different sections (unlike an essay). Essay 6th Grade. A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate. It is not sufficient to essay on past simply describe a situation. Your tutor will be looking for analysis and for a critical approach, when appropriate. Charts, diagrams and tables can be used to reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). American Essays Of 2013. Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section. Results (possibly included in scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the french essay on past past tense) and for a essay 6th grade, would normally include statistics, tables or graphs. Your conclusion should draw out the french essay on past implications of your findings, with deductions based on essay outline exercises, the facts described in french on past your main body. Don’t include any new material here. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on master thesis, logically from french on past times, your conclusion and be specific, measurable and by sandra essay, achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by french essay, suggesting action to be taken.
A “statement of cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is detailed documentation of points you outline in your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. My Name Cisneros Essay. It is french on past, supplementary information which you consider to be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to research papers format include in on past times your main body, but which still should be of assassination research, interest to french essay on past your reader. Bald Endangered. Each appendix should be referred to french essay in your text. You should not include something as an research papers, appendix if it is not discussed in the main body. This is essay, a list giving the full details of all the essays of 2013 sources to which you have made reference within your text. By far the most common method in use at french essay times, Birmingham City University is the Harvard method.
Bibliography (sometimes included) This is either a separate list of sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of references. Check in your department what you are expected to use. By Sandra Cisneros. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the report includes a lot of french essay on past, specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader. Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and colloquial language.
Write in essay fairly short sentences. French On Past. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of ideas, 5/6 sentences). French On Past. Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in your conclusion or recommendations to my name by sandra essay include more personal language. Essay. Be extra careful with verb tenses. Grammar, spelling and my name by sandra, punctuation. French On Past Times. Links to my name cisneros essay further resources on writing reports. French Times. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for the best essays of 2013 Academic Success.
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resume pmtu 1500 Careful analysis of french essay on past, your environment, both from the client and from the server point of view, is the first step necessary for optimal NFS performance. The first sections will address issues that are generally important to the client. Cisneros? Later (Section 5.3 and beyond), server side issues will be discussed. In both cases, these issues will not be limited exclusively to one side or the other, but it is useful to separate the two in order to get a clearer picture of cause and essay on past, effect. Aside from the general network configuration - appropriate network capacity, faster NICs, full duplex settings in order to persuasive essay, reduce collisions, agreement in network speed among the switches and hubs, etc. - one of the french essay times, most important client optimization settings are the NFS data transfer buffer sizes, specified by high, the mount command options rsize and wsize . 5.1. Setting Block Size to Optimize Transfer Speeds. The mount command options rsize and wsize specify the size of the chunks of data that the client and server pass back and essay, forth to each other. If no rsize and wsize options are specified, the default varies by which version of NFS we are using. The most common default is 4K (4096 bytes), although for TCP-based mounts in 2.2 kernels, and for all mounts beginning with 2.4 kernels, the server specifies the default block size.
The theoretical limit for the NFS V2 protocol is essay, 8K. For the essay times, V3 protocol, the limit is specific to my name cisneros, the server. French Essay On Past? On the ideas persuasive essay 6th grade, Linux server, the french times, maximum block size is defined by the value of the kernel constant NFSSVC_MAXBLKSIZE , found in the Linux kernel source file ./include/linux/nfsd/const.h . The current maximum block size for the best american essays the kernel, as of 2.4.17, is 8K (8192 bytes), but the patch set implementing NFS over TCP/IP transport in the 2.4 series, as of this writing, uses a value of essay, 32K (defined in the patch as 32*1024) for the maximum block size. All 2.4 clients currently support up to 32K block transfer sizes, allowing the standard 32K block transfers across NFS mounts from other servers, such as Solaris, without client modification. The defaults may be too big or too small, depending on the specific combination of hardware and kernels. My Name Cisneros? On the one hand, some combinations of Linux kernels and essay times, network cards (largely on older machines) cannot handle blocks that large. On the other hand, if they can handle larger blocks, a bigger size might be faster. You will want to experiment and persuasive 6th grade, find an rsize and french essay on past times, wsize that works and is as fast as possible. Research? You can test the speed of your options with some simple commands, if your network environment is not heavily used. Note that your results may vary widely unless you resort to using more complex benchmarks, such as Bonnie, Bonnie++, or IOzone.
The first of french essay on past, these commands transfers 16384 blocks of 16k each from the special file /dev/zero (which if you read it just spits out zeros really fast) to research, the mounted partition. We will time it to see how long it takes. So, from the client machine, type: This creates a 256Mb file of zeroed bytes. In general, you should create a file that's at least twice as large as the french essay on past, system RAM on the server, but make sure you have enough disk space! Then read back the file into research papers format, the great black hole on the client machine ( /dev/null ) by typing the essay times, following:
Repeat this a few times and average how long it takes. Be sure to unmount and remount the filesystem each time (both on the client and, if you are zealous, locally on the server as well), which should clear out any caches. Then unmount, and mount again with a larger and smaller block size. High Format? They should be multiples of 1024, and not larger than the maximum block size allowed by your system. Note that NFS Version 2 is limited to a maximum of 8K, regardless of the maximum block size defined by NFSSVC_MAXBLKSIZE; Version 3 will support up to 64K, if permitted. The block size should be a power of essay, two since most of the parameters that would constrain it (such as file system block sizes and network packet size) are also powers of two. However, some users have reported better successes with block sizes that are not powers of outline exercises, two but are still multiples of the file system block size and the network packet size. Directly after mounting with a larger size, cd into times, the mounted file system and do things like ls , explore the filesystem a bit to make sure everything is as it should.
If the rsize/wsize is too large the symptoms are very odd and not 100% obvious. A typical symptom is my name cisneros, incomplete file lists when doing ls, and no error messages, or reading files failing mysteriously with no error messages. After establishing that the given rsize/wsize works you can do the speed tests again. Different server platforms are likely to on past times, have different optimal sizes. Remember to edit /etc/fstab to reflect the rsize/wsize you found to be the essay, most desirable. If your results seem inconsistent, or doubtful, you may need to times, analyze your network more extensively while varying the rsize and wsize values. School Format? In that case, here are several pointers to benchmarks that may prove useful: Bonnie: http://www.textuality.com/bonnie/ Bonnie++: http://www.coker.com.au/bonnie++ IOZone File System Benchmark:http://www.iozone.org The official NFS benchmark, SPECsfs97: http://www.spec.org/osg/sfs97/
The easiest benchmark with the widest coverage, including an extensive spread of file sizes, and of IO types - reads, writes, rereads, and french on past times, rewrites, random access, etc. Research Papers? - seems to be IOzone. Times? A recommended invocation of IOzone (for which you must have root privileges) includes unmounting and remounting the directory under test, in order to clear out the caches between tests, and including the file close time in the measurements. Assuming you've already exported /tmp to everyone from the server foo, and that you've installed IOzone in the local directory, this should work: The benchmark should take 2-3 hours at most, but of course you will need to run it for each value of rsize and wsize that is of interest. High Papers? The web site gives full documentation of the parameters, but the specific options used above are: -a : Full automatic mode, which tests file sizes of 64K to 512M, using record sizes of on past times, 4K to 16M -R : Generate report in excel spreadsheet form (The surface plot option for graphs is best) -c : Include the file close time in the best essays, the tests, which will pick up the NFS version 3 commit time -U : Use the given mount point to unmount and remount between tests; it clears out french on past, caches -f : When using unmount, you have to locate the by sandra essay, test file in the mounted file system. 5.2. Packet Size and Network Drivers.
While many Linux network card drivers are excellent, some are quite shoddy, including a few drivers for some fairly standard cards. It is worth experimenting with your network card directly to find out how it can best handle traffic. Try pinging back and french times, forth between the two machines with large packets using the eagle essay, -f and french essay on past times, -s options with ping (see ping(8) for more details) and the best american essays, see if a lot of packets get dropped, or if they take a long time for a reply. If so, you may have a problem with the french essay on past, performance of essay outline, your network card. For a more extensive analysis of NFS behavior in particular, use the nfsstat command to look at nfs transactions, client and server statistics, network statistics, and so forth.
The -o net option will show you the essay times, number of dropped packets in relation to the total number of transactions. In UDP transactions, the most important statistic is the number of the best, retransmissions, due to dropped packets, socket buffer overflows, general server congestion, timeouts, etc. This will have a tremendously important effect on NFS performance, and should be carefully monitored. Note that nfsstat does not yet implement the -z option, which would zero out all counters, so you must look at the current nfsstat counter values prior to running the benchmarks. To correct network problems, you may wish to reconfigure the packet size that your network card uses.
Very often there is a constraint somewhere else in the network (such as a router) that causes a smaller maximum packet size between two machines than what the network cards on the machines are actually capable of. TCP should autodiscover the appropriate packet size for a network, but UDP will simply stay at a default value. So determining the appropriate packet size is especially important if you are using NFS over UDP. You can test for the network packet size using the tracepath command: From the client machine, execute: and the path MTU should be reported at the bottom. You can then set the MTU on your network card equal to the path MTU, by using the MTU option to ifconfig , and see if fewer packets get dropped. Times? See the ifconfig man pages for details on how to reset the MTU. In addition, netstat -s will give the statistics collected for essay traffic across all supported protocols. You may also look at /proc/net/snmp for french information about bald eagle endangered essay current network behavior; see the next section for more details. 5.3. Overflow of Fragmented Packets. Using an rsize or wsize larger than your network's MTU (often set to 1500, in essay times, many networks) will cause IP packet fragmentation when using NFS over UDP.
IP packet fragmentation and reassembly require a significant amount of bald endangered, CPU resource at both ends of a network connection. In addition, packet fragmentation also exposes your network traffic to greater unreliability, since a complete RPC request must be retransmitted if a UDP packet fragment is dropped for any reason. Any increase of RPC retransmissions, along with the essay on past times, possibility of increased timeouts, are the exercises, single worst impediment to performance for essay on past times NFS over papers format UDP. Packets may be dropped for many reasons. If your network topography is complex, fragment routes may differ, and may not all arrive at french the Server for reassembly. NFS Server capacity may also be an issue, since the kernel has a limit of how many fragments it can buffer before it starts throwing away packets.
With kernels that support the /proc filesystem, you can monitor the files /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_high_thresh and essays of 2013, /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_low_thresh . French On Past? Once the number of unprocessed, fragmented packets reaches the number specified by my name by sandra cisneros, ipfrag_high_thresh (in bytes), the kernel will simply start throwing away fragmented packets until the number of french, incomplete packets reaches the number specified by ideas persuasive essay 6th grade, ipfrag_low_thresh . Another counter to monitor is IP: ReasmFails in the file /proc/net/snmp ; this is the number of fragment reassembly failures. if it goes up too quickly during heavy file activity, you may have a problem. A new feature, available for both 2.4 and french essay on past, 2.5 kernels but not yet integrated into the mainstream kernel at the time of this writing, is NFS over the best american of 2013 TCP. Using TCP has a distinct advantage and a distinct disadvantage over UDP. The advantage is that it works far better than UDP on lossy networks. Essay Times? When using TCP, a single dropped packet can be retransmitted, without the retransmission of the entire RPC request, resulting in better performance on lossy networks. In addition, TCP will handle network speed differences better than UDP, due to the underlying flow control at the network level. The disadvantage of using TCP is that it is american, not a stateless protocol like UDP. If your server crashes in the middle of a packet transmission, the french on past, client will hang and any shares will need to be unmounted and for a 6th grade, remounted. The overhead incurred by the TCP protocol will result in somewhat slower performance than UDP under ideal network conditions, but the cost is not severe, and is often not noticable without careful measurement. If you are using gigabit ethernet from end to essay, end, you might also investigate the my name, usage of jumbo frames, since the high speed network may allow the larger frame sizes without encountering increased collision rates, particularly if you have set the network to full duplex. 5.5.
Timeout and Retransmission Values. Two mount command options, timeo and retrans , control the behavior of UDP requests when encountering client timeouts due to dropped packets, network congestion, and so forth. The -o timeo option allows designation of the length of time, in tenths of french, seconds, that the client will wait until it decides it will not get a reply from the server, and ideas for a persuasive, must try to send the request again. The default value is 7 tenths of a second. The -o retrans option allows designation of the number of timeouts allowed before the client gives up, and displays the Server not responding message. French? The default value is 3 attempts. Once the client displays this message, it will continue to american of 2013, try to send the request, but only once before displaying the on past times, error message if another timeout occurs. When the client reestablishes contact, it will fall back to using the correct retrans value, and will display the Server OK message. If you are already encountering excessive retransmissions (see the output of the nfsstat command), or want to high school research papers, increase the block transfer size without encountering timeouts and french on past times, retransmissions, you may want to adjust these values. The specific adjustment will depend upon your environment, and in most cases, the current defaults are appropriate.
5.6. Number of Instances of the NFSD Server Daemon. Most startup scripts, Linux and otherwise, start 8 instances of bald eagle endangered essay, nfsd . In the early days of NFS, Sun decided on this number as a rule of thumb, and everyone else copied. There are no good measures of how many instances are optimal, but a more heavily-trafficked server may require more. You should use at the very least one daemon per processor, but four to eight per processor may be a better rule of essay, thumb. Bald Eagle Essay? If you are using a 2.4 or higher kernel and you want to see how heavily each nfsd thread is french on past, being used, you can look at the file /proc/net/rpc/nfsd . The last ten numbers on the th line in that file indicate the number of seconds that the thread usage was at that percentage of the maximum allowable. If you have a large number in the top three deciles, you may wish to increase the number of nfsd instances. This is done upon starting nfsd using the number of instances as the command line option, and is specified in the NFS startup script ( /etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs on Red Hat) as RPCNFSDCOUNT . See the nfsd(8) man page for more information. 5.7. Memory Limits on school research format, the Input Queue.
On 2.2 and on past, 2.4 kernels, the socket input queue, where requests sit while they are currently being processed, has a small default size limit ( rmem_default ) of 64k. This queue is important for clients with heavy read loads, and servers with heavy write loads. As an american essays, example, if you are running 8 instances of nfsd on the server, each will only have 8k to store write requests while it processes them. In addition, the socket output queue - important for clients with heavy write loads and servers with heavy read loads - also has a small default size ( wmem_default ). Several published runs of the NFS benchmark SPECsfs97 specify usage of french essay times, a much higher value for both the read and write value sets, [rw]mem_default and [rw]mem_max . You might consider increasing these values to at least 256k. The read and write limits are set in the proc file system using (for example) the files /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default and /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max . The rmem_default value can be increased in three steps; the by sandra, following method is a bit of french times, a hack but should work and should not cause any problems:
Increase the size listed in the files: Restart NFS via the method described in your distribution's documentation. You might return the size limits to ideas 6th grade, their normal size in case other kernel systems depend on it. This last step may be necessary because machines have been reported to crash or have issues when these variables are left unchanged for essay on past long periods of time. 5.8. Turning Off Autonegotiation of NICs and Hubs. If network cards auto-negotiate badly with hubs and switches, and ports run at different speeds, or with different duplex configurations, performance will be severely impacted due to excessive collisions, dropped packets, etc. If you see excessive numbers of dropped packets in the nfsstat output, or poor network performance in outline, general, try playing around with the french, network speed and persuasive essay, duplex settings.
If possible, concentrate on french essay, establishing a 100BaseT full duplex subnet; the virtual elimination of collisions in full duplex will remove the most severe performance inhibitor for persuasive essay 6th grade NFS over UDP. Be careful when turning off autonegotiation on a card: The hub or switch that the times, card is attached to high school papers, will then resort to other mechanisms (such as parallel detection) to determine the duplex settings, and some cards default to half duplex because it is essay, more likely to be supported by an old hub. Research Format? The best solution, if the driver supports it, is to french on past times, force the card to negotiate 100BaseT full duplex. 5.9. Synchronous vs. Assassination? Asynchronous Behavior in NFS. The default export behavior for french both NFS Version 2 and Version 3 protocols, used by by sandra essay, exportfs in french, nfs-utils versions prior to nfs-utils-1.0.1 is asynchronous. This default permits the server to reply to client requests as soon as it has processed the request and handed it off to the local file system, without waiting for the data to be written to stable storage. This is indicated by persuasive essay, the async option denoted in the server's export list. It yields better performance at the cost of possible data corruption if the server reboots while still holding unwritten data and/or metadata in its caches.
This possible data corruption is not detectable at the time of occurrence, since the async option instructs the server to lie to the client, telling the french essay on past, client that all data has indeed been written to the stable storage, regardless of the protocol used. In order to conform with synchronous behavior, used as the school papers, default for most proprietary systems supporting NFS (Solaris, HP-UX, RS/6000, etc.), and now used as the default in the latest version of exportfs , the Linux Server's file system must be exported with the sync option. Note that specifying synchronous exports will result in no option being seen in the server's export list: Export a couple file systems to everyone, using slightly different options: Now we can see what the exported file system parameters look like: If your kernel is compiled with the /proc filesystem, then the file /proc/fs/nfs/exports will also show the full list of essay on past times, export options.
When synchronous behavior is specified, the server will not complete (that is, reply to research, the client) an NFS version 2 protocol request until the times, local file system has written all data/metadata to the disk. The server will complete a synchronous NFS version 3 request without this delay, and essay, will return the status of the data in order to inform the on past, client as to what data should be maintained in its caches, and what data is safe to discard. There are 3 possible status values, defined an bald essay, enumerated type, nfs3_stable_how , in include/linux/nfs.h . The values, along with the essay, subsequent actions taken due to these results, are as follows: NFS_UNSTABLE: Data/Metadata was not committed to stable storage on ideas for a persuasive essay 6th grade, the server, and must be cached on the client until a subsequent client commit request assures that the server does send data to stable storage. Essay? NFS_DATA_SYNC: Metadata was not sent to stable storage, and must be cached on the client. A subsequent commit is necessary, as is required above. NFS_FILE_SYNC: No data/metadata need be cached, and a subsequent commit need not be sent for the range covered by this request.
In addition to the above definition of synchronous behavior, the client may explicitly insist on total synchronous behavior, regardless of the protocol, by opening all files with the O_SYNC option. In this case, all replies to client requests will wait until the data has hit the server's disk, regardless of the high papers format, protocol used (meaning that, in french essay on past, NFS version 3, all requests will be NFS_FILE_SYNC requests, and will require that the Server returns this status). In that case, the performance of NFS Version 2 and NFS Version 3 will be virtually identical. If, however, the old default async behavior is used, the O_SYNC option has no effect at all in essay, either version of NFS, since the server will reply to the client without waiting for the write to french on past, complete. In that case the performance differences between versions will also disappear. Finally, note that, for NFS version 3 protocol requests, a subsequent commit request from the NFS client at file close time, or at fsync() time, will force the server to papers, write any previously unwritten data/metadata to the disk, and the server will not reply to the client until this has been completed, as long as sync behavior is followed. If async is used, the commit is french essay on past, essentially a no-op, since the server once again lies to the client, telling the client that the data has been sent to stable storage.
This again exposes the client and server to data corruption, since cached data may be discarded on the client due to its belief that the server now has the my name by sandra cisneros essay, data maintained in stable storage. 5.10. Non-NFS-Related Means of Enhancing Server Performance. In general, server performance and server disk access speed will have an important effect on NFS performance. Offering general guidelines for setting up a well-functioning file server is outside the scope of this document, but a few hints may be worth mentioning:
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974 Words Essay on the Problems of Old Age. The old age is an integral part of human life. It is the evening of life. It is essay times, unavoidable, undesirable, unwelcome and problem- ridden phase of life. But it is really interesting to note that everybody wants to live a long life, but not to be old.
It is ironical that however undesirable the old age, it is bound to come in life. A man is compelled to go through the pains and pleasures of this age like the other phases of life before making an exit from this mortal world. An old man is american essays, full of experiences and even though experiences are of immense help to the younger generation, he is taken as an unwanted burden. French Essay On Past Times. He himself is caught in a terrible feeling of bald endangered essay, redundancy. Thinking of old age visions of french essay on past, loneliness and neglect emerge in mind. The picture becomes all the bald endangered essay, more awesome with the french, failing health and illness. A sense of assassination, despair glooms over all his pleasant feelings.
Though it is true that no stage of french on past times, life has its ever smooth sailing and every stage has its attendant problems, those of old age are more difficult and insurmountable because the the best essays of 2013, physical strength and mental capability required to cope up with the adverse situations of life are immensely reduced. The situation becomes all the more difficult when one finds himself/herself left alone without anyone to attend him. On Past Times. Image Source : upload.wikimedia.org. Indeed the research, loneliness and neglect associated with the french essay on past times, old age is a rather recent phenomenon. It is the outcome of break up of the tradition of joint family system. Growing urbanisation and fast moving modern life have contributed to the problem. Furthermore, the paper, erosion of moral values has also aggravated the situation. French Essay On Past. Earlier, when life was simpler and values counted for more, those who reached a ripe old age held an enviable place in society where they could really release and enjoy the twilight years of life. They commanded great respect, regard, love and attention and format, were taken as source of inspiration, guidance and experience for the younger generation. These words of french essay on past times, Elbert Hubbard are true to the situation, #8220;where parents do too much for their children, the children will do not much for themselves.#8221; Every phase of life has its own problems which require prudence, wisdom, courage and strength to attend to.
In childhood and youth one has parents and other close elderly kith and kin to help, cooperate and guide. Besides, one himself is full of energy, strength, stamina and courage. But the situation takes a reverse turn in bald eagle essay, the old age. On Past Times. For his every work he needs someone to help. He becomes dependent to others largely due to his physical infirmity. He is, in fact, filled with a feeling of emotional insecurity. He wants someone to take care of his needs and share his feelings. But in this materialist society, everybody is short of time. Nobody has enough time for him.
Even his own children, to whom he dedicates his life and his earnings, do not find time for him. The problem gets accentuated especially as the world ceases to have any resemblance to what the elderly were once accustomed to and changes at a bewildering pace with every passing moment. Debilitating body and failing health, make things worst. Having rendered service for a lifetime, the body parts appear to have become tired and weak. Ideas For A. He becomes highly vulnerable to ailments-minor or major.
Diseases both minor and french essay times, major always follow them and their waking hours are preoccupied with symptoms and pills, diets and therapies. Regular medical aid and assistance becomes routine at this stage of life. Besides, social security and emotional support are terribly needed. Assassination Research Paper. A feeling of loneliness adversely affects their mental health which shows through some physical problems. In recent times, insecurity of the old, particularly in metropolitan cities, has emerged as a matter of grave concern. Usually, they are alone with servants to take care of them. After some time, the servants become familiar with everything in the household, they rob them of all their belongings, often become cruel enough to kill them and times, ran away.
The news of such incidents are frequent in national dailies. The problem of loneliness and isolation is the gift of modern society. The society forces an old person to live like an island. Often he faces the loss of spouse and old friends. In fact, during the old age one is faced with multi-dimensional problems. One of the major problems is the financial constraint which is really more difficult in case of those old persons who are not entitled to any social security and have no source of income, completely depending on their spouse or children. People of this consumer culture do not have sufficient money to provide financial support to their parents; neither do they take it as their moral responsibility. This situation is by sandra essay, really unfortunate and needs to be addressed properly. French On Past. Added to this is the depressing anxiety of not knowing just how far ahead one must plan or for how long one is forced to dependent financially on his children to meet his requirements. This brings more despondency to him. This plays havoc with the lives of the elderly.
The picture is really grim in the twilight years of the life which ought to have been the best years of a person#8217;s life, when man is free from every kind of responsibilities. In fact, it is an by sandra essay, appropriate time for him to enjoy life without care and concern. He finally has time to french on past times live-#8220;sit in shade/reliving the good old times/letting bad memories fade.#8221; Keeping in mind these words of Henry Ward Beecher, #8220;There is no friendship, no love, like that of the parent for the child,#8221; we should be sincere and caring enough to my name by sandra cisneros essay take care of them when they most need it, but not pamper them. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to french on past times provide an the best american of 2013, online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.
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Earl Long, 1895–1960: Voting Rights Advocate of essay on past times Political Incorrectness. Some moviegoers will remember urbane Paul Newman miscast as the earthy and irascible Earl Long in Blaze (1989). The film was scripted in part from bald endangered essay Blaze Starr: My Life as Told to Huey Perry (1974), a nightclub stripper’s ghosted autobiography styled a novel, but in the main from folklore. Both that vile book and movie exploit an unfortunate last chapter in the roller-coaster life of Huey Long’s younger brother. He did not gain political maturity until 20 years— including those of the Great Depression and the Second World War—after Huey’s watershed election as governor, in 1928 when he was 34, ended a half-century of Louisiana’s domination by an oligarchy. Does anybody beyond Louisiana remember the indomitable Earl Long, three-time governor and voting rights advocate dead 35 years this centennial year of his birth? In some inspired historian’s picture-perfect Annals of Civil Rights in the United States: The Slow Never-Ending Search for Human Dignity never to be written, Earl Long would rank far below Nat Turner, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Would not Earl, though, be entitled to a mention not yet gained in the incomplete history about this movement?
Nor does the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee, contain either Earl’s baggy stumping suit or a copy of essay A. J. 6th Grade? Liebling’s The Earl of Louisiana: The Liberal Long (1961). Neglect would derive from Earl’s uncouthcunning if winning political style that, like Huey’s buffoonery that did not play in Washington and New York, offended the sensibilities of french on past times corporate African-America and some historians—and with good reason. At issue here looms also the question of essay how Earl Long’s contribution to essay on past times, the cause of voting rights for minorities shall be attributed as between ambition and altruism. Or should a dichotomy be postulated? Who accomplishes anything in the absence of personal ambition? Liebling conferred a peerage in american recognition of Earl’s record-setting voter registration of essay on past African-Americans in Louisiana (it led all other Southern states by eagle essay, about six lengths) during a first full term as governor, 1948-1952, and for resisting attempts to essay times, purge the rolls during his second term, 1956-1960. In fairness to the museum, however, in endorsing a policy directed against racial slurs and demeaning invective, you would acknowledge that the curator held no choice but to high research papers, refuse exhibiting Earl Long memorabilia during a time of rising political correctness that obscures reality.
Not even America, founded on a vaunted espousal of equality, though late in abolishing human slavery (that, to remind in fairness, had been facilitated by African chieftans of the blood), has achieved ethnic tranquility. As everywhere else in the world, East and West and on every continent, ethnic hostility ebbs and flows in french essay America—as much or more beyond the South as in the South. Costs of provinciality match its animus. Time must pass before history can be written free of assassination research paper bias shown among historians of the essay times, recent past. C. Bald Eagle Endangered Essay? Vann Woodward, dean of Southern historians, reveals this in Thinking Back: The Perils of Writing History (1986). When a young historian and heretic, Woodward found that Southern history had swept the french essay on past times, Populist movement under the rug. He got the notion of grafting an the best american account of Southern Populism onto the stunted magnolia of on past times Southern history by the best, writing a biography of french essay times a Populist politician from exercises Georgia, Tom Watson, who had gained national prominence as a contemporary of William Jennings Bryan.
Woodward’s first book, Tom Watson: Agrarian Rebel (1938), launched him on a career as a published historian; it recovered Watson from oblivion. This biography of french on past times a forgotten congressman, lecturer, author, publisher, and U.S. senator has survived in print against long odds. It gained classic status in Southern literature during a half-century and more that has witnessed a decline in history as literature and the rise of a new genre of research history from academia essential for recovering more than the past’s paraphrase. In The Future of the Past (1989) Woodward expresses regret that the traditional affiliation between history and creative literature—and literary criticism—has declined. Like contemporary poets, many of today’s American historians seem to essay times, be writing for each other instead of for the general reader; but so do literary scholars and academicians of all disciplines. A digression about evolving academia emphasizes the uniqueness of essay a survivor like Tom Watson. Watson is portrayed in a genre not seen much anymore from the university. This reduces the likelihood that Earl Long’s tainted wizardry on on past behalf of voting rights will be told by historians—unless those not put off by a demagogue’s convoluted pragmatism. To do justice to the problem posed by Earl Long would require that a scholar-generalist make excursions not only into biography and history but into cisneros, sociology, psychology, political science, rhetoric, and poetry. Earl’s machinations mystified not only political opponents but also contemporary journalists—and to an extent Liebling, who grasped much about a fellow horse player, and the authors of a recent biography, Earl K. Long: The Saga of Uncle Earl and Louisiana Politics (1990), Michael L. Kurtz and Morgan D. Peoples, who told it straight but not with the depth and detail of T. Harry Williams’ Huey Long (1969), a book thrice its length. Earl did not fool William J. Dodd as political memoirist in times Peapatch Politics: The Earl Long Political Era in Louisiana (1991), although when Earl’s first lieutenant governor it took.
Dodd a while to find out that Earl’s confidences were smoke with a long-lasting pungency. Coincidence of coincidences, a reading of Tom Watson calls up the precise challenge Earl Long faced and how he might have responded—but did not—to civil rights unrest in the racist lower South following the Second World War as did Watson following the First World War. As a young man Watson had engaged in an interracial alliance of my name essay agricultural interests in french essay Georgia politics. He showed empathy for African-Americans and gave them encouragement as voters. My Name By Sandra Cisneros? In later life and during a successful campaign for on past the U.S. Senate in 1920 he turned into a white supremacist and assassination racial bigot when that strategy had become a political expedient. Watson took to both Jim Crow and Old Crow. Essay On Past Times? This volte-face Woodward explores with a biographer’s concern in trying to comprehend the enigmatic Watson—and you suspect that Woodward the young historian, disappointed in Watson, could not plumb some studs of political reality for their misalignment. In Thinking Back Woodward cites but rejects a notion advanced by Richard Hofstader for explaining Watson’s abandonment of an earlier view about race when in old age he became a race-baiting demagogue. Outline Exercises? Hofstader, Woodward relates, saw a tendency for all Populists to degenerate on aging into essay times, cranks, nuts, and research paper zanies.
Some Louisianians—and others who would have followed in the national media Earl Long’s bizarre behavior during the last year of his life—might agree with Hofstader’s theory as applying to Earl. He had been reared under Populism’s influence, and like Huey demonstrated a career-long neo-Populism in french on past advancing a progressive agenda—and exhibited zaniness in old age that Huey did not live to know. During his zaniest months Earl Long, a sick man, left his wife, became acquainted with Blaze Starr, and my name attracted undesirable attention on a tour of the West. His actual mental breakdown, so-called, which led to two short and involuntary respites in asylums, was associated with his dedication to Old Crow and that of political opponents to Jim Crow. French? It occurred during a legislative session in 1959, the next-to-last year of his governorship and life. In a tirade of an hour and assassination a half his far-ranging and intemperate remarks betrayed frustration over conflict with white racists in the legislature who were leading a purge of African-Americans from voter registration rolls and had succeeded in legislating an expanded Jim Crow code. French Times? The civil rights controversy, in those years approaching its violent climax, was dominating governance in Louisiana and in all Southern states. Eagle Endangered Essay? A few base whites were engaging in french vigilantism not opposed by local authorities in some venues. You can visualize Earl’s concern, considering that he had risked his political capital on the best of 2013 the side of voting rights for African-Americans; and in the doing—as events unfolded— stood to times, get wiped out along with his clients. How in the first place he succeeded in my name by sandra maintaining a hazardous balance in gaining election to a second term as governor confirms the complexity of french essay times his genius and contrariness.
It raises the fundamental question of the nature of his motives, unlike those of Watson in earlier Georgia, in not flip-flopping to side with an inflamed white majority in an Alamo of massive resistance, a Southern strategy devised in Virginia. At intervals in a life under a brother’s shadow Earl did not show promise as Huey’s potential successor. Born Aug. 26, 1895, two years Huey’s junior, Huey’s boyhood pal, and subsequent gofer and fixer—and favorite brother of five able and accomplished sisters for his generosity to ideas persuasive 6th grade, father and invalid sister, Earl would appear sometimes unreliable as well as duplicitous. Not as brilliant as Huey the family prodigy, although later he could show patience and french cunning beyond Huey’s, somehow Earl would make untimely goofs. He suffered 16 difficult years after breaking with Huey in assassination 1932 and becoming a Judas figure who was anathema to most of Huey’s close associates. Essay On Past Times? Some never forgave him; all withheld affection. Huey had refused to let Earl become lieutenant governor—within Huey’s power to determine, knowing that while serving in the U.S. Senate to seek the presidency the able and wily Earl, ringmaster of legislators, would be running Louisiana instead of american essays Huey through a caretaker governor. Denied his own chance at essay on past age 36, Earl turned on Huey with accusations that would have brought indictments against a less-influential politician.
That year Huey had helped Franklin Roosevelt gain the presidential nomination and campaigned for him. Nevertheless, upon Huey’s death in my name cisneros essay 1935 at age 42, Huey’s political executors placed Earl on the Long ticket as candidate for lieutenant governor for the value of his surname. The ticket won by a landslide. Earl succeeded to the governorship in 1939 when the essay on past times, governor resigned before widespread scandal began to surface. Earl, although uninvolved in the scandals other than as witness, lost in a close race for governor in 1940 and assassination research paper again for lieutenant governor in 1944. French Essay On Past? Observers and Earl’s financial backers concluded that his political career had ended. Earl did not agree. He devoted the next four years to outline, mending ways and fences.
By bringing together all the Long family, including Huey’s ghost through Mrs. Huey Long and french on past times Huey’s look-alike able son Russell, and organizing a broad-based consortium of support comparable to that Huey had garnered, Earl captured the statehouse in 1948. (He had sent conspiring emissaries to persuade former Governor Sam Jones, victor in 1940, to run again, believing that he could beat the less-than-popular Jones, who was vain and stodgy. Jones split and disorganized the anti-Long vote, according to Earl’s prescription.) During eight years in office divided reformers had slipped as politicians. Reform had lost its issue of opposing corruption and assassination some philanthropists to Earl. A new generation of essay times conservative idealists campaigned from offices and persuasive essay 6th grade clubs and french essay began dreaming of a think tank that could outthink Earl and supply facts to the media, Rotary, and pork-prone chambers of commerce. In office, aware he could not succeed himself, Earl took up where Huey and successors left off by increasing support for education, highways, health services; and he inaugurated a $50-per-month old-age pension: all through increasing taxes, abolishing civil service, and losing popularity among the prudent who were a growing and high school vocal minority. Although Earl set the french, stage to be succeeded again by a reformer supported by the new anti-Longs (on purpose, many observers suspected, though he organized and supported an impressive ticket that might have won had not Russell Long, by essay outline exercises, then a U.S. senator and at odds with an uncle difficult to love, supported for governor Congressman Hale Boggs of New Orleans), he was looking forward to french essay on past, regaining the statehouse in eagle endangered 1956. He knew that his successor and idealists would push their cases to french essay on past times, an unpopular extreme; and high papers he knew something else that other aspirants did not comprehend. During his term drawing to french times, a close, Earl had promoted voter registration of African-Americans in for a essay 6th grade unprecedented numbers: from 22,572 to 107,844, the largest number in french on past times any Southern state or any state not a large industrial state. Although anti-Longs and white supremacists did not approve, they could only resent it. Research Paper? So when Earl ran for essay times governor again in assassination research 1955, he began about 100,000 votes ahead of opposition candidates splitting the french on past times, white vote.
You can imagine Earl’s predicament when the campaign started, and opponents accused Earl of being the “nigger” candidate. Exercises? Racists were incensed. Progeny of french on past former lynch-mob members were looking in haylofts for old nooses and assassination research paper hoods. Earl’s own core of loyal white partisans, including many of Huey’s living disciples, began to wonder whether Earl could show that he was a segregationist at heart even though he, like plantation owners of an earlier time, had voted “their niggers,” intended to vote “his niggers.” Earl realized he must devise a straddling tactic. Only a standup comic and french entertainer like Earl, who alone by the mid-fifties could draw a crowd at a speaking in the face of essay exercises television and air conditioning in the homes, would have been able to survive the french essay, stigma of for a persuasive 6th grade being branded the “nigger candidate.” He faced it head-on as a rhetorical challenge. At one of his first speakings he began experimenting with how to get on both sides of the race question in the same breath. By day’s end he had composed lines that trilled: “I’m the best friend the poor white man and the colored man ever had … but I’m a thousand percent for segregation!” It caught on. As the campaign heated up and racist candidates exploited the race issue, Earl would give variations of his couplet. It began to echo across the state like an advertising jingle. Supporters recited it.
Earl would repeat it several times in the same speech. He would tell it on the heels of poking fun at his favorite target and principal opponent, New Orleans Mayor de-Lesseps “Chep” Morrison: “Del-a-soups wears four-hundred-dollar suits. Oh yeah. Why, if I wore a suit like that it would look like socks on essay on past a rooster. They got integrated swimming in New Orleans … integrated this and that and you know what else. Oh yeah. Outline? Let me tell you good people something. Essay Times? Niggers got no business in our schools. Why, a hundred years ago they were eatin’ each other. Oh yeah.
Yet I’m the best friend the poor white man and the colored man ever had … but I’m a thousand percent for segregation! You know it. High Format? Isn’t that right? Isn’t that right?” Amens would respond. The straddle succeeded.
By ten o’clock election night, pundits projected Earl a runaway winner in the first primary. An unexpected easy victory was attributed also to the incumbent reform administration’s unpopularity. A rejuvenated coalition had regained considerable influence in the legislature, but had deferred agreeing on a gubernatorial candidate to french on past, support until a second primary not to high school, be held. Not even Huey had done that, Earl enjoyed saying. Although Huey had repealed the poll tax a generation earlier and gained the good will of African-Americans in Louisiana for french that and for not waving the Rebel flag and yelling “nigger” while campaigning (but not the approval of Roy Wilkins and other activists in the NAACP), he had not launched a voter registration drive among African-Americans.
Earl saw the times ripe for this, in 1948, notwithstanding that the Democratic Party had been torn by bald essay, the civil rights issue and that the Dixiecrat ticket would carry Louisiana in the presidential election of 1948. Governors in other Southern states did not see the essay, times as ripe. In 1956, with Earl governor again, observers began comparing Earl and Huey. Acknowledging that but for Huey probably no other member of the Long family would have reached high office in Louisiana (another brother and two distant cousins, Longs, went to exercises, Congress from Huey’s home district while Russell Long was becoming resigned to french essay on past times, a career in the Senate never to be governor), some intimates who had known Huey too saw Earl as more effective among politicians and in extracting campaign funds from the Mob and the best american essays of 2013 players in business and industry, forgetting how Huey had excelled in both roles a generation earlier. Some said Earl was a punk compared to Huey, who taught Earl what he knew. Earl did seem to enjoy a steady diet of campaigning while out of office. Times? Huey, in a hurry, had never left office after being elected to the Public Service Commission in 1918. Assassination Research Paper? Earl was heard to say he would be willing to french essay on past, serve as governor every other four years forever. He might have but for an unprecedented showdown in assassination paper civil rights that erupted suddenly during his last year as governor.
Politics of race had fused with a growing independence of the legislature to cause Earl difficulty all through his last administration. He showed the strain. He had lost some of his snap and times ability to essay, bridle a hot temper and vindictiveness. Age and infirmities were showing in times his face and demeanor. He began dismissing sage confidants, replacing them with sycophants. Assassination Research? You could see how he despised racist legislators as hypocrites. He set upon former lieutenants who had voted for new Jim Crow legislation he had no choice but to sign. By 1959 racists had purged the voter rolls of 15,326 African-Americans. Essay Times? In response Earl sought legislation to prohibit challenges of voters registered more than a year or who had made but negligible errors in registering.
The Senate, including some of his closest allies, spurned him. My Name By Sandra Cisneros Essay? That’s how rough it got. This showdown triggered the crackup that ended Earl’s effective public life and times brought about a last year of airing linen in public familiar to those who remember seeing Blaze. They must have wondered what else a governor had done with his time other than go on picnics and to bed with young women. Paper? Earl had done a lot. His unique political strategy of historical import, though defaced by french essay on past times, a tactic necessary for eagle survival as a public man, did not follow that of Tom Watson displayed under similar circumstances years earlier in Georgia. Doubtless Earl Long did not disappoint C. Vann Woodward like Watson did during a resurgence of white supremacy. Had he known the dynamic of this imbroglio, Woodward might have used Earl Long as a biographical vehicle to french times, show that, contrary to the received history of civil rights in America, a legacy of Populism prevailed against the grain of racism in ideas for a essay Louisiana following the french times, Second World War. Richard Hofstader’s theory about my name essay zaniness of Populists in old age notwithstanding, Earl Long did not take the expedient course to french on past, vote-getting during a racial firestorm. As etymologist he had distinguished racist and segregationist. Or did Earl, alone among Southern governors, promote voter registration of African-Americans on essay a large scale in 1948 for mere political gain?
In 1959 the U.S. Civil Rights Commission was investigating the abuse of on past voting rights in the South. Harry S. Ashmore in Hearts and assassination paper Minds: The Anatomy of Racism from Roosevelt to french essay on past, Reagan (1982) tells of outline a relevant incident: When urban blacks became a political force in Louisiana, a true believer named Willie Rainich got himself named chairman of a joint legislative committee and set out to french essay times, reduce their registration from outline 130,000 to 13,000. But when Rainich pressured state officials to refuse to divulge voting records to the agents of the Civil Rights Commission, Gov. French Essay On Past Times? Earl Long met privately with its representative, Berl Bernhard, and told him: “You’re here to help the niggers vote, and I am for assassination research paper you because they’re my niggers and I want their vote … Now, we’re never going to talk about french essay on past times my helping you, but I’m gonna get my state registrar to essay outline exercises, give you the records you need, and after you talk to him, you remember, you never saw me.” Earl’s plain language told in confidence confirms that he promoted extension of the franchise of African-Americans, at essay on past times least for one reason, to get their votes. In pursuing ambition he was also enabling a minority to exercise that franchise. Who else in the state other than its governor could have delivered this benefit?
How else could he have done it without getting elected? How could he have been sanguine about retaining essential political strength, considering opposition to his progressive agenda, had he not developed another source of political support? How does all this add up? What of Earl’s unsavory campaign tactic that included use of racial slur and epithet? Not pleasing for some to hear at bald endangered essay the time or to read out of context in print, Earl had deemed it necessary within a considered political strategy.
Others will judge him. Some biographer may sort it out. Times? His catchy couplet, though, a quotation suitable for anthologizing, smacks of truth: I’m the best friend the poor white man and the colored man ever had … but I’m a thousand percent for segregation! These lines, a theme in his last campaign for governor, in my name cisneros essay retrospect a brilliant tactic, enabled him to prevail during a dreadful inning in Southern politics. However otherwise vetted, Earl Long occupies a corner in history yet to be written in juxtaposition to Tom Watson—yet no less enigmatic a man than Watson—and alone among contemporary Southern governors of the french essay times, 1940’s and ideas for a essay 1950’s as a voting rights champion for African-Americans. You have read 1 of 10 free articles in the past 30 days. Get unlimited access. By Siva Vaidhyanathan.
By Amanda Petrusich. By Ryan Bradley. Copyright 2017 The Virginia Quarterly Review. All rights reserved.