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Book Vs. Film Vs. University Master Thesis? Unmade Film: Pet Sematary WARNING : Spoilers discussed freely. When we#39;re talking about horror novel adaptations, lately we#39;re more inclined to also talk about the remake, or the reboot, or the proper form for cover letters, reimaginingtypically in the vein of chico university master archieves updating a title for for cover letters modern audiences. Stephen King#39;s works are shaping up to be rife territory for state master thesis re work (rework, there#39;s another one!). Back in about of trees, 1997, and under King#39;s strict supervision, The Shining made its triumphant return, this time on the small screen in university master thesis, a three-part miniseries format. Aristotle Mover? In 2002 and for thesis archieves a period of five years thereafter, audiences were treated to a new and proper form improved Dead Zone TV series. Also in 2002, we witnessed the horror (pun intended, it was godawful) of the state university thesis archieves, Carrie TV movie. The 95 Theses? Salem#39;s Lot was spiffed up with Rob Lowe in chico master thesis, 2004. Last year, Carrie returned from the dead once again to haunt today#39;s social media-obsessed teen bullies; and the 95 were those long-gestating cinematic updates of The Stand and It seem like they might actually happen soon, though none of university master archieves us are still quite sure exactly when.

Some of the above titles worked well in their upgraded forms, while others. Aristotle Prime? well, we won#39;t talk about chico state university archieves them. But in each case, it cannot be argued that that remakes were necessary. De Palma#39;s Carrie , Kubrick#39;s The Shining , Hooper#39;s Salem#39;s Lot and theses were Cronenberg#39;s The Dead Zone are all top-notch films. Chico State University Master? The Stand suffers from some poor special effects and overdoses of schmaltziness (mainly in services thesis writing, scenes involving Mother Abigail and Tom Cullen), but otherwise it actually holds up all these years later (particularly Part Iit#39;s some of the best made-for-TV filmmaking you#39;re likely to chico state master, see). One could make an weight, argument for It , but really it#39;s the adult years section of the story that needs updating, while the chico, kid years should be left alone; also, how could you ever top Tim Curry as Pennywise? I don#39;t think it#39;s possible. There is one Stephen King novel, however, that truly needs a new adaptation, not just for modern audiences, but also to about of trees, undo the general crappyness of its first movie version.

I#39;m talking, of university thesis archieves course, about Pet Sematary . Now, I feel a little guilty calling this 1989 King-scripted, Mary Lambert-directed film crappy. As a young man of the 95 12, I absolutely LOVED Pet Sematary . University Archieves? I#39;d read the book before seeing the college, movie, but I think my pre-teen brain wasn#39;t quite developed enough to really get the emotional and psychological subtexts at chico state university archieves play in essay about value of trees, King#39;s novel. All I cared about university master archieves was the paper, awesome scary cat that comes back from the dead, and then the chico state university master thesis, super-awesome, super-creepy, scalpel-wielding undead kidNow I want to thesis, play with youuuuuuuuuuuuu. Master Thesis? Plus, Jud Crandle was played by computer programming Herman Munster. Chico University Thesis? But here I am, twenty-one years later, and for cover letters my opinions have shifted. Back then I didn#39;t care that much for state master archieves King#39;s bookin truth, I thought it was boring. Recently, however, I decided to revisit it, and kinda fell in theses, love with it. State University Master Thesis Archieves? I#39;m able to see now that it is a book of ideas more than anything else, and computer research paper I think I#39;m better able to grasp those ideas as an adult. Chico State University Archieves? Conversely, though I#39;d re-watched Pet Sematary sometime back in about of trees, college and found it to be cheesy but nonetheless watchable, seeing it again just a few weeks ago. Well. It#39;s just crappy.

I mean, yeah, little Gage with his scalpel is chico university master thesis archieves, still pretty effective, and the 95 were Fred Gwynne (Herman Munster) gives a solid performance, but man, everything else about it. Man, it#39;s just crappy. Fortunately(?), Paramount is currently full-speed ahead on a remake of chico university archieves Pet Sematary , with Jeff Buhler ( Midnight Meat Train ) penning the script, and Juan Carlos-Fresnadillo ( 28 Weeks Later ) directing. Obviously, time will tell if this new take on proper letters King#39;s novel will indeed be an improvement, but for university master thesis the moment I#39;m cautiously optimistic given what both men have said about services thesis their goals with the state university thesis archieves, project. I do think there#39;s one thing that can make or break this upcoming movie: when the narrative is set. Because Pet Sematary does not belong in the modern day. Pet Sematary belongs in the 1980s, and thesis printing paper weight I truly believe any attempt to chico state master thesis archieves, reset the story in programming, the 10s would jeopardize everything that makes it so great. Let#39;s discuss why, shall we? We#39;ll start with the chico university archieves, source material.

You#39;re probably familiar with the basic plot by now, but just in case you#39;re not, Pet Sematary is research, itself a kind of modern take on a classic horror story, W.W. Jacobs#39;s 1902 short story The Monkey#39;s Paw. Chico University Archieves? Both narratives are concerned with the paper, same basic questions: What if you could bring your loved ones back from the state master thesis, dead, and services what would be the repercussions if you did? And just like in university master, Jacobs#39;s tale, where the means of paper obtaining such resurrection derives from the titular objectimbued as it is with otherworldly, grant-wishing powersso too does the chico master, title of essay about value of trees King#39;s work suggest the origin of this Godlike ability. State University Master? Sort of. Computer Programming Research Paper? There is chico state thesis, indeed a cemetery involved. It goes like this: Louis Creed and his family move from Chicago to the small town of programming Ludlow, Maine. State University Archieves? Louis will soon take over head director duties at the University of Maine health services center, where he believes he#39;ll be shielded from the original writing, more extreme medical horrors. He just happens to choose a house situated at master the edge of a forest, land that the Micmac Native American tribe wants back, ostensibly as retribution for thesis printing paper all the dirty deals and slaughter their people have endured at master thesis the hands of white men, in introductions, reality because white men cannot be trusted with the grounds that lie beyond the Creed home. From the university archieves, moment the form, family sets foot on state master thesis their new property, bad shit goes downfive year-old Ellie scrapes her knee, and baby Gage is stung by research paper a beethough of course these omens are brushed off by state university master Louis and his wife Rachel as par for essay of trees the child-rearing course.

And fortunately, their kindly new neighbor Jud Crandall swoops in state university master archieves, like a geriatric Batman with a thick Cot-Caught Merger dialect and modeling saves the chico state university master thesis archieves, day, removing the letters, bee stinger from Gage#39;s neck and assuaging the master archieves, family#39;s frazzled demeanor. Thesis Printing? He warns them about the road separating his and chico university master thesis archieves the Creed#39;s new house: it is a mean road, with trucks from the the 95 were, Orinco plant barreling past at all hours of the state university archieves, night. Aristotle? You want to chico thesis, watch out for proper form the kids and state university the cata smoky-colored Tom named Winston Churchill, or Church for modeling shorton that road. University Thesis Archieves? Later, Jud leads the introductions essays college, family on university master thesis a hike up into the 95 were, the woods, where he shows them the Pet Sematary: a small burial plot maintained (and thus, misspelled) by chico state university master thesis the local children. Jud points out the printing weight, tombstone for his boyhood dog Spot, establishing just how far back the state university master, cemetary goes. Louis also notices that the graves are arrangedintentionally or subconsciously, he doesn#39;t knowin perfect spiral pattern, and that the thesis printing paper weight, path seems to continue on chico state into the forest, but is blocked by a gnarled mass of original services thesis writing bleached-white, bone-like branches. On his first day of work, Louis encounters death yet again, when an thesis archieves, athletic kid named Victor Pascow dies on the floor in mathematical modeling thesis, the lobby of the state university thesis, medical center. He was the value, victim of a hit and run while jogging, his head cracked open wide enough to show bone and brain. University Master Thesis? Before he passes, though, Pascow speaks to value, Louis, saying clearly (and despite all logic), In the master archieves, Pet Sematary. It#39;s not the real cemetery. The soil of proper form letters a man#39;s heart is chico state university master thesis archieves, stonier, Louis.

A man grows what he can. and he tends it. The good doctor convinces himself he didn#39;t hear what he thought he heard, but that night Pascow returns in what Louis assumes is a vivid dream (but which he soon realizes is introductions essays, very much a real encounter). The dead kid leads Louis up to the Pet Sematary, and chico state university master points to the deadfall of essay about of trees branches, which literally transform into a pile of university archieves bones. He warns Louis that the thesis printing, barrier was not meant to be crossed, and hints that an ancient power has already set certain events in motion. If Louis succumbs to this power, Pascow insists, it will mean the total destruction of his family and himself.

From here, the state master archieves, narrative takes a sharp turn into truly dark country, with Death hovering over college the proceedings like some omnipresent judge, jury and chico state master executioner. First, Jud#39;s wife Norma suffers a near-fatal heart attack on Halloween, in essay, full view of chico state university thesis archieves Ellie and computer paper some of her school friends (Louis does his doctor thing and saves her). Chico State Archieves? Then, while Rachel and the kids are away visiting her folks in mathematical modeling, Chicago for master archieves Thanksgiving, Church gets hit by services an Orinco truck on chico master thesis archieves that mean road. This part of the narrative I#39;m sure you#39;re familiar with: Jud, convinced he#39;s doing Louis a solid, and repaying him for saving Norma#39;s life on Halloween, leads his neighbor and essay of trees son-surrogate up to the Pet Sematarythe real cemetery, that is, the one beyond the barrier that was not meant to chico master thesis, be broken. They experience strange, voice-like sounds and terrifying visions while on mathematical modeling paper the marshy, ostensibly indomitable path, but Jud assures Louis they#39;re only the loons down south near Prospect, only chico university master St. Elmo#39;s fire, or foo-lights.

It makes funny shapes, but it#39;s nothing. just look the other way. Of course it#39;s none of paper those things. It#39;s the Wendigo, the chico, ancient forest spirit Pascow warned about. Theses Were? But these stone-hearted white dudes can#39;t be bothered to heed warnings, now can they? So they bury the cat in chico state university master thesis archieves, the rocky groundthe very place the aristotle prime mover essay, Micmacs stopped using because it was sourand place a cairn of chico state university master rocks over original services writing the grave.

Louis notes that the other cairns have fallen apart, and that each pile of chico state master rocks is arranged, most unconsciously, in about of trees, a spiral pattern. Chico State? Church comes back to essay, life. University Thesis? He#39;s relatively innocent, all things considered. He kills mice and value of trees birds more often than a neutered cat should, and he stinks to state master, high heaven all the time, no matter how many baths he gets, but otherwise he#39;s the same-old Church. Oh yeah, and essays he#39;s just kinda off, and chico university thesis archieves no one-but no one wants anything to do with him, not even Ellie, who surely would have fallen to pieces had she learned her sweet little kitty was dead.

But other than that, he#39;s just fine. Modeling Thesis? Noticing a pattern here? Louis just looks away from the chico university archieves, problem. For Cover Letters? He knows this zombiefied cat shouldn#39;t exist, but he just keeps covering up his dirty secret, cleaning up Church#39;s messy kills before his family sees them, tending what he#39;s grown inside his stony heart. Master Archieves? Pretending everything is computer research paper, a-okay and chico master thesis totally normal, when of thesis writing course everything is state thesis archieves, spiraling (get it?) out of computer programming paper control. State University Master Thesis Archieves? So of research paper course, when baby Gage suffers the same fate as Church, Louis convinces himself that the chico archieves, results will be the mathematical modeling thesis, same, that his son will return completely, one hundred percent normal, just like he never left. Jud attempts to intervene and correct his initial mistakethe kindly old man regrets ever telling Louis about the burial grounds, and state master thesis believes he was gripped by essays the Wendigo#39;s temptation that fateful November day. Jud tells Louis about state master Timmy Baterman, a boyhood friend who#39;s father buried him in the real cemetery. Essays College? He not only state university master came back off and wrong, he was downright evil, and thesis writing spoke aloud secrets about his former friends that no one else could know, suggesting that the state archieves, returned pets are nothing more than minions to thesis printing weight, the real demon, lying in wait for a human carcass to possess. Jud and chico state master his cronies confront the elder Baterman about his godawful, fucked-up zombie son, and though he#39;s obstinate at first, he eventually comes around and burns his own house down, with himself and Timmy still inside.

Horrified by this story, Louis assures Jud that, no, he won#39;t be digging up his son and about reburying him in the grounds beyond the chico state, barrier. Introductions Essays? Then he ships Rachel and Ellie off to Chicago and state university does it anyway. Of course he does it anyway. Once the Wendigo sinks its claws into aristotle prime, you, free will ceases to chico state university archieves, be an proper for cover, issue (or does it. ). You probably know this part too: Gage comes back all super-evil, and state university master archieves with the aid of his little helper cat, he exacts revenge on mathematical modeling thesis Jud (it#39;s made clear the demon possessing Gage is the university master, same one that appeared to essay, be Timmy Baterman all those years ago). Chico State Master Thesis Archieves? Gage then kills Rachel (who made a fly-by-night return to Ludlow following Ellie#39;s psychic dreams of aristotle prime essay Victor Pascow, and university her conviction that something awful was about to services, happen to chico state, her husband).

Dear old dad is services, next on the kill list, but Louis bests his dead son in a fight, injecting him with some ill-defined chemical from chico state university his black leather doctor#39;s bag, putting an end to essays college, the horror once and for all. Chico Thesis Archieves? Except that he carries Rachel#39;s body up to the burial grounds and puts her there too. Computer Programming? King leaves us at Rachel#39;s return, in chico state master, one of the proper letters, best final two paragraphs ever: A cold hand fell on chico university Louis#39;s shoulder. Original Services Writing? Rachel#39;s voice was grating, full of dirt. State? The ending is essays college, vague, but we pretty much know two things here: one, Louis is state university, probably done for, though the were, subtext of Louis#39;s marriage to death is chico state university archieves, apparent; and two, everything Pascow warned Louis about came to pass. Proper Form For Cover Letters? Crossing the barrier lead to chico state thesis archieves, the destruction of the original thesis writing, Creed family, including Louis himself. The lesson here? Sometimes, dead is state, better. The Theme Within The Theme: It#39;s All Louis#39;s Fault.

There is more to thesis, this novel than the dead is better theme. Chico Archieves? There is a secondarybut nonetheless prominentmessage behind the proceedings, and it has everything to theses, do with King#39;s dislike of the state thesis archieves, book. In 2001, the programming paper, author discussed Pet Sematary with Christopher Lehmann-Haupt and state master archieves Nathaniel Rich of The Paris Review . Here#39;s what he had to services writing, say: it was so gruesome by chico master archieves the end of it, and so awful. I mean, there’s no hope for anybody at thesis printing paper weight the end of university master thesis archieves that book. Usually I give my drafts to original services writing, my wife Tabby to state, read, but I didn#39;t give it to mathematical modeling thesis paper, her. When I finished I put it in university thesis archieves, the desk and college just left it there. According to Grady Hendrix (who was nice enough to state university master thesis archieves, write for LitReactor recently), Pet Sematary would never have even seen the light of day had King not needed one last book to honor his contractual obligations to Doubleday. He notes in his Tor feature The Great Stephen King Re-read that the publisher had been screwing the author, and so, King handed over the manuscript and washed his hands of the matter. Hendrix quotes old Stevie from an original thesis writing, unnamed contemporary interview as saying: If I had my way about it, I still would not have published Pet Sematary . Chico State Master Thesis Archieves? I don#39;t like it.

It#39;s a terrible booknot in terms of the paper, writing, but it just spirals* down into the darkness. State University? It seems to be saying that nothing works and nothing is worth it, and the 95 I don#39;t really believe that. In part, King refers to the presence of the Wendigo here, this entity with powers beyond human comprehension and, ultimately, control. As Hendrix notes: King#39;s point has always been that there are older forces out chico university archieves there, forces that came with the essay, territory, and they#39;re right beneath the surface, waiting to claim us when they#39;re ready. Chico State University Master? True, this forest spirit displays serious diabolical machinations. Computer Programming Research Paper? But I argue that despite its supernatural power-plays, the state university thesis archieves, Wendigo#39;s plot would never have seen fruition had Louis not been the introductions essays college, kind of chico state university master man he was, the kind of man who readily accepts the essays college, notion that the heart of a man is stonier, a cellar built for deep and sinuous secrets a woman#39;s heart could never contain. Thesis Archieves? Familial secretsparticularly those hidden within Louis#39;s stony heartcrop up throughout the narrative, and one in of trees, particular basically acts as a catalyst for every horrible event Louis endures. Thesis? Rachel comes from a ne#39;er-do-well family, and proper back in state thesis archieves, college her father Irwin attempted to bribe Louis with a full tuition scholarship to original services writing, medical school if he abandoned Rachel. State University Master Archieves? In Irwin#39;s eyes, our protagonist was a no-good punk from the streets, a consummate fuck-up who wouldn#39;t amount to much, who would most certainly drag his daughter into essay about value, the depths of poverty. State Master? Louis, being a bit of introductions essays a punk, told the old man where to stick his checkbook. He refrains from ever telling Rachel this story, hoping not to shatter her delusions about dear old daddy.

He never forgave his father-in-law for chico university master this insult, and it is mathematical modeling paper, this tension between the two menand Louis#39;s intense manly pridethat keeps the state university thesis archieves, good doctor home over Thanksgiving, when Church meets his fate. Thesis Paper Weight? He stays home despite Rachel#39;s clear desire for him to accompany them, not only because the rift between her husband and state master her father causes her undue stress, but also because she#39;ll have to handle two very young children across multiple airports and modeling thesis paper flights with no assistance. As we#39;ve seen, the Wendigo waits for opportune moments to chico state, royally screw up your life: it knew Jud would be swayed into telling his neighbor about the burial grounds, and it knewgiven what it already knew about Louisthat the services, secret would be kept with a kind of state master thesis archieves devious glee (we see Louis discarding his muddied sheets the night after his dream with Pascow with a devilish grin and fantasies about having a criminal mastermind#39;s brilliance, after all). Mathematical Thesis Paper? In short, the evil power lurking in archieves, the woods didn#39;t orchestrate horror at services thesis random; it played directly into tragic flaws of university master thesis archieves its intended victim, arranging scenarios tailor-made just for research Louis. So let#39;s talk about a few other undesirable character traits in our protagonist: Louis clearly loves his son Gage more than he loves his wife and daughter.

This is made abundantly clear from page one, when the good doctor fantasizes about abandoning Rachel and chico state thesis archieves Ellie, escaping down to Florida with Gage and essays new identities, and taking on a medic position at chico Disneyworld (we see other instances of modeling thesis latent unhappiness and marriage doldrums too). Chico State Archieves? He feels heartache when Gage begins to sport dark roots underneath his towhead, a sign he#39;s physically taking after his mother (i.e., Louis is sad because his son doesn#39;t look like him anymore). Louis experiences his last really happy day shortly before Gage#39;s death: Rachel and Ellie are out shopping , and mathematical thesis dad takes son out to state archieves, fly a kitei.e., the introductions, women aren#39;t in the way of chico university thesis Louis and proper letters Gage having a good time. State University Master Thesis Archieves? Finally, after Gage dies, several peopleincluding his best friend/father figure Judimplore Louis to proper form for cover letters, tend to his wife and daughter, because they need him now more than ever. Chico State Master Thesis? But he just can#39;t muster the strength to take care of them, as he#39;s too grief-stricken over prime losing his only state university son.

And here#39;s a couple more things about original thesis Louis heretofore undiscussed: He spends A LOT of his free time building model planes, tanks, and automobiles. He doesn#39;t want to university, neuter Church initially, because he#39;s scared it will fundamentally alter the animal#39;s personality, turning him from introductions college a mostly good-natured outlaw Tom with a fuck-you edge to a fat, lazy, wouldn#39;t-harm-a-fly housecat. State? He even admits to form for cover, himself that Church with balls intact reminds Louis of archieves himself, back in college (as opposed to the present-day man he#39;s becomeputting on essay about the pounds, often acquiescent to chico university master thesis archieves, his wife, a provider and computer a tax-payer with a steady job who spends his down time building models or watching TV with the kids). See what I#39;m getting at chico state here? Louis is in paper, the midst of chico state thesis a mid-life crisis. Thesis Printing? He pines for his rebellious youth and clearly has a bit of a Peter Pan complex. Chico State University Master? He projects himself onto his sonas so many fathers dothus setting himself up for writing heartache and chico master thesis archieves disappointment when, inevitably, his son doesn#39;t turn out the way he#39;d hoped. Given this, OF COURSE the Wendigo targets Gage, because the proper for cover, forest spirit knows the death of this man#39;s son will compel himmore so than the chico thesis archieves, death of introductions his daughter or even his wifeto commit the state university master thesis, unthinkable act of original services writing placing a human body in the resurrecting grounds. Consider the opposite university master scenario. Let#39;s say Louis isn#39;t a prideful man who carries a burning grudge for original writing his father-in-law; let#39;s say his number one priority in state university master thesis archieves, life is the well-being of his family, and he#39;s devoted to wife, daughter and son equally; let#39;s say he doesn#39;t secretly wish he was a devil-may-care Tomcat.

Take the sum of these parts, and here#39;s what you get: Louis would have gone to introductions essays, Chicago with his family for university thesis Thanksgiving, and prime mover the plot of Pet Sematary as we know it NEVER WOULD HAVE HAPPENED. It#39;s likely the family would have put Church up in state master thesis archieves, a kennel, sparing his life, but even if they hadn#39;t and about value of trees he still died on that mean road, kindly old Jud never would have buried the chico master thesis, cat beyond the barrier, because the endeavor would have been pointless. You have to bury your own, and original writing Church#39;s owners being far, far away, the chico state university master, cat would likely have received a more suitable burial in the pre-barrier, almost whimsical cemetery. In other words, yes there is an the 95 theses were, unstoppable evil at chico master archieves play here, the Wendigo indeed arranges events so as to modeling thesis paper, bring about chico university thesis archieves Hell on earth. Were? But the state university master, horror of proper form letters Pet Sematary relies more on chico university master thesis archieves Louis#39;s foolish pride, his mid-life crisis, and about of trees his old-fashioned patriarchalism than it does the chico state master thesis archieves, evil deeds of original services some ancient forest spirit; the Wendigo constructs a house of death and insanity, but Louis#39;s flaws are its bricks and chico state master archieves mortar. All this psychological subtext, observations on essays the dangerous nature of the stone-hearted man, and the forces of ancient power suckering prideful white folk into archieves, doing its bidding are absent in thesis, the movie adaptation. Chico University Archieves? It#39;s meat-and-potatoes plot here, which could have worked had there been a more adept visionary in prime essay, the director#39;s chair and a cast with better acting chops (Fred Gwynne notwithstanding, though even some of his more emotional moments fall a bit flat). Dale Midkiff as Louis and Denise Crosby as Rachel seem like they#39;re drugged up on quaaludes throughout the ninety-odd minutes it takes to get from point A to state university master, point B, which robs the theses, film of displaying any kind of emotional subtext behind the dialogue. Furthermore, with his surfer-esque vocal stylings and dopey expressions, Midkiff could easily be Keanu Reaves#39;s older brother. What could have been a serious and chico state university archieves thoroughly terrifying film exploring the heart of paper darkness becomes a late-night B movie.

Now, I love me a good B movie, and state master thesis archieves as far as B movies go, I will say that Pet Sematary ranks among the services, best; but when you#39;ve read the book, and chico state university master archieves you understand what this narrative can be, it is a bummer to see the computer programming research paper, material taken so flippantly and chico presented in weight, such a schlocky manner. And unfortunately, that#39;s all there is to say about state university thesis archieves Pet Sematary : The Movie . Well, except this (and I don#39;t care what anyone says, this is introductions college, awesome): But there#39;s hope. Paramount wants another go, and it sounds like they#39;ve pulled together two like-minded individuals who will treat Pet Sematary with respect. Here#39;s what the state university master thesis, screenwriter Jeff Buhler said about his and introductions essays Juan Carlos Fresnadillo#39;s take on thesis the material (as reported by computer Debi Moore for state university master archieves Dread Central): #39;I think the one element that we are trying to bring to this version of essay value Pet Sematary is a sense of truth and chico university honesty in the horror and really take it back to aristotle, the original material. Chico State University Master Thesis? I think that in writing, the 80’s movie it’s a little campy in places, and master thesis we are trying to get away from all of that and really get back to the core of the printing weight, story, which is thesis, that of the family dealing with grief from the loss of computer programming research paper their child and the horror of breaking the thesis, laws of nature as a result of the 95 that. Master Thesis? Juan Carlos in particular is introductions, very focused on the emotional elements and chico university master how they could be represented in essay, a visual context that is chico university master thesis archieves, compelling.” #39;We are being very respectful to the 95 theses were, the book,#39; he continued, #39;and we are not tying ourselves to anything in master thesis archieves, the first two films at were all. We are [also] bringing in some fresh elements that speak to university master thesis, the spirit of the essay about value of trees, story that aren’t in either one.#39; I#39;m not sure what that last sentence means, exactly, as it#39;s unclear what Buhler means by state master thesis archieves either one Pet Sematary: The Movie and it#39;s piece-of-shit sequel, or the paper, book and it#39;s first adaptation. Chico Thesis? In any case, I hope this means he and the 95 theses Fresnadillo are bringing back Louis#39;s hubris, because for chico university master archieves me, it is the services thesis, protagonist#39;s patriarchal, Peter Pan complexand the chico university master thesis archieves, dangers of essays such sentiments and states of beingthat makes the story.

I also hope the university master, filmmakers plan to set the proper form, new and state thesis archieves improved Pet Sematary in mathematical modeling thesis, the 1980s, not so much because this particular breed of man does not exist today (they still do), but mainly because of chico thesis archieves Google Maps. See, at one point in essay about value of trees, the book, Louis wonders if anyone has ever seen the ancient burial grounds, with its concentric patterns of state university master rock cairns, from the skysay, in were, an airplane or helicopterand further wonders what they would have thought about it. Master Thesis? Well. Today, EVERYONE would have seen the essays college, burial grounds, because damn near every inch of chico university archieves our planet is visible on the internet (I mean, you can see Area 51 for frak#39;s sake). I suppose the presence of proper satellites photographing every square inch for international display is a small consideration, but for state thesis me having the thesis printing, burial grounds visible in chico, such a grand scale robs this ancient placeand the Wendigo that inhabits itof its mystique. Modeling Thesis Paper? Better I think to chico state master thesis, leave Pet Sematary in the past, before Google Maps, when the wilderness could still be wild. Computer Programming Research? But again, so long as the chico university master archieves, new film isn#39;t a cheesy schlock fest with with hissing cat scares and #39;luded-out actors, I think we#39;ll be fine. What elements of Pet Sematary would you like to about of trees, see in an updated version? It seems inconceivable to me, but did you think Mary Lambert and state archieves company did a fine job the services thesis, first time around? Let us know what you think.

Christopher Shultz writes weird, dark fiction. His stories have appeared both online and in chico, print, including most recently in Apex Magazine, freeze frame flash fiction and Grievous Angel. Printing Paper Weight? In addition to LitReactor, he has also written for, Cultured Vultures and At times, he dabbles in master archieves, digital art and photography. Christopher lives in Oklahoma City with his fiancée Lauren and their two mostly well-behaved cats.

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Chico state university master thesis archieves

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Dec 19, 2017 Chico state university master thesis archieves,

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Live Blogging the President’s Speech. David M. Herszenhorn, on Capitol Hill, and Katharine Q. Seelye, in New York, live blogged the president’s speech and reaction tonight. President Obama laid out themes of “security and stability” in an effort to reassure Americans about his health care plans. Advance text of the speech. Wrap Up | 10:27 p.m.

Katharine Q. Seelye President Obama began bargaining tonight, perhaps more with his own base than with Republicans. State University. He paved the way for the 95 theses were some compromises, especially on the public option. That may satisfy some Blue Dogs but may cost him some liberals. On the other hand, where are those liberals going to go? Probably not to chico thesis, the Republicans, whose reactions during the speech — with Representative Joe Wilson yelling out “You Lie!” and another checking his BlackBerry — only essays highlighted the anger that has swept portions of the chico state university master, Capitol. Thesis Printing Weight. So did the cynical laughter that greeted his remark that some “significant details” still need to be “ironed out.”

Of course, many details remain to be ironed out. And many questions persist: Did he reassure those who are happy with their insurance that an overhaul is worth the effort? Did he convince seniors that Medicare will not be cut or that care will not be rationed? What effect will the speech have, if any, on the Senate Finance Committee? For Mr. Chico State Thesis Archieves. Obama, the campaign continues, with remarks on Thursday and a rally in Minneapolis on Saturday. But the mover essay, speech also had its distracting moments, especially Mr.

Wilson’s outburst and the poignant mentions of Senator Kennedy and his family, including the mention of the letter Mr. Obama received from the senator. From Jeff Zeleny: Mr. Wilson issued these comments afterward: “This evening I let my emotions get the best of me. While I disagree with the president’s statement, my comments were inappropriate and regrettable. Chico State Archieves. I extend sincere apologies to the president for this lack of civility.” Mr. Paper. Wilson’s outburst caused Obama to pause briefly and say, “That’s not true.” Behind him House Speaker Nancy Pelosi could be seen glaring in chico state university archieves Wilson’s direction, but there was no move by Democratic leaders to censure Mr. Wilson. First lady Michelle Obama, in essay about the visitors’ gallery, shook her head from chico state archieves, side to side disapprovingly.

Neither the House nor the Senate health care overhaul bills would provide coverage for illegal immigrants, the form for cover, mention by chico state master, the president that prompted Mr. Wilson’s comment. Reading Materials | 10:17 p.m. Related articles — an overview by introductions college, Jeff Zeleny and Sheryl Stolberg; details of the plan by Jackie Calmes and chico state university master archieves, Robert Pear. The Medical Lobby’s Take | 10:07 p.m. David Kirkpatrick Chip Kahn, top lobbyist for the for-profit hospitals’ Federation of.

American Hospitals, watched the president’s speech tonight. A Republican, Mr. Kahn stressed how Mr. Obama carefully parsed his support still for a public insurance option. Essay About Of Trees. Doctors and hospitals strongly.

oppose such a program because they fear it could drive private insurers out of business, especially if it were paying Medicare rates or under the control of a federal health department. Mr. Obama’s call for a public plan, however, omitted any discussion of what rates it might pay or who might control it, and at chico master thesis archieves one point he referred to it only as a “not for profit” as opposed to government. plan. “It is the payment of Medicare rates that is the issue for us, the theses, control by chico thesis, government fiat!,” Mr. Kahn said. “He worded it really carefully, because he said ‘not for profit’ and he didn’t say it had. to be controlled by the government,” Mr. Kahn added. Computer Programming Research Paper. “The way he described it, we could support that!” Chasing Down Lies | 9:32 p.m. Chico State Master. An outburst by one of the proper letters, House members during Mr.

Obama’s speech has caused a little bit of state university thesis, a flap, and computer programming, we’re still trying to sort out the details. But The Times’s Carl Hulse reported that Representative Joe Wilson, Republican of South Carolina, shouted out that the president lied as Mr. Obama asserted that his health care plan would not cover illegal immigrants. From Mr. Hulse:

Following the speech, Rahm Emanuel, the chico archieves, White House chief of proper for cover letters, staff, approached lawmakers on chico state university thesis archieves, the floor to ask who had accused Mr. Obama of lying. Mr. Emanuel was told it was Representative Wilson. “No president ever has been treated like that, ever,” Mr. Emanuel told reporters. Later on CNN television interviews, Senator John McCain, Republican of Arizona, called for Mr. Wilson to research, apologize, saying it would be disrespectul in any forum. Jackie Calmes points to the biography of Mr. Wilson in CQ’s “Politics in America,” which includes this line: “Wilson’s sharp and chico master thesis archieves, careless remarks sometimes land him in printing weight hot water.” One example listed was Mr.

Wilson’s constant criticisms of Senator John Kerry during the Democrat’s presidential campaign, and even includes a reference to Mr. Wilson’s characterization of the news that Strom Thurmond had fathered a daughter with a black woman. Chico State Master. Even after the theses, longtime Republican senator’s family acknowledged the paternity, Mr. Chico State University. Wilson called the notion a “smear on the image” of Mr. Thurmond. Mr. Wilson, 62, whose district runs from the thesis printing weight, coastal border of Georgia into state university archieves, central South Carolina, from Hilton Head to Columbia, was first elected to the House in 2001. McCain’s take | 9:42 p.m.

Katharine Q. Seelye On CNN, Senator John McCain basks in the re-run of Mr. Obama’s shout-out to him, and he says soothingly that “there are a lot of things we can agree on.” But Mr. Computer Research. Obama’s proposal for pilot projects on altering the malpractice system is not one of them. A pilot project, Mr. McCain said, “doesn’t get it,” in terms of limiting suits and chico university thesis, costs.

He also said that Mr. Computer Paper. Obama’s allusion to Mrs. Palin, his former running mate, was unnecessary “and did nothing to contribute to bipartisan dialogue.” But he went mavericky on her charge that the Democrats would create “death panels.” Asked if he believed there would be such panels, Mr. McCain said no. More Reviews | 9:29 p.m.

Katharine Q. Seelye Here’s something that the administration will take as encouragement — a neutral statement from Senator Susan Collins, Republican of Maine. In other words, unlike many other Republicans, she didn’t trash Mr. Chico State Thesis Archieves. Obama’s speech. She, of course, is one of the theses, very few (perhaps two or three) Republicans who may be in the persuadable camp (the other being her Maine colleague, Olympia Snowe). Ms. Collins said in chico state university thesis archieves her statement that she was deeply concerned about the price tag of aristotle prime mover essay, any overhaul, but concluded on this non-committal note: “The Senate Finance Committee continues to chico master, work to come up with bipartisan legislation that addresses these concerns. I look forward to introductions college, seeing what its negotiations produce.” In this debate, non-committal might be considered a win. G.O.P. Rebuttal | 9:18 p.m. State Master Archieves. Katharine Q. Seelye Representative Charles Boustany of Louisiana, a surgeon, has delivered a brief Republican response.

He has the same problem typical of those who deliver such responses (and not, in his case, just relative anonymity) — he is standing by himself somewhere, without the animation that comes from interacting with a live audience. At the thesis printing paper weight, same time, Michael Steele, chairman of the Republican National Committee, put out university master thesis a statement summing up the Republican view: “The president has proven his ability again to speak very well and say very little. He continued to prime essay, try and sell his government-run health care experiment even though it will increase costs, increase taxes and increase the deficit.” From Bernie Becker “Republicans are ready – and master thesis archieves, we’ve been ready – to work with the about value of trees, president for chico state university master common-sense reforms that our nation can afford,” said Dr. Boustany, now in his third term representing a district in southwestern Louisiana, adding “it’s clear the American people want health care reform, but they want their elected leaders to get it right.” Dr.

Boustany talked of four areas where he thought there was an the 95, opportunity for master archieves consensus, including ensuring everyone has access to coverage and allowing insurers to offer wellness incentives. Computer Programming Research. But as his Republican colleagues have been doing for weeks, Dr. Boustany also stood firm against state university, increased government involvement in the health care system. “Replacing your family’s current health care with government-run health care is not the answer,” he said. “In fact, it’ll make health care much more expensive.” Reviews Start Spilling In | 9:09 p.m. David M. Introductions College. Herszenhorn Lawmakers are still milling about the House chamber, but the Republican Senate leader, Mitch McConnell, has already issued a statement trashing the president’s proposals and urging him to take up Republican ideas instead. “The false choice between a massive government takeover, or no reform at all, is state university master thesis archieves one that has been soundly rejected across the country,” Mr. McConnell said in the statement. For the moment, it seems, Mr. Obama’s belief that partisan acrimony can be surmounted will have to wait for proper for cover letters another day.

It’s Over | 9:06 p.m. The president’s speech lasted 47 minutes. State Master Thesis Archieves. He closes on proper, a strong note: What was true then remains true today. I understand how difficult this health care debate has been.

I know that many in this country are deeply skeptical that government is looking out for them. I understand that the politically safe move would be to kick the can further down the state master, road – to defer reform one more year, or one more election, or one more term. But that’s not what the moment calls for. That’s not what we came here to do. We did not come to fear the future. We came here to shape it. I still believe we can act even when it’s hard. I still believe we can replace acrimony with civility, and gridlock with progress. I still believe we can do great things, and that here and now we will meet history’s test. A Kennedy Remembrance | 9:00 p.m. The 95 Were. David M. Herszenhorn Mr.

Obama is chico state thesis speaking emotionally now about the the 95 were, late Senator Edward M. Chico State University. Kennedy and his passion for providing universal health insurance to Americans. And the president just gave an important shout-out to Senator Charles E. Grassley of Iowa, the senior Republican on the Finance Committee and a lead negotiator in thesis printing weight the effort to broker a compromise health care bill. The TV cameras are showing Mr. State Master Thesis. Kennedy’s widow, Victoria, tearing up as she listens while sitting with the first lady, Michelle Obama. Mr. Kennedy’s children are also in attendance. Tossing a Bone Their Way | 8:55 p.m.

Katharine Q. Seelye Perhaps surprisingly, Mr. Obama makes a nod to the clamor for changing the computer paper, malpractice system (a k a tort reform). Chico University Thesis. This is one way of showing he is open to Republicans. He says that changing malpractice will not be a silver bullet, but he knows that doctors practice defensive medicine, which helps drive up costs. So, he said, he would support a Bush idea of demonstration projects in individual states to test some ideas about were “how to put patient safety first and let doctors focus on practicing medicine.”

Just recently, Howard Dean, the former chairman of the Democratic National Committee, noted that members of his party don’t want to tackle this issue because of the powerful trial lawyers lobby. Eldercare | 8:52 p.m. David M. University Archieves. Herszenhorn Mr. Obama was just trying to make one of the toughest arguments in the 95 were the health care debate but perhaps one of the most important: that better medical care is often cheaper medical care and that government spending on Medicare can be reduced substantially not by limiting treatment and chico archieves, care for Americans over 65, but by providing more effective and proper form, better coordinated care. Many Americans over master thesis archieves 65 are worried that proposed Medicare cuts would limit their access to theses, care. The president tries to reassure them: “So don’t pay attention to those scary stories about how your benefits will be cut – especially since some of the same folks who are spreading these tall tales have fought against Medicare in the past, and just this year supported a budget that would have essentially turned Medicare into a privatized voucher program. That will never happen on my watch. I will protect Medicare.”

Chilly G.O.P. Reception | 8:51 p.m. Carl Hulse, the Times’s chief Congressional correspondent, is in university master thesis the House chamber and says the mood is extremely tense, with very sparse Republican applause. Update | 8:49 p.m. Katharine Q. Seelye He may be walking the introductions essays, wire, but he just dumped his “progressive friends.” The public option, he said, is “only a means” to the long-sought end of ending insurance company abuses. “And we should remain open to other ideas that accomplish our ultimate goal.”

Dimes and the Deficit | 8:45 p.m. Fiscal conservatives join with Democrats in jumping to their feet and chico master, applauding when Mr. Obama promises his plan won’t add a dime to the deficit. The camera focuses in essay about value of trees closely on Senator Olympia Snowe, Republican from Maine, who is considered a critical vote for Democrats on chico university master thesis archieves, this issue but also often raises the financial ledger in discussing how to pay for initiatives. On Those Death Panels | 8:43 p.m. David Herszenhorn “It is a lie, plain and simple,” Mr. Obama says about the charge that health care legislation would create “death panels” to counsel the elderly to the 95 theses were, forgo care near the end of their lives. But almost as shocking as that false allegation is university thesis archieves that Mr. Obama is still fighting it weeks after major media outlets reported that it had no basis. Mr.

Obama says he doesn’t want to put private insurance companies out of business. “I just want to hold them accountable,” he said, as be begins a careful tight-rope on the issue of creating a government-run health care plan, a so-called public option. What’s clear from the speech is that Mr. Obama is value willing to state archieves, settle for a public option on a so-called “trigger” that is, a public plan would kick in only if the health care legislation fails to provide affordable insurance for a sufficient number of Americans. Liberals will likely be disappointed. Republicans will probably not be appeased. It’s a walk on college, a wire, but he seems to be keeping his balance. A Shout Out to a Rival | 8:41 p.m. David M. Herszenhorn A seemingly genuine smile and state university master archieves, applause from weight, his old opponent, John McCain, as Mr. Obama says low-cost insurance should quickly be made available to hose who need it, even before the major provisions of any overhaul take effect in four to five years.

Update | 8:38 p.m. Katharine Q. Chico State Master Thesis. Seelye Republicans may be applauding, some, at the big clarion calls. Thesis Weight. But elsewhere, they are more critical. The Republican National Committee, for example, notes that Mr. State Thesis Archieves. Obama has said that “the health care problem is the essay, deficit problem,” and adds: “Too bad his government-run health care experiment will just make it worse.”

Just a Few Details Left | 8:31 p.m. Light chuckles erupt in the audience as the president suggests, grinning, that there are just a few details left to be ironed out in his plan. Update | 8:31 p.m. Chico University Thesis Archieves. David Herszenhorn “That’s what Americans can expect from this plan, more security and more stability.” Security and the 95 theses, stability seem to chico state university master, be a refrain in this speech, reflecting a keen awareness on the part of the White House that Americans feel deeply uncertain about the prospects of sweeping health care legislation. But Mr.

Obama still faces the challenge of presenting enough detail to reassure folks who already have insurance and worry they have more to essays, lose than to gain from state thesis, any changes. Stop the Shouting | 8:28 p.m. Introductions. David Herszenhorn “The time for master bickering is over,” Mr. Obama declared. And there was notable applause from Senator Susan Collins, Republican of Maine, and Judd Gregg, Republican of aristotle prime, New Hampshire, two of the most earnest members of the state master archieves, Senate who disdain bickering but neither has expressed support for the Democratic proposals on health care. Something for the G.O.P. | 8:27 p.m. David Herszenhorn But now the Repblicans are standing, even John Boehner, the House Republican leader, applauding Mr. Obama’s assertion that it’s better to build on the existing system than start from scratch. Up and Clapping | 8:26 p.m. Katharine Q. Seelye Who needs Pilates if you’re a Democrat and in the House tonight?

The members of the 95 were, President Obama’s party are getting plenty of exercise, standing up and applauding at numerous lines of his speech. Chico State University Archieves. Alas, the Republicans, who have been fairly stationary so far, may need a trip to the gym. First, the Insured | 8:23 p.m. David Herszenhorn Mr. Obama is making his initial pitch to the 180 million Americans who currently have health insurance — stressing the risks to every American that they could lose their coverage if they lose or change their jobs, or for any number of technical reasons. Many of these Americans are among those showing up in aristotle prime mover polls who don’t really understand what’s in state thesis the bill for them, or “what’s in this for for cover me?” as Mr. Obama asked in an earlier speech. And now we are starting to hear the bitter pill: Americans pay more for state university master archieves health care than people in any other country but get worse results.

Those facts are indisputable. But another problem is that even if health care legislation is adopted, Americans will still likely pay for more health care than people in any other developed country. A Little History | 8:20 p.m. The president has just given the requisite nod to printing paper weight, Representative John Dingell of state university thesis, Michigan, the most senior member of the House, and a champion of a health care overhaul. His father began introducing bills for overarching health care decades ago, and Mr. Dingell continues to theses were, do so, the president notes. It’s the master archieves, Economy First | 8:18 p.m.

David Herszenhorn Mr. Obama’s opening comments, about the essays, improvements in the economy — “we have pulled this economy back from the brink” — are not just a bit of self-praise for his administration and Congressional Democrats but rather a pointed reminder that not a single House Republican voted for his economic stimulus package. And so his opening would seem to be a warning to Republicans who so far have opposed his health care proposals. President Obama Enters | 8:12 p.m. Master. Katharine Q. Seelye The sergeant-at-arms announces his arrival into the House chamber: “The president of the United States.” Mr. Obama enters the chamber at 8:11, along with Senator Mitch McConnell, the Republican leader, grinning rather uncomfortably behind him. And not quite glad-handing his colleagues the way Mr. Obama is. Senator Harry Reid, the Democratic leader, also looks rather unanimated. Mr. Obama has an value, embrace — and kiss — for Mrs.

Clinton. He whispers in chico state university thesis archieves her ear and programming research, they share a laugh. His introductory applause as he walked the aisle and reached the podium lasted a full five minutes. The Cabinet Arrives | 8:04 p.m. Katharine Q. State Master Archieves. Seelye Members of the Cabinet, including Secretary of prime mover, State Hillary Rodham Clinton, have arrived and are making their way down the aisle. It is interesting to see Secretary of state university master, State Hillary Clinton, in a fire-engine red suit. She was so associated with health care for so long — not exactly to essays college, her advantage — but has been totally absent from the current debate. Is anyone else wondering whether she has talked with President Obama about health care? Lately?

It was one of the few policy areas that the two disagreed on chico thesis, during the Democratic primaries. And speaking of about of trees, her husband, former President Bill Clinton, he too gave a joint speech to Congress about master archieves health care in 1993. At our sib-blog, Economix, Catherine Rampell looked at sections of Mr. Clinton’s address that might serve Mr. Thesis Printing Paper Weight. Obama well 16 years later. Prebuttal Flies Around | 8:03 p.m. Chico State Thesis Archieves. Katharine Q. Seelye The level of rebuttal and pre-buttal flying around the Web is about rather dizzying tonight. It reflects how high the stakes are.

And it reflects just how many moving parts there are to chico state university thesis archieves, a big national debate. And, of course, it reflects the sophistication on both sides of the spin machines, honed during recent presidential campaigns. But here is an “oh, really?” moment. Value Of Trees. On MSNBC, Senator Dick Durbin, Democrat of Illinois, was asked if he explained to his junior colleague, Barack Obama, that “the politics of governing are about a thousand times more complicated than the politics of campaigning?” Mr. Chico State Archieves. Durbin replied: “Well, we did sit down and talk. Theses. And believe me, his experience in the Illinois State Senate prepared him for the rough and tumble of Congress on Capitol Hill.” The Kennedy Clan | 7:53 p.m. David Herszenhorn The president’s speech hasn’t even started but a sub-theme of his talk is already clear: do it for Teddy. Senator Edward M. Kennedy, the Massachusetts Democrat who died of brain cancer last month, was a strong advocate for overhauling the health care system.

And Mr. Kennedy’s family will be at chico state university master archieves the Capitol tonight in a strong showing of support for Mr. Obama. Mr. Programming Research Paper. Kennedy’s widow, Victoria Reggie Kennedy will be sitting with the first lady, Michelle Obama. Chico Thesis Archieves. And Mr. Kennedy’s children will be special guests of the House speaker, Nancy Pelosi. One son, Representative Patrick Kennedy, a Rhode Island Democrat, would be in the chamber anyway. Ted Kennedy, Jr. will be in the speaker’s box along with his sister, Kara Kennedy, and two. of Senator Kennedy’s grandchildren, Grace Kennedy Allen, 14, and Max Greathouse Allen, 12.

Mr. Obama is introductions college almost certain to pay tribute to Senator Kennedy in his speech. And with so many family members in chico university thesis archieves the audience the message is clear: health care is a legacy issue for. Mr. Kennedy, the former chairman of the Senate health committee.

Congress Mills About | 7:48 p.m. David Herszenhorn The Senate, led by Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. is arriving now in the House chamber. Mitch McConnell, the Republican leader, seems unusually chipper. Max Baucus, the chairman of the Finance Committee and a leading architect of the aristotle mover, health care legislation is smiling tightly and shaking hands. (Here’s what Mr. Baucus had to say earlier today.)

Readers Seek Answers | 7:45 p.m. Katharine Q. Seelye We asked our readers yesterday to chico state university master thesis, tell us what they would like to hear President Obama say tonight. The main thing is, they want him to be very specific about what he wants. In that, they are no different from members of Congress, especially Democrats who are trying to defend his goals. From the excerpts of aristotle mover essay, Mr. Obama’s speech released so far, he is offering some specifics but they are not markedly different from what he has said before. Here’s what one reader wrote: “It’s not good enough to say that there will be no rationing when funding is getting cut by hundreds of billions. It’s not believable if he says that we will pay for the healthcare for 47 million people (at $10k/person, i/e. $470 billion/year x 10 years =$4.7 trillion) – and that this will be paid for by finding ‘efficiency’.

Bah.” At the chico state thesis archieves, same time, some readers are fed up with numbers: “Keep it simple,” one advised. “If he starts pulling all kinds of numbers out of the printing paper, air I’m going to be pulling my hair out.” Clearly, President Obama is facing a tough audience tonight. There are a couple of other common threads running through the state university thesis archieves, comments. Introductions Essays. Many readers want to hear him support a public option, which seems unlikely. Some think he should extend Medicare, which also seems unlikely.

“President Obama should adhere to his moral pronouncements and chico state university master thesis, do the right thing: a public option for competition and universal coverage as a RIGHT, not a privilege, for those who can’t afford the premiums that insurers impose,” another reader wrote. Readers also like the introductions essays, idea of overhauling the malpractice insurance situation, an issue that has been raised repeatedly at the town-hall-style meetings. “Wherever I go, even avowed Democrats do not favor the current reform package,” wrote one reader. Thesis. “They want to see tort reform, more competition from the the 95, insurers themselves and less government.” In a preview from the Capitol, David Herszenhorn offers us the leadup to tonight’s speech on university, health care reform: Even before a few snippets of President Obama’s big speech on health care were released by the White House on Wednesday evening, many lawmakers and staff members on thesis paper weight, Capitol Hill were in full battle mode. Senator Charles E. Grassley of Iowa, the senior Republican on the Finance Committee and a lead negotiator on the health care legislation, issued a statement urging Mr. Obama to use his speech to promise that he will not pursue a government-run health insurance plan.

“To start building the university master, kind of legislation that could win the introductions essays college, support of 70 to 80 senators, the President needs to state university master archieves, demonstrate that he’ll fight, through the end, for a proposal that reaches common goals without creating government health care.” Mr. Grassley also used his pre-speech statement to level blistering criticism at the versions of health care legislation approved by thesis printing paper weight, the Senate health committee, and by three committees in the House of Representatives. Democrats, meanwhile, sharpened their daggers and took aim at Representative Charles Boustany of Louisiana, a former cardiac surgeon who was tapped to give the Republican response to Mr. Obama’s speech. The Democrats circulated copies of state archieves, a video in which Mr. Boustany seemed to support the so-called “birthers,” whose claims about the legitimacy of Mr. Obama’s Hawaiian birth certificate have been largely discredited. Democrats also pointed to malpractice suits brought against Mr. Introductions Essays. Boustany during his medical career (few doctors are not sued), and chico university archieves, distributed excerpts of interviews in which he seemed to make comments critical of Republicans on thesis weight, the health care issue. In terms of defining the camps, some Congressional Democrats and White House officials have expressed hope that retiring Republican lawmakers might be more likely to state master thesis archieves, sign on computer research, to compromise health care legislation.

But one of those departing Republicans, Senator George V. State University Archieves. Voinovich of Ohio, lashed out thesis weight even before Mr. Obama had said a word: “To date, many of his ideas have lacked vital details and have left me with more questions than answers. I am pleased that he has pledged to state university thesis archieves, clear up the ‘ambiguity’ tonight, and I hope my questions will finally be addressed.” Mr. Voinovich also complained that Mr. Obama, in his public remarks on health care, rarely if ever mentions medical malpractice lawsuits as a factor in the nation’s high health care costs – a criticism echoed by many other Republicans. The 95 Were. Details of the president’s plans were not revealed in early excerpts released by the White House, but the advanced text indicates that he will try to appeal to those who have differed — sometimes vehemently — with him: “Well, the time for bickering is over.

The time for games has passed. Now is the chico state master archieves, season for action. Now is when we must bring the introductions college, best ideas of both parties together, and show the American people that we can still do what we were sent here to university master, do. Computer Paper. Now is the time to deliver on health care. The excerpts also included a warning to some of the president’s opponents: “Know this. Master Thesis. I will not waste time with those who have made the programming research paper, calculation that it’s better politics to kill this plan than improve it. I will not stand by while the state university archieves, special interests use the same old tactics to keep things exactly the way they are. If you misrepresent what’s in the plan, we will call you out.

And I will not accept the status quo as a solution. Not this time. Not now.” In the proper for cover, Capitol, the House chamber is ready. University Master. Security has been extra tight all day. Programming Research Paper. And there will be special guests, including Victoria Reggie Kennedy, the widow of Senator Edward M. Kennedy, sitting in the box with the first lady, Michelle Obama. One of our White House correspondents, Sheryl Stolberg, listed others — some of whom are ordinary citizens with health stories to tell — who will be seated with her tonight.

Mr. Obama has declared health care to be his top domestic priority, which arguably makes this the most important speech since his inaugural address. Colleague Katharine Q. Seelye looked at chico university master archieves other presidents and how they’ve used joint addresses during times of programming research paper, crises, and some not. In this speech, every phrase will be analyzed, every word scrutinized and the tenor of every rhetorical point weighed carefully. (Minute by minute actually, with not only journalists but even the Cato Institute and the Republican National Committee live blogging the speech, and with Democrats offering rapid response.) The question, of course, is can Mr. Obama make the big sell, not just to Congress but to the American public. State University Thesis. Stay tuned. Comments are no longer being accepted.

Can we really believe anything a man says who’s credentials are NOT in order? “…whose claims about the aristotle mover essay, legitimacy of Mr. Obama’s Hawaiian birth certificate have been largely discredited.” LARGELY? how about totally? is the times actually endorsing the birthers? come on, now. Master Archieves. when will the mainstream media start acting like journalists? The president will talk for about 45 minutes. He’ll try to bore his audience away. Why? What will he save till last? I will not be characterized as some sort of radical for opposing this health care plan.

I happen to sincerely believe the theses were, government should not force anybody to thesis archieves, buy insurance they can’t afford. I sincerely believe the government should not promise subsidies it doesn’t have the money to deliver. Programming Paper. I sincerely believe that the plan should not encourage employers to chico state archieves, check if workers have insurance from their spouse in making hiring and lay-off decisions. All those things are in the 95 were the plan, Mr. President. I challenge anybody to state university master, prove those are misrepresentations. Essay About Value Of Trees. I challenge anybody to prove this plan is better than the status quo. This is not about your political future, President Obama. You are making decisions that adversely affect my life, and I never got a seat at the table. Obama desperately needs something that cuts through the lies and exaggerations while at the same time making reform important even to those who think they’re happy with their current situation.

It will not be easy… Does Grassley really think that anyone believes that _any_ health reform bill proposed by any group of master, Democrats could garner the support of “70 or 80? Senators? Please – how ignorant does he believe us to be? If even two Republicans sign onto any health reform bill to the 95 theses were, come from the Democrats, I’ll be amazed. The Republicans aren’t out to do what’s best for the country, but are only seeking to obstruct the Democrats, with an university master thesis, eye towards 2010. The obstructionists have had their say. Let’s listen first. Programming Paper. Speak second.

This is master all about Obama not us. He’s great at prime reading from a teleprompter. State Thesis. Listen to what the essay, people want. re B.Mull “This is not about your political future, President Obama. You are making decisions that adversely affect my life, and I never got a seat at the table.” You did get a seat at the table, it was called the 2008 presidential election and chico university thesis, you lost. The average Malpractice insurance premium for computer programming research an OBGYN.

is about $200,000. Will Obama take on state thesis, the trial lawyers and propose tort reform and risk alienating these big democrat donors? That would be a big boost for his chances to get something passed in Congress. There is nothing in the 1000 page democrat house bills that even make mention of it. Prime Mover. There is much money to state university, be saved in tort reform. No honorable person can oppose health care reform in America! It appears that Obama must be using Bill Clinton’s wristwatch.

10 minutes is a lot of lost ad revenue for the networks and cable outlets. If Obama demands a government option, Heathcare in research 2009 is state archieves DOA. “I happen to sincerely believe the proper for cover letters, government should not force anybody to buy insurance they can’t afford” (B. Mull, writing at 8:01 pm). The government requires people to state thesis, buy insurance in order to prime essay, legally drive a car. Do you have a problem with that?

Sounds like everyone – Democrats and Republicans — will be disappointed in Mr. Obama’s speech this evening. Here we go with the same old, same old. I wonder what his teleprompter will tell him to say tonight. Obama is as much to blame as anyone for the scare tactics.

He was unprepared to university thesis archieves, discuss the proposals at the town hall meetings, providing only proper for cover letters anecdotes and misinformation about doctors’ care and their fees. Tonight, he needs to give facts regarding the hard costs of this plan to citizens. We cannot afford to permit the chico state university master, deficit to soar any higher. He won’t. but he should explain why he wanted to rush a health-care bill plan through before the August recess and why he waited until now to spell out his preferences. He also should let all know that any legislation will not be in effect until 2013–after the proper form for cover, next presidential election. That must be accidental, right? I hope Obama can finally explain what he wants in heathcare reform after delegating the entire process to congress and special interests. Yawn.

I’ll be watching since I’m a political junkie, but the larger electorate has made up its mind (R’s #038; D’s), or is still confused as to what the university thesis archieves, President really wants (Indy’s). This speech should have been given months ago. Too little, too late. Severe malpractice award limitations will create a moral hazard in the health care industry. Those of you concerned about research quality health care need to think through your political puppetry. Starts by establish credibility by implying economic stimulus has helped stop the recession. Politicians have had nothing to do with the recent bull market. Indeed, they’ve made things worse.

Repubs sit on the first applause line. I believe that health care should be very limited and provide for the basic needs only. State University. I believe it should be provided to all children untill they reach 18. Claims crisis. There is no crisis.

Only 5 million to 10 million citizens are uninsured and can’t afford basic health insurance or aren’t covered by government programs. We’re the only country in the world that hasn’t made the mistake of turning health insurance and for cover, health care over to politicians. Rising health insurance premiums are as unsustainable as rising housing costs proved to be. University. Insurance carriers are as merciless as our Financial #038; Investment Sector. Prescriptions tracked news in the health care industry, including coverage of patients, insurers, medical professionals and drug-makers. Coverage of these and related issues continues in the Business and theses, Health sections, as well as on the Well blog. The Times is discontinuing the Prescriptions blog.Readmore… Drug Costs Pose Smaller Financial Burden Amid Generic Boom. Americans are using more prescription drugs, but the chico master thesis, financial burden of those drugs on families is falling, according to computer programming research paper, a new study.

A big reason is the rise of generics.Readmore… Drug Makers Dial Down TV Advertising. Pharmaceutical companies have cut spending on television advertising by 20 percent over the last five years, according to a Nielsen study. Analysts expect drug advertising to chico thesis, continue to fall as more brand-name drugs face generic competition.Readmore… F.D.A. Approves Drug for an Advanced Skin Cancer. The drug, Erivedge, made by Genentech, was approved for thesis adults with basal cell carcinoma that has spread elsewhere in state master thesis the body or those who are not candidates for surgery or radiation.

Readmore… Despite Generic Rivals, Branded Drugs Still Sell Well. Drug companies are finding lucrative foreign markets for their brand-name drugs after patents expire in the 95 theses were the United States and unleash generic competition. Readmore…

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? Brent Healey COMM 400 21 June, 2014 UMUC Blackhorse v. Pro Football Inc. “Go Skins!” An 82 year old cheer never to be . University Master Archieves. heard again on the gridiron In Blackhorse v. Pro Football Inc., the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board of the essay, US Patent and Trademark Office invalidated the university thesis archieves, trademark of the programming research, Washington Redskins. Filing in 2006, five plaintiffs, all Native Americans, have finally won a historic trademark cancellation case against one of the National Football League’s (NFL) oldest. American football , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1793 Words | 6 Pages. The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of . professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. The statements below provide ideas on state master archieves how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals.

1. They provide you with an opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in the . Prime Mover. future. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and chico university thesis, how we can create a healthier and safer world for our future. The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. Programming Research Paper. The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to state master thesis become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages.

346). In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . Printing Paper. America. University Thesis. He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the language to be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of bilingual speakers in an “English Only” education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 2. . 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE adversely 3. aggregate ['?dv?:sli] ['?grigit] adversity (n) aggregate (v) [?'b?nd?n] adverse (a) aggregate (n) 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 1. 4. abandon cultivation 5. fertilize 6. intensify [,k?lti'vei?n] ['f?:tilaiz] . Aristotle Mover. New York City Subway , Trigraph 4772 Words | 23 Pages. Chico State Archieves. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an NCO by prime mover, SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by state thesis archieves, a series of events I didn’t agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to proper voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of respect and chico university thesis, a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. used. Introductions Essays. 2. University Master Archieves. Do you agree that “what a word means today is thesis printing, what it meant in chico state university master thesis the past?” Please explain what etymology???can help with today’s . meaning of a word . I don’t agree because language would change gradually as the programming, time went by.

It would cause semantic and meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the working of the chico, human mind, but it doesn’t help in determining what a word means today. 3. What is language. Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the puts the computer research paper, art in heart, the chico state university master thesis archieves, word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the about of trees, word came from chico state university 1497 from a time when chivalry was the key to love. In this time, the word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to essay of trees romance someone is to “put your moves on archieves them” to dazzle someone with your personality.

English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said “Let the states of equilibrium and Harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order . will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.” Harmony is printing paper, defined as the state master archieves, state of being in agreement or concord. Singapore is essays, a bustling metropolis and a multi-racial society, where people of different ethnic groups co-exist and lived harmoniously. Singapore has thrived rapidly because of our openness to international trade. Ethnic group , Race 916 Words | 4 Pages. and pp. 292-305 in Chapter 12, “Exploring the Diversity of Individuality”. 2. State Master Thesis. Write a 350 -500 word essay about . your Quality World.

Give your work an original title. Use Microsoft Word to type your work using 12pt font and double space (have your name/class at the top). Place it in form for cover our unit 1 assignment box in ecampus. This also NEEDS TO go in chico your ABOUT ME folder of your eportfolio! In your essay , be sure to answer the following questions: • What does your “quality world”, or “vision. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages. How to Add 300 Words to Your Essay in aristotle prime mover 15 Minutes. How to chico thesis archieves Add 300 Words to Your Essay in aristotle prime mover essay 15 Minutes Here’s the problem: you’ve typed a page or so, which amounts to about 250 . words or thereabouts. And now you’re staring at the blank piece of paper, thinking the following thoughts: • • • Why do I have to write this stupid essay ? ! I’m not even a Writing major – why do I have to do this? Why can’t the chico state university thesis archieves, word requirement be one page? What, there’s not enough out there in the world for my professor to read? • When am I ever going to finish this?

Hey. 2000s American television series , Caroline Botelho , Essay 1761 Words | 6 Pages. 1800 Word Essay on Responsibility. life. We must have a positive attitude, and computer, stick to our values and archieves, take responsibility for paper, whatever we may do. We have the opportunity to make our own . choices. Master Archieves. It is prime mover, important to make a choice that we feel is the best for our self. We tend to make excuses for our behaviors, which is the worst approach one can take.

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The common curse words , some starting with S’s and. Chico University Master Archieves. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. This assignment could bring you a maximum of form for cover letters three points from the state master thesis archieves, seminar grade (see the file “Seminar grade”). Choose one of the essay about of trees, following debate issues . and discuss it in one page (300- 350 words ). You can also discuss another issue, but similar with these ones (a specific issue in the field of business ethics). For instance, you can find other cases on or (you can use the search engine on chico state master thesis archieves this blog.

Employment , Ethics , Morality 2555 Words | 7 Pages. Grammatical Conjunction and Homework. writing will be administered Homework : Preview Chapter 1 T Chapter 1: Gathering Ideas for Writing In-class Activity: Surveying Student . Attitudes about programming Writing Homework : Read from “The Diary of Latoya Hunter” and do Activity 1 (Journaling Assignment #1) W Chapter 2: Recognizing the Elements of Good Writing In-class Activities 1, 2, and 3 Homework : Activities 4 and 5 R Chapter 2: (continued) Voice, Unity, and Coherence In-class Activities 4, 5, 6, 7 Homework : Read Working Together for Chapter. Chapters , Essay , Grammatical conjunction 872 Words | 4 Pages. ? Demand on No Homework Homework one of life’s struggles for students from the starting of state archieves school until the were, day they graduate. . It makes kids hate learning since they know they have to do homework once they get home. Pressure is just one of the things that lead to stress in students because of chico master homework and the need to stay awake all night to finish their homework . In order to get people to the 95 theses were help abolish homework one should look to state thesis the reasons why homework should not be assigned such as it would. Anxiety , Education , Homework help service 1053 Words | 3 Pages. Printing. The essays asked for Harvard admissions this year are epitome of ‘eloquence in brevity’. They are simple and beautiful– tell us something you . Chico State Master Archieves. did well and something you could have done better. I can’t tell you how much I love this way of programming asking questions Well…Moving on to the analysis Harvard Essay 1. State University Master Thesis Archieves. Tell us about something you did well. ( 400 words ) In other words – one most substantial achievement (please read carefully – it’s something not things) Challenges – many 1. What is an achievement. Business , Business school , Education 1191 Words | 4 Pages.

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A reason why homework takes up too much time is proper, you go to bed too . late. You are up late if you have a lot of homework you are up late. If you go to bed at an unreasonable hour then the next day will be hard. I think that children go to bed too late because of chico university master homework and that makes them not do the best in school. People also get frustrated in school because they are so tired. The last reason I think homework takes up too much time is. Coursework , Education , Homework 871 Words | 3 Pages. Of Mice And Men Essay Of mice and men essay State of California. Theses. essay writers salt lake city research paper . writing chattanooga buy college ruled paper. Of mice and men essay Metis-sur-Mer of mice and men essay Columbus, Leicestershire, Palmdale, Bakersfield of mice and chico state university, men essay san antonio write essay for me, of thesis paper mice and men essay Alexandria uploading essay to common app, Chester of mice and men essay Norfolk geometry and algebra 1 formula sheet Of mice and men essay State of chico master archieves Rhode Island and.

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There are always . quite a few assignments to write and as the years of education increases, the thesis printing paper weight, assignments are needed to be in chico state university more standardized and complicated requirements. Introductions College. Essays are no longer written in chico state single sentences, paragraphs, or short summaries about prime mover essay yourself, or something interesting, in my point of view. It will always be about an article or something to be researched. Chico State University Master Thesis. Article , Essay , Essays 891 Words | 3 Pages. on proper for cover the creative arts as much as academics in order to keep creative ideas flowing in our society. The points he offers in his speech, about childhood and . losing site of our creativity by chico state university thesis, educating it out, is computer, why I chose his talk to write this essay . His reasoning hits home for state, me because I currently have four children in different stages of the education system. It is clear to see that the education system falls short in introductions challenging the chico state master archieves, creativity of our future society after a few years in the. CBC Radio One , Creativity , Education 765 Words | 5 Pages. limit, and applicants and counselors frequently debated whether a tight 450- word essay was a wiser approach than a detailed . 900- word piece. Essays College. In 2011, that decision was taken away as the Common Application moved to a relatively short 500- word limit.

With the August 2013 release of CA4 (the newest version of the Common Application), the guidelines have changed once again. CA4 sets the limit at 650 words (and a minimum of 250 words ). And unlike earlier versions of the Common Application, the length limit. State Master. Cash flow , College admissions in the United States , College application 736 Words | 4 Pages. Introductions. |grow. | |Religion |Polytheistic |Monotheistic |Monotheistic . |Monotheistic |Polytheistic | Write a 350 - word essay in which you examine one of the following topics about how the groups clashed: • Pilgrims and Native Americans in Massachusetts • The kidnapping of colonists by chico, Native Americans • Pequot War • Jamestown’s relationships with Native Americans . King Philip's War , Massachusetts , Massachusetts Bay Colony 641 Words | 3 Pages. Kerrigan Lebloch., 2014) I learnt how communication is linked to some of the domains in essay about the professional capabilities framework (PCF) this domain . highlighted how communication is essential to master thesis social work professional practice when we were given an essay in professionalism at theses the beginning of the chico thesis, module. The link are domain 1, 2, 3,4,5,7 and for cover letters, 8. 1. Chico State University Thesis. Professionalism: this domain identify and value of trees, tell us to behave as a professional social worker, this mean I will need to make use of my skills as part of state university my. Communication , Nonverbal communication , Paralanguage 2125 Words | 6 Pages. Running head: Module 1 Homework Assignment Author Note This paper was prepared for ENG 160: English Composition I, . Module 1 Homework Essay Writing: Part 1 Prompt: Write a descriptive essay about were a specific place that you know well and have observed.

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| ___E__ | ___O__ | Chapter 1 P1-3 (a) ECKERSLEY SERVICE CO. Income Statement For the Month Ended June 30, 2010 Revenues Revenue $7,000 Expenses . Wage expense $1,400 Supplies expense 1,000 Gas and oil expense 600 Advertising expense 400 Utilities expense 300 Total expenses 3,700 Net income $3,300 ECKERSLEY SERVICE CO. Retained Earnings Statement For the Month Ended June 30, 2010 Retained earnings, June 1 $ 0 Add: Net income 3,300 3,300 Less: Dividends. Accounts payable , Accounts receivable , Balance sheet 260 Words | 3 Pages. Students should get more homework. Persuasive writing. Children Should Get More Homework Homework . Many students dislike it and try to avoid it, but teaching and learning indicates . Chico State University Master. that children who spend more time on meaningful homework do better in college school, and state master thesis archieves, that the educational benefits of homework increase as children move into upper grades. Proper Letters. Why is homework so important? Well, it helps students to understand and review the work that has been covered in class and also to see whether students have understood the lesson. Homework is master archieves, also a link between.

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combat camera resume Militarized, Folding All/Extreme Terrain Mountain and Electrical Bikes (F-ATBs, F-MTBs, eMTBs) COMBAT REPORT: IRAQ. BASRA, IRAQ: A British Soldier on patrol speaks to an Iraqi boy in chico state university master thesis archieves, the southern city of Basra, 500 kms south of Baghdad 06 January 2005. It is mainly British forces that patrol this city. U.S. ARMY TESTING OPERATIONAL USE IN AFGHANISTAN/IRAQ. MONTAGUE MILITARY BIKE R D. PARATROOPER 2000 on prime, All Terrain Bike (ATB): the future of university thesis war is AIRBORNE, not seaborne. All men dream: but not equally. Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to find that it was vanity: but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act out their dream with open eyes, to proper for cover letters make it possible.

--Lawrence of Arabia, Seven Pillars of Wisdom. THE AIRBORNE LIGHT BICYCLE INFANTRY (LBI) CONCEPT. The world moves by the speed of the air, not a slow boat to China . America is a strategic AIR POWER as England was once the ruling sea power. Chico University Master Archieves? U.S. Airborne forces must be able to aristotle prime mover rapidly converge on the enemy's most critical center of gravity by AIR power in order to state thesis gain strategic and operational surprise; as proven in Grenada, Panama and Haiti. Air POWER is not to be confused with air STRIKES as is vogue in the USAF. Our loss of Pristina airport to the Russian Airborne in a permissive motor march in Kosovo is a perfect example of the weakness of having to programming research paper wait for marine peacekeepers driving long distances overland (from Greece. Chico Thesis? ) to inland areas better reached by air-delivered forces.

This means AIRBORNE forces must move within HOURS not days, weeks, months by ship, and arrive with greater mobility than a foot-slog. These forces conduct AIRBORNE WARFARE not just logistics base seizure; they do not have to seize and hold WWII-style. Aristotle Mover? The days of piling supplies on the beach for an enemy to chico university archieves cream a bloated marine force are over; the Russians know this, we do not--as we insist on wasting BILLIONS on land-locked, slow-to-deploy, sea-based gyrene units that once ashore foot-slog and truck-hop into enemy land mines. The way to create a fully mobile U.S. Airborne/Air Assault Air-Mech-Strike Force is by creating LTC Richard Liebert's Dragoon units: heavily armed mounted Soldiers who use All-Terrain Vehicles like diesel-powered armed Para-Gators now used by the XVIII Airborne Corps and printing, folding bikes and carts backed by chico state university thesis, light TRACKED Armored Fighting Vehicles. Dragoon Light Bicycle Infantry (LBI) can use air-droppable folding ATBs and Extreme Terrain Bikes (ETBs) with 10-inch wide tires to traverse over sand/snow. seizing assault objectives and programming, road block mobility corridor security positions immediately after forced-entry. The maneuver of chico state thesis archieves LBI units would be supported by Dragoons in ATVs firing heavy-caliber machine guns, grenade launchers, rockets and recoilless rifles.

Expanding the Recon Security zone after an introductions college airhead is taken, Dragoon LBI units can act as the mobile reserve of the Airborne Task Force commander and be used for state university archieves, reconnaissance and raids far beyond what men on foot can travel. The Airborne's battle space tied in with digital communications means extends beyond enemy artillery and rocket weapons ranges and secures the foothold for offensive operations to college collapse the enemy before he can react. Hanebrink Extreme Terrain Bike (ETB) A/ETBs can be jumped over the rear ramp or side jump doors of high-performance aircraft like the Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules and Alenia C-27J Spartan and even through the super-large side jump doors of the C-17 Globemaster III . (Images-negatives owned by 1 st TSG (A) donated to the U.S. Army; re: Infantry magazine, January-February, 1995) ITSG Begins Military Bicycle Development in 1988. Our early 1992 parachute test of the folding bike was not conclusive due to the exposed condition of the bike for the jump, though we found out state master thesis, later this was successfully done by the British Airborne in the 95, WWII combat (see below). However, it proved the ease which parachute delivery can be used to deliver ATBs. Later RD led to the padded airdrop bag for folded ATBs to university master archieves be jumped with common Airborne combat equipment attached to ready-for combat individual Paratroopers as lowering line loads as depicted above or Container Delivery System (CDS) bundles to be recovered later (see below) as the 1 st Tactical Studies Group (AIRBORNE) Paratroopers did for the OPERATION DARK CLAW demonstration, February 11, 1993 at Laurinberg-Maxton airfield (Home of the U.S. Computer Programming Paper? Army Golden Knights ) near Fort Bragg, NC.

Squad Accompanying Loads are means that oversized items like A/ETBs and Javelin ATGMs can be delivered to state university thesis archieves Paratroopers. a piece of truck bed liner plastic as directional slide aids for door bundles to prevents bundles from getting stuck in the door when being pushed out. OPERATION DARK CLAW! C-212 STOL turbo prop aircraft. Folded ATB in airdrop bag. Non-folding ATB and Montague Folding ATB on ATAC as ramp drop bundle. Dark Claw team members rigged and ready to jump. Team Leader ready to form for cover jump combat equipment and ATB in airdrop bag. ATB bag rigged under chest reserve.

Folded ATB in bag with quick release straps. Paratrooper good exit from chico university archieves rear ramp with ATB bag. ATB in about value of trees, bag still connected to Paratrooper. ATB lowered on line prior to landing. Bag opened to recover ATB. Unfolding the ATB in under one minute. Paratrooper cycles at 10 - 25 mph across battlefield. The designer of the padded ATB airdrop bag, SF MSG Lee Cashwell (Retired) acted as the chico state university archieves, primary jumpmaster employing U.S. military jump procedures for the C-212. Grenadier/scout LT Jeffrey Schram and Combat Medical Specialist, SF 18D SSG Ernest Hoppe followed their non-folding AT bikes and ATAC on a palletized bundle (Kudos Rigger SGT Ken Potter) on the first pass to demonstrate this technique. On the form for cover letters, second C-212 pass, Team Leader, LT Michael Sparks jumped with the chico university, folded bike over the 95 theses, the rear ramp in its airdrop bag as a lowering line load. All 1 st TSG (A) members wore complete combat equipment, LBE, and state university master thesis, weapons in M1950 cases.

The entire operation captured on video by essays, freefall legend, USAF CCT Dave Lilico (Retired) from the air, and chico university master thesis, later on the ground. On the ground, Team Leader LT Sparks, though jumping later was able to derig, unfold and cycle back to his men who were still de-rigging their Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs). VIDEO: Operation DARK CLAW, Part 1: Insertion. From there, they moved as a unit to rescue a mock hostage from an enemy camp, briefed the SF Command Observers, then took the hostage mannequin on ATAC in tow 35+ miles under their own power back to Fort Bragg, NC. All done in under a few hours time. As way of comparison, according to Gerard Devlin's book Paratrooper! in October 1942, the 88 th Glider Infantry Regiment foot-marched the same distance to start glider training at Laurinberg field and it took them 2 DAYS to prime mover essay get there from Fort Bragg! The HPV-mobile 1 st TSG (A) team got to chico state university master thesis Fort Bragg later that afternoon after a 2pm departure. What's fascinating is that the 88 th GIR was the Army Airborne's Experimental unit and printing paper weight, they had bicycles so they could have went much faster!

History of the 88 th Airborne Battalion. The history of the 88 th Airborne Battalion, from its activation, to state archieves the time it was amalgamated as a regiment with the 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in France during World War II, is covered in an eclectic assortment of conventional official documents. Not recorded in them, or elsewhere, are its contributions and the impact these contributions have made to airborne warfare operations and doctrine, to military and commercial airlift operations, to military helicopter operations or to the progress of America, especially through the aircraft industry. At its activation as the 88 th Airborne Battalion on 10 October, 1942, it was intended to be an experimental organization that would introduce the air landing aspects of airborne warfare to America's military forces. Such warfare had been applied by the Germans against the Belgians early during World War II with devastating affect. Germany was able to thesis paper weight keep information about these operations from leaking out of Germany. This much the allies were able to glean through intelligence sources - a number of German Soldiers in large gliders had landed on the surface of Belgian's massive Fort Eben Emael on state master thesis, May 20, 1940. They subdued the essay about value, fort in less than one hour.

The loss of the fort created a gap in the Belgian defenses. Because of the shock of this loss, in only a matter of days, Belgium surrendered. This left France's northern flank defensless to the Wermacht 's panzers . Soon France fell and university thesis archieves, the debacle at Dunkerque followed. The 88 th battalion was organized as a hybrid tactical and introductions, experimental unit. It was lightly manned and chico university master, equipped and initially was limited to flying in Douglas DC-3's, the only transport airplane immediately available in those early years for carrying its equipment and available to essays test airborne techniques and doctrine. Motorcycle, bicycles , guns and equipment issued the (airborne) unit were intended to state university master thesis enable it to load in thesis paper, the airplanes, deplane quickly once landed, hit the enemy swiftly and hard and chico university master archieves, then hold until relieved. The unit was not constituted for sustained combat. This sort of activity divined by a War Department, promised great things for the future of airborne operations, but it did not foresee, nor did it have to aristotle mover cope with the myriad problems in putting such doctrine into reality. It left this to the 88 th to translate a concept into workable tactics, techniques, doctrine and procedures.

There was little, if any, experience available with respect to the loading of equipment into airplanes, and state thesis archieves, the problems such activities entailed. Nor did the 88 th get guidance from any source with such knowledge. What was achieved was achieved through dangerous, difficult, practical experience and the ingenuity and ability of the members of the 88 th to overcome the aristotle prime essay, problems that developed. From the beginning there were problems in chico state university thesis, securing guns, ammunition and were, equipment so that turbulence while in flight would not cause it to shift or become free. The 88 th learned to chico state thesis archieves use ropes to lash the cargo to tie down rings set into the floor of the airplanes.

When we encountered turbulence we had the harrowing experience of finding 90mm mortar ammunition floating around the interior of the plane we were riding in. Initially, we could only resecure it or hold it down the as best we could. Aristotle Prime Mover? The 88 th sent some men to Wright Patterson air base to chico university master thesis present the problem and paper, try to find solutions. One Mr. Baker offered a trucker's knot, the bowline, later dubbed the chico university thesis archieves, Baker bowline by his appreciative students. The bowline could not be untied quickly, slowing the unloading of theses equipment, so enterprising 88ers added the slippery half hitch, well known to boy scouts and truckers. Then we found that not just any rope would do for the task of securing equipment. Most of it stretched, permitting the equipment to loosen.

We opted for 5/8ths-inch Manila hemp, which was very durable and master thesis, stretched little. Pilots of the day had little interest in passengers or cargo of any kind. Their attention was directed to introductions essays college flying the glider. Archieves? The 88 th became concerned when pilots were reporting puzzling problems, especially in taking off, and in having to trim the airplanes unduly in paper, flight. University Master Thesis Archieves? What was amiss was that loads were changing the center of gravity of the airplanes, or were heavier than the load for which the aircraft was rated. We had received no cautionary advice from the pilots on how to about value distribute loads. With little help from the university thesis, Air Corps, the 88 th devised loading plans taking into consideration the introductions essays college, center of university master thesis gravity. It was customary to equip each military airplane and glider passenger with a parachute. This was OK for airplanes, but when it came to gliders Lieutenant Al Leonard, one of the primary contributors to airborne techniques, considered the expendability doctrine inherent in air transport combat operations and questioned the advisability of issuing parachutes to passengers in computer programming paper, gliders. Al reasoned that gliders normally were towed at about 300-500 feet altitude, too low to use parachutes if the occasion demanded.

Moreover, weight was always a problem. Chico State Master? If chutes could be dispensed with, equivalent weight in form, weapons and ammunition could be substituted. Al's argument carried the day, and university, glidermen ceased to printing paper wear parachutes, a condition that convinced paratroopers they never wanted to go into combat in a glider . Master Archieves? The air force later adopted the practice of not issuing parachutes to passengers in transport aircraft. [EDITOR: WRONG: not true. Value? Only of chico state thesis archieves late has the USAF wimped out and stopped using common sense.] To facilitate unit training for aristotle essay, the vital task of loading men and equipment into chico master gliders, the 88 th built the first full-scale glider mockup.

It became the prototype for large formations of mockups in training areas that were used for loading and lashing training of the 88 th and all airborne divisions. Programming Paper? As with the mockup, so it was with many other items of equipment and training. The 88 th made it all first, or made the suggestions and designs that led to the actual items. These ideas led to modifications of chico master thesis gliders and airplanes, and even to the design of new aircraft. A case in point is the essay of trees, successor of the CG-4A glider, the CG-15. The CG-4A was an chico state university archieves innovation amongst aircraft, and was the first of its kind in introductions essays, America. Chico State University Master Thesis? It had little testing, and no combat experience up to value of trees that time, and thus fell to state university master archieves Al Leonard and research paper, other members of the 88 th to suggest improvements that would have be desirable and necessary. These were passed up to the Airborne Command, then in charge of collecting and acting on such information, and they all found their way into the modified CG-4A, the CG-15. Shortly after take off, early production CG-4As dropped their wheels, and landed on skids that ran part of the university master thesis archieves, length of the fuselage. For the gliders to take off again, crews had a real chore to raise the glider and reinstall the wheels.

There were other difficulties that (d)evolved from the skids too numerous to mention here. Al Leonard cited them and suggested that landings be made on wheels. The Air Corps adopted his suggestion. Problems evaporated. Gliders suffered less landing damage, and changed from being expendable to recoverable. It should be understood that these gliders were largely designed by the Air Corps, with little knowledge of airborne unit requirements. Essay Value? This is state university thesis, where the 88 th played an important role. Elements of the 88 th tested the air transport capabilities of the XCG-13, the CG-15A, and the CG-19 as well as other glider and transport airplane prototypes and thesis, heavily influenced which modifications were made. The 88 th trained the glider infantry regiments, artillery, medical and other battalions and many of the parachute elements of the 82 nd , 101 st , 11 th , 17 th divisions in air transport operations. Chico State University Master Thesis? After the 88 th was absorbed by the 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in the 13 th Airborne Division, members of the former 88 th that were then in the 326 th also were selected to train the 84 th Infantry division for value, air transportably. From the 88 th evolved the information that was to become the basis of airborne operations, training and doctrine manuals.

The aircraft industry incorporated many of the university thesis archieves, experiences gained in the 88 th into the design of airplanes, especially those that were intended primarily as cargo carriers. Perhaps the best example in this trend was the the 95 theses, 66 passenger XCG-20, America's largest glider. It incorporated the best of the technology that the 88 th had devised and state master thesis archieves, contributed to were cargo airplane and state archieves, glider construction. It was to the 95 were become the C-123, which gradually evolved into a jet airplane from which the design of many of university archieves America's most advanced airplanes have borrowed many design features. Colonel, USA (Ret.) Colonel Mrazek commanded a battalion in the 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in the 13 th during World War II and computer research paper, towards the end of the master, war commanded the proper form for cover letters, regiment for several months.

He then took command of the 325 th Glider Infantry Regiment of the 82 nd Airborne Division for several months after it had returned to the United States. PKO. WW2 Mystery: U.S. Army Airborne USMC Paramarines' Pre-War Experiments with Break-Apart Columbia Compax Bicycles. The question is DID U.S. Army Paratroopers and/or Paramarines JUMP disassembled Columbia Compax bicycles? If so, HOW? We know the British jumped BSA folding bicycles uncovered in their hands which is very dangerous as its a snag risk to your parachute deployment. So far, all we have are these blow-ups from a poster hanging in a museum where a Columbia Compax is displayed. We wrote to the curator for help with better pics but so far this is all we have. As if we need yet more proof that ad hocery results in university master archieves, good ideas that could gain us a tactical advantage falling by the wayside; consider the proper, U.S. Chico Thesis Archieves? military's failure to exploit bicycles for military mobility advantages in introductions essays, WW2--and thereafter.

The U.S. Army lead the chico state thesis archieves, world in military bicycle use but then got fat and lazy and aristotle mover essay, disastrously road-bound with motorized trucks and forgot how to use them when it really counted in chico master, war. While the Germans were moving around entire rifle battalions by about of trees, bicycle to achieve decisive effects like repelling the British at Arnhem, at best we used bicycles tactically en masse only if they were captured. The point of this is that military bikes must be ORGANIC to U.S. military units so they are used aggressively in war practice so when the fear of life/death settles in thesis archieves, during a war their utility and usefulness to FAN OUT INFANTRY QUICKLY to get decisive kill/capture positions or to control ground to deny the enemy its use (prevent land mines from being laid) will be established and not be ignored . Johan Willaert from Belgium writes: Although the U.S. Army had used bicycles for many years before WW2, none were standardized for theses, procurement before 1942. The Army's official use for these bicycles was: To provide Transportation for Personnel engaged in Dispatch or Messenger Service . Of course they were used for many other purposes. They proved a fast and economical way to chico master thesis get around Depots, Camps and Airfields. The Bicycle, Military, Universal was adopted in October 1942 by essay about, the Ordnance Department.

It was a military version of the Westfield Columbia and was equipped with heavy duty rims and state university master archieves, spokes. Programming Research Paper? It came with a D-Cell powered headlight on the front fender and basic tools were carried in a toolbag attached to chico state master thesis the Persons saddle. A tire pump was clamped to the frame. These bikes were manufactured by both Westfield Columbia and Huffman with only minor differences in parts. Huffman fenders were rounded as opposed to gothic ones on the Columbia, chain guards varied and Huffman front sprockets had a unique whirlwind design. All parts were interchangeable . Early rubber pedal blocks were replaced with wooden ones later in the war. Early frames had a curved front tube but these were replaced with straight tubes on later models. Late in WW2 Columbia produced a Women's model. Folding Compax models were tested by [U.S. Thesis? Army] Airborne Troops and the U.S. Marine Corps but saw no action in Europe in chico, WW2.

Westfield Columbia MG138969 (± Late 1943) The Westfield Serial Number files do not contain any reference to specific Military contracts, so it's become very hard to determine how many bikes were manufactured and when. Huffman frames were dated, but there too there's no reference to aristotle mover how many were made. I am trying to state put together a database with Models and Serial Numbers and their location, so I invite you to the 95 post that info here with a picture of the state archieves, bike if possible. For more info and wartime images, feel free to visit the Bicycles pages of my site: Willaert's U.S. Military WW2 Bicycle Research Page. Tactical Bicycle Use in Hawaii shows some Custom Gear for essays college, Military Applications. U.S. University Thesis Archieves? Army Signal Corps Photo via Jerry Cleveland.

Members of the Intelligence Platoon, HQ Company, 34 th Infantry Regiment on introductions college, patrol in Hawaii. Rifles are carried in leather scabbards on the front forks . Note the Willys MA Jeep in the background. Another WW2 Bicycle Mystery: By Parachute or Glider? One of the few surviving Columbia's in master thesis archieves, Europe is displayed in the Airborne Museum of Sainte-Mre-Eglise, Normandy, France where it sits under the paper, wings of a C-47 aircraft. MG145375 was left behind during WW2 and ended up with a local farmer who used it well into the 1970's before donating it to the local museum where it underwent complete restoration. WATCH THE CLASSIC MOVIE, The Longest Day based on Cornelius Ryan's Book.

Click on the picture to view the 2-hour movie. PROOF! U.S. Airborne Glider-Airlanding Bicycle Use in Combat in WW2. Although many have claimed to see a Compax Paratrooper bicycle in the back of the Jeep on the right, the springer type front forks clearly indicate it is not a Columbia Compax. It actually is a Simplex Servicycle. There seems to be another Servicycle in the Jeep on the left where the passenger seat has been tilted forward to make room for the cycle's rear wheel. All vehicles belong to Service Company, 504 th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 82 nd Airborne Division and are being loaded into WACO Gliders for the Operation Market-Garden Airborne insertion into chico state master archieves Holland in September 1944. During WW2, Servicycles were used by the 95, Medical units of Airborne Divisions. Compare the front forks of the Servicycle above to the one shown below.

Father Sampson, Chaplain of the 501 st Parachute Infantry is shown on a Simplex Servicycle during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. Tricycle Resupply in Combat. Al Krochka Photo from Mark Bando's The 101 st AIRBORNE-From Holland to chico university thesis Hitler's Eagle's Nest. This image shows Technical Sergeant 5 Mendoza from B Company 326 th Airborne Engineer Battalion, 101 st Airborne Division using a captured/borrowed Dutch Tricycle to transport equipment to a Supply Dump in Veghel, Holland during Operation Market Garden in about, September 1944. The tricycle is loaded with two A4 Supply Bundles. Note the Parachute First Aid Packet tied to his M1 steel pot helmet. Bicycle Infantry: the Swiss Experience by Captain Kevin D. Stringer, U.S. State Thesis Archieves? Army Infantry magazine, September-October, 1994. NOTE: narrow-minded Stringer didn't realize that bikes can FOLD and be ATTACHED to armored personnel carriers for armored, mechanized maneuver to the area of operations where LBI would fan out for effect. Infantry magazine, November-December, 1994. Infantry magazine, January-February, 1995.

CopterBox, HeliBox, MaxiBox. An Air Force Loadmaster and three Australian Army Riggers deploy a helibox and a maxibox load from a C-130J Hercules as part of Exercise Pacific Airlift Rally in Thailand. Use CDS bundles to airdrop oversized items like A/ETBs and ATACs so heavy fire and forget missiles like Javelin ATGMs or AGTMs can be delivered to Paratroopers, who are then mobile to use them effectively. So the options are: 1. Jump the folded ATB in value of trees, airdrop bag attached to the Paratrooper; a. Rear ramp C-130s/C-27Js/CH-47s/CH-53s. b. Side jump doors of C-130s/C-27Js/C-17s. Obviously, jumping the ATB folded/attached to chico university thesis archieves the Paratrooper will require a major gut check of those involved, but the pay-off of computer programming research 10-25 mph mobility on the ground afterwards is definitely worth it. The rear ramp jump provides undisturbed air for a majority of the parachute opening sequence; so this using this exit technique should not be a major mental obstacle to overcome.

SOF routinely jumps TacSATs and loads almost as large routinely over the rear ramp of C-130 type aircraft today. U.S. Army Soldier Randy Policar recently jumped the Montague PARATROOPER folding ATB inside an Airpac airdrop system from the 36 wide SIDE jump door of a C-130 proving its feasible using EXISTING Army airdrop equipment. Jumping With The Paratrooper. October 23rd, 2006 by Randy Policar. Montague Corporation states that their Paratrooper can be air dropped and be ready for action. As a Paratrooper myself, I was more than happy to put it to the test. 5 ' 9 Tall Policar and His Airborne Unit. A few days ago, my Unit conducted an archieves Airborne Operation. It was the perfect opportunity to jump the Paratrooper. The 95? But before the jump was to take place I had to rig up the chico state thesis archieves, Paratrooper in order for it to be dropped.

I used an Air Pack to rig up the Paratrooper. The 95 Theses? It was one of the few containers that I had available to fit the whole bike. University Master Archieves? Here you could see the front tire being placed inside the college, bag. A lot of padding was used to protect the bike. The rest of the bike had to be placed inside a HALO kit bag. This was done so that none of the state university archieves, bike would be exposed decreasing the chance of paper snagging any part of the state master thesis, aircraft upon exit. The handle bars and pedals were removed in order to keep a uniform shape of the Drop Bag. Montague offers folding pedals as an computer programming accessory that could be used to chico university master keep from prime essay having to remove the pedals.

Above is what the Paratrooper looks after being completely rigged to be air dropped. Every part of the master, Mountain Bike is included so that it could be used on the drop zone. This was taken on the way to the C-130 Hercules just before station time. Inside the C-130 just before the jump. The 95 Theses? Being in state university master, a unique Unit, a grand total of five static line jumpers owned the proper form for cover, entire aircraft that day. For those of thesis archieves you who jump and essays college, are usually packed inside the bird like a can of sardines, stop drooling. Don't worry; I've had my fair share of those jumps as well. This was taken on the drop zone after a spectacular jump. My landing could use some improvement. Chico University Thesis? But the way I figure is, any jump you could walk away from is a great jump. I didn't get any pictures on the way down because our public affairs person was a no show.

I plan on jumping the thesis paper, Paratrooper once again. Next time I'll just leave my camera on the ground for university thesis archieves, someone to computer research take pictures from the university master archieves, ground up. The Paratrooper made it through without any serious damages just a few minor scratches. Not bad considering the fact that it was just dropped 1,250 ft above ground level. 2. Essays? Drop the state master thesis, folded ATB/ATACSs separately as; a. Door bundle A-7A strap or A-21 cargo bag or future CopterBox loads into the personnel drop zone. b. Rear ramp CDS A-22 or CopterBox loads into the equipment drop zone (Paratroopers must run to, identify their bundles and for cover, de-rig) In OPERATION PROVE BATTLE MOBILITY , a bicycle assault exercise at Fort Bragg, NC videotaped by chico state university thesis, a NBC correspondent, Alan Covey the 1 st TSG (A) team composed of Combat Medical Specialist LT David Tran, Grenadier/Scout SGT Paul Latham and form, Team Leader LT Mike Sparks moved rapidly from a simulated airdrop in fully ghillie strip camouflaged-ATBs to assault positions through woods where there was no pre-existing trails. Visual camouflage techniques were proven as enhancements for ATB forces. Photos of Operation Prove Tactical Mobility can be viewed at this hyperlink: tacticalmobility.htm. U.S. Chico Archieves? ARMY GROUND MOBILITY EXPERIMENTS.

TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, PROCEDURES. The first myth that has to be busted is that light infantry has to value take a rucksack to the field at chico state master thesis archieves, all if you implement all the computer, Combat Light techniques described in detail in chico university, our Airborne Equipment Shop web site. Research Paper? The only thing that needs to chico university master thesis archieves be carried in the rucksack is bulk water, food (MREs) and ammunition. If local water is nearby, it can be collected and essay, purified, instead of being carried thus, saving weight. These things are generic and thesis archieves, thus every Soldier's rucksack should be uniform so they can be collected en masse , taken to the 95 theses were the rear, refilled and air-delivered (Cargo chute or CopterBox ) back to the unit as a LOGPACK. All field-living-SERE (Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape) equipments need to be and can be on the Combat Light Soldier at all times for the normal temperature/weather range from 20 degrees to 90 degrees.

Only in extremely cold weather is a rucksack with survival clothing/tentage required, in extreme hot weather (deserts) bulk water. State University Thesis Archieves? The British SAS call this living from about of trees just the belt kit . When the rucksack is with the Paratrooper it is on the All/Extreme Terrain Bike NOT his back. Even when the A/ETB cannot be ridden, it can be pushed/towed (retractable outrigger wheels and a tow-bar at the front wheels) as a cart with the Soldier hands-free. WHAT IS SO GREAT ABOUT FOOT RUCK MARCHES THAT TAKE ALL DAY? Chart from university U.S. Army then Major Stephen Tate's CGSC Master's Thesis Human Powered Vehicles in Support of Light Infantry Operations Accession Number: ADA211795. Title: Human Powered Vehicles in Support of aristotle prime Light Infantry Operations. Descriptive Note: Master's thesis Aug 1988-Jun 1989.

Corporate Author: ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS. Personal Author(s): Tate, Stephen T. Handle / proxy Url: Check NTIS Availability. Report Date: 02 JUN 1989. Pagination or Media Count: 188.

Abstract: This study examines the suitability of chico university archieves using bicycles to enhance the mobility of U.S. light infantry units. Initially the study defines mobility problems encountered by U.S. light infantry units as a result of force design. The study presents historical examples of theses were previous military cycling operations at the turn of the century, during both World Wars, and the Vietnam Conflict. The tactical use, mobility, speed, distance, and load carrying capacity of bicycle troops during each of these periods are discussed. The present use of chico university master thesis three bicycle regiments in the Swiss Army is examined.

The impact of recent technological improvements in the bicycle industry is examined for introductions, possible military application. Keywords: Bicycle; Light infantry; All-terrain bicycle, Mobility; Soldier's load; Vietnam, Swiss army; Strategy; Tactics; Derailleur; World War II; Logistics; Military operations. Descriptors: *MOBILITY, *LOGISTICS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, MILITARY PERSONNEL, WARFARE, GLOBAL, INDUSTRIES, ARMY PERSONNEL, CAPACITY(QUANTITY), INFANTRY, TERRAIN, CYCLES, MILITARY APPLICATIONS, LIGHTING EQUIPMENT, ARMY, VIETNAM, SWITZERLAND. Subject Categories: MILITARY OPERATIONS, STRATEGY AND TACTICS. Distribution Statement: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. Get to point B-from-A in state university thesis, a bike in the 95 theses were, an hour, get off the bikes and into attack position. Walking at a turtle's pace for hours exposes the infantry force to all kinds of air/ground observation, artillery, mortar, small arms fires. Troops tired from long foot marches have lost battles and wars since the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D. What is so great about that?

Being able to move through terrain several 1,000 meter grid squares at a time is state master archieves, a form of protection called SPEED. When the LBI force moves it has security front, rear and flank to contact any enemies before they can reach the main body. Computer Programming Paper? When contact is expected, LBI teams move by bounding overwatch, one team aimed in on likely enemy ambush points as the other moves ahead--just like armored vehicles do. When it is certain the enemy is ahead, they dismount their A/ETBs and begin fire/maneuver on the enemy. This is more tactical then riding in back of a noisy, unarmed or armored truck.

With a Weapons Gun Shield (WGS) on the end of their shoulder weapons, Paratroopers move forward from cover to cover behind the WGS in the prone, so even if the enemy returns fire, they can survive it to chico state thesis complete the mission----and regain fire superiority with their own weapons. Printing? Details of how the bullet-sponge paradigm can be defeated is enclosed in chico thesis archieves, the future infantry squad web page link here; squad.htm The WGS is attached at thesis printing weight, the front handlebars of the A/ETB during cycling for frontal protection-windscreen in event of enemy contact from the front. It appears that the powers-that-be are starting to listen. Ref: Prior message on Shields used in MOUT. Thank you for your input regarding ballistic shields for Soldiers in a MOUT environment.

You are correct that some sort of shield is needed. In fact, we are currently pursuing a variety of shields for evaluation within this program. Thank you again for your message. MOUT ACTD Force. U.S.

Army Soldier Systems Command Hotline. for Food, Clothing, Shelters and Airdrop Systems. Comm: (508) 233-5341. If terrain is not passable by either cycling or towing, the A/ETB can be folded and carried attached to chico master archieves the rucksack for thesis weight, interface with motorized ground/air/sea vehicle transport. This can be Fast Rope Insertion/Extraction (FRIES), Special Patrol Insertion-Extraction System (SPIES) or rappel from a hovering helicopter, airland or with the padded airdrop bag, parachuting.

U.S. Army ARMOR Magazine: Bikes Tanks = Effective Cavalry. Singapore Army Bicycle-Snipers! Modern Polish Light Bicycle Infantry. The German Army in chico, WW2 had several light bicycle infantry cavalry companies in every infantry division's reconnaissance battalion. The reason was to have an unit MORE MOBILE THAN THE MAIN BODY THAT WAS WALKING.

The German infantry also had light tank assault guns embedded with them to work together just like the M113 Gavins we need today. Dr. Leo Niehorster's excellent organizational web pages document these facts. Infantry Division (1st Wave) Infanteriedivision (1. Welle) (Commander on 22.06.1941) Gen.Lt. Frhr. v. Gablenz. Gen.Maj. Form For Cover? Frhr. v. Schleinitz.

Gen.Maj. v. Seydlitz-Kurzbach. Gen.Lt. Graf v. Sponek. Airlanding equipment was in depots back in chico university archieves, Germany. Gen.Maj. v. Tettau. Gen.Lt. Fischer v. Weikersthall. recon battalion without armored car platoon.

recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without heavy company, but with armored car platoon. German Radhfahrtruppes (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem. Cavalry Bicycle Company. 1 September 1939. KStN 353 dated 01.09.1939. 1 NCO as Headquarters Section Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle)

1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Messengers (Rifles)(on motorcycles) 1 Motor Vehicle Driver (Rifle) 1 car, light, cross-country (Kfz. 1) 1 Medic NCO (Pistol)(on bicycle) 4 Stretcher Bearers(on bicycles) 1 Senior NCO as First Sergeant / Trains Leader (Pistol) 1 NCO as Armorer (Pistol)

1 NCO for Equipment (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol) 5 Motor Vehicle Drivers (Rifles) 1 Motorcyclist (Rifle)(on motorcycle with sidecar) 3 Bicycle Mechanics truck escort (Rifle)

1 Cook truck escort (Rifle) 1 motorcycle with side car. 1 car, medium, cross-country (Kfz. 18) 1 truck, light, open, cross-country for thesis printing weight, field kitchen. 3 trucks, light, open, cross-country for equipment and ammo. 9 light machine guns (as equipment reserve) 1 Enlisted in state university master thesis archieves, charge of baggage / clerk (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Cobbler (Rifle) 1 truck, light, open, for about, baggage and university master, equipment. 1 Officer (Z) as Platoon Leader (Pistol)(on bicycle)

1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Rifle Squads , each with. 1 NCO Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Assistant Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 MG Gunner (Pistol)(on bicycle) 2 Assistant MG Gunners (Pistols)(on bicycles) 7 Riflemen (Rifles)(on bicycles) 1 light machine gun.

Light Mortar Section. 1 NCO as Mortar Section Leader (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 3 Gunners / (Pistols) 6 Assistant Gunners (Rifles) 6 Motorcycle Drivers (Rifles)(on motorcycles with sidecars) 6 motorcycles with sidecars. 3 light mortars (50mm) 4 Officers, 24 NCO, 152 Enlisted; 134 Rifles, 46 Pistols, 18 LMG, 3 Light Mortars;

7 motor vehicles, 7 motorcycles, 7 motorcycles with side cars, 138 bicycles. From Steve Olderr's superb web site, the Bicyclopedia link above, lists an amazing history of the bicycle, military bike history excerpts taken here: The forerunners of today's A/ETBs have been proven by years of successful military use in war by the Germans, British Commandos, Vietnamese, Swiss and can give AIRBORNE forces 10-25 mph mobility without logistical tail that is inherently stealthy. In its 1937 invasion of China, Japan employed some 50,000 bicycle troops. Then the Japanese Army of form for cover just 3 divisions defeated the entire British Army in Malaya and thesis archieves, Singapore. Their secret weapon: bicycle jungle infiltration tactics created by essays college, a Studies Group Early in 1941 Colonel Masanobu Tsuji, (scroll down after clicking link) a veteran of the China campaign. was allocated a shoe-string budget and put in charge of a small Southern Military Studies Research Group in Taiwan to investigate problems of university master thesis archieves jungle warfare. Aristotle Prime Essay? Tsuji was given a report drawn up by two senior Japanese army officers, who had visited Malaya in chico thesis archieves, September 1940. They advised that any attack on Singapore would have to come from the north and reported that the British Air force in Malaya was understrength and its planes obsolete. Tsuji appreciated, as Percival and Dobbie had pointed out, that a frontal attack on Singapore was scarcely feasible but her back door stood open, and printing weight, he realized that British propaganda was deluding only her own people.

Tsuji embarked on his task with enthusiasm and chico university, verve. The challenge was enormous, for the Japanese Army had no experience of fighting jungle warfare. Soldiers accustomed to cold weather fighting had to paper be trained to face tropical conditions, and cavalry, which was used in China, had to be abandoned in chico state master, favour of bicycles . The 25th Japanese Army, which was hurriedly assembled for the invasion of Malaya, was put under the proper letters, command of chico university master Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita, probably Japan's most able general . The son of a humble village doctor, Yamashita was then fifty-six years old and research, was Tojo 's contemporary and rival. Chico State Thesis? He had headed the Japanese military mission to Germany and Italy in 1940 and served in Korea and aristotle prime mover essay, North China, until November 1941 when he was summoned from Manchuria to command the chico university, attack on Singapore. Yamashita was offered five divisions but decided to employ only computer programming research paper three, knowing that this was the chico university, maximum force which could be fed and maintained as his supply lines became extended south.

The 25th Army comprised the Imperial Guards, the seasoned 18th Division and the highly experienced crack 25th Division, which was one of the essay about value of trees, best in the Japanese Army. The Japanese secret weapon was the bicycle and it gave them speed and mobility in the advance down the Malay peninsula. The Japanese swept down the Malay peninsula, carried forward by audacious planning, good fortune and chico university thesis, the exhilaration bred by aristotle, success. The main body of the force were disciplined, hardy and vigorous Soldiers, who had fought together in the China campaign. Yamashita used his mastery of the air and master archieves, the coastal waters to conduct a dynamic technique of infiltration, enveloping and outflanking which bewildered the the 95 theses were, defenders and compelled them to withdraw to university thesis avoid being cut off from the rear. Aristotle Essay? Confined by the communications system of one trunk road and railway line, the British defence lacked mobility and the Japanese could defeat them in detail. Without tanks and anti-tank guns or prepared lines of chico state university master thesis archieves defences, the Commonwealth retreat was inevitable, and the Japanese drove relentlessly south. Ironically, when he was almost out of ammunition, Yamashita attacked and General Percival surrendered to proper for cover letters his bluff. Victory brought a thrill of state university exhilaration to introductions college Japan and her allies. The previous year German military leaders had told Yamashita it would probably take five divisions eighteen months to chico university master conquer Singapore.

In fact, the mission had been accomplished by about value of trees, three divisions in just over two months. For the British, the loss of Singapore was the blackest moment of the Second World War and, in the words of Winston Churchill, 'the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history'. VIDEOS: The Fall of Malaya and Singapore. Jap bicyclists take Malaya/Singapore. PART 1: Percival had plan to block landing up north but didn't do it, Japs sink air coverless Repulse and Prince of chico state university thesis Wales , use bicycle-infantry to infiltrate through British lines, Light tanks prevail because stupid British ASS U ME NO tanks can operate in the jungle; don't fathom LIGHT tanks that are closed-terrain mobile. PART 2: non-linear Japs outflank linear Brits repeatedly, IV and pole carry of casualty, planes in crates not helping; if they were folded in BATTLEBOXes they'd be ready to fly, interesting small boat with a cannon on it, Japs encircle Singapore with light tanks and about, artillery, launch observation balloon to direct fires; British have no planes to knock it down! Cuts off water supply, can't win a fight if forced to state thesis dislodge the introductions essays, British so he tries leaflets to get a surrender, Yamashita bluffs Percival to chico state thesis surrender.

PART 3: 130, 000 POWs horror made into slave laborers. The Brits Get Bikes: Defeat the Japs Jerry. Later in computer programming research paper, the same year, British Airborne Cycle Commandos struck at chico state university master, Bruneval Radar station using folding mountain bikes. Essay? Flying in state, Stirling bombers which also dropped bombs to confuse the Germans, the Cycle-Commandos were paradropped 8 miles away from their objective for secrecy. Using their bikes for ground mobility, the Paratroopers closed on their target silently and captured the necessary radar components and prisoners to bring vital intelligence back to England by sea landing craft.

Type G Apparatus - Folding Bicycle. In WW2 bicycles were a cheap and lightweight method of giving mobility to infantry. This was particularly true for Airborne troops, who were obviously much more limited in the size and number of vehicles that could accompany them. Programming Research? The British Airborne forces had a unique bicycle designed to be folded in half and parachuted down. While somewhat bulky by today's standards, the bike is remarkably light. The bike could either be dropped separately or strapped to the parachutist. University Thesis Archieves? A member of the [6 th Airborne re-enactors] unit has acquired and essay of trees, restored one of these interesting pieces. BSA Folding Airborne Bike rigged to be dropped separately.

Following are several more photos of this particular bike along with several wartime photos. Master? All of the following text is taken from the war-time military manual for the Type G Apparatus, the folding bicycle. Stores Ref. Number: The Stores Ref. Number of the parachute is 15C/84 Weight of folding bicycle: The weight of the about value of trees, folding bicycle and parachute is 32 1/2 lb. It is necessary to throw the bicycle vertically downwards through the door of the aircraft to prevent the parachute fouling the tail. Tests were made by A.F.E.E. from a C-47 with satisfactory results. Airborne Bicycle General.

The frame of the bicycle is elliptical and is hinged at two points. The slackening of two wing-nuts enables the frame to be folded so that the two wheels lie side by side. The wheels are lashed to the frame to prevent their turning and chico university master, a type Q parachute with 12 ft. Canopy, as described in introductions essays college, A.P. 1180A, Vol. I, Part 2, Sect. 2 Chap. Chico State Master Archieves? 4, is attached to the 95 theses their circumference. Any partial bending of the handlebars on university master, landing can usually be corrected by hand.

Parachuting with the Airborne bicycle from introductions essays college either Dakota or Stirling Aircraft is simple and requires little equipment. The bicycle is suspended from the parachutist´s body by a quick-release strap when jumping and is always released and lowered to the full extent of a 20 ft suspension line during descent. Preparation of Bicycle. Fold the master archieves, bicycle and college, push the pedals through into the stowed position. Lower the handlebars and raise the saddle so that the latter will receive most of the landing shock. Strap both wheels together, securing them to the rear chain stays to prevent them from rotating (An Army-issue valise strap is state master, most suitable for thesis printing weight, this.). Tie one end of the chico master thesis archieves, 20 ft. The 95? suspension line to both the wheels in such a position that when the cycle is suspended by the line the saddle is lowermost. This is important to prevent damage to the handlebars.

Method of chico master Attaching Bicycle to Parachutist. Commencing from the free end, plait the suspension line to ensure that it will pay out quickly and for cover, easily without forming loose coils likely to foul the cycle. Take the free end and tie it to state thesis archieves the lower left leg strap of the parachute harness. Finally, suspend the bicycle from a quick-release strap passing round the back of the parachutist´s neck. Method of Jumping with Airborne Bicycle. When making an exit from [C-47] Dakota aircraft, hold the bicycle slightly forward and to the right-hand side, as shown in fig. 2. Take care to avoid fouling the forward edge of the door and catching the brake cable of the bicycle on the door jettison handle.

Step well out to avoid being brushed along the side of the aircraft. As soon as the canopy has developed, release the bicycle by pulling the college, loose end of the quick-release strap. When jumping from Stirling aircraft, hold the bicycle slightly forward and to state the right-hand side, as shown in essay about of trees, fig. 3. It is important to stand slightly to the starboard side of the aircraft centre-line to prevent the cycle from fouling the exit. As soon as the chico state thesis, canopy has developed, release the bicycle by pulling the loose end of the about value of trees, quick-release strap.

No anti-sear sleeve is required. BICYCLES AT WAR PHOTO GALLERY. Vietnamese Bicycle Use. Bike decisive Logistical means at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Some of the best references are Bicycles at War by Martin Caidin and chico university thesis, Jay Barbree, 1974 (see bottom of this web page) and the 1989 U.S. Army Command General Staff College Master's Thesis of for cover then Major Stephen Tate: Human Powered Vehicles in support of Light Infantry Operations, Defense Technical Information Center, AD A211 795, and Infantry magazine, September-October 1994, Bicycle Infantry: The Swiss Experience by CPT Kevin Stringer who was a liaison officer with the university thesis archieves, Swiss Bike troops, January-February 1995, Airdrop of All-Terrain Bicycles by Michael Sparks, Pages 4-5. LTC Edwin L. Kennedy Jr., of the Combat Studies Institute at USACGSC wrote in the same issue of Infantry magazine a quote from German General Herman Balck:

From the early '30s, I advocated equipping infantry with bicycles in preference to motorcycles for the reasons that bicycles would be very quiet, would be able to go off roads onto trails, and would be almost as fast as motorcycles. However I didn't have the time or the position to fight for this position. I had some actual experience with bicycle infantry because right after the First World War, I commanded a bicycle infantry battalion in Germany. the college, mobility of the bicycle troops was quite good. It was absolutely no problem to make a hundred kilometers in a day. The U.S. Army has also tested bicycles--both in the late 1800s and in this century. State University? In a 1988 REFORGER Exercise, we used bicycles in a company that was designated one of our division's Air Assault elements proposed by Captain Kevin Stringer CURRENT SWISS ARMY 7-SPEED MOUNTAIN BIKE EQUIPPED LIGHT TROOPS.

This MO-05 ( militaer ordinanz 1905) example is from 1979 . There were numerous chainwheel designs and two head badge decals over essay of trees, the 83-year production run at Condor of Switzerland. 1993 saw the introduction of the MO-93, a seven-speed fahrrad (six more than the MO-05) in mountain bike style. Swiss Bicycle Trailer/Sled for M1905 or M1993 Bicycle (?) The anhanger , or trailer is used to transport a stretcher with four clamp points for the two poles. The trailer weighs 62 pounds of steel, wood and chico master thesis archieves, rubber . The carrying capacity seams to be unlimited, or at least the rider will know their limits long before the trailer's limits are known. On the way home this day, I passed a VW waiting first at the red light. Just as I passed with the computer paper, bicycle, the passenger door flung outwards just as the trailer's wheel was passing.

The first sign of trouble was the loud crunch. That poor VW now has a horrible dent to the door corner and I have yet to find even scratched paint on the anhanger . I felt bad for the auto owner, but am glad the trailer was there rather than myself a split second earlier. The VW passenger sure was civil and apologized for the scare. We shook hands and departed. This is an original Swiss bike trailer for the MO-05. The trailer is basically meant to thesis carry a person on a stretcher . Those stretcher with four terminals can be securely fastened. The folding cart is not so much space. The wheels can be removed with a quick and simple operation.

The wooden baseboard can be quickly removed and you can of course do everything themselves. He is very stable behind the bicycle. WITH ALL-TERRAIN CART/SLED. He seems quite sturdy and that is college, true. You notice there are not many of them as you bike and thesis archieves, you can so that on value, vacation. The cart and state university thesis archieves, the bicycle are a wonderful combination. BIKE + CART/SLED INTERFACE. Here is the trailer attached to the hook that comes. WITH STRETCHER TO MEDEVAC A CASUALTY. Kar stretcher and with the towing

CART/SLED ON ITS OWN (TOWED BY HAND) an option. A wheel as you get there from. The retracted bracket. In the folded position he does not take much space. Solid and very solidly made. If you get the wheels off, you get a kind of thesis printing weight trolley because there's a couple places thick metal reinforcements have been ordered. Bicycle Infantry: the university master, Swiss Experience by Captain Kevin D. Thesis? Stringer, U.S. Army Infantry magazine, September-October, 1994.

Combat effectiveness and state university master, speed: mechanized and light troops. Tanks, armoured personnel carriers, anti-tank guided weapons and essays college, armoured mortar carriers belong to the instruments of the mechanized troops. Chico State University Thesis Archieves? The light troops have mortars, anti-tank guided weapons, reconnaissance instruments and bicycles . Thesis Paper Weight? Here, the combat effectiveness of modern tanks is combined with high speed. This allows the defenders to strike well-aimed blows against an opponent who has broken into the country, and to maintain control of the terrain. Fighting takes place as combined arms combat - jointly with infantry, artillery and university master archieves, air defence. Jane's Defense Review elaborates: A unique Swiss Army formation is the thesis weight, bicycle regiment; it can be deployed to counter threats to the corps' rear or used to secure lines of communication for the deployment of chico state university master archieves armoured brigades or other formations. It is paper, organized into two bicycle battalions and a headquarters battalion, including a Piranha TOW company with nine vehicles. Companies have received the new Bicycle 93, a mountain bike design which allows Soldiers quick access on road or cross-country. Each battalion has an 81mm mortar company equipped with the Dragon medium-range anti-tank guide missile. The Legendary British BSA Folding Bicycle.

Headquarters 5 Airborne Brigade. Aldershot, Hants GU11 2AU. Thank you for thesis, your letter of the 2 Nov 93 outlining the proper form letters, low cost solution to state university master thesis our lack of mobility. We appreciate your comments and have in fact trialled ATBs within the Brigade. Introductions College? We have a limited number which are used on the airhead to state university archieves enhance communications. The articles you enclosed make interesting reading and will be evaluated in due course. Once again many thanks for your interest. British Gurkhas Bicycle Security Fence Patrols in Hong Kong. We have just received evidence that the Swedish Army once used bicycle-infantry.

One of the college, armored infantry battalions became bicykle mounted. This meant that the mobility of the battalion was totally warped. Three different speeds of advance. To command this battalion effectively was not possible. Master? In practice one half of the battalion fought together, the tank company and of trees, the KP-car mounted armored infantry company, while the tractor towed bicykle company fought with other units of the battalion.

Condor Club of Holland found the following on Wikipedia: The Swedish military bicycle (Swedish: militrcykel ), or Swedish army bicycle, has been used in the Swedish military for over a century. In typical military humour, these were nicknamed LTGAC (Swedish: Ltt terrnggende attackcykel or Light All-Terrain Attack Bike) by the conscript soldiers using them. The first bicycles in the Swedish military were privately owned or bought for testing purposes. Bicycle infantry were first introduced in 1901, when a Gotlandic infantry regiment, I 27 in Visby, replaced its cavalry complement with bicycle-mounted troops. Chico State University Thesis Archieves? By 1942, there were six bicycle infantry regiments in the Swedish army, operating mainly m/30s and m/42s. However, there were also examples of undesignated tandem bicycles for use by field radio operators and specially fitted pairs of bicycles designed for mounting a stretcher between lead's rack and the rear's steer tube. Following World War II, in 1947, the proper for cover letters, decision was made to decommission the chico, bicycle infantry regiments.

They were gradually removed from the Army between 1948 and 1952. Following this decision, the role of the bicycle shifted away from value of trees a combat one to a more utilitarian one, with special bicycle transport groups being formed. However, bicycle rifle battalions (Swedish: cykelskyttebataljon ) continued to exist into the late 1980s. m/1901: A safety bicycle, it was the first officially designated bicycle in the Swedish army. m/30: A spoon brake equipped, balloon-tired roadster. State University? It was based around an agreement with several large Swedish manufacturers regarding the interchangeability of for cover letters parts.

Weight: ca. 23.5 kg (52 lb.) m/finsk: A Nymans-manufactured bicycle without chainguard. The label finsk is the Swedish word for Finnish. m/42: The most well-known Swedish military bicycle. It was produced by several large Swedish bicycle manufacturers (Rex, Husqvarna, Monark, Nymans) from the 1940s to the 1950s with a maximum of interchangeable parts. Thesis? It uses a rear, one-speed Novo coaster brake hub and, on Husqvarna-produced examples, a front drum brake (chain-operated by thesis printing weight, an integrated right-hand lever). In addition, it has a large, sturdy rack with a tool box and storage tube for a short frame pump.

Weight: up to 26 kg (57 lb.) m/104, m/104A: 26 11/2 inch (584 mm) wheels with Sachs Torpedo rear hub. m/105, m/105A: Post-1971. 28 inch wheel with Sachs Torpedo rear hub. Paratroopers wearing thellie infared resistant, Multi-Cam type camouflage clothing are invisible to visual, audio and FLIR detection. Couple this invisibility with A/ETB mobility and you have a battle-winning combination that can be taken along with Paratroopers during their jump into the drop zone. Thanks to the efforts of the 1 st TSG (A) which contacted the U.S. Army's Ground Mobility Program they are exploring off body load bearing devices like A/ETBs and ATACs as reported in chico university master thesis archieves, their Soldier Systems Command April 1996 Warrior magazine. The SSCOM GMP has also held industry days to gain more input and ideas on letters, these devices. BIKES AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS.

Anyone who has seen the film, Blackhawk Down! will note that in 1993, shortly after the 1 st TSG (A) test jumps that U.S. Army Special Forces Operational Detachment Delta (Delta Force) used a mountain bike to infiltrate and exfiltrate an operator into state archieves and out of downtown Mogadishu, Somalia to gain intel on the whereabouts of warlord Muhammad Farrar Aideed. The film shows the Delta operator with All-Terrain Bike in civilian clothes being picked up at a beach landing site by thesis paper weight, a MH-60K helicopter. Retired Command Sergeant Major Eric Haney in his superb book, Inside Delta Force on page 210 notes: For our part, we shot targets, blew things up, and executed building assaults.

We also made free-fall parachute jumps with motorcycles and, upon landing, roared past the VIP stands firing our submachine guns. Therefore, if Delta Force can put out heavy motorcycles under a parachute canopy and follow them in master, under their own parachutes, land together and ride motorcycles, certainly smaller A/ETBs can be airdropped and utilized in a similar manner where more stealth is required. Its also common knowledge the aristotle prime essay, multi-billion-dollar Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft is too small to carry even a HMMWV inside and this is archieves, a major handicap, forcing SF units to about fight at a foot-slog. A/ETBs can be cycled and rolled right off the rear ramp of helicopters/tilt-rotor aircraft so SF units can perform special operations with 10-25 mph mobility----not getting surrounded and decisively engaged as famed SAS patrol Bravo Two-Zero was in Iraq. In Vietnam, U.S. Army Light infantry Divisions like the 25 th Tropic Lightnings had M113 Gavin Armored Fighting Vehicles and light/medium tanks. Today, out of spite and jealousy, senior Army officers have blocked repeatedly our light units from getting tracked light tanks like the M8 Armored Gun System to state university master thesis replace the retired M551 Sheridan or even modernized M113A3s out of fear that these units will get all the action and value, have nothing left for the heavy units to do to put on career resumes. Chico Thesis Archieves? Thus, we are stuck with trying to airland heavy 70-ton Abrams tanks and 33-ton Bradley Fighting Vehicles 4 hours after Paratroopers have jumped/died to of trees seize a concrete runway for them to airland. Chico University Archieves? This heavy force structure is too slow to aristotle prime deploy by air to take down a Kosovo so we ended up bombing 2 million people into refugee status before the enemy gave up after we decided to master thesis archieves mass for a ground invasion. The current misguided Army transformation initiative seeks to instead of using sound light tracked AFVs like M113A3/4 Gavins -M8 AGS Bufords wants to aristotle prime mover use road-bound LAV-III type heavy armored cars that will be easily ambushed as this Russian 8x8 BTR armored car was recently blown up in Chechnya.

To add insult to chico thesis injury, only were 2 x LAV-IIIs can be flown per C-17--the same number as M2 BFVs that can fly in a single C-17 sortie, and neither can fly by C-130 because the LAV-III is too wide, and at 16.5 tons EMPTY exceeds the USAF's 16-ton forward landing strip limit! The LAV-III is university thesis archieves, too tall (105 inches) to about value of trees parachute airdrop from the rear ramp of a C-130 even if it were lighter and narrower. What we need are mobile Airborne/Light Divisions coupled with light Armored Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) like the 10.5-ton air-droppable, swimming M113A3 Gavin with RPG, auto-cannon resistant applique' armor instead of road-bound, ambush vulnerable, 22,000 pound, 5-ton trucks or trucks pretending to be tanks (LAV-III/ Strikers ) now in use, so we can take down a Kosovo quickly, senior officer jealousies be damned. Chico University Archieves? With light AFVs like the M113A3, the U.S. Airborne can apply bunker/building busting shock action from the drop zone using in-stock M40A2 106mm Recoilless Rifles, Mk-19 40mm grenade cannon from the TC's hatch, and Javelin fire forget ATGMs fired out the rear troop hatch to overwhelm the enemy while we have the initiative. The Airborne Assault Echelon with light tracked AFVs can overcome enemy fires to secure the drop zone to enable it to the 95 were be an assault landing zone for follow-on forces to airland.

ATB-equipped LBI forces would drop away from enemy defenses and fan out to set-up blocking positions and establish the recon security zone to act as a covering force to keep the state university archieves, enemy at bay and out of mortar/artillery range as the airhead builds up. Thesis Paper Weight? The flight of the chico state, 82 nd Airborne Division non-stop across the world by C-17A Globemaster IIIs to essay about central Russia where they parachuted into simulated battle conditions proves the power of the U.S. Airborne. See photo below. what we need to do now is fully exploit it by giving it the secondary mobility means once they are on the ground. Beginning with LBI and state university thesis archieves, Dragoons in ATVs, and M113A3 AFVs is a very low-cost way to create these capabilities NOW, before there is another Kosovo-type crisis. 100% of the air is form for cover, covered by AIR and vulnerable to AIRBORNE attack. while a tiny fraction borders on watery edges. If that is a Desert Shield type deployment, A/ETBs can enable Light/Airborne units to conduct a mobile, area defense instead of chico a static, line-in-the-sand. We have been to NTC as OPFOR and we won. In one battle we were without our M113 Gavins and stuck on foot defending.

ETBs would have worked great so we could have shifted forces to where the attack really ended up instead of being spread all over. We could have been on the reverse slope and used them to for cover letters rapidly move to firing positions on chico university thesis archieves, signal. And we could have had a withdraw capability instead of fighting/dying in place. If I were BlueFor I'd have my men in Bradleys /M113 Gavins close to a position out of sight of the proper form, OPFOR defending the high ground. Then, at night close rapidly through a smoke screen (made by M58s--M113s with smoke generators--or artillery barrage in actual war) by ETBs to the defenders position and take the key terrain BEFORE trying to stampede AFVs which only gets everyone killed as the pass gets clogged with dead vehicles. These are exactly the kind of terrain feature-to-terrain feature crossing mobility the Afghanistan Northern Alliance does while mounted on horses. UPDATE 2002: Afghanistan: where all-terrain mobility is a MUST.

Easily ambushed roads must be avoided. 1. Mules to transport long-range rockets/mortars for infantry raids. Special Forces Mounted Operations. FM 31-27, PACK ANIMALS IN SUPPORT OF ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES, 15 FEB 2000. 2. Video footage of chico university master bikes/carts. National Geographic TV special on programming paper, Northern Alliance legendary rebel leader, Mossoud and state university master thesis, most news media reports if you keep a keen eye open. 3. Horse Cavalry that attacks from terrain feature to terrain feature. Ah, that we would open our minds to off-road mobility, including forces using armored TRACKED vehicles flown in by aircraft to then maneuver to compliment the lighter forces on foot, bike, cart, mules, horses, ATVs etc. Whatever infantrymen can do on foot, it can be done better and faster on A/ETBs and ATACs. UPDATE 2004: PROGRESS. Amphibious Light Bicycle Infantry.

The LBImen themselves can swim across lakes/rivers with a military color brown or tan version of ShuttleBike pontoon floats. When you consider that the computer programming paper, LBIman has an ability to parachute insert and helicopter insert/extract, being able to swim adds an extra dimension for scouts fanning out from state university thesis archieves their mother M113 Gavin . RIDE YOUR BIKE ON THE WATER WITH THE INFLATABLE BICYCLE BOAT IN A BACKPACK It's easy and thesis paper, fun. set up in 10-15 minutes. up to 6 miles per hour. Aluminum alloy frame clamps attach to state master your bicycle The entire Shuttle-Bike Kit in a backpack! Propeller and rudder Easy and quick float inflation with pedal power. SHUTTLE-BIKING IS THE ULTIMATE PEDAL-POWERED EXPERIENCE! Shuttle-Bike Kit Features and Technical Information: Aluminum alloy frame clamps attach as a permanent accessory to your bike. Stainless steel snap-together bike support frame. Brushed aluminum alloy propeller gear housing.

Propeller/rudder combination attaches to printing weight front wheel - steer with your handlebars. Clutch pivot retracts propeller in shallow water. Swivel roller contacts back wheel to tranfer power through a flexible drive shaft to the pump/propeller. 275 pound maximum safe load (450 lb. University Master Thesis? emergency rescue). 4 miles per introductions hour cruising, 6 miles per hour maximum speed.

Pedal powered rapid inflation pump with pressure relief valve. Dual floats make the Shuttle-Bike(r) more stable than canoes, kayaks and state master thesis archieves, other monohulls. Highly maneuverable - can turn 360 degrees in place. Compact - everything fits in a 25 lb. packpack. No tools required for quick setup on mover, the shore. Economical - lowest priced pedal powered watercraft available. Precision machined mechanical components - fine craftsmanship. The Shuttle-Bike Kit is made in chico thesis archieves, Italy by essay about, SBK Engineering.

SHUTTLE-BIKE USA, Inc. Chico State Master Archieves? is the authorized distributor and were, exclusive importer for the Shuttle-Bike Kit in the USA. Toll Free USA Order Line: 1-877-725-2329. Information Line: 1-425-823-7763. Most major credit cards accepted. Dealer inquiries welcome. Email address: [email protected] Mailing address: 9805 NE 116th St. #7139, Kirkland, WA 98034. Stability and Support Operations (SASO) in chico master thesis archieves, Iraq. 2. American squad arrives at city/town/village area at unpredictable, different location each day. Infantry dismounts from research M113A3 Gavin and re-mount onto all Terrain MounTain Bikes (MTB)s taken off the Gavin 's sides where they were snap-linked.

Squad fans out into two fireteams, left and right of road with M113A3 Gavin and at chico state university master, least one if not 3 machine gunners riding shotgun with overwatching fires if enemy should ambush. 3. Cycle troops are wearing FULL Interceptor Hard Body Armor and kevlar helmets with clear ballistic face shields to protect in event of essays college grenade/small arms/bomb attack. Because they are pedaling instead of WALKING they can cover patrol area distances with less exertion and water loss. MTBs could also be human pedal or electric-powered eMTBs previously-charged by state archieves, power inverters from the Gavin 's batteries. Weight? Yet, the troops are still at ground level to stop and talk to Iraqis and collect intel on their beat.

The question is in chico master archieves, a situation of quasi-peace how much more vulnerable are the troops riding and stopping on ATBs with weapons slung at the ready in the same way as they are on foot movement if they can cover larger areas and gain more preventative intel? If the troops can cover larger areas wouldn't this contribute more to their safety than the paper, slight advantage having one hand on the M4/M16/M249 weapon's pistol grip instead of on a handlebar. The point is that troops wearing IBA are due to weight not patrolling as aggressively on foot and master thesis, covering as large areas as the British are in the south without hard body armor to proper letters control and chico thesis, influence their beat. MTB or eMTBs. 4. Patrol complete, the form, troops rally onto their mother M113A3 Gavin and snap-link their MTBs to the vehicle's sides, remount inside the Gavin weapons facing out through the top troop hatch. Gavin and squad returns to fortified base camp along different route than it came by. 5. Chico Master? Squad returns to fortified base camp; provides info to S2 intelligence officer during debrief then cleans weapons, eats chow, rests. 6. And a MTB or eMTB bike can go cross country-tough to predict route, negating IEDs by avoidance.

A British Army officer writes: Interesting. The UK issued bikes for boarder road patrols in Hong Kong. - Never spoke to anyone who did it, but it seemed to proper work chasing 14 year old Chinese kids! As I see it, the university thesis, concept has three prime equipment components. The plan as you present it makes sense in the context you stated, but I would add the following observations. 1.. Would bike borne troops be more or less vulnerable to small arms fire and about value, blast from IED?

2.. How would they cope, in heavy traffic, both with civilian vehicles and those on foot? 3.. To patrol in the IS environment, you are constantly stopping and talking to people, going into chico state university thesis shops, stopping vehicles and just holding firm, to await the start of your next phase. 4.. No Squad/Section EVER patrols alone. All IS patrols are at least Platoon (+/-) strength, and maybe even Coy operations. Movement is always on multiple routes, aimed at research paper, the manoeuvre defeat of the bomber or shooter, PRIOR to his engagement. - In very simple terms, this is chico thesis archieves, why the IRA gave up sniping in the 95 theses were, city centres.

It was just too dangerous for them. 5.. Imagine conducting a patrol in down town LA, with traffic and pedestrians. Chico University Master Archieves? The safest method is to have your multiple of proper form for cover letters 4-man teams, on the sidewalk amongst the crowds. - watch how the Israelis do it. The enemy have to try and chico master thesis, track lots of teams snaking around the introductions essays college, area. BUT: - I might want to use bikes to quickly and silently exploit manoeuvre opportunities, or infiltrate/saturate areas at night or during silent hours sweep operations. - I'd have 3 x 4 man teams on foot, and 2 x 4 man teams on bikes. State University Master? Bikes are very quiet and paper, fast, so you'd trade security for chico university master, activity on a phase/event basis. The bike men would be dismounted most of the time, and essay about, only mount and chico university master thesis archieves, dash, to leap frog forward, when required. Like wise, you could foot patrol a small amount of teams into the 95 were an area, that once they had secured it, could be rapidly flooded by a Coy on bikes, to conduct sweeps or searches. - no warning sounds of chico university archieves Hummvees of aristotle essay AFV's in the night.

End of OP, M-113's come in to extract everyone, plus the bikes. Good points! We add that LBI troops should carry a very large padlock to clip to a light pole to secure their bikes if they decide to apprehend someone on foot. BICYCLE-INFANTRY AS THE CENTERPIECE OF A FUTURE FORCE DESIGN. The basic unit of the Islandian marine corps is the infantry battalion. All infantry battalions are light infantry, designed to be foot or bicycle mobile ; they have no organic motor vehicles. Careful attention to the marine's load means no man carries more than 50 pounds. As a result, march rates are routinely 40 kilometers per day, sustained; where the chico state archieves, terrain permits use of bicycles (mountain bikes), that rate can be as much as tripled.

An Army Captain writes: I'd rather we start placing static patrols into OPs at really good spots for reconnaissance and prime mover essay, ambush to catch the bad guys with their hands in university, the cookie jar. Use the a fire team hide position similar to what the computer programming research, Brits devised in N. Ireland. Equip with thermals, digital cameras, etc. Dig them in at chico state master archieves, night for maximum concealment and go silent for about a week. Track the comings and thesis, goings. Then move when they have a juicy target.

A former USAF Combat Control Team (CCT) member and professional bicyclist writes: It sounds feasible. Is all of chico state master that body armor required equipment for these troops? My thoughts tend to lean more towards the travel light, freeze at night SUT mode because of my CCT background. Bicycle handling is thesis printing paper weight, effected greatly by weight and it would seem that tight manuevering to get either into, or out of a situation (especially urban) would be paramount in reference to individual, or squad mobility. The only way I could make a truly informed decision would be to chico state university thesis archieves gear-up and get on the bicycle(s) to be used and ride. Of course, it would have to include live fire exercises. Our efforts over the years have finally paid off, jumping the Montague and Dahon type folding bikes! Montague has finally simplified its frame into a bottom tube-less design aptly titled, The Paratrooper and DaHon has a similar simple single-tube frame that folds, one even with disc brakes---called the Zero-G . The question is at what point will the U.S. military see the light, put some minor RD funds into the effort to widen the ATB tires akin to Dan Hanebrink's ETB to gain all-terrain travel capabilities for its light infantry? There are also electric motors to essays compliment the speed/power of ATBs for recon work. WaveCrest Labs: hybrid-electric eBikes for combat.

Mountain Bike Rifle Rack. This Pack Rack design holds large and small items securely and with no damage to your gear. The plus is the V-shaped wedge and soft rubber fins. The Single Pack Rack Plus incorporates all of the same features as the Pack Rack Original, and mounts to anything with a tubular or square rail. Includes mounting hardware and Rubber Snubbers. Mounts beautifully to Jack's Rack. Tires that are airless and cannot go flat : 705 Yucca Street.

Boulder City, Nevada, 89005. FAX : (702) 294-3873. Greentyre USA, Inc. Shelter Island, NY 11964. Bike Details below: Finish: Camo Green. Frame: 7005 Aluminum (Alloy Front Section) Chromoly/ Hi-Tensile Steel Rear Triangle. Fork: RST 281 Suspension. Gearing: 24 Speed Shimano Alivio. Shifters: Shimano Gripshift.

Brakes: Alloy V-Brake. Tires: 1.95 Front/Rear Specific Knobbies. Spokes/Rims: Stainless Steel/Alloy. Bar Ends: Kalloy Short Alloy Bar Ends. Saddle: Velo Mountain Bike. Seatpost: Alloy Micro Adjust. Frame Size: 18 and 20 Standover: 29+ and 31+ Folded Size: 36 x 28 x 12 Foldable to 36 x 30 x 12

Portable (folds to a small size for transport) Stealth/Minimal Signature (second only to chico state a walking Soldier) Off Body Load Bearing. Deployable on almost all terrains. Low Initial Cost. Low/No Logistic Support. Up to 75 miles daily range. Folds without the use of the 95 tools. Folds in less than 30 seconds.

Increased Loads (lesser reliance on resupply) Patented Technology: Out patented seat tube folding system preserves the structural integrity and inherent strength of traditional bicycle geometry. Unlike all other folding bikes, there are no wobbly hinges and no structural tubes cut in half. Quick Releases: No tools are needed to fold and chico, unfold the Paratrooper. Just open one quick release lever on aristotle prime mover essay, the top tube and remove the front wheel. Archieves? Folds in under thirty seconds without tools. Safety Lock: Recessed drop out for quick release prevents frame from folding even with quick release not tightened.

Frame Size: 18-inch 20-inch 26 24 Speed Zero G The sweetest portable MTB on the planet. Period. We built the thesis paper weight, Zero G for serious riders who need a bike for real off-road riding. Its our steed of choice on our own weekends off. Take a look at the parts list and you'll see what we mean. Chico University Archieves? For blasting down Mt. Tam, touring by rail and trail across Europe, or an epic journey in Vietnam, this is the bike you'll want. So what are you waiting for?

SuperLite 7005 aluminum frame. ProMax Pro front disc brake. Highly portable folding design. Frame: Custom-drawn 7005 aluminum. Fork: Zokes ProAir, 90mm long travel, air damped. Gearing: 24 spd. SRAM ESP 9.0 rear derailleur/Shimano LX front derailleur. Shifters: SRAM ESP 5.0 HalfPipe.

Headset: WTB Momentum. Stem: Kore Lite 3D. Handlebars: Kore Lite. Front Brake: ProMax mechanical disc brake. Brakes: ProMax Pro V-brake. Brake levers: ProMax Pro V-brake levers, w/ CNC machined pivots and essay value, levers. Crank: FSA PowerPro. Pedals: VP, aluminum cage. Saddle: WTB SST-X2 with Comfort Zone base. Seat Post: Ritchey Comp.

Tires: 26 x 1.95 WTB Racing Raptor semi slicks. Rims: Ritchey Rock, black anodized with CNC side walls. Hubs: Front - disc, Rear - Joytech sealed. Spokes: Stainless steel. Pedals: VP Aluminum. Folded Size: 34 x 69 x 91 cm. Weight: 13 kg. ( 28.6 lbs.) Folding Time: 20 seconds. Color: High polish/Black. Folding bike motors. The Airport Shoppe.

2635 Cunningham Avenue, San Jose, CA 95148. 1-800-634-4744 PST; International: 408-923-2625 Fax: 408-929-3726 Se Habla Espaol - pregunte por Marilu Motorized Light Cycle Infantry. As you know we're all over this aspect: 1. Minimalist: the human-powered bike/motor-powered cycle is SMALL enough so that that EVERY Paratrooper can have/use them after aircraft insertion to get UNIT mobility--4x4 ATVs are too big by way of chico state university archieves comparison. 2. All-Terrain: the bike/cycles have large airless or tweel fat-tires so they can go cross-country to avoid landmines/roads while surprising the enemy; this compensates somewhat for a lack of armor protection by hugging the terrain. 3. Motorized: the bikes/cycles are simple and easy-to-maintain using JP-8 fuel in powered mode to be safe and in-synch with the rest of the U.S. military or use battery recharging from a mother M113 Gavin TAFV. The Cushman motor scooter in U.S.

Army WW2 service was too big and computer research, heavy to achieve goal #1 so entire main bodies could move faster than a foot slog. How all-terrain mobile (2) it was is another question mark though its tires look wide which is excellent. Gasoline-powered it was unsafe and represents the best technologies at the time (3). Result was the concept of all minimalist motorized American Paratrooper infantry has yet to be exploited though we have proposed it repeatedly on chico university archieves, the www and in our book, Air-Mech-Strike: Asymmetric Maneuver Warfare for the 21st Century. The place for such a minimalist, motorized, all-terrain Light Bike/Cycle Infantry (LBI) force is for nation-state or sub-national group war missions where they must surprise the theses were, enemy and fan out state university master thesis, quickly to surround him or take up positions to block him using 3D aircraft and/or closed terrain mobility. Once gone to essay about value of trees ground, this LBI force would fight at an advantage over foot-slogging troops in terms of firepower and staying power but protection would be inferior to just making the investment in delivering minimalist light tracked armored fighting vehicles (TAFVs) which can advance in the face of enemy fire that the LBI unit would have to chico university master thesis go to ground against.

I always propose BOTH LBI + TAFV Light Mechanized forces for 3D maneuver. LBI is essential an aircraft-stuffer to get say 40 x LBImen in a C-130 versus 9 x Light TAFVmechmen (M113 Gavin ) in proper letters, a C-130. What we see with the French 75mm RR motorscooter from Indo-China and Algeria is the foot-slogging Paratroopers having some HE BUILDING/BUNKER BLASTING WEAPONS SUPPORT MOTORIZED where the internal combustion engine is used to move the master thesis archieves, heavy RR tube and ammo to thesis printing weight accompany the men as they march at 1-4 mph and use its 4-25 mph speeds in bursts to chico thesis archieves GET INTO FIRING POSITIONS in support of the main body still trudging along at a snail's pace. As we propose in LBI, the ENTIRE FORCE can move up to 25-60 mph depending if we use electric or internal combustion power. Tuesday, 26 December 2006. I've got your firepower, right here. Surely, this is the scooter with the highest firepower, ever. Unless someone ever mounted a Davey Crockett on a scooter. And, it was AIRBORNE! Five parachutes would carry the two-man gun crew, weapon, ammunition, and two scooters safely to earth, and the men would load the weapon on the 95 theses, one scooter and the ammo on the other, then ride away.

More impressively, the recoilless rifle could be fired effectively on university master thesis archieves, the move by the best of the gun crews. Total cost? About $500 for the scooter and the recoilless rifle was war surplus. Were they successful military machines? Well, the French Army deployed about 800 armed scooters in wars conducted in both Algeria and Indochina. Found at Dark Roasted Blend (see history and aristotle prime, more photos there), via Hell in university thesis, a Handbasket, via Defense Tech . Two things ACE would want added: Elevation and essay of trees, traverse adjustment and a .50 cal. Chico State University Master? spotter tracer mounted coaxially, like the jeep-mounted 106 recoilless had. ACE had an Army Surplus Airborne Cushman. as a kid. Bought it for $25 out of theses were a front yard. State University Thesis? It had a 4 hp engine, weighed 255 lbs, and was built like a tank (to probably survive even if the programming paper, chute failed to open). Didn't arm it.

Just delivered newspapers from a metal basket mounted on the back. It had a cracked carburetor. It sometimes took longer to get it running than to deliver the papers, but it was my pride and joy. A Paratrooper from the chico state master thesis, 506 th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 101 st Airborne Division, somewhere in France , 1944. Another photo (with parachute) of the Model 53 U.S. Mover Essay? Airborne Cushman from . Better still.

The Army bought 4,734 of these beginning in 1944. See Cushman timeline. Illustrated Cushman history shows Airborne ad. Friday, December 15, 2006. Mystery Photo: One Seriously Empowered Motorcycle.

The Little (Vintage) Scooter That Could. Maybe. Any ideas what it is exactly? Can it fire?? UPDATE: (see the comment below) It's the work of the chico university master thesis, French Military! El Queso Grande provided the introductions essays, link (thanks!) So, what's the most unusual military vehicle you can think of? Maybe the Japanese airplane-launching submarine of WW2? Or perhaps the Soviet attempts to build a flying tank?

Or perhaps the state university thesis archieves, 1000-ton rolling fortress the Germans tried to build in WW2? All quite odd, I agree, but barely made it past the drawing boards. For us, the programming research paper, oddest is a scooter armed with a 75mm cannon. After World War II, there was little money for defense spending while the nations of chico state master archieves Europe rebuilt their industry and society. When there was some cash to spend, one had to be creative to stretch it as far as possible. The French probably accomplished the thesis, most astounding example of that with the ACMA Troupes Aerl Portes Mle. 56 . Deployed with their airborne forces, this was essentially a militarized Vespa scooter outfitted with a 75mm recoilless rifle. Five parachutes would carry the state master thesis, two-man gun crew, weapon, ammunition, and essays college, two scooters safely to earth, and the men would load the state master thesis archieves, weapon on one scooter and the ammo on the other, then ride away. Form For Cover? More impressively, the recoilless rifle could be fired effectively on the move by the best of the gun crews. Total cost?

About $500 for the scooter and archieves, the recoilless rifle was war surplus. Were they successful military machines? Well, the computer, French Army deployed about 800 armed scooters in wars conducted in both Algeria and Indochina. OK, so now I found more pictures: Apparently, recoil was not a problem whatsoever, and this little scooter could (and did) wreak serious havoc. Talk About a Crotch Rocket! I was browsing through the state university archieves, comments over at Bob's place when I came across a link to this blog post. It is were, all about some serious firepower welded on to a little scooter. Follow that last link for chico state thesis archieves, more pictures. Let me tell you, this weapon is letters, a hoot. Seems the French were short of cash after WWII, just like every country in Europe.

They wanted to provide some badly needed artillery support for their airborne troops, so someone came up with the idea of welding a surplus 75mm recoilless cannon to a scooter. Lightweight, air-portable, mobile, and really cheap. A recoilless cannon is state university master thesis, one of the few weapons that would work in paper weight, this arrangement without tearing the scooter apart. Master? Originally a cutting edge concept intended to provide anti-tank and artillery capabilities to light vehicles and infantry forces, recoilless cannons (AKA recoilless rifles) were eventually replaced by RPG's and wire-guided anti-tank missiles. The most famous recoilless rifle in U.S. Computer Programming Research Paper? military history has got to thesis archieves be the Davy Crockett.

This was a nuclear device designed during the Cold War to be used against advancing Russian armies in an effort to buy time for the mobilization of were NATO troops. The way they work is simple enough. They use what looks like traditional cannon shells, but the casing is pierced by a large number of holes. The holes are sealed against moisture by having small disks of plastic or waxed cardboard glued over them. When the shell is fired, the holes allow most of the propellant gases to escape to the rear in state university thesis archieves, order to counteract the recoil. The biggest problem with this system is theses were, that it usually produces some rather low muzzle velocities. The trajectory of the shell resembles a rainbow, which means it can be tricky to state master thesis archieves place the round on printing paper, target. Most of the chico university master, large caliber recoilless rifles I have seen were equipped with what appeared to me to be some elaborate sighting devices. This begs the question: How did the French crews on their scooters elevate the muzzle of their gun? If I was one of the computer paper, scooter-riding gunmen, I would bring along some wooden chocks of different sizes for the front wheel. The larger the block, the university thesis, higher the muzzle and programming paper, the longer the round would travel.

I would even mark the state thesis archieves, blocks with ranges in aristotle, yards so I could find the right one quickly. I don't know how the university master archieves, French did it, though. I mentioned earlier that most recoilless cannon weapons have been replaced by introductions, RPG's and university archieves, TOW's. It seems that at least one major arms manufacturer thinks that it still has a use, but this version is upgraded into an autoloading remote weapon turret. The pioneering concept of the aristotle, RMK 30 recoilless cannon is opening up completely new horizons in terms of protecting military convoys in university thesis archieves, crisis areas.

The RMK weapon system can be integrated into virtually any conceivable carrier, such as trailers, containers and vehicles, and aristotle essay, thanks to its low weight, compactness and simple design, can even be retrofitted into existing vehicles. Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH. Branch Mauser Oberndorf. 78727 Oberndorf am Neckar, Germany. Phone: +49 7423 70-0. Fax: +49 7423 70-670. That is what I love about living in chico state master thesis, the 21st Century. High tech often gives new life to stuff that has been junked.

Posted on December 17, 2006 8:03 PM | Permalink. TrackBack URL for this entry: You know, I can kinda see it being useful in the two French wars that it apparently saw action: Indochina and Algeria. I mean, in Vietnam, back when the French owned the whole place in the 50's, they had at least one or two roads that they protected with series of guard posts (read The Quiet American for a mention). I suppose that I'd sure as hell rather take a Vespa with a RR than a motorcycle if I was sent from my post down to aristotle prime the next one to chico state university thesis quell some sort of disturbance. And, well, Algeria is pretty self-explanatory. flat desert area with roads don't really require off-road capabilities. Or, hell, watching The Battle of programming research Algiers makes it look like they might want it to chico state master thesis archieves create extra doors in value of trees, urban fighting. The U.S. had Cushman scooters for our airborne troops in WWII, and in the cold war we had MULES, and we still use JD Gators and similar, so the light transport idea isn't dead. Do you know if the French issued a 75mm anti-personnel round like the U.S.

106mm flechette round? It would be a pretty nasty weapon with those. Especially for quelling riots and similar, where the lack of armor wouldn't be a huge deal. Posted by Bob | December 18, 2006 3:43 AM. Recoilless guns are still in service: . including the U.S. Army. Posted by J.M. Heinrichs | December 25, 2006 8:13 PM.

Carl Gustav is not a classical recoilless gun, it use a small rocket to propel it out of the barrel and the rocket. The rocket burn out inside the barrel to avoid burning the operator. This is done for all RPG-like weapons the advances of this is master thesis archieves, that you get a smooth acceleration in the barrel to get more speed and almost no pressure in the barrel so it can be kept thin and light. Longer-range recoilless weapons like TOW, Milan or Stinger has a second larger rocket who start at some distance after firing to give more speed and control. Posted by mags | December 26, 2006 8:48 AM. British WelBike: The WW2 Paras' Motor Scooter. Military MotorBikes are in the 95, use Today around the World, but Commanders Fear there Men Getting Hurt so Use is Limited.

Fabled Guerrilla Warfare Leader T.E. Lawrence of Arabia was killed in a Motorcycle crash. pedal bikes with at university master thesis archieves, the most electrical assists are much safer for mass troop formation use. Australian Army Scout-Motorcyclist in Afghanistan. Lawrence of Arabia on motorcycle. An active-duty U.S. Army Cav Scout: Hello, my name is SGT XXX XXXXX, I am a cav scout in A troop XX/XXX cav at fort XXXXX. My squadron commander and introductions college, I were talking about the concept of chico university master thesis archieves adding mountain bikes to the scout platoons in my unit.

I told him I'd research the idea and happened upon your website during my research. I am hoping you would be able to send me some information by hardcopy on specifications and costs for both the bike types. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Please send to SGT XXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXX. A CAP Search and Rescue (SAR) team leader: I would like to ask you to check out a professional paper at look under Year 2000 articles at of trees, the article A Ground Team Force Multiplier. This article was inspired in part by chico university thesis, your LBI page. (though not completely)This concept is now seriously under consideration by the United States Air Force Auxiliary, Civil Air Patrol. Form For Cover? I wrote a letter once before, asking for the parts list you mention in the LBI page for a $500 militarized bicycle that could be assembled in a local bike shop. I would like to respectfully again request the parts list/instructions.

Thank you. Folding ATB details: 1. Folding ATB types: DaHon types approximately $500. 2. Non-Folding Extreme Terrain bike (ETB): Hanebrink Bikes, Ca. 3. No-More Flats solid rubber inner tubes $30 each.

1438 S. Cherokee St. Denver, CO 80223. 4. Blackburn rear rack $30. 5. Aerospoke wheels $500 each. 6. Rok-Shox front suspension forks $250 (if ATB doesn't have these) 7. Electric motor. On this web page the links to these parts are offered: 1 st TSG (A) Dark Claw Team Leader. A Super Soldier writes: Like your site, and your points.

Will be working on chico, my own site soon. I feel there is essays, a use for band tracks but wheels in a recon role would be good (Fox vehicle with external .50 cal weapons station, C-130 loadable, quiet, fast, mast site on university thesis archieves, the back. The 95 Were? Big? Maybe, but equipped for long-range, long-time surveillance. 5 Troops, 2 mountain bikes gives option of 2 short OPs. Just a thought, it will be on my sight.

Oh, a chem PL said you can't load a Fox on a C-130 due to the EPLRS mount on chico state thesis, the back - I say move it! Good remarks on wheeled recon. We concur that wheels can work in recon roles though we prefer band-tracks. We insist that intended-for-COMBAT vehicles must be tracked. I like your energy to get the job done--the Army already has Fox armored cars for NBC recon--why buy LAV-IIIs?---use them them for peacekeeping brigades (should be MPs). Keep up the fire! An Army NCO writes: This site rocks!

I have been riding an aristotle mover electric-assist bike to and from work, up and down flightlines, and to the store for over 5 years. I have been trying to sell the military electric bikes for 3 years but have always had trouble with the durability of the motors available, range and weight of chico university lead-acid and form, NiCad batteries, and the recharging problems. Now I have been asked by a DARPA funded company to help develop and market a military scout bike that meets all these challenges head-on. As development proceeds I would like to explore the possibility of using your website as an state educational link for the commanders that have very little idea of how to think out of the box. Your website is form letters, of museum quality and will take me several weeks to chico university master thesis archieves digest all of the information available. Of course when we are ready I would like to showcase our capabilities within the pages of your website as well. So far we are able to sustain (and these numbers are subdued) speeds of 19+ mph, range in excess of 20 miles, with a trailer towing capacity of greater than 80 lbs. US Pro Drive is the best motor for bicycles on the market right now and we have smoked it.

Literally! Can't say too much but suffice it to say the motor got warm trying to keep up with ours. I am very familiar with SKEDCO/FERNO products and would love the aristotle essay, military medics to chico state master thesis use them more often. Medics on Bikes could stow quite a lot of equipment in a trailer. SKEDS would be a lot easier for me to medevac in my CH-47. I've been in JRTC exercises where we have run out of stretchers but not casualties. I'd like to suggest going to and see everything they have to prime mover essay offer the chico state university archieves, common Soldier sleeping in thesis paper weight, a GP Medium (or in the open), Quick React Force having to run all over a company area with the M60s trying to reinforce the guardpoints, and the bike mounted scouts that have to carry a MULE, water, food, ammo, NVDs, overhead cover, days worth of batteries, and the radios that eat them.

The white trailers pictured are now black in color. Camouflage may be available. The owner of the company is a retired marine EA-6B squadron commander turned airline pilot. Reply: Bring on the Hybrid-Electric Scout Bike. Teledyne Brown Engineering THELLIE FLIR camo Paratrooper suit. Technological advances have greatly reduced the university, cost of infrared sensors, resulting in widespread use of very sophisticated surveillance and targeting devices by military forces throughout the world--including America's enemies.

Teledyne Brown Engineering, long an RD leader in camouflage for weight, visual and RF suppression, has developed products for countering these infrared devices. Of particular value is chico state thesis archieves, our Thellie Suit, designed to suppress the signature of the human body in the visual through thermal infrared bands. Introductions College? This suit enables the wearer to blend into the background when viewed through the best performing infrared imaging devices. The alternating pictures show images from master visible and infrared sensors of a Soldier in standard field uniform (left) and in the Thellie Suit (right). Constructed of lightweight fabrics in configurations that allow proper ventilation of body-produced heat, the Thellie Suit enables the wearer to freely and comfortably accomplish mission demands.

The suit conforms to normal criteria placed on qualified military equipment. The material can also be in a poncho or blanket configuration. The name thellie is a combination of thermal -- denoting the suit's IR suppression capability -- and ghillie -- the name for Irish and Scottish gamekeepers who used homemade camouflage suits to college stalk game poachers. This product is available only to authorized customers in state university thesis archieves, U.S. Government agencies. For additional information, contact: Jerry C. Edwards. (256) 726-1000 ask operator to connect you. BICYCLES IN WAR.

By Martin Caidin and Jay Barbree. Illustrated with 24 pages of photographs and drawings. Researching this book and its illustrations presented the essays college, unusual problem of chico state university master archieves disturbing dust that hadn't been moved for essay value, a long time. The project of digging out the details of the use of chico master bicycles in war invariably provoked glassy-eyed stares of disbelief. Proper For Cover? After the initial reaction, a number of people did everything possible to help us in bringing this story to light.

We wish especially to chico university master thesis archieves thank John J. Computer Programming Research Paper? Slonaker, research historian of the Department of the Army, Military History Research Collection at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, for many hours spent in researching historical material and photographs. John Chris Reisinger, vice-president of AUTOCOMP, for his time and effort in state university thesis, disturbing ancient files in Washington, D.C., to unearth photographs. Miss Denise Myhill for theses were, spending much time and effort in London, England, especially in chico state university archieves, the Imperial War Museum, and for her invaluable information and illustrations. Mr. Robert S. Kohn of the Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, who was most helpful with his steady supply of historical facts on the military bicycle. And a kind word to college Dame Sybil Leek, Dr. William E. Bagwell, and Edward Hymoff for their assistance.

Military cyclists have gone into battle from rubber rafts paddled silently to enemy shorelines. from airplanes that have dropped them by parachute behind enemy lines. and from on-the-ground attack points. Bicyclists formed military units in chico state university archieves, the armies of many nations. They rode on bicycles, tricycles, and quadricycles, carrying everything from pistols to heavy machine guns and aristotle prime mover, cannon. They have transported food and state university master archieves, weapons; carried out patrol, convoy, and escort duty; conducted secret missions of introductions essays college demolition and chico state university thesis archieves, sabotage; and launched surprise attacks on enemy installations. With the aid of many human-interest anecdotes, the authors of this unique book about a little-known aspect of programming paper war trace the evolution of the bicycle and chico thesis, describe the college, role cyclist troops have played in conflicts ranging from the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to the jungles of Vietnam. There are graphic accounts of the Belgian underground operating via bicycles against the Germans in both world wars; the state archieves, successful use of cyclist transport by Vietminh guerrillas in overwhelming the theses were, French at Dien Bien Phu; the significant part played by bicycles in the Japanese victory against the British in Malaya and Singapore; and the unstoppable resupply of Vietcong and chico university archieves, North Vietnamese military units by bicycle coolies (despite massive U.S. aerial bombing) in the abortive Vietnam war. MARTIN CAIDIN is recognized as one of the outstanding authorities in mover, the areas of science, aviation, astronautics, and military history and state master thesis archieves, is the author of eighty published books.

The National War College, the U.S. Air Force's Air University, and other government institutions use (Bruce I. Gerard) Caidin books as doctrine and strategy guides. He has been an active parachutist; has trained in centrifuges; has flown at supersonic speeds; has covered the launching of the 95 theses hundreds of satellites, lunar and planetary probes, and ICBMs; and has broadcast the launching and mission of almost every manned space flight in archieves, the United States. Among his successful books are The Tigers Are Burning , Samurai !, Cyborg , Countdown for Tomorrow , and The Night Hamburg Died . JAY BARBREE is currently in his fifteenth year with NBC News as their Cape Kennedy correspondent. He covers national stories that break in the southeastern sector of the country, and computer programming research paper, has handled anchorman assignments for the past Apollo moon landing missions and the Skylab flights for state master thesis archieves, the entire NBC-Radio network. He has published stories in proper for cover letters, Time and Life and narrated a thirty-minute TV film for chico state university master thesis archieves, USIA about Project Mercury . During 1963 and 1964 he wrote and voiced fifty-two space programs for the Voice of America. Essays? I.

Acknowledgments Page vii. Chapter 1 Death Ride Page 3. Chapter 2 The First One Hundred and Five Years Page 10. Chapter 3 The Oddballs Page 32. Chapter 4 The Biscuit-and-Bean March Page 43. Chapter 5 The Bicycle Goes to War Page 60. Chapter 6 Along the state university master archieves, Trenches Page 69. Chapter 7 Between Wars Page 86. Chapter 8 The Bike and the Blitzkrieg Page 98. Chapter 9 The Great Bicycle Commando Raid Page 111. Chapter 10 The Other Side of the World Page 124.

Chapter 11 History Relearned Page 137. Chapter 12 And Now, Tomorrow Page 147. Bibliography and References Page 151. Chapter 1: Death Ride. The first chill of October rode a gentle breeze across the scarred trenches. The wind carried to Private Henri Roget with its stink of burnt powder. The French Soldier sniffed and wrinkled his nose with distaste, for the wind also bore the smell of death. Roget slumped along the walls of about value his trench and looked at chico state university archieves, the men trapped with him on proper letters, the muddy battlefield.

The Soldiers in the 5 th Infantry of the French Army had huddled low in their trenches since first light, pinned to state thesis archieves sticky mud by an unending rain of German artillery and mortar shells. They were in printing, a race for time. A reinforcement column of two thousand men was on chico state university, its way. Would it reach them before the Germans opened the final assault on the trenches? The year was 1914 and the Great War (which would become known as World War I) had been under way for several months. But terrible battles were already decimating the armies of both sides. On the northwestern front, seesaw battles had cut a bloody swath through such fighting units as the French 5 th Infantry. For nine days and nine nights the French and British struggled to turn the flank of the German forces opposing them. Private Roget and his comrades had stormed the research paper, German defenses again and again.

The Germans, well dug in, threw them back every time. The French and British retired finally to their own lines, nursing severe losses. They needed reinforcements desperately. But the Germans had strengthened their own battle units first. They rushed in fresh troops, with heavy artillery and mortar support. Now they were preparing to smash the French and British, huddled in hastily dug trenches.

Private Roget was a brave man, but he worried about the dangerous position into which his unit had fallen. Until two months before this moment, life had been pleasant. He had worked in the warm country vineyards south of Toulouse. Now he crouched in a battle trench in northern France, where autumn comes early. With shells bursting about him, Roget pressed himself against the damp earth of his trench and state master archieves, wondered if he would still be alive at the end of the day. The heavy barrage fell away and Roget eased himself cautiously to proper form letters the rim of the trench.

For a moment the war seemed far away. University Master Thesis? To his right a hill lifted gently above the ground, the trees were diffused with a golden hue from sunbathed dust in the air. Proper For Cover Letters? It was a strange moment of peace. Suddenly something moved within the woods. The movement at state university master thesis, first startled him; then he relaxed. Introductions? He knew that a strong body of British troops, including a full company of cyclist Soldiers, was concealed in state archieves, the woods. They, too, were waiting for form for cover letters, reinforcements. But there was movement away from the point where the British had dug-in.

The activity Private Roget saw was to the rear of the British position. Roget studied the area. There! He noticed it again. Something was definitely stirring about under heavy cover and it was not part of the British encampment. Chico University Archieves? Private Roget, motioning frantically for his commanding officer to join him, pointed toward the heavy growth of trees. The French officer brought powerful field glasses to his eyes. He scanned the area, then concentrated on introductions, a small break in the growth. After a moment, he was able to make out a helmet. Several more moved into chico state university master thesis archieves the range of his glasses. There was no longer any doubt.

The helmets were worn by thesis printing paper weight, German troops who had somehow maneuvered to get behind the Allied lines, and were now waiting in ambush for the Allied reinforcements. The French officer turned about and swept the chico university master thesis, road running past the wooded hill with his field glasses. In the aristotle mover essay, valley below he saw the French relief column approaching the battlefield-two thousand Soldiers marching behind their mounted officers into certain death. Private Roget's officer pointed to the approaching column. Chico? We must warn them! he shouted to his men. A signalman crawled from the trench. For a moment he looked nervously toward the woods, where the Germans waited in for cover letters, concealment. Then he leaped to his feet, his signal flags snapping through the air in, frantic motions. Chico State University Master Archieves? All he needed was enough time for the approaching column to see the flags. Only a few more seconds. From the copse where the Germans hid in the heavy growth came a stuttering roar-a machine gun firing a long burst.

The signalman's body jerked violently, spun. about. Dead before he struck the computer programming paper, ground, the Soldier tumbled back into the trench. Roget rushed to chico state master thesis archieves help him, then glanced at introductions essays college, the officer and chico state master thesis archieves, shook his head. The French commander looked at the dismayed faces of his men. He hesitated a moment before again giving the order to signal the oncoming force. A second signalman crouched, then rushed from the trench and scooped up the flags from the printing paper weight, muddy ground. In an chico state university master archieves instant he stood erect, the essay, semaphore flags moving quickly. As quickly as the first man had died, the second signalman met his death as German machine-gun bullets slammed into chico state university archieves his body. He was hurled violently to the mud, his face a bright red flower. The French officer rushed to essays his command post.

Another way must be found to warn the reinforcing column of its danger. Yet to climb from the trenches was certain death. Abruptly, the assembled officers turned at a shout from Private Roget, who was gesturing toward the wooded hill. From the trees where the British had dug in, the French saw a British Soldier race suddenly from the undergrowth. He moved with uncommon speed and the French stared in wonder as the trooper tore down the hill on a bicycle, leaning sharply from state university master one side to the other as he rode in zigzag spurts to confuse the essay about value of trees, aim of the German gunners. Almost at state university master, once the Germans opened fire. The first burst went high. Aristotle Mover? Tree trunks and branches exploded as a lethal spray of machine-gun bullets shredded the woods. The cyclist bent low, swerving sharply, pedaling even faster. Master Thesis? A second long burst sent dust and mud flying all about him-but most of the bullets fell behind the speeding trooper. The Frenchmen began to cheer, but only for a moment.

Their sudden shouting froze in their throats. The Germans had the range now. The heavy gun erupted with its deadly. cough and bullets tore into the body of the British Soldier. As if struck by a huge physical blow, he was hurled from the speeding bicycle, his body hitting the ground with terrible impact. Blood poured from a dozen wounds as the dying man rolled through leaves and mud. As suddenly as the first cyclist had rushed from the undergrowth, a second British Soldier pedaled madly down the hill, following the same evasive pattern of swift changes in his path.

Again the cheering rose from the trenches where the French watched, and again the heavy machine gun sought the range. The second rider managed another fifty yards before the paper, blast of lead caught him. Man and cycle catapulted through the air in an awkward sprawl, with bicycle wheels spinning madly. The British cyclist crawled to his feet and staggered forward, blood staining his uniform. He moved three steps in the direction of the German machine gun, then collapsed slowly. Lying down as if he were tired, he died on the spot. Private Roget and his comrades gaped and shook their heads in wonder.

Surely even these mad, brave Soldiers must abandon further attempts to warn the unsuspecting French column. Master Thesis? To expose oneself before that machine gun was suicide. Theses Were? The situation had become utterly hopeless. And so they were all caught by surprise when a third British Soldier dashed from the trees, riding full speed down the hill-right into the teeth of the enemy machine gun. Immediately the familiar deadly roar of the machine gun erupted from its hiding place.

Again the bullets slashed the chico state university, air and introductions, ripped through trees. But this time they failed to chico university master thesis archieves find their target. Aristotle Mover Essay? The cyclist raced on. Unlike the first two men, the third took full advantage of the state thesis archieves, forest line along the slope . Head bent low, he raced his. bicycle expertly between the trees, constantly changing position, offering a poor, fleeting target. Essays? The German gunner did his best to track his elusive quarry but could not keep pace with the agility and thesis archieves, swiftness of the adroit cyclist . The cheering, which had died out in the French trenches, burst anew over the fields. Machine-gun bullets tore into trees, buzzing like hornets about the British Soldier. Research Paper? Other German Soldiers took up the firing-and now a second machine gun blasted into action. In the valley below, the heavy fire had alerted the chico state university thesis, column of reinfor cements.

The brigade commander, at the head of his troops, reined his horse to a halt. The column stopped, alert for any danger. They could see nothing, but the awesome sound of the essay about value, chattering machine guns reached them clearly. Without warning, startling the French, the British cyclist exploded into sight. One moment nothing was there, the next second the French saw the Soldier pedaling furiously from the shelter of the trees. They stared in astonishment as he raced toward them, crossing the open field between the forest and the road, where the French column had halted. Another machine gun coughed heavily, and again bullets sought their target. The gunner stitched a straight line through thick grass. This time he had the range.

Bullets slammed into chico university master thesis the front wheel of the speeding bicycle! But the cyclist was ready for this moment. The 95 Theses Were? He had already crossed the field to the road, and the instant he felt the university master, wheel spokes cut by essay about, bullets, he lunged from the bicycle into the ditch. The watching French troops fell silent. And now the Germans took up the cheering, certain the British bicyclist was dead.

But they couldn't see into the ditch. Hidden from view, the British trooper was a long way from being dead. Staying low he crawled along the ditch, dragging his bicycle with him. A hundred yards further along, convinced the Germans would never look for him there, he bounded from the ditch, climbed upon his bicycle, and rode with all speed toward the waiting French column. Sudden shouts came from the German position. Men cursed and swung their heavy weapons about to take new aim.

The machine guns roared again. But by this time the cyclist had made good his escape. He was beyond their range. Chico University Archieves? Dirt spattered wildly along the road from falling bullets-all of them striking behind the essays, speeding Soldier. The French commander dismounted and stood before his horse as the cyclist screeched to a stop. University Thesis? Gasping for air, nearly exhausted, he snapped out a salute and transmitted his warning of the German ambush ahead. The French officer looked down the road toward the copse of trees, where certain death had awaited his troops. This one man, this wild-riding Soldier on his bicycle, had undoubtedly saved the lives of his men. Stepping forward, the Frenchman took from his own tunic the medal he himself had won for bravery under fire. This medal was given to me, man camarade, for college, saving one life , he said to the astonished Briton. Quickly pinning the chico state university thesis archieves, medal to the Soldier's uniform, the French officer stepped back and saluted smartly.

I have the honor, he declared, of aristotle prime essay presenting it to you today for saving the lives of chico state university hundreds . Chapter 2: The First One Hundred and Five Years. There's something stirring and dramatic in the sight of men flying, sailing, or driving off to war. Well, it's far better than walking. Ask any foot slogger and you won't lack an college answer. Bicycles as weapons, and as support vehicles, have been on the military scene for more than a century. In their long period of development they have been heralded and state university master thesis archieves, scorned, praised and derided. At times they've proven cumbersome and unwieldy enough to be thrown onto the nearest trash heap. On other occasions they've been in such great demand that men have been killed defending their machines. Aristotle Mover? And, as we saw in the first chapter, they have also proved vital in the outcome of major battles . If nothing else, the history of the military bicycle has always been interesting and, more often than not, exciting. Bicycles in the military have been used as a means of striking silently and unexpectedly to chico university seize enemy strongpoints, where such attacks were believed impossible.

Special teams, as well as individuals, have used cycles to value carry. out successful long-range forays and behind-the-lines demolition and chico university thesis, sabotage. The 95? They have proved their worth time and again in patrol, convoy, and escort duty. Chico University Thesis? Their speed in emergencies has made them especially valuable in performing defense and delayed-action missions. Riot police have testified to the merit of computer programming research bicycles in controlling crowds, moving swiftly over ground impassable to chico state other forms of transport.

Bicycles have been unspindled, folded, and racked into compact packages for the 95 theses, paratroopers and mountain forces. In modern times, the lowly bicycle, sans the glitter of weaponry, has been at times virtually the sole logistics force of entire armies. Without the bicycle the Vietminh would never have been able to overwhelm the French defenders at Dien Bien Phu . Chico? And without the bicycle in the hands of the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese, the United States would have ended the war in Vietnam years before if dragged to its unsuccessful non-conclusion. In Asia, more than in any other part of the proper for cover, world, the bicycle survived against a massive assault by the most advanced and sophisticated weapons in history. It was the simple bicycle that reigned supreme in jungle logistics, and finally became, through its consistent success, one of the most-sought-after targets along the chico state university master archieves, supply trails of the Vietnamese jungles. History has recorded some strange conflicts, but few David-and-Goliath stories will ever match the sight of a massive American jet fighter-bomber, costing upward of $6 million, trying to destroy a string of bicycles costing no more than $20 each.

The bicycle had been around for proper form, a century before it earned its greatest success in the wars that have plagued Indochina in the last few decades. In the intervening hun- dred years the military bicycle has seen many ups and downs in its development. It all began during the chico master, Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. About Value? At that time, an enterprising tactician approached military officials of the chico state university, French government with the proposition of using bicycles to conduct armed scouting expeditions in enemy territory. What a surprise it would be! First the printing weight, armed scouts gliding noiselessly through the fortifications and camps of the enemy, gathering vital information about their weak points.

Then, the weaknesses well-recorded, task forces of specially trained Soldiers racing deep into the enemy's land-to strike and disappear as silently and as mysteriously as they had come . Like many ideas, everything looked good on paper, but this one came a cropper when the tacticians faced up to the harsh problems of reality. To begin with, the bicycles of 1870 were, by today's standards, crude in design, clumsy in master thesis, use, distressingly heavy, and notoriously unreliable in proper for cover letters, their ability to state master thesis survive in rough country. Soldiers burdened with rifle, pack, and supplies needed acrobatic agility, great strength, and infinite patience simply to wobble their way along the cowpaths that served for roads in those days. More often than not, Soldiers on foot, overtaking the speedy cyclists , found them panting in total exhaustion in a ditch by the road. Initial experiments with the were, bicycle as a swift and silent weapon proved it to have all the bad characteristics of a mule with none of its advantages.

Well-no guts, no glory. The Italian army, studying the experiences of the state thesis archieves, French, responded with many a sneer at the northerners . Form Letters? What could one expect from the. French? After all, the intrinsic advantages of the bicycle could hardly be denied, said the Italians. Without fuel or servicing , it promised far-ranging speed and mobility. One needed only to know how to improve the clumsy machines. French bicycles were still rusting by the roadside, where they had been flung in disdain, when the state university thesis, Italian army put its theories into practice. In 1870, taking the best bicycles to be had on the open market, the Italians introduced the about of trees, two-wheelers to university master their famed bersaglieri , the crack sharpshooters of the army infantry corps. For five years grinning riflemen wheeled their cycles up and down the roads of Italy, waving to pretty girls-and pedaling off to for cover letters meet those same girls under cover of darkness. But would the machines that encouraged such clandestine meetings also function under the adversities of an state master thesis army in introductions essays, the field? In 1875 the state university master thesis archieves, Italian army carried out large-scale maneuvers, duplicating battle conditions as closely as possible-and to everyone's surprise, especially that of the were, French, the bicycle came out a winner.

Italian military cyclists were used to carry dispatches to units isolated in chico state university master thesis archieves, the field. Notwithstanding the proper form letters, fact that even the best machines of that period were clumsy, heavy, and chico master, a nightmare of crude gearing, the cyclists averaged a speed of printing weight twelve miles an hour across open country . Chico University Thesis Archieves? They achieved this feat despite the heavy machines, and of being outfitted, as well, with a brake, lantern, knapsack, rifle in a support, ammunition, and a leather pouch for military orders (and, no doubt, cheese and wine). Reports of the bicycle's success in the Italian field maneuvers of 1875 sparked a rush by other countries to thesis printing paper begin their own experimental programs. As inventors and tinkerers were turned loose, the bicycle showed up in a be- wildering variety of designs and shapes. Chico University Master Thesis Archieves? It grew in prime mover, size and complexity as rapidly as the enthusiasm of its supporters could be translated into state master physical hardware. Such progression is inevitable. The lure of bigger and better is irresistible. Thus the proper form for cover, line of reasoning that if the bicycle, with its constant demand for state university, balance on thin and hard tires, still had advantages over walking, what might not be done with the tricycle? So the three-wheeler was rushed from the factory to the army for theses, field tests, and bore immediate fruit in reports that over good roads it could carry heavy loads with reasonable speed. The tricycle was better than the bicycle for carrying heavy loads over distances.

What might be the next, step? You guessed it. Chico State? The quadricycle lumbered away from the assembly shop, a contraption of machinery demanding the leg power and body stamina of two men. The concept itself could hardly be faulted. But practicality lagged sadly behind concept-and the quadricycles that emerged were mechanical monstrosities. Lumbering on introductions college, thin tires, and with ungainly bodies desperately in need of spring action, they jolted and rocked wildly over chico master, the rutted and the 95 were, potholed roads in battle areas. However, despite their staggering faults, they proved even more dangerous to state thesis the enemy than to their riders-for there was nothing preposterous in the mounting of machine guns or other weapons on the quadricycles' bulky frames. The improvisor is a hardy breed, and, when the tinkerers reached their limit on the four-wheels, they gravitated naturally to the next step-two quadricycles in tandem. The trailing or towed vehicle was a perfect means of transporting machine guns, small cannon, ammunition, or any kind of supplies.

By 1890, the British army was well into field tests on these eight-wheeled monsters. It didn't take long for them to become known as the hernia horrors . The Soldiers gasping their way cross-country, with leg muscles in knots, could have told the experts what was wrong with these mechanical uglies. Unless the road surface was of high quality, both men and machines took a beating that all too quickly put them out of paper action. There was little joking about the problem-the men were literally being shaken into injury and illness. Everyone was really waiting for an invention that would make the bicycle practical. Chico Master Thesis Archieves? Solid tires had never been the answer and prime essay, never would be. Something better was needed for rolling across the countryside.

Unknown to those with battered bladders, that new invention had already been created by a horse doctor in Belfast, Ireland. John Boyd Dunlap was his name, and in chico university master thesis, 1888 he produced the invention that was to programming make him famous. It was the pneumatic tire-the inflated tire that gave a cushion of air to jolting jenny. Overnight a new wave of enthusiasm carried bicycle testing to new heights. The pneumatic tire was actually the turning point for the military bicycle, since it gave the archieves, machine unexcelled mobility over roads that had proved impassable for the earlier machines. In 1892 the United States Army joined the parade of bicycle improvisors, beginning a series of printing paper extensive military field tests that offered fertile territory to the tinkerers. Military bicycles appeared on roads, with large umbrellas that could be used as sunshades and that also could be rotated 90° to act as sails to catch' a favorable wind.

Farmers gaped at university archieves, these apparitions-two-wheeled sailing ships flitting over narrow country roads and gliding effortlessly over distant hills. Unfortunately, that was the ideal. All too often the um- brella-sails dragged their kicking riders into ditches and off bridges into streams. They twisted and, more than once, folded with a sudden whack across the heads of introductions essays college hapless riders. Someone in university master thesis archieves, headquarters decided there had been enough tomfoolery with inventions.

It was time to concentrate on using the bicycle as it had been designed for simple, reliable, and fast transportation. The 15 th Infantry was given the job of developing the bicycle as a useful weapon. Few military projects have enjoyed the success that the bicycle met with this organization. A detachment of form for cover eight Soldiers, under the chico university, command of 1st Lt . W. T. May, spent several weeks becoming accustomed to their two-wheelers. They practiced loading with rifles and supplies until they could mount up and be on form, their way cross-country with only a few minutes warning-as Soldiers, not sightseers. While the army went through its testing program, history was being made by members of the American Wheelman's Association. Chico State Thesis? Relays of thesis weight bicycle carriers posted by the AWA covered a distance of 975 miles in the amazing time of only four days and thirteen hours, carrying a dispatch from the Headquarters Department of the chico state university master, Missouri in programming research paper, Chicago to the Headquarters Department of the East in New York. Another organization also had begun its own development program.

The National Guard of Connecticut was the first unit of its kind officially to deploy cyclists within its ranks. This same guard outfit was actually the first American military organization to use the bicycle as standard equipment assigned to its troops. But the chico university master, purists will argue that peacetime training just isn't in the same league as roughing it in the field. It, was Maj. Form For Cover? Gen. Nelson A. Miles (who had commanded army. field units during the chico state university master thesis, Indian Wars and prime mover essay, had defeated the Chiricahua Apaches under Geronimo)who first used cyclists under realistic field conditions.

Working under special handicaps of mountain country, Miles organized the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps in July 1896 at Fort Missoula, Montana. Second Lieutenant James A. Moss was assigned as commander. Moss not only was the first man to command a cycle corps, he was the only white man in the outfit, which was all-Negro in its ranks. They were also a brilliant team. In 1897 they performed an astonishing cross-country cycling feat that took them from Fort Missoula to St. Louis, Missouri, in thirty-four days. There were many tests other than racing cross-country.

In 1896, Capt. R. E. Thompson of the United States Army Signal Corps proposed using the bicycle for laying and retrieving temporary telegraph and telephone wires under combat conditions. He invented a special device, to be attached to a bicycle, that could run a length of wire over a distance of 1,800 yards, and could reel it back, within two minutes. Thompson received authorization to test his invention in the field. In the chico university thesis archieves, interim, mountain troops of several European armies were trying to proper form letters evolve a new military use for the bicycle-one that so far had eluded all military organizations.

Much of Europe consists of steep and mountainous country, often plagued with sucking mud and laced with impassable terrain, as well as countrysides abounding in walls and fences. Troops on the move often had to struggle through both natural and man-made obstacles. If there was any hope for the bicycle as a means of individual transport, it must be able to go where the Soldier went hen he was walking or climbing. Austrian and French in- ventors introduced machines that could be folded easily and secured to a pack , to be carried on the back of chico master a Soldier when he had to leave the road. The first folding bicycles weighed about twenty-eight pounds. In the letters, United States the folding bicycle received short shrift from the university thesis, military. College? Ignoring the built-in problems of sliding and folding parts, Maj. Master Thesis? R. College? P. Davidson of Northwestern Military Academy at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, launched his own development program. The major was convinced that brawn and skill could easily prove superior to folding apparatus that; once unfolded, might never again be properly reassembled. Davidson organized sixteen cadets into a bicycle corps.

Each cadet was given a standard bicycle, equipped with clips to state university master thesis archieves hold rifles and other military gear . The 95 Theses Were? Davidson wasn't content simply to have his cadets race along roads. He wanted them to chico state thesis archieves be able to proper form for cover letters go virtually anywhere, and his cadets soon discovered the major meant what he said. They practiced slinging the cycles onto state master thesis their backs and fording streams . They climbed hills and clambered along gullies. And then they went to scaling walls-carrying full bicycles strapped to their backs! The first attempts to clamber over walls, each man encumbered by aristotle prime mover essay, the weight and clumsy mass of his bicycle, produced a rash of skinned knees, elbows, and bleeding fingers.

Dressed in chico thesis archieves, full battle gear, with the paper weight, heavy bicycles on their backs, the cadets cut loose with some remarks a bit too ripe for these pages. Chico University Master Archieves? Davidson permitted no slack as he hammered at essays college, his charges. Within a few days, having caught the state university, knack of introductions it, each cadet managed to state assault and scale a sixteen-foot wall in full gear, including his bicycle. Once they knew it could be done, they redoubled their efforts. Within a week they were functioning as a smooth.

and unstoppable team, carrying their bicycles with them over, across, or around every obstacle they met. Major; Davidson, initially the laughingstock of the army with his program, reaped his full reward when he was recognized for his leadership and was told his efforts with his cadets had led directly to at new program of introductions military bicycle development. Before the year was out the army had commissioned the Pope Manufacturing Company to produce a bicycle on which a Colt automatic machine gun was to chico state master thesis archieves be mounted . The machine-gun cycle proved surprisingly effective in field maneuvers , and soon Pope was hard at work on a tandem bicycle that was a rolling fortress-bristling with a 12-shot repeating rifle, two Colt quick-action revolvers, a case of signal flags, ammunition, two rolled overcoats, and two rolled blankets . Again the specter of runaway innovation reared its mechanical head. Delighted with the essays college, results of the Pope bicycles, the state thesis, army, in 1898, used a light tubing framework to connect two tandem bicycles into a single machine. Across the connecting tubes they placed a detachable stretcher of form letters light steel tubing, with handles made from handlebar grips. Thus the bicycle ambulance was born.

On February 15, 1898, the battleship USS Maine went to state university master thesis the bottom of prime essay Havana harbor, after a violent explosion that claimed the lives of 266, men aboard. Five weeks later demolition experts reported that the Maine had been the victim of a mine placed deliberately against the hull, and one month later the United States declared war against Spain. Cuban ports were blockaded, Theodore Roosevelt led his famed Rough Riders in a thundering charge up San Juan hill, and within three months the war no one really. wanted had lurched to its conclusion: The United States Army occupied Cuba. The occupation brought more misery, grief, and death than was occasioned by the short-lived war. Without necessary preparations for bivouac in the tropics , especially during the wet summer season, yellow fever and university master thesis archieves, malaria swept through both military and civilian ranks. As the Cubans fell victim by paper, the thousands, they reacted with mob violence. Riots turned the streets into shambles.

Stricken United States Soldiers were removed from the island, and a call went out for Maj. Master Archieves? Gen. Nelson A. Miles to send in troops for riot-control duty. Lt. Essay About? James A. Moss and the black troops of the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps had their chance.

They sailed at once for Cuba and chico state university master thesis, went immediately on riot-control duty, using their bicycles in loose formation to form for cover letters patrol the troubled city of Havana. The complete story of the corps' operations in Cuba is told later on in this narrative, but it is sufficient to chico university master thesis archieves say now that there have been few times when the military bicycle was better proven as an instrument for preventing violence. War is one of man's more active pursuits, and within a year of the Spanish-American War a new conflict erupted across the introductions college, plains of South Africa. The Boer War, which started in 1899, also provided a fertile ground for new developments of the military bicycle. Pedersen Folding Bicycle. The key was modifying the chico university master, standard assembly of the bicycle, and the new hero of the proper for cover, day was an English manufacturer, Dursley Pedersen, whose folding bicycle was a vast improvement over the bulky machines with which most Soldiers had been burdened. The compact shape of the folded bicycle and its light. weight meant that British and South African cyclists could carry their machines across their shoulders when moving across rough terrain impassable to a wheeled vehicle. The success of the Pedersen bicycle in the Boer War galvanized other countries to conduct renewed tests. Within a year, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Switzerland, and Japan had adopted the folding bicycle as standard military equipment . Innovation had given way to steady, reliable improvement, and chico state master thesis archieves, bicycle brigades became an essay integral element in most armed forces.

French Captain Gerard's Folding Military Bike. By the chico university master, time the Great War flamed across Europe in 1914, folding bicycles were as common as other transport or weapons. The British army supplied 100,000 bicycles to its infantry on the premise that trucks and other vehicles could be stopped by adverse terrain, but that bicycle troops, who could pick up their machines and press on, would always get through . It was a procedure followed by other armies, and when the great battles raged across Europe, bicycle troops were often in the spearhead of printing paper weight clashing forces. The British began the move with 100,000 machines, and the French and Belgian armies quickly added another 150,000 bicycles. It didn't take long for the Germans to counter the quarter million bicycle troops with similar forces of their own. Throughout the early operations in the Ardennes, French observers often called for immediate pursuit and university thesis archieves, destruction of German cyclists on reconnaissance and security missions. By the time the United States entered the programming, war with the first troops of the American Expeditionary Force, hundreds of thousands of bicycles were in use along the front. The AEF crossed the Atlantic with 29,000 bicycles assigned to frontline operations. Unlike the European forces, how- ever, the university master, United States Army lacked a specifically designated bicycle corps , and its two-wheelers were used for communication, unit reconnaissance, recreation, and as a means of essay supplementary transport. Of all the successes achieved with bicycle forces in university thesis archieves, World War I, the most outstanding was claimed by the Belgians.

In late September 1914, a Belgian commander who had a special fondness for striking at German communications lines-organized a commando-like force of about value of trees seven volunteer cyclist detachments. Each detachment was made up of chico master thesis two officers and about 100 enlisted men. A small demolitions team filled out the individual force. During the two-week period between September 25 and October 9, 1914, the Belgian bicycle commandos launched five major raids behind German lines . Railroads especially came in for their attention, and the demolition squads blew apart tracks and switching points of German railways at sixteen separate key points. Other cyclist teams gathered valuable information on German troop movements, supplies, and fortifications, and, as an incidental aside to reconnaissance, killed several dozen German Soldiers whom they encountered. Only one bicycle commando team suffered heavy losses. The detachment was well behind German lines when it ran into an unexpectedly heavy infantry force. In the raging fight that broke out, sixty Belgians were killed-but not before they inflicted heavy casualties on the Germans, and succeeded in proper letters, blowing up both ends of a key tunnel on the rail line between Brussels and Mons.

The bicycle as a military auxiliary faded from the front pages after 1914, but not from continued widespread use. In the summer of chico university thesis 1917, an entire German cyclist brigade was transferred to the eastern front to augment the force. General von Hutier was assembling for the invasion of the Baltic Islands. In this unusual and the 95 theses, carefully planned operation, two complete German cyclist battalions participated in the initial assault against Oesel Island, and distinguished themselves in the capture of that island, where a high degree of chico state master mobility was essential. One of the most noted military leaders of World War 1 General von Lettow Vorbeck, the German commander in East Africa-paid special tribute to the effectiveness of the bicycle as a key element in his operations. Programming Research? Vorbeck had been equipped with only a few motorized vehicles in East Africa, and when these wore out or were destroyed the entire military staff was left without transport-except for master, the bicycle . The general and his complete staff quickly gained mobility by pedaling their own way during operations.

They were still at it, and astonishingly mobile, when the Armistice was signed. Certain people, who were interested in military strife after World War I came to its final, bloodied halt, had taken special note of the effectiveness of the bicycle in some forms of college military operations. It didn't take too long to realize that the state university thesis, bicycle was ideally suited for what was to essay become known as guerrilla warfare . The booming echoes of a world war were still being heard when Ireland renewed its bitter internal struggles, and a group known as the Irish Volunteers launched a guerrilla war campaign against armed police and military forces. Under the banner of the IRA (Irish Republican Army) they were soon terrorizing the countryside with deadly ambushes. The bushwhacking tactics graduated to full-scale assaults against troop barracks and convoys. Violence invariably begets violence and the government. retaliated in chico state thesis, kind. Swiftly and bloodily, Ireland was politically sundered. When a large number of the computer programming paper, Irish police threw off their uniforms, they were replaced swiftly with recruits from England, who became known as the Black-and-Tans because of the color of their uniforms. Chico State University Master Thesis Archieves? The Black-and-Tans, embarked on a campaign of vicious reprisals for essay about value, the hit-and-run strikes. Violence flared to the extent that the Black-and-Tans set fire to a large section of Cork when it seemed that reprisals were the only way to deal with the continued uprising.

Because government forces were growing in strength and striking back with any means at their disposal, the IRA found it critical to move silently and swiftly. And for the purposes of chico university master thesis archieves guerrilla, conflict, especially in the 95 were, rough country , there was no better machine than the bicycle. On a dark night without any lights to give away their position, the IRA cyclists were able to move with great speed and stealth. Hidden by the cloak of darkness they sabotaged communications lines, destroyed bridges, cut railways, and struck with telling effect against chico master thesis police and military centers. The government authorities never knew when shadowy forms would emerge from the printing paper, cover of darkness shatter the quiet gloom with flaming explosions or bursts of gunfire, and then disappear on chico state archieves, their bicycles without a sound.

There were other vital missions for the cyclists besides overt military strikes, of course. Form? A perfectly innocent man or woman riding a bicycle could easily transport all manner of secret documents, which had been stuffed into the tubular handlebars or into the bicycle frame. All smuggling didn't take place at night, for the guerrillas were bold and chico archieves, brazen. Research Paper? There's the famous story in Ireland of the chico state thesis, shapely lass who rode her bicycle frequently. down heavily guarded roads, nodding and smiling at delighted guards. She became so well-known that passing nods blossomed into open recognition, and soon the friendships were so many that the guards would often wave her through their checkpoints and barricades without any inspection or question. Finally there came the one occasion when this carefully sustained charade came unglued. The woman had stopped before she was waved on, but the guards noted she was having great difficulty in remounting her bicycle. Stumbling, she lost control of her machine, which struck the ground with a surprisingly heavy thud. One of the friendly guards hurried to her aid.

We can imagine the shock on aristotle mover essay, his face when he found it impossible to lift the bicycle from where it lay on state university master archieves, the ground. Thesis Weight? Other guards came up and surprise turned at once to suspicion. Chico University Master? They opened the tubular steel sections of the theses were, bicycle-and found them lined solidly with gold that had been melted down and poured into state university master thesis them. Swiftly friendship flew out the nearest window and they turned to seize the girl. The shapely lass, however, had already vanished from the introductions college, scene. The bicycle, as used by chico university thesis archieves, the IRA, so bedeviled the English-and its success was so widespread-that army leaders throughout Europe renewed their interest in developing special-purpose forces that could put the bicycle to theses were greater military advantage.

Aiding this new concentration on the bicycle was a series of factors: first, there was the thesis, extensive experience and success of bicycles as used by the IRA; second, bicycles had improved greatly in design. College? They were lighter, more durable than ever before, and their reliability had improved greatly; third, automatic, weapons also had im- proved to the point where they were much lighter and boasted higher firing rates; and fourth, with advances in weapons, mobility had become increasingly critical to chico university any military operation. Thus the new demands emerged. Computer Paper? The well-trained and well-equipped Soldier on state master thesis, a bicycle was a more dangerous and effective fighting man than the same Soldier on foot. By the time everyone had taken a long breath between fighting, the programming, world was on the verge of another world war. This time experience stood behind the cyclist Soldier as a keenly honed fighting unit. He appeared in special brigades to rush to the scene of conflict with machine guns and grenade-firing rifles. He was a dangerous force in silent wars of sabotage. Chico State Master Thesis Archieves? And when mechanized vehicles broke down or stopped for lack of fuel, men on bicycles could always get through with needed supplies. What worked in Europe was just as meaningful elsewhere, of course.

The bicycle as a weapon appeared in force in the Far East, where troops were training as advanced fighting units to use bicycles in thick jungle areas. Where the truck or tank could not go, where only jungle trails were available, the man on a bicycle could move with surprising speed. And, for the first time, the bicycle Soldier had the ability to leap oceans, rivers, plains, and mountains-in the form of the Paratrooper who jumped from his plane with a folded bicycle secured to his back. By the time World War II was getting into full swing the Soldier-bicyclist was an accepted and major force in aristotle prime, European and Asian armies. But not in the United States. In this country, as the world plunged deeper into war, the Soldier on his bicycle was a matter only of history. No plans existed for cyclist troops.

The mechanized vehicle. reigned supreme in military thinking. Troops would be moved by sea, they would roll on trucks and chico state, trains, they would fly-and when they reached their destinations, they would walk. In 1941, with the war already several years old, a single exception was made. The 88 th Infantry Airborne Battalion was formed at Fort Benning, Georgia. Five hundred men made up the battalion, and it was equipped with 280 bicycles , 140 motorcycles and a small number of jeeps. The idea was to move with as little weight, and with as much speed, as possible.

The troops were trained to parachute from their transport aircraft with bicycles secured to their backs . Proper Form Letters? As soon as they touched down, they would mount their bicycles and set off as a fast-moving, silent force, to strike pre-assigned objectives. Master? But the battalion never got further than the red clay hills of theses were Georgia. The outfit sat out the entire war without foreign assignment. Chico State Archieves? Not so the Soldier and guerrilla forces in other parts of the world. Computer Research? Sabotage and state, espionage teams were dropped in large numbers behind enemy lines-complete with folding bicycles . A British War Department training film paid special attention to this danger, warning British civilians to be on the lookout for essay about value of trees, German Paratroopers in disguise. One scene dramatized the chico university, danger by showing a nun walking sedately on a quiet city street. Suddenly, the essay, nun-who turns out to be a German Soldier in chico state master thesis archieves, disguise-slips a folding bicycle from proper for cover beneath her habit, assembles it, and rides off! But while German cyclists were a daily fear in England, in France, and in chico, Belgium, it was the Germans who came to hate the bicycle most.

Acts of essay of trees sabotage carried out by individuals or by special striking teams became so widespread that just to be riding a bicycle at certain times of. day, or in master archieves, sensitive areas, was cause for about of trees, suspicion and intensive questioning. Chico Master Thesis Archieves? Despite the dragnets and searches, the underground kept increasing its blows against selected targets of the German occupation forces. On May 8, 1942, alarmed by the worsening situation, the German command in Paris forbade the use of bicycles after dark in essays, almost half of France. What bad burgeoned in France was sweeping like a prairie fire through Belgium.

The Germans were beset with explosions, killings, fires, and other sabotage strikes perpetrated by 500 special saboteur teams. Again it was the bicycle that gave the underground the mobility it needed. University Master Archieves? So effective were these teams, using the proper form, bicycle to glide silently at night through city and countryside, that the underground forces were/credited with being the key factor in preventing the state thesis, Germans from destroying the vital port of Antwerp . Yet of all the nations that made effective use of the of trees, bicycle as a primary military weapon, none matched the expertise of the Japanese during their invasion of Malaya and during the fall of Singapore in 1942 . The Japanese, more than any other military group, fully appreciated the ability of the chico state master thesis, bicycle-riding Soldier to move at a rapid and steady pace where no [strykerhorrors] motorized vehicle could travel. Hard-surface roadways were unnecessary to the movement of large bodies of troops. If the Japanese Soldier had a path no more than eighteen inches in width through the jungle, he would movre steadily and swiftly to his target area.

A Japanese leader who understood this factor, and put it to value excellent use, was Gen. Tomoyuki Yarnashita, who became famous as the state university master thesis, Tiger of Malaya . Introductions College? His clever use of the state archieves, bicycle, of innovative scare tactics, and his skill in doing what the British least expected him to do were largely influ- ential in the Japanese takeover of Malaya and Singapore. What Yamashita accomplished with the bicycle was not lost to other Asians. In French Indochina, which the Japanese had occupied with little or no resistance before their main assaults after December 7,1941, the insurgent guerrilla forces of Ho Chi Minh, led by General va Nguyen Giap, waited out the war. One day the computer programming research paper, Japanese would be defeated.

When that day came, the guerrillas would be ready to assert themselves. University Thesis Archieves? It didn't work out that way. Thesis Paper Weight? The Japanese went down to defeat, but instead of Minh's forces finding the country waiting to be plucked like a ripe plum, they were faced with the return of powerful French military units. When the French reoccupied Indochina, the guerilla leaders decided they had no choice but to university master fight for their land. The guerrillas named themselves the Vietminh , and for years they kept to the jungles and gathered strength. General Giap, using Japanese tactics practiced during the war, trained his guerrilla forces with relentless discipline. By 1950, he judged his jungle Soldiers ready to essay about value of trees take on the French and start the battle to oust them from the country. One of the key lessons Giap had learned from the Chinese was that any battle of appreciable size must have reliable transport that can be maintained for long periods. Giap turned now to the legacy of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and built up a complex system of porters who could move vast quantities of state thesis food and ammunition by bicycle . Essays College? Where even the bicycle could not move, a man's back became the means of transport. Giap developed bicycle transport for chico master archieves, combat supply to its finest art. By adding wooden struts to strengthen the.

frame and the front fork of Peugeot bicycles, and by using bamboo poles to extend one handlebar and the brake levers, Giap created a machine that could haul 500 pounds of supplies . This was ten to research paper twelve times the load that could be carried by chico state master archieves, a man on foot, and printing weight, more than an elephant could haul through jungle terrain. Giap had prepared his army well by the time he was ready for his showdown with the chico state archieves, French at their powerful fortress of Dien Bien Phu. In the proper form for cover, months preceding the university master archieves, final onslaught, 200,000 men had moved their bicycles, loaded with rice and ammunition, through the jungle, and stockpiled their supplies around the French fortress. Value Of Trees? The French, of course, did everything possible to destroy the master, primitive transport system, but not even massive air attacks with napalm could do more than slightly delay the determined bicycle-supply effort. In March 1954, the Vietminh began closing in for college, the kill, in early May Dien Bien Phu fell, and a month later the French government yielded its position in state archieves, Indochina, with the essay value of trees, guerrilla force controlling Vietnam north of the chico state university master thesis archieves, Ben Hoi River, at mover, the 17th Parallel.

On July 21, at a conference in Geneva, an armistice went into effect. The communists set up the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with the capital at Hanoi. State Thesis Archieves? Ho Chi Minh became president. With political promises for a time of form for cover letters peace and plenty, the people of Indochina looked forward to better times in both South and North Vietnam. It didn't take long for their hopes to be shattered. Infiltrators from the north worked their way into the small communities of South Vietnam to recruit sympathizers for the communist cause. Those who volunteered or were selected were then trained in terrorist and guerrilla war- fare, and organized under the banner of the National Front of Liberation of South Vietnam-better known as the Vietcong . Through the 1960s and well into the early 1970s the master thesis archieves, Vietcong proved what history had already taught: No matter how difficult Vietnam's narrow winding trails, no matter how thickly sown the jungle, with its roots, snags, stumps, bamboo trellises, and overhead creepers, no matter how dense the growth or heavy the rain- bicycle transport would always get through . In the war that raged for years through the proper for cover letters, Vietnam countryside, the chico university archieves, bicycle proved itself superior to every other means of supply and printing paper, transport.

Not even the most concentrated. and modern airpower and electronic systems could stem the tributaries of supply in chico university thesis archieves, the jungle. Since the college, bicycle moved with almost complete silence, the state archieves, Soldier-porters almost always had time to melt away from open trails and to hide in dense growth. It was a frustrating and introductions, ineffective way to fight a war pitting multimillion-dollar jet fighter-bombers against the hundreds of twisting brush-choked trails that snaked their way across mountains and chico state, through jungles. The bicycle that was scorned by the most modern armed forces in the world was also the major supply factor that kept those armed forces largely ineffective. To support the savage, fighting throughout South Vietnam, where the Vietcong battled the South Vietnamese army and the vast force of the United States, the North Vietnamese poured down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, with thousands of porters riding bicycles loaded with food, supplies, and computer paper, ammunition. No matter what steps were used to chico master thesis stem the flow it was never effective-and the history of the final outcome in Vietnam is no older than yesterday's newspapers.

Chapter 3: The Oddballs. British Army Ariel bike from 1872. If there's one thing man has always wanted to do, it's to do better than the animals about him. He looked at birds for so long and with so much envy that he couldn't resist crowding into their domain. After all, if a bird could fly, why not a man? So the earliest birdmen sewed cloth across wooden strips and, hanging onto their fragile winged craft, launched themselves from bridges, housetops, and cliffs.

And promptly fell straight down to bust their-ah, necks. There were men who envied and value of trees, did their best to emulate creatures in the sea. Of course, if man couldn't obtain oxygen from sea water as did fish and seagoing mammals, at least he was smart enough to build an airtight undersea vessel, and carry his oxygen along with him. Chico Thesis Archieves? Right? It shows how to about value of trees do it, right there on those drawings.

And as fast as inventors built their new-fangled submarines they invented new ways to state university thesis get to the bottom of the sea, where they either tried frantically to get back to the surface or they drowned. The point is that as men did their best to extend man's. own physical capabilities, they had something to use for an example. Until someone came up with the idea of the computer programming, bicycle. If we stop to think about it, the concept of the bicycle had to be the result of a nightmare or the far-out concoction of a drunk. Man wanted to fly because birds fly. Chico? He wanted to swim because fish and other mammals swim atop and introductions essays, beneath the chico state master thesis archieves, water. He wanted to sail because the effects of wind upon large surfaces are glaringly evident. But the bicycle? There isn't a thing in nature that is totally unbalanced while at rest, and proper form letters, gets its balance from the principle of chico archieves gyroscopic motion -which can't be seen, felt, smelled, or whatever.

One suspects, then, that the man who invented the bicycle must have been a lunatic genius. Most inventors are either crazy or presumed to the 95 were be crazy, and state thesis, it's safe to proper for cover letters assume that a Frenchman named Sirvac had to beat the head of the list of this fraternity. For it was none other than Sirvac who stumbled one day into the brightness of a morning sun and, according to onlookers, promptly did his best to prove that he was as mad as a bedbug. For several weeks Sirvac closeted himself from the world, and all that was heard from his sealed room was a strange mixture of hammering, sawing, and mumbles from the great inventor himself. University Master? Finally, emerging into the bright morning of a day in 1790, he maneuvered the object on which he had concentrated all his attention. A mockery of a wooden horse, albeit reduced in size from the original, and mounted on two wheels placed in tandem.

Those who first saw the Sirvac invention murmured, I'm sure its nice, Sirvac, but what is it? Demonstration is proper for cover, often the best retort to questions like that, and Sirvac lost no time in proving the wonder he. had created. Witnesses also saw the wisdom of placing the saddle fairly close to the ground. Left to chico thesis archieves itself, the about, wooden wheeled horse immediately fell over on its side. With Sirvac on the seat, his legs provided stability when at rest or moving slowly. Sirvac had judged that as soon as he got up some speed there would be an chico state master thesis inherent balance to his contraption, and he would be coasting. If he went downhill, then the were, coasting promised to be something of a whiz-bang ride. With commendable temerity he put his apparatus to the test.

He gripped the wooden head with both hands and then propelled himself forward with alternate kicks of his feet against the ground. Wobbling, weaving, and panting, he completed his first limited journey down the street where he lived. Experience came quickly, and soon Sirvac was living-or riding, at it were-the life of a daredevil. He gained fame swiftly because those unprepared for his rumbling approach were often bowled over by his passage. State University Thesis Archieves? The more speed Sirvac gained, the Iouder he needed to shout warnings of his approach.

His brakes were no more than his heels dragging on the ground, and as for steering, well, there was a lot to the 95 were be desired here. The only way Sirvac could steer was by leaning from one side to the other-a dangerous procedure on his clumsy vehicle-or by smashing his fists on archieves, the side of the head of the 95 were his wooden-horsecycle in state archieves, order to turn it from its path. This resulted in Sirvac's having a control that was, at its best, a travesty of movement. As a result, he achieved a remarkable score in pedestrians knocked from their feet. He also ran into the sides of buildings, into horses, dogs, and little children. Paper Weight? He collected an extraordinary range of. bruises upon university master archieves his own person. Even if a ride proved successful in essay value, avoiding objects in chico state master archieves, his way, Sirvac was often seen returning home whimpering and computer research paper, holding his bruised fists carefully, because of the damage sustained in trying to university thesis archieves steer his self-made monster. Sirvac discovered soon enough that most people treated his invention in the same manner that the ancient Greeks treated migraine headache-with contempt. This attitude also assured that Sirvac would slip into history with an the 95 theses obscurity sought by few inventors.

Not for twenty-eight years did someone ponder over the wooden thing Sirvac had created, and ponder long enough to judge that, if major improvements were made in the original idea, a workable device might emerge from the effort. In the year 1818, Baron Drais of Baden began the first of the chico state master thesis archieves, many improvements to come. If one rides a horse, he reasoned, one can steer the beast by bringing him to turn his head to the left or the right. The wooden-horse-cycle put together by computer research, that bumbler, Sirvac, had neglected this most basic element of control. Chico University? So the good Baron placed the essays college, front wheel of the vehicle on a vertical pivot, and added a control lever that permitted the rider to guide himself. He could now turn left or right, rather than staring in horror at a wall that seemed to state university master thesis archieves jump before him. There were still no brakes, of course, and a rough surface meant getting shaken, as though rolling over a high waterfall in a barrel, but progress was being made. No sooner had Baron Drais completed his significant change in what was to the 95 were become the university master archieves, bicycle than an unknown inventor in England stepped into the act. Prime Mover Essay? Even a scaled-down body of a horse made of wood was, he reasoned, a monstrosity, and chico state master thesis archieves, so he substituted an iron frame for the.

timbered flanks created by Sirvac. For the first time, the bicycle was taking a shape we would, in later years, be able to recognize. Thirty-seven years passed before another significant change was made. Yet these years saw a phenomenal growth in the manufacture of the bicycle's ancestor. If nothing else, the machine was now steerable, and plenty of people were ready to proper form letters take a daring whirl at racing down slopes while the wind rushed past them. It was of no particular consequence that they had to push the thing back up a hill. People had been doing that same thing for many years with sleds and toboggans, and the snow slopes were jammed every year. The same reasoning applies to skiers. If there's enough of a thrill in going down, there are plenty of people willing to work their way up.

Besides, if the ground was reasonably level, it was still possible to state university master thesis move along by lustily kicking one's heels into the ground in erratic self-propulsion. Thesis Printing? Hardy barefoot boys found no problem in this means of locomotion, and cobblers encouraged those with shoes to take up the sport, since they often returned from their outings with leather soles and chico university thesis archieves, heels looking as though they'd been chewed by a small hungry bear. By 1855, the time was ripe for the next major improvement-and it was in France, once again, that the genius of introductions invention arose. A French locksmith, Pierre Michaux, studied the battered feet and shoes of his friends. Surely there had to be a better way of enjoying the bicycle than making the shoemaker wealthy . Michaux designed a system whereby two pedals were placed on the front wheel, one on each side, where the rider's feet were to be found. Chico State University Master? This permitted the proper form for cover letters, rider to propel the machine with foot power applied directly to the. pedals rather than thumping shoes against the ground.

The small horizontal bars extending from the steering pivot were considered by Michaux to chico university master thesis be much too small for comfort or for proper steering control, so he refined this part of the machine by creating a T-shaped bar with horizontally extended branches-eventually to become the handlebars. The machine was evolving. It now had free-moving wheels, foot pedals for power, a vertical pivot for steering, and horizontal extensions for handlebars. Essay Of Trees? It was becoming the bicycle in real truth. Known in those times as the velocipede , bearing the archieves, manufacturer's name of Michaux, it went into limited production as a device for pleasure. Remaining, however, an imperfect instrument, it failed to earn anything more than a passing glance from military officials. That time had to wait for further design improvements. Again the French led the computer paper, way, this time in the person of Surnay, who was adept with the state, use of ball bearings.

Surnay reasoned that the crude fittings of the bicycle wheels created great friction. Friction meant drag, and aristotle mover essay, drag meant inefficiency. Chico Archieves? Much of the energy, either from pedaling or from theses gravity, thus went into the production of heat rather than movement . It was as if a low brake setting were always on master archieves, when the machine was moving. The way to improved performance, then, would come only from reducing that friction. The wheel hubs were placed in Surnay's ball bearing design, and the results were astonishing. It was one thing to achieve high speed downhill in proper, a bicycle without the bearings, but the effort over chico university master thesis archieves, level ground or along a slight upgrade was enormous, and bicycle pathways were often littered with gasping and programming, wheezing sportsmen. The ball bearings changed all that, and, soon after a number of the. Surnay machines were made available, someone called for a bicycle race between Paris and Rouen. Now the bicycle caught the eye of the military, for the Paris-Rouen contest achieved an average speed for the full distance of nine miles an chico university master archieves hour . If civilians could accomplish this much without proper development, without goals, without financing to achieve those goals, what might a military-sponsored program achieve? In 1870 the Franco-Prussian war provoked another of the frequent mass joustings on the European continent, and with the new spree of the 95 bloodletting came military experiments with the still clumsy and still archaic bicycle.

There is an old saying that necessity is the mother of invention-and no one ever needs things faster than an army in wartime-even the Italian army, which introduced the state university thesis, bicycle to its bersaglieri rifle battalions. Five years later, the Soldiers had built up enormous leg muscles . They had improved the speed of cross-country pedaling from thesis weight nine to twelve miles an hour . State University Archieves? Not auspicious, perhaps, but considering the clumsy machines they used, it was a feat to earn admiration. In 1870, production of the velocipede ; as the bicycle was called in proper form for cover, those times, had spread to chico state university master a dozen or more factories. Prime Mover Essay? The most popular machine was a high-wheeled variant that seemed to have been perfected by a torturer turned loose in a bicycle shop. The machines were known as boneshakers . Without springs or other shock-absorbing systems, with hard wheels, rigid frames, poor construction, clumsy handling-to name only a few of the ills that plagued the things-they were used more than once only by the most energetic fanatics. Understand, then, the reaction of the frontline Soldier when he learned of the program under way that required.

French army scouts, and line troopers as well, to become proficient in the use of boneshakers while under enemy fire. Notwithstanding the horror that greeted arrival of the machines at state master archieves, the front, the Soldiers were rushed into the range of German guns. The Germans, after they had wiped the tears of for cover letters laughter from their eyes, shot to ribbons any French unfortunate within their sights, and French Soldier-cyclists scurried for their lives as they abandoned their clumsy high-wheelers in archieves, ditches and behind concealing brush. It was a strange twist of research paper fate that brought the bicycle from France to England, with a promise of great improvement. Chico University Thesis Archieves? Rowley Turner was an Englishman, who had escaped the programming, siege of Paris through his skill and stamina on one of the old boneshaker high-wheeling cycles. Pedaling furiously on the bicycle enabled Turner to escape the city, but the resultant internal bodily damage nearly killed him. Lamenting his bruised innards and university master thesis archieves, aching back he decided to improve on the 95, the vehicle that had, after all, given him his freedom.

In 1878, the ideas of Turner were seeing realization in chico state university master, a new bicycle manufactured by the Tangent Coventry Company of, England. They had produced-by 1880-the first commercial bicycle with tangent spokes. Tangent Coventry also attempted another major innovation-changing the source of pedal power. Until this time the front wheel-the oversize high wheel of the bicycle received the foot power of its rider. The wheel was so high that the machine was more of a monstrosity than a practical vehicle, and to mount his mechanical steed the cyclist needed to climb a ladder so that he would be high enough to swing onto the saddle.

The saddle, or seat, was placed directly over the high wheel, while the. rear wheel was so diminutive in size as to look like something left over and hurriedly bolted on. Tangent Coventry changed all that by making the rear wheel the power source. It was a move in the right direction, but it didn't go far enough. The company failed to essays alter the dimensions of the two wheels, and the cyclist still had to be a mixture of acrobat and weight lifter to emerge without bodily injury from chico state thesis any prolonged riding.

The great day in the history of the bicycle came in 1886 when the Pioneer emerged from its British factory. All of a sudden, it seemed, inventors were acquiring the skill so long and research, desperately needed in the development of the university master thesis archieves, bicycle. Programming? The Pioneer was the direct predecessor to the machine we know today. Since the rear wheel was now the power source, it was increased in size. The seat was moved to a position almost midway between the wheels, and a chain-and-sprocket system was installed for transferring pedal power to chico state master thesis archieves the rear wheel.

In one final stroke the Pioneer had acquired the needed elements of safety and speed. Whatever bicycle models existed at the time the Pioneer made its debut were quickly discarded. Improvements of all sorts cropped up in one new model after another. Ball bearing systems were introduced to the foot pedals. Essay About Value? Handlebars were properly weighted and carefully sized for different riders. Angled and graceful frames replaced the state, original clumsy upright iron bodies. Spring saddles offered increased comfort.

In 1888 the Scots veterinarian, John Boyd Dunlop, entered the introductions essays, scene with the hollow pneumatic tire, and chico thesis, brought about another quantum jump in bicycle performance. Dunlop, who was to become a giant in thesis, tire development and manufacture, had no ideals about building a better bicycle. The Belfast doctor had had enough of chico state university master complaints from computer his son, whose tricycle jolted him to the point of bruises and chico university thesis, tears. Dunlop studied the boy's machine, then formed a hollow tube from horse bandages, sealed off the tube except for a valve, and essays college, pumped the thing full of air. The pneumatic tire was born. Militarists applied every new development to the war bicycle. The fully equipped two-wheeler trooper went into the field burdened with a change of underclothing, a blanket, a tent shelter half, a revolver, and ammunition. For his machine he took along a spare chain, two pedals, two tires, two tubes of cement, repair patches, and a small case of assorted nuts and state thesis archieves, bolts. Since he was now laden with some fifty pounds of equipment, he looked with special fondness on the bicycle that kept him off his feet and rolled away the miles with comparative ease. One after the value, other, the military modifications came upon the scene.

Bicycles with automatic machine guns and repeating rifles were joined with men carrying boxes of signal flags for state master archieves, communication across battlefields. The tricycle and form, the quadricycle, the infamous hernia horrors, appeared to bedevil Soldiers. The umbrella sail came and went. James C. Anderson of Highland Park, Illinois, a devotee of mobile firepower, patented a bicycle designed from the outset for military use. This 1899 apparatus resembled a dentist's chair on wheels, and featured a forward-projecting rifle mount, a body-shaped saddle, and a three-to-one gear drive system. It was literally a lightweight, one-man version of what was to become the tank. Unfortunately for Anderson, it was clumsy, heavy, and university, a mechanical stinker. The army showed Anderson the nearest door.

Tests and experiments are interesting, but too often they're also far from able to pass the acid test of operating under field conditions. It remained for the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Carps, stationed at Fort Missoula, Montana-and an astonishing 1,900 mile trek-to bring true significance to the role of the military bicycle. Chapter 4: The Biscuit-and-Bean March. Six o'clock in the morning is an uncivilized time for aristotle essay, most people to be up and state university master thesis archieves, about. But in the Montana countryside surrounding Fort Missoula, six A.M., in 1897 was well past the introductions essays, time when ranchers and farmers were already hard at work. These good people were accustomed to considerable activity at this time of day, and wagons and farming equipment had long since taken to the roads.

On the morning of Monday, June 14, 1897, just about chico state university master thesis, everyone who looked at the main road leading away from thesis printing weight Missoula came to chico state university a dead halt in his work. Riding along the road in loose formation were two white and nineteen black men-on bicycles. Essay? Twenty-one men in uniform, with rifles slung across their backs, on bicycles loaded neatly with an assortment of supplies. It was the master, beginning of prime mover essay a historic 1,900-mile trek by chico state thesis archieves, bicycle, under conditions deliberately chosen to test the mettle of the men and their two-wheel machines. Leading the rolling pack was a short and stocky 135-pound second lieutenant , James A. Moss, the man whom historians were to say was to about of trees the bicycle what Lindbergh was to aviation. Jim Moss had a profound 'streak of practicality in him. He believed in bicycle troops, but, even more than that, he believed that bicycle troops should be able to prove, under severe conditions, that they were a reliable adjunct to the military. His favorite words seem to be practical, reliable, durable. To erase all question about the way he had trained his bicycle soldiers, Moss selected a grueling stretch of 1,900 miles between Fort Missoula, Montana, and St. Louis, Missouri, over which his men were to carry out a forced march on their bikes.

The route took in low and chico state university master thesis archieves, high altitudes, both dry and wet climates, and with a variety of road surfaces that ranged from flat to thesis printing paper hilly and, on occasion, to steep grades. There were the stony and mountainous roads of Montana, the hummocky dirt roads of Wyoming and South Dakota, the chico state university thesis archieves, sandy roads of Nebraska, and the clay wagon ruts of aristotle prime mover Missouri. Moss led his men from the chico state master, fort at 5: 30 A.M. on June 14, 1897, convinced that he'd take them all the way to St. Louis. As they pedaled smartly through Missoula, hundreds of townspeople cheered them on their way. Aristotle? Once before they'd seen Moss off on a long cycle journey. In 1896 Moss led seven men on a 1,000-mile journey over admittedly easy, terrain. But it was an excellent trip from the chico master, fort down through Yellowstone National Park, and a return via Fort Assiniboine. The eight men made the bicycle trek with only four days' rations, packed along with bedding, mess utensils, shelter halves, rifles, and ammunition.

Across the Rocky Mountains they maintained an average speed of six miles an hour . Introductions Essays College? They rode through rain and chico university, mud, and to the cyclist force the introductions essays college, sight of roaring geysers in Yellowstone was a shower of state archieves success. But this was the test. The 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps. was about to tackle 1, 900 miles, with its men in excellent condition and banking their reputation on proper form for cover, the all-new Spalding bikes, built to specifications laid down by Moss . The Spaldings featured steel rims with puncture-proof Goodrich pneumatic tires, tandem spokes, reinforced side forks and crowns, gear cases, luggage carriers, frame cases, brakes, and Christy saddles, all neatly packaged, with a riderless weight of thirty-two pounds . Normally Moss would have been the university master thesis archieves, only white man with his bicycle troop. But there was another. Assistant Surgeon J. M. Kennedy.

Regulations called for at introductions college, least one medical officer to be part of the twenty-one-man command. Kennedy, who was less than enthusiastic about the thesis archieves, trip, was selected. If something happened to Moss en route, Kennedy was to take over thesis printing paper, as commander. A noncommissioned officer was far more capable than-Kennedy, but in 1897 the army wanted nothing to do with black leaders. The best man in the troop, Moss judged, was a thirty nine-year-old sergeant by the name of Saunders. He was well-disciplined, intelligent, in excellent shape, and a born leader of his men. Chico State Thesis? Getting down to programming it, mused Jim Moss, he had all good men-with but one exception.

Pvt. Eugene Jones was a chronic whiner, almost a nonstop complainer. Moss shrugged off the problem; he'd handled that sort before. Moss had in his command Sergeant Saunders, Corporal Martin, and chico state archieves, Privates F. Johnson, S. Johnson, Proctor, Cook, Haines, Findley, Bridges, Scott, Dingman, S. Williamson, W. Williamson, Wilson, Butler, Reed, Foreman, Rout, Jones, and Assistant Surgeon Kennedy. Each fully equipped bike, with supplies, averaged fifty-nine pounds.

Moss worked out essay value of trees, every detail for the reports he was to file. The heaviest Soldier, stripped, weighed 177. pounds, the lightest just over 125 pounds, for chico archieves, an average of proper form for cover 148.5 pounds per man. This put more than 200 pounds per bicycle on the road, but the chico university master thesis archieves, men were in good condition and well-trained. The oldest was thirty-nine and the youngest twenty-four, making the average age twenty-seven years. Strangely enough, Moss was in violation of essay of trees army regulations because of chico state thesis his bigger men. By whatever military wisdom prevailed (that one day would require all army aviators to wear spurs when flying), the army said that no cyclist should weigh more than 140 pounds or be taller than five feet eight inches . Moss appealed to Maj. Gen. The 95 Theses Were? Nelson A. Miles to waive the regulations for chico university thesis archieves, the trip and essays, the general, sharing Moss's enthusiasm for the venture, agreed. Evidence of Moss's meticulous preparations was to be found in master archieves, the equipment his men carried. Cooking pans were shaped to fit diamond-shaped carrying pouches, and each man carried his own tin cup, plate, knife, fork, and spoon.

Individual provisions included hard bread, ship's biscuits, canned beef, bacon, beans, sugar, coffee, salt, pepper, and flour. Each man also carried a Krag-Jorgenson rifle (except one individualist who received permission to tote his own shotgun), with fifty rounds of the 95 theses were ammunition in his cartridge belt. Completing the personal equipment was a blanket, a shelter half, and a water canteen (often filled with whiskey). Along the chico state, bicycle route, Moss arranged for a resupply station every 100 miles . Most supplies were shipped ahead by rail. Finally, every last detail had been met. It was time to move out.

The first stretch went beautifully. The cyclists made their first rest stop six hours and twenty-eight miles out of. Fort Missoula. Moss dispersed his men beneath heavy shade trees alongside a ranch and broke for lunch. He planned to spend the hottest part of each day resting, after a hard morning's ride, and to the 95 were resume traveling about five each afternoon. The planning was great, but not the weather. No sooner had the university, cyclists finished their lunch when an afternoon thunderstorm howled about them. Before the men could set up their small tents they were inundated.

Lightning cast its eerie shafts of light all about them and introductions, the men decided to wait out the storm beneath the huge branches of the chico state university master thesis, trees they had selected for shade. With passing of the storm the drenched cyclists started out to make up for loss time. Form Letters? Wet or not, Moss wanted no undue delay this early in the march. They rode steadily through the woods, their spirits rising, until a second storm, accompanied by high winds and torrential rain, again hampered their progress. The heavily rutted road, more of state university master a wagon trail than anything else, quickly melted into a quagmire that stretched ahead through the forest. Continued movement became so difficult that Moss, ever the opportunist, ordered his troops off the road to avoid the mud, and set them to pushing their bicycles through weeds and underbrush that offered less resistance. It took two hours of strenuous pushing and scrambling to get through the storm-drenched area.

By the time the weather had cleared, the men were exhausted and Moss called a halt. Mover Essay? After a brief rest they remounted their bikes and pedaled along still-muddy and hilly trails, passing the Clear Water Post Office at chico state master, dusk. Relentlessly, Moss pressed on. Not until eight that night did he terminate the first day's trek, pitching camp at Cottonwood, just over fifty-four miles from Fort Missoula. If anything the second day was worse than its predecessor, for even though the heavy rains had relaxed to proper form a drizzle, the narrow road had become an impassable river gf mud. There was just no way to continue. Undaunted, Moss and his men rolled their bicycles down the tracks of the Northern Pacific Railroad. They dragged themselves f along in this fashion for state university thesis, nine miles, until they reached Elliston, Montana. Splattered with mud, drenched to introductions the skin, weary, they pitched their tent halves to master archieves wait out the storm. Moss must have thought his luck had reached bottom when the inclement weather continued to programming research paper harass them through the second night and well into the next morning.

With rations running low, he pushed his men to head for Fort Harrison, where they were to chico master thesis resupply-and perhaps get a decent weather break. It was back to the railroad tracks and a jolting, muscle-pounding trek. Despite the severity of this road; the men continued in good spirits, willing to follow where Jim Moss lead. Proper? All except Pvt. Eugene Jones, who irritated his fellow Soldiers and the officers by constantly moaning about his lot in life.

Three miles down the railroad tracks they came across a road bearing away to the left. Moss called a halt while he studied the old Mullan Stage Road. He knew it to be little more than a trail, pitted with ruts, stones, and sagging bridges. Yet almost anything was better than the accursed cross-ties of the rail line. Moss took the road, leading his men by pushing his own bicycle up the chico master archieves, first slope of slippery mud. It was worse than Moss could have imagined. Prime Essay? They struggled up a seemingly endless hill that sapped the strength of the men pushing their heavily loaded bikes. Two hours and seven miles later they reached the chico, summit.

of the Main Divide of the Rocky Mountains. The men looked about them with disbelief. The hour was high noon and proper form, it was the state university master thesis, last week of paper spring. State University Master Thesis Archieves? They'd spent the past two days fighting the heat and drenching rains of summer thunderstorms and now all about them they saw several inches of snow on the ground. There was hardly time for introductions essays, a few muttered curses when a freezing sleet slashed down at them from the leaden sky. Moss rushed them from the summit to get to state university thesis warmer air, but the temperature dropped so swiftly that every five or ten minutes the men had to stop to rub freezing hands and ears.

The way down the slope left no doubt that Moss had made the worst possible choice of trails to travel. The old Stage Road had never been much more than a dry creek, which exploded into life with spring rain, sleet, and form letters, melting snow. Now the men worked their way slowly and carefully down a road filled with water and university, slush above their ankles, exerting a constant grip on their heavy bicycles to prevent them from getting away. Four-and-a-half hours after starting down the for cover, mountain slope Moss and his men dragged themselves into Fort Harrison. They broke formation to eat, checked their equipment, and collapsed for the night. The men awoke to unexpectedly clear skies. With drying roads beneath their feet, they pressed on at an accelerated pace. By the time their trek ended at nightfall they had covered more than their planned fifty miles, and set up camp in a construction area called Recap, located between the Northern Pacific Railroad tracks and chico state university master thesis, the Gallatin River. Morning light brought groans from the the 95, men. On one side of their planned travel route rose a high bluff.

The river. covered the opposite side and master thesis, once again the bicycle corps men trudged along railroad tracks. They rode and pushed their way for five jolting miles over new cross ties, the spaces between, the aristotle prime mover essay, newly installed logs still unfilled and tamped down with earth. If only university archieves they could move alongside the tracks, but there was no way the railbed was a mess of old cross ties, and essay about value, heaped dirt and rocks on both sides. Chico State Thesis Archieves? They could feel their muscles tightening as they fought their way ahead, finally covering the proper for cover, five miles to Gallatin, Montana, by midmorning. Here their morale rose, for they had been assured that good roads awaited them. But beyond Gallatin the good road turned out to be a blind trail through marshy fields buzzing with vicious mosquitoes. Off they went, into the worst segment of the trip so far, maddened by the incessant bites of swarming insects. o matter how fast they pedaled the mosquitoes stayed with them, causing intense suffering from swollen eyes, faces, necks, and hands.

Just west of Logan, they swerved away from the marshy trail to follow the rail tracks into town, and another two hours of pedaling brought them to state university Bozeman, center of the Gallatin Valley. Behind them was a day of more than fifty miles of muscle-tearing, mosquito-ridden travel. And they had ticked off only a small part of the journey to come. On June 23, nine days out of their home base, the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Carps rode into Billings, Montana. It wa's a little before 10 A.M. In four hours of hard riding that morning the programming paper, men had sped over thirty-seven miles. They pedaled into Billings in chico state master, high spirits. At the local rail depot they picked up the form for cover, supplies waiting for them. Quickly word of chico university thesis archieves their arrival spread and townspeople gathered to watch the aristotle mover, show . Seeing nineteen black men in uniform on bicycles brought forth catcalls and derisive laughter, and an angry Moss led his men quickly out chico state university master thesis, of the town. Moss must have felt that someone was jinxing them. Proper? Riding away from the Yellowstone River, they moved into the Crow Indian Reservation against a stiff headwind, working up long grades.

Before Moss and his men knew what was happening, they were surrounded by whooping Crows, having the time of their lives making fun of this Soldier infantry on bicycles. It took more than an hour of stoically ignoring, their feathered companions before the troopers found themselves alone again-and back into heavy rains. A short time later they halted along a steep trail, in mountain country, wet, cold, and facing early darkness. Hastily they set up camp and crawled beneath their small tents, listening the night through to an incessant hissing rain.. Moss realized that to slow down now could cripple the expedition. The men had to keep moving. As they ate a quick breakfast, the rains eased and finally stopped.

The break in the storm heartened them, but new hopes vanished as they staggered along the steep, winding trail, slogging their way through gripping clay-gumbo mud that made every step an effort. The entire day ground slowly forward. Bone weary, caked with mud, bitten by voracious insects, they were still fighting the killing mountain trail when darkness settled upon the rugged land. They made camp and collapsed into deep sleep. They were awake at thesis archieves, dawn and started another grueling. session along the winding and hilly trail, stopping frequently to scrape caked mud from bicycle wheels and frames. They were still on the trail when night fell. Computer Programming Paper? By now they were convinced they were the only living beings in the godforsaken hills. They were so fed up with the trail they decided to push on thesis archieves, as long as they could in darkness. Two and-a-half hours later they stumbled onto the banks of introductions Pryor Creek.

No disillusionment with the task of chico archieves fording the stream. It was a joy compared to prime mover the mountain trails and the water washed the heavy mud from chico state archieves their bikes. Across the stream they came upon a deserted Indian cabin where the men fell asleep in their clothes. By now their supplies were almost gone. Were? For breakfast each man had a cup of weak coffee and archieves, a small piece of hard bread. Computer? They tightened ,their belts, knowing that the next supply station, Fort Custer, lay forty-two miles cross-country. Their spirits sagged further when their first three hours of fighting through still more mud gained them only six miles. Then they crested a ridge and chico university thesis archieves, saw Moss's weary features break out in a huge grin! The lieutenant pointed ahead. Before them lay a hard, dry surface-and all downhill slope.

Moss rode out, with the others behind him, and with everyone picking up speed all the way. At three-thirty that afternoon they pedaled into form for cover Fort Custer. They had now completed the university thesis archieves, first leg of their journey while being completely out of touch with the theses, outside world. In the fort the men enjoyed a hearty meal, then cleaned up their clothing and equipment. Judging his troop to be close to complete exhaustion, Moss announced a day's rest. The cyclists camped that night near the scene of Custer's last stand , where in 1876 227 cavalry troops had been. wiped out in a bloody fight with Sioux and Cheyenne Indians.

They spent their day of rest sightseeing along the chico state university master thesis archieves, Little Big Horn. Refreshed and printing paper weight, rested, with their bellies full, the chico state university master thesis, bicycle troops pedaled away from the old Custer battlefield, determined to proper form pick up the precious time that had been lost in the mountains. Master? They were now moving from Montana into aristotle prime Wyoming, and at the crossing from one state to another was an imaginary signpost marking the chico state university archieves, first third of the 95 were their journey of 1,900 miles. It was a good thing they'd, had their rest-the ninety miles from the Little Big Horn to master archieves Sheridan, Wyoming, proved to be one of the most difficult legs of their trek. What was laughingly called a road snaked through rough and hilly country, trying its best-and. Programming Paper? failing-to follow the state university thesis archieves, river to the Wyoming border. Six times Moss and his cyclists came to a stop, staring morosely at the water before them, and each time they had to ford the Little Big Horn wading chest-high through water in computer programming research paper, teams of university master archieves four carrying their bicycles across one by one, raised high above their heads on about value of trees, long poles.

Grimly determined now to successfully [tbate]combat whatever nature had to chico thesis offer, the twenty-one men hammered their way to thesis printing paper weight the Wyoming border. State Thesis? Their route led them southeast away from the aristotle, river, but through dangerous country that abounded In huge potholes filled with alkali water. No small matter, this, for they obtained their water from sources they found en route. Their main supplies came from railroad tanks they passed. Despite all the difficulties they had encountered, they were only slightly behind schedule when they passed through Sheridan. They pressed forward and on university thesis, June 29, after having battled their way up twenty miles of programming mountain grade, tortured by a broiling sun, the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps pedaled wearily into university thesis Gillette, Wyoming. Moss grinned at aristotle essay, his men.

Time for lunch , he announced. As his men rested, Moss. checked the route ahead. Chico Master Thesis Archieves? Thirty miles distant was Moorcroft, where he could count on getting water and additional supplies. At four o'clock that afternoon they were on their way, making eight miles an hour beneath a late-day warming sun. Just after six P.M. things started coming unglued. Storm clouds swept behind them and the men started searching for a safe camp.

At that moment they all heard a sharp metallic snap! Private Foreman stood beside his bicycle with the front fork sagging from a broken axle. Moss tried not to show his frustration: They had no spare front axles . Foreman would have to walk, pushing his machine all the way, to the next supply station. By now Jim Moss had endured all he could in complying with orders to computer programming paper which he'd never agreed. He turned the command over to Sergeant Saunders: Keep the men together , ordered Moss. Proceed to state archieves Moorcroft with the speed it takes Foreman to walk his machine. I'm going ahead with the cook and two men. Computer Research Paper? We'll get a hot meal together and line up repair materials and supplies . Moss and the other three men sped off down the already dark, unfamiliar road.

They made only four miles before the chico state university archieves, black night and muddy surface forced them to dismount. Now they had to walk, pushing their bikes into increasingly treacherous underfooting. It was midnight when the four exhausted men stumbled upon railway tracks. Hungry and cold from the damp. night air, they sprawled on programming, the ground to rest. They needed warmth but failed to find firewood. As they huddled together, sharing their misery, a rifle shot cracked through the darkness.

Fire one shot , Moss ordered a Soldier. Moments later three of state university thesis his troops, who had pushed their way ahead of Saunders' group and lost themselves in the dark, staggered up to about Moss. Now they made up a band of seven, with fourteen more coming up behind. Moss and the six Soldiers started out in the darkness for state university master thesis, Moorcroft. The pain of pulled muscles was excruciating.

Every man suffered from programming research muscle cramps. Doggedly and state master thesis, deliberately they pushed on. Value? The journey became a mind-blurring effort of lifting one foot after the other. Then, after hours of body-punishing travel, a voice groaned.from the darkness. My God. . . Chico State University Thesis Archieves? I can't . . Essay Value Of Trees? . I can't go no more . Moss turned but couldn't see a thing in the inky night. Yet he knew the identity of the Soldier who had fallen out and was already sprawled by the side of the muddy road. Leave him there , he ordered. Let him sleep . Moss resumed the march.

All he could think of now was reaching the next supply station, where he could regroup his command. His men were strung out along fifteen miles of muddy Wyoming trail. He stumbled on, more asleep than awake, his bicycle as much a support to his shaking body as it was a burden to push. He blinked his eyes, wondering if he was falling victim to hallucinations. In the distance there seemed to chico state be a faint glow of light, as if a clothesline were strung before the road, drifting toward him. The 95 Theses? It came so close it seemed certain to strike his face. Several times he threw out chico thesis archieves, his arm, but nothing was there. Jim Moss fell asleep even as he fought his way through the mud. Computer Research Paper? His feet stumbled and. he went down, as if in slow. motion, unconscious but still trying to walk.

The six men with him went down like poled oxen. Chico? Each Soldier slept where he fell. Barely sixty minutes later Moss opened his eyes, stunned to find himself lying on essay, the road. As first light silhouetted the horizon, Moss stared through morning mist at a red building. Moorcroft! And only chico master thesis a few steps away from where they'd fallen into paper the mud. Angered and disgusted with himself, Moss shouted at the other men to get to university master their feet. Computer Programming Research? With stiffened arms and legs they lurched into the supply camp. The cook ordered the men with him to help. Hot food quickly revived them, and Moss split his force, one group sleeping while the others prepared for the rest of the men to arrive.

One by one the rear guard straggled in, grateful for the hot meal waiting for chico university master archieves, them. By two o'clock that same afternoon, the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps was again on its way. Jim Moss knew many things. But not how to quit. For the next five days the bicycle troop traveled steadily across the southwestern corner of South Dakota. Proper Form? And their luck held until they were well into Nebraska where, to their surprise, they plowed into that state's hills of sand. Their progress slowed by difficult riding and rising temperatures, the men turned to whatever water they could find. Unfortunately, the water they drank was heavily laced with alkali, and just beyond the city of Alliance, Nebraska, Jim Moss toppled from his bicycle seat. Half unconscious and seriously ill from taking too much alkali into his system, he was judged unfit for further travel by bicycle.

Assistant Surgeon J. M. Kennedy now took over command of the troop. The men carried Moss back to Alliance where he could recover and, later, could travel by train to rejoin his command. Kennedy must have regretted the state thesis archieves, twist of fate that gave him control of the Soldier-cyclists, for no sooner was Moss removed from his position of leadership than the troop plunged into a fresh nightmare. The Nebraskan hills tortured them with roads of shifting masses of sand worse than any mud. Every day the sun blazed hotter in the sky, sapping their strength and burning whatever skin was exposed to its brutal rays. Finally human endurance reached its limit, and Kennedy led the thesis paper, men away from the ankle deep sand to university thesis follow the railroad tracks. Ahead of the introductions college, men lay 170 miles of torturous travel.

It was a question of which was worse, the jarring of the university master, railroad cross ties or the thesis printing, ankle-clutching sand. On July 7, as the men fell by the tracks to rest beneath trees, the temperature registered 110° F: in the, shade. Chico State University Archieves? That night more than half the men were seriously ill. Two Soldiers suffered the agony of badly blistered feet-the result of endless trudging in burning sand. Mover? The others had a variety of ills, ranging from heat prostration and pulled muscles to chico state university master chafed skin and were, stomach cramps.

Despite the heat, the blisters, and assorted sufferings, the Soldiers exerted every ounce of their strength to continue. What carried them through the. worst of the trek was the chico university master thesis, clean water they drew from the railroad storage tanks. They pushed their way through the worst of the sand hills in four-and-a-half days, establishing the astonishing average of better than thirty-seven miles a day. The men greeted a recovered Jim Moss with shouts of joy as the lieutenant swung down from a train he had ordered stopped. With Moss again in command, they reached the clay roads of Missouri on July 17.

They rolled into the. town of Rulo, where they discovered that the local citizens were every bit as hostile as the thesis paper, country through which they'd just fought their way. The local folk, it seemed, wanted no truck with negras , even if they were Soldiers. The sand. hills were behind them, and so were the mountains, but nothing had improved where the roads were concerned. They crossed the state on what Moss later described as the worst roads of the entire journey. The troops finished the last three heat-scorching days struggling from one hill to the next, their lips becoming parched and their tongues swollen when their water supplies ran out. State University Thesis Archieves? By this time, however, nothing, not heat nor terrible roads nor the hostility of the local people could keep Moss and his men from getting through. No matter that almost all of Missouri regarded them .as outcasts. St. Louis made it up to them with a thundering reception and open arms.

Waiting to essays college greet them was a huge crowd of cheering well-wishers on chico master archieves, bicycles, who provided a colorful escort for the men. They officially ended their memorable trip of 1,900 miles before the Cottage Hotefin Forest Park. It was six o'clock on the evening of Saturday, July 24, 1897. Exclusive of the brief time spent in repairs and recuperating from illness, they had completed their journey in thirty-four days of actual travel, averaging 6.3 miles an programming research hour and 55.9 miles a day . Jim Moss was the hero of the day. University Archieves? He told reporters he was convinced that the trip had demonstrated the programming, ability of an army bicycle corps to compete with infantry or cavalry moving cross-country at one-third of the archieves, cost. Some of our experiences , he stressed, tested to the utmost not only the were, men's physical endurance, but also their moral courage and disposition. I wish to commend. them for the spirit, pluck, and fine Soldierly qualities they displayed . Of the twenty-one Soldiers who pedaled from chico university master Fort Missoula, twenty reached St. Prime? Louis in surprisingly good health and condition. Only one man failed to complete the master, trip. One week short of prime their destination, Pvt.

Eugene Jones claimed to be too weak to state master thesis archieves continue. The 95? Moss shipped Jones and master thesis archieves, his bicycle back to Fort Missoula by train. No one missed him. They were too busy enjoying their moment of prime well-deserved acclaim in cycling history. Chapter 5: The Bicycle Goes to War. The bicycle managed to survive three decades of trial-and-error military experiments before actually being committed to battle, But going to war on two-wheelers was actually a two-phase affair, the first being a too-late entry into Cuba, and the second being a full-scale test in South Africa. The initial orders for combat service came with the Spanish-American War of 1898, and once again it brought to the limelight none other than Lt. James Moss and his men of the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps . . When Moss completed historic journey from Montana to chico Missouri, his hopes for realistic tests for bicycle troops fell by the wayside. He soon found himself a cyclist leader with no one to lead, and essays college, an officer without a command. On his return to Fort Missoula, Moss prepared an official proposal, for an unprecedented and, he considered, a really acid test of the bicycle under field conditions.

He asked permission to archieves lead twenty Soldier-cyclists from aristotle essay Fort Missoula to San Francisco, and to return along a route different from the outgoing roads. To Moss, who now had experience to back his proposal, such a trip would demonstrate beyond all question the chico state, bicycle's qualifications as a vehicle to convey troops across long distances at only a fraction of the cost of horse-drawn wagons . Moss was dismayed to discover his enthusiasm didn't reach beyond the walls of Fort Missoula. The Secretary of War , who passed upon such matters, had little interest in Soldiers pedaling their way around the value of trees, country. Master Thesis Archieves? The horse and the railroad , by God, were the ways to transport fighting men. Moss's request came back with the explanation that sufficient experiments had already been made with the military bicycle to tell the army everything it needed to know about such matters . Sorely disappointed, Moss swallowed his pride and returned to the 95 theses were the mundane life of an army post officer, while the black cyclists who had made history with him returned to their prosaic duties. Yet prosaic was a matter of attitude. The black Soldiers' regiment was at the time the only organized force in chico state thesis, the northwestern United States, and much of introductions essays college their time was spent away from their post, helping people recover from the [transformationunderfire] ravages of weather and man . They assisted people caught in thesis archieves, floods, fires, and storms. College? When local police authority failed to control lawlessness, the black Soldiers went out to regain command.

They assisted Indian agents in a wide range of chico state thesis duties. They trailed deserters across hundreds of form letters miles, formed military posses where they were needed. At times such duty was the best a Soldier could have, for the men often set up camps deep in California's Yosemite, Sequoia, and state thesis archieves, Grant national parks. Paper Weight? There they rounded up cattle and sheep-rustlers, disarmed anyone caught carrying weapons without special authority, protected game in the parks, arrested timber stealers, and often, fought raging forest fires. Then came the Spanish-American War and a renewed interest in bicycle-mounted troops.

Moss received orders to. regroup his force. Now he was in command of 100 men, all trained to use the bicycle as a well-disciplined military force. Once he had selected the men best suited for the new cycle corps, Moss had each bicycle fitted with a special clip fastened to the left side of the frame, where rifles were carried muzzle to the front and barrel up. The tension clip was designed to let a man snatch his weapon from the clip for immediate use. Moss had learned his lessons well on chico master thesis archieves, his 1,900-mile trip, when the weight and clumsiness of a rifle slung across a man's back was nearly too much to endure along with other privations.

He also armed each man with a double-action revolver, kept in a holster strapped to his right hip. Moss never went to [nation-state] war with the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps. The war didn't last long enough. For Cover? Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and his cavalry troop of Rough Riders stormed San. Juan Hill and three months after the war began it was ended. The Army took up occupation duties in Cuba. Resigned to remaining forever in Montana, Moss was surprised when he received emergency orders for shipped out to Cuba. Chico Thesis Archieves? All hell had broken loose in Havana. In the wet summer season there was an explosive spread of yellow fever and a mild form of malaria.

Cubans and occupying American troops alike were affected, but the local citizens heaped blame on essay, the United States Army, taking to the streets with mob violence and riots. The United States hastily withdrew its own stricken Soldiers and Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles sent out a call for Moss and his all-new bicycle force. Two days later Moss and his 100 picked men were on a train to Tampa, Florida, where they moved quickly aboard a waiting troopship. No sooner had they disembarked in. Havana than they were rushed into chico university master thesis archieves immediate riot-control duty. There was no question that their appearance caught the attention of the Cubans, although the first reaction was one of loud laughter. Research? The sight of state master black Soldiers on bicycles wheeling to scenes of trouble brought its mixture of scorn and amusement. The chuckles died away when they watched the disciplined order of aristotle prime mover essay Moss and state master thesis archieves, his men who, heavily armed, rode unflinchingly into the worst trouble spots in the Cuban city. Mover? For a while the chico state university thesis, Cubans held back.

Then the incidence of fever increased sharply and thesis printing weight, amused tolerance exploded again into chico university anger. Moss and his cyclists were busy day and night dispersing crowds and stopping mobs in the streets. There were so many incidents that a force five times greater than the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps could never have dealt with them all. Aristotle Prime Essay? Yet wherever Moss and his men appeared they put down the rioting mobs. Their technique was to approach in university thesis archieves, groups from different sides of the crowd, who suddenly found themselves facing a hundred heavily armed and prime essay, determined men . If the cyclists encountered a crowd that seemed determined to state master thesis break through their ranks, the men would dismount, stack their bicycles into a barricade , and present a solid force of firepower. Against all the pessimistic forecasts for a force of only a hundred men, the Moss troop was given credit as the major factor in stopping a potential destruction in its tracks . Oddly enough, the bicycle troops never had to resort to their weapons.

In fact, they didn't have to fire so much as a warning shot-an incredible testimonial to their effectiveness. The men stayed on twenty-four-hour duty until the outbreak of programming research fever subsided and state master thesis archieves, the threat of mob outbreaks eased away. Moss and the 95 theses were, his men returned to Montana with their weapons unused, but with a ringing tribute to state archieves the effectiveness of military bicycle forces. Yet many observers hesitated to accept the bicycle as a major element in for cover letters, the military. Riot duty was one thing, they noted, not without justification. [Nation-state] Combat was another. That test was to come just one year later. War broke out in 1899 on the plains of South Africa.

It was called the state university, Boer War after the Dutch farmers of that land who decided to implement armed resistance against the British advance into paper weight the territories of the area. Their resentment began thirteen years earlier when the discovery of gold brought a swarm of British miners and prospectors to the Dutch farmlands . To control the newcomers the Boer government refused them citizenship and master thesis, imposed severe taxes on thesis printing paper weight, almost every activity in university master thesis archieves, which they engaged. The British, as might have been expected, vigorously protested such shabby treatment, accepting the moves of the form, Boers as a direct challenge to university master archieves the Crown. The situation went from bad to worse when, in 1895, Sir Leander Starr Jameson carried out an unexpected military raid against the Boers. The Dutch on introductions essays, their part shouted that the Jameson raid was an ill-concealed British attempt to seize the Transvaal. In mutual self-interest the locals immediately formed a military alliance of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. One action begets another. State Master Thesis Archieves? The British reacted with the claim that the introductions college, alliance was a subterfuge to deny deserved commercial rights to their citizens, and demanded the disbanding of the chico state thesis archieves, new alliance and the withdrawal of military. forces.

No one yielded and on introductions, October 12, 1899, both sides plunged into state master thesis archieves open conflict. Perhaps the computer research, single most important piece of equipment brought to South Africa by the British military force was the bicycle. The British commander had judged with great wisdom the problems peculiar to the country his troops would face. And the chico university thesis, first lesson he observed was that reliance upon the horse, traditional in regions such as South Africa, would be a disaster. The mortality rate among such animals was nothing less than crippling. To have based his field operations upon horse-mounted troops, with the loss of the horses through disease and sickness, could have crippled his men and left them at the mercy of computer programming paper their enemies. At the same time, he needed mobility. The nature of the land called for great flexibility in moving his forces from one danger point to another.

For this purpose the British made their gamble on the bicycle. If they were right, then British troops would be able to move with much greater speed than' could the chico state thesis, Boer Soldiers, and the British would enjoy the computer programming research paper, advantage of being able to select their battlegrounds, as well as being able to university master thesis archieves press after enemy forces. Thousands of bicycles arrived with the British. They were given, as first priority, to the combat troops, although they were in great demand with virtually everyone else. The bicycle carried supplies, permitted rapid communication and transport, and served as a substitute for horses, without the value of trees, attendant problems of food supplies and diseased animals. The bicycle became synonymous with the British in state university master, South Africa and prompted one African, upon for cover seeing his first bicycle under way with a British Soldier riding se- renely by to comment: Trust the state university master, English to invent a way of traveling while sitting down . During its initial use in essays, South Africa, the bicycle faced many of the problems other military forces had encountered in the field. The machines were heavy, required excessive maintenance and, unless surface conditions were reasonable, they often had to be abandoned by troops who were forced to keep moving in field operations. All that changed when Dursley Pederson applied common sense and skilled engineering to the problem, and produced a folding bicycle that weighed only fifteen pounds . Soldiers who were issued the new machines quickly devised carrying straps and slings for the folded bicycles, and overnight the problems of moving through terrain impassable to any wheeled vehicle disappeared. University Thesis Archieves? On good terrain the troops could travel from forty to paper sixty miles a day with full equipment. When they encountered uncharted and rough surfaces, the men folded their bicycles into a compact and manageable size, lashed them to their backs, and kept moving on foot.

The moment they were back on reasonable ground, the folded machines were reassembled, and state master archieves, the men were moving swiftly in proper for cover letters, pursuit of their enemy. No force on foot could hope to escape the cyclist troops . The advantages of the bicycle were never brought home more forcibly than when British and African Soldiers were chasing their enemy holed up in distant sanctuaries. So long as the Boers knew the general distance of their camps from the chico university master thesis, British and Africans, they assumed they had a built-in time safety factor. Value Of Trees? But too often they judged that time on the basis of troops on state master archieves, foot. They were completely unprepared for the silent swift strikes of college men on bicycles. University Archieves? The British and African cycle.

troops covered ground quickly, and were able to move into encirclement positions without detection by their unsuspecting foes. Then they had the choice of swift attack, often firing from moving bicycles for surprise effect, or moving up close to their enemy and making a rush on foot. A year later the war was considered all but ended. The British landed heavy reinforcements under the computer research, command of Lord Kitchener, and the newly arrived troops moved across South Africa in a well-planned mopping-up maneuver. The campaign fizzled out when the Boers chose not to stand and university master, fight. Thesis Paper Weight? Instead they slipped away from the concentrations of British troops to begin two years of guerrilla warfare.

Once again the key factor, where the British were concerned, was the fast mobility of field forces. And the bicycle became the master archieves, critical element of that mobility. Prime Mover Essay? Kitchener's troops were forced to comb the chico state university master thesis archieves, guerrilla country section-by-section. So long as the British had to move on foot, the Boers could always keep one step ahead of them. But not ahead of bicycle troops, who could move with many times the paper, Boers' speed. If they remained holed up, the British had plenty of time to move in university master thesis archieves, heavy siege forces.

If the form, Boers fled, they were sure to be overtaken by hundreds of fresh, heavily armed men on bicycles. Unable to deal with these tactics, outflanked and outmaneuvered by the Bicycle-Soldiers, the Boers capitulated on May 31, 1902. The bicycle emerged from the Boer War with its vital role in combat field forces no longer in question. Theory had been replaced with performance. Questions, had been shunted aside by chico state thesis, victories. The bicycle had ridden off to war an computer research unknown machine, but it emerged from its first major conflict with flying colors. Chico Master Thesis? It proved able to travel where no horse had ever penetrated . Aristotle Prime Essay? It conquered South Africa's densest brush, rolled along its narrow trails, and sped across fields and roads quickly and silently, demanding no more support than a lubricating can and a pocket wrench. The military bicycle had come of age. Chapter 6: Along the Trenches.

The first light of day came reluctantly, if it preferred the hiding cloak of darkness. Yet the earth rolled ponderously about its axis, and no wish or hope could stay the thin sliver of gray that began to chico university master thesis archieves splinter the eastern horizon. As the sky brightened, it passed through a brief period when the slanting rays of the sun- touched high clouds, first with deep pink, then glowing yellow, and finally white, all before the sun itself climbed above the aristotle mover essay, visible edge of the world. In that quiet moment hundreds of thousands of men lifted their eyes upward, regretting the brightness that would follow, that would reveal to state master them the scarred horror of a world gone mad. Introductions Essays? For in the area of France where the river Marne flowed, terrible things had been done to the earth, now lying stark in the growing day. The fields and the farms, the banks of streams and the slopes of gentle hills, the orchards and valleys, all had been attacked and laid bare to chico master their earthly bones. In every direction across the countryside holes gaped like great blind eyes-holes made by bursting shells.

Slicing crazily through the mindless pattern of introductions essays destruction were other scars, zigzag things carved from the soil by men desperate to escape the reach of jacketed steel and glowing fragments. and powder that shattered all about it, especially the fragile bodies of men. Yet, despite the disease that scarred the university, land, there was still beauty to be found. It was fleeting, to be sure, and prime mover essay, not all men who looked upon archieves it saw the same thing. To some it was beauty.

To others it was nothing, for they stared upon the world with eyes too long vacant. And finally, to another group of hard-eyed men, the beauty that was the early morning mist gliding from the Marne River was a gossamer shield behind which they might conceal themselves from proper form letters enemies. On the south side of the Marne was a group of men with bicycles. Some kept on their machines, patiently waiting, with legs comfortably wide for balance. Others had left their cycles and state university master archieves, sat or sprawled on the ground, awaiting the thesis weight, signal that would galvanize them into action. But all of chico state university master thesis archieves them studied the mist that drifted from the rippling gray surface of the Marne. The cottony soft mist sheathed river and surrounding. Prime? countryside in a hush of its own making. At a touch of breeze the mist swirled, sending tendrils exploring upward along the river banks, reaching high enough to glide along the lower structure of a bridge spanning the river and into the village of state university master thesis Mt. St. Pere. There was a false security in that mist.

It soothed the minds of men, and for this the cyclists south of the bridge were grateful. They were Germans, and they were deep in programming, the land of their French enemy. The mist also lulled the university master thesis archieves, French into a pervasive security that was perilously thin and insubstantial. A German trooper, his hand moving with a subconscious desire for reassurance from his weapons, slapped gently at the side of a lethal machine gun on which he sat, balanced, waiting for the moment to roll forward. The. trooper nodded to himself. Introductions College? He thought of the French just beyond that mist and a thin smile came to his lips. Turning slowly, he glanced about him again, then nodded with satisfaction. His men, soldiers of the 1 st Bicycle Company, Rifleman Battalion of the Guards of the German Army, had traveled a long way through a treacherous night.

In the midst of the enemy, the German cyclists had struggled through more than twenty miles of muddy roads, unexpected embankments, and open fields. They had managed to escape the attention of French patrols and to work their way through mine fields. Moving with careful discipline, the entire force on bicycles had penetrated deep into chico master thesis archieves French-controlled territory. Now, looking down from programming paper a slope on the iron-and-concrete bridge spanning the Marne River to Mt. Chico State Master Archieves? St.Pere, they waited out the final minutes of their daring operation. The bridge across the Marne, shrouded in the swirling, sound-deadening mists. It was critical to computer programming research the operations of both the chico master archieves, Germans and the French. Printing? Everything had to be timed perfectly.

If the German troopers continued moving with the clockwork precision they had sustained through the night, then even the daring of their presence would be far exceeded by what they would next attempt. For they had come here to snatch the bridge from the hands of an enemy force well established on university thesis archieves, its own ground . A force well dug in, that far outnumbered that of the computer programming, Germans, was backed with artillery, communications to chico thesis archieves bring up immediate reinforcements, and had a further advantage of zeroing in research paper, its weapons from different sides to defend the bridge. The Germans, on their part, had allies the French lacked: surprise and chico, audacity. The last minutes ticked away. By the research paper, first day of September in 1914 the Great War was still less than overwhelming in its dimensions. Chico State Thesis Archieves? The combatants had succeeded in about value of trees, wrecking enormous areas of land, and at times the bloodletting on both sides was staggering. Yet the fighting was still, as tacticians described it, rather straightforward.

Combat leaders were to accept specific areas for fighting the enemy. It was essentially a static front war, with sluggish movement on both sides; a battle of two massive elephants grinding slowly at one another. Thus the German trooper who came up with the idea of bicycle troops, outfitted with machine guns, to serve as a swift-moving advance guard before a main body of troops, was actually a man of audacious, almost reckless, thought. Chico Thesis? He was flirting with things beyond the accepted pattern of military operations. Essay About Of Trees? The idea was ridiculous. But the state master thesis archieves, officers of the German 5 th Cavalry Division agreed among themselves that it was so ridiculous the last people to admit its possibility would be the French. Which meant that if they were too hidebound in their thinking to conceive of fast advance guards on bicycles, then it was most likely they would not grant to the Germans such an prime mover essay innovation in chico university thesis archieves, thinking . Proper Letters? Ergo, the chico state university archieves, French would be particularly vulnerable to a surprise strike with such a force. So it was with the about value, bicycle.

The Germans were under no misconception about the use of the bicycle with foot Soldiers. It could liberate them from the restricted pace of a march on foot, and open up many additional miles to chico thesis archieves swift-wheeling cyclists . But that was as far as it went, where the French were concerned. An army with tens of. thousands of bicycles aIong its frontline units, like the value of trees, French, was chained to limited thinking. For it was the official line among the French military leaders that the state master thesis, bicycle was strictly for transport , and could be effective only introductions essays when that transport took place under the chico state master thesis archieves, heavy protection of essay value of trees massed French arms. State? Logistics, to the French, was the goal for the bicycle, and proper form for cover, not exposure to chico state university master thesis archieves enemy guns that could tear cyclist troops limb from limb. By this line of reasoning, then, it was obvious that any troops of bicycle Soldiers that pedaled away from this protection was doomed to about of trees being cut to pieces. They must remain with the main force. This was a fact life. Of course, where the chico state archieves, French went wrong was assuming that what was obvious to them would be equally clear to the Germans. The stultified French thinking, and lack of introductions college imagination was the chico state master thesis, first breach in the defense wall along the Marne River.

Thus the German moves began with an proper for cover letters already existing safety factor-the shortsightedness of their enemy . Chico University Master Thesis Archieves? On the aristotle prime mover essay, night of September 2, 1914, the university master, lead elements of the 1 st Bicycle Company, Rifleman Battalion slipped away from their frontline positions. Advance scouts studying the area until the last touch of day vanished reported all was well. The French had pulled back within their defense positions. Theses Were? There might be a scouting patrol that night, but otherwise the university archieves, French were holing up for essay about, the hours of darkness. The Marne twisted as it went through the town of Mt. St. Pere, and chico state, the main French force had dug in their bridgehead on the north bank. Across the bridge, along the south bank, the French maintained another defensive force. The. latter group was intended solely to safeguard the approaches to the bridge. If there was to be any attack against computer research paper the bridge, the defenders would have more than enough time to both sound the state master thesis archieves, alarm and hold off their attackers, while the main body of troops roared forth from the stronger positions along the north bank.

It was the type of research strategy that induced commanders to shift responsibility to subordinates, and chico university archieves, the subordinates, in turn, naturally did everything the easiest way possible. As the German troops rolled silently through the computer research, night, all protruding pieces of metal were muffled, with cloth so that no betraying sounds would alert the French troops sprawled in deep slumber. Only a handful of guards were up, and university master, these few paid little attention to the approaches leading to the bridge. What could possibly threaten them or the bridge they guarded? The nearest enemy forces were more than twenty miles away. And how could they get there without being noticed? If they walked it would take them, all that night and longer, and they would be exposed by daylight, and decimated by superior French firepower. Essay About Value? Would the Germans approach by chico master thesis, motor transport? Not very likely, for the sound of motorcycles or trucks would have been heard for miles.

What about horses? Again the sound would have been a fatal giveaway. No, there had not been a sound during the night. The outlying posts had heard nothing, seen nothing. So one would be foolish not to relax, to theses get a good night's rest, to count on state thesis archieves, the few sentries who had the task of scanning the approaches to the bridge. Morning came, and in the faint light of the new day the world was wreathed in heavy mists from the mover, river. A stillness to make one forget the war. Enjoy the moment while it was there. The German troopers checked their watches.

The weariness that came with the state university archieves, forced ride of more than twenty miles--and with maintaining absolute silence--was now gone. As the last moments of their carefully followed plan slid away, adrenalin rushed through their bodies, bringing them to full alertness. They had managed the thesis printing paper weight, first of several impossible steps by arriving where they were without detection. Chico University Thesis Archieves? Now they must press that advantage. The German commander scanned his cyclists, took a look at his watch, then raised his arm for the signal. The others stood ready, right feet poised on pedals, prepared for the sudden downswing to get started. The commander dropped his arm. The cyclist troops rushed forward to strike, still enveloped in proper for cover, silence, but now racing toward their still-unsuspecting foe.

The advance team of German cyclists took advantage of the state archieves, steep down-slope toward the river. There, along the essay about of trees, south bank, was the main defense element guarding the approaches to the bridge. They had to be knocked: out first. As the cyclists rushed down; they spread apart , allowing a preplanned distance between each man. Chico State University? And as they closed the college, distance between themselves and the unsuspecting French, they prepared to open fire. The strike was made in two prongs. First came the advance group, streaming down hill, fanning out, preparing to chew into the collection of French tents . Directly behind them was the main striking force that kept to the road, bunching together for greater fire support, heading directly for the bridge, and prepared to go storming across that vital passageway. The Germans wanted not to capture the bridge, which would' have meant bringing up heavy reinforcements, but to destroy it, so that it could not be used. by the French to counter a planned offensive by chico university master archieves, the German army. Potential Mountain Bike Handlebar Weapon: Full-Automatic Pistols.

Everyman rode forward with his left hand gripping his handlebar and his right hand clutching the paper, trigger and butt of his machine gun . Moving in behind the main force on the road was a third force on bicycles. But these men, instead of being machine gunners, were sappers, loaded down with demolition charges . The lead team of university master archieves cyclists rode toward the enemy, waiting for the prearranged signal to commence firing. It came suddenly, a shattering explosive roar as the commander squeezed his trigger. Instantly the others opened fire dozens of machine guns roaring violently. The men had spread out, enough now so that their deadly fire tore into the rows and printing weight, clusters of tents . In a few brief seconds the French bridgehead force, intended to chico state hold off any attack, was decimated. Men were killed where they slept. Bullets screamed through thin canvas and tore into bodies. Those not killed outright rose up in panic, rushing out letters, blindly with their weapons so they might see their attackers.

They. Chico University Thesis? were caught in a devastating crossfire, The men on bicycles continued their dash downslope, firing in long bursts that tumbled French Soldiers from their feet, and sent them rushing for cover. Now they were cut to ribbons by another team of German cyclists. These men had dismounted and setup machine guns to sweep the tent area. As the were, French Soldiers dashed out of their tents to avoid the fire of the men racing at them, they were riddled by the machine guns chattering from the side. It wasn't even a fight. Instead, the cyclists attack had been so effective, so devastating, that the French.

troops had no chance to defend themselves . Those who escaped from their tents and from the hail of bullets all about them, could only flee for chico state archieves, their lives. The Germans continued their hammering fire as the enemy Soldiers, many of them clad only in socks and underwear , threw themselves frantically into the river, trying to escape by thesis printing, swimming away, or concealing themselves against the lower bank. This was good enough for the Germans, for their mission was to destroy or pin down the bridgehead defense force so it could not interfere with the main body of cyclists. On the bridge there was pandemonium within the ranks of the guards on chico master thesis, duty. The staccato roar of proper for cover letters machine guns brought them upright--just in time to be cut down by the withering fire of the main body of German cyclists, already on the bridge and racing for the north bank. The few guards on state archieves, the bridge never even slowed down the Germans. Pedaling furiously, they rushed across the bridge and swept up the opposite essay about side. Chico? The lead cyclists were already firing into the 95 the main body of French troops, and once again the state university master, carnage was repeated. With no warning, completely unexpected, a savage band of men with machine guns had exploded in the midst of the French. Those who rushed from their positions with guns at the ready were met with a wicked fusillade from both flanks. On the south bank, the cyclists who had decimated the introductions, defenders were now in secure positions and blazing away with covering fire to university master protect their men who had rushed across the bridge . No matter which way the French turned they were whipsawed by the lethal crossfire from the German machine guns.

Badly outnumbered, the invaders had the college, satisfaction of seeing the French in complete turmoil. Within moments the survivors of the French units were throwing down their arms; In the river, dozens of state thesis archieves bodies floating beneath the bridge were' staining the proper letters, water a bloody red. Other French Soldiers were sprawled grotesquely along the banks, like dolls hurled away and crumpled in anger. The firing began to chico state university thesis archieves die away as the French came into the open, demoralized and shocked, their hands held high. An entire French force posted along the thesis paper weight, north bank was captured intact. The Germans kept moving with incredible precision. Machine gunners herded the captives across the bridge to the south side, where they were started moving at double time back toward the German lines. These men now served a dual role-as captives and as insurance against immediate assault, for state university thesis, a counter strike against the Germans now would result in thus committing murderous mayhem upon the French prisoners. As soon as the surrendering French Soldiers had been herded across the prime mover, bridge the chico university master, enemy sappers received word to go ahead with their assigned job. Their bicycles were safely on the south side of the river. The Germans placed dynamite in proper form letters, strategic spots along the span, connected the wires, unrolled those wires as they raced from the bridge to concealment, detonated their charges.

A sheet of bright flame erupted outward, followed instantly by state university master thesis archieves, a, thunderclap of sound as the thesis printing paper weight, explosives went off. Huge chunks of concrete and iron hurtled through the air, followed by clouds of dense, acrid smoke. Moments later the placid gray surface of the Marne boiled with the debris crashing into it. Well before the gentle morning wind pushed the sudden rising smoke and spray to one side, the Germans were hurrying back to their own front lines, herding their prisoners before them. They moved quickly and they kept up their.

pace for hours. Chico State University Master Thesis Archieves? By the time they were back with their own unit, the story of their incredible mission was spreading like wildfire through the prime, ranks. The story, incredible as it seemed when it was heard by chico university thesis, officials on proper letters, both sides, was true enough. The bridge at Mt. St. Pere had been wrecked, blown apart and hurled into the river. The French guard along the south bank had been torn to pieces, the master thesis, men surprised and research paper, thrust into state university thesis archieves chaos and essay of trees, confusion. The strong garrison forces along the north bank had been caught in their quarters, their strength slashed, their ability to fight seriously hampered. State Thesis? Most of the men were either dead, missing, or prisoners.

And the Germans had suffered only a few casualties during the daring foray. Mover Essay? They had fought a brilliant military action and retired safely and state university, swiftly to their own lines. And they'd done it on bicycles . Where were the British Bicycle-Troops at Arnhem? Germans on Bicycles Repulse Them in 1944. If nothing else; the French knew how to nurse their wounded pride . The incident across the Marne River at Mt. St. Programming Research Paper? Pere sent repercussions all the chico university master archieves, way back to Paris.

The French had suffered, more than their killed, wounded, missing, and prisoners. Essay Value? More than the loss of the vital bridge. The Germans hap rubbed their heavy boots in the French nose. And they'd gone so deep within French lines. Let it not be said that the chico university master archieves, French could not profit from their losses. Six days after the disaster at Mt.

St. Pere a French commander, convinced the Germans would never dream that the French might give them a dose of their own medicine, sent a strong force of bicycle troops beyond the French front lines, deep into German territory. Their mission? No bridge this time. Computer Research Paper? No working up slowly to a specific target. Their mission was to get into the. midst of the enemy, who would not be expecting swift and silent mobility-and to state university master thesis raise general havoc. Which is precisely what the theses, French did. They threw a temporary bridge across the Marne at university, Mt.

St. Pere, they brought equipment over by boat, and when the Germans least expected it, French troops rode like ghosts into their outposts. The bicycles permitted them to challenge strongpoints from for cover letters different sides, all at the same time , and the French, eager for revenge, were off on a shoot and run operation that wreaked no small havoc among their enemy. Operations such as these, especially that of the Germans, who had executed their mission with precision, daring, and extraordinary effect, could not help but have reactions throughout the different high commands. Within a month of the incident at state thesis, Mt. Introductions College? St. Pere, the allied armies of the French, the Belgians, and the British had thrown into state the combat zones more than a quarter of a million bicycles . About Value Of Trees? The Germans were already well-equipped with the two-wheel vehicles, and they responded, wherever conditions dictated, with strong bicycle troop operations of their own. Both sides did their best to use the bicycle in the roles for which it was best suited. It was hardly a combination of mobility and heavy weapons transport, but it was excellent for scouting, foraging, and reconnaissance. Bicyclists could move well ahead of an advancing force to search out the best roads and surface conditions.

They could study the lay of the land for enemy strongpoints and, like all scouting forces, could often determine enemy dispositions by deliberately drawing fire . A rather risky way to do a job, but sometimes the only one available. Some officers of the First World War likened the bicycles. in such roles to fast-moving wraiths that always kept one jump ahead of the enemy trying to knock them out. One man on a bicycle, who could use his eyes and chico state thesis, ears and get back with his information, was worth more than a thousand men committed to a battle where the disposition of the enemy was in question. The combat bicycles that came into for cover letters wide use with the allied armies were of the state master archieves, latest designs, equipped with three-speed gear systems that made it possible for their riders to cycle over almost any kind of road, without suffering the injuries associated with the older hernia horrors . Soon a common sight along the frontline areas was a combat patrol on bicycles, peddling in low gear along a muddy and rutted road, but with normal riding effort and also with excellent sustained speed. A sort of printing weight personal combat flavor arose along certain, areas of the front, much in chico state university master, the manner of the jousting that marked aerial combat in the fabric flivvers of the age. Patrol leaders took pride in essay, the capabilities of chico thesis archieves their bicycle troops, and fierce-and often fatal-competition developed between allied and enemy bicycle groups.

They developed unwritten rules of warfare, much as did the pilots in Fokkers and Sopwiths. Form? At times the exchange of fire between small groups exploded into huge frays of state university master thesis archieves bicycle-mounted forces, as great armies wheeled to have at one another. Introductions Essays? Finally, just as happened in the air, individualities melted away in the sheer numbers and horror of the chico master thesis, war. Even when bicycles were replaced in many sectors by powerful motorcycles, the foot-powered machine more than held its own for combat situations where stealth was all important. While bicycle brigades hacked and computer research paper, blasted one. another in the open along the front lines, commando cyclists took advantage of the silence of their vehicles at night to penetrate rear areas of enemy territory. In any war, personal stories emerge as reflections of the larger and faceless mass of men who were engaged in the business of trying to destroy one another. These Individual tales are valuable arid evocative as emblematic of the larger canvas of action. Such is the university, case concerning Corporal Walter Roberts, whose bicycle got him into terrible trouble, kept him in backbreaking work while a prisoner of the Germans, and also provided his means of escape--a rare case indeed of a man's fortune being welded to the frame of his own machine! Roberts was a Welsh dispatch rider who made the unfortunate mistake of pedaling directly in front, of the rifle sights of thesis paper weight a nest of German snipers.

Riding for his life as shots rang out suddenly, Roberts felt the impact of a high-velocity bullet smashing into chico master thesis his rear tire. The Welshman didn't hesitate for an instant. Introductions Essays College? The moment the bullet struck he hurled himself into a ditch alongside the road, letting the bicycle go spinning off by itself. Roberts discovered quickly, as bullets smacked the ground about him, that the refuge he had selected was extremely low, and hardly the best place to be while German snipers made sport of university master thesis his presence. The 95 Theses Were? Beyond the chico master archieves, ditch stretched a turnip field, and the now-frantic Roberts worked his way forward, face pressed in essay value, dirt and leaves, belly hard against the ground, hoping to find a shell hole or depression that would hide him from the hornet-buzzing of bullets.

No matter where he moved, a bullet sang its death cry just before him, close to his feet, or on either side of him. It slowly dawned on master archieves, Roberts that had the Germans wanted him dead by now he would have been riddled from his skull. to his feet. They were using him for sport! His suspicions were confirmed when one sniper expertly sent a round directly through the crown of Roberts' dispatch rider's cap. He needed no further demonstrations. Immediately, while still lying on the. ground, he brought both hands into the air, above the field of turnips. About Value Of Trees? When no further shots were fired, and he heard the sound of German laughter, or Roberts clambered slowly, to his feet, his hands thrust as high as he could get them. The Germans waved him forward, and Roberts was made a prisoner; at which time the grinning Germans (who could easily have killed him at any time) stripped him of his revolver, knife, dispatch, and chico archieves, other papers. Roberts gratitude at having his life spared was immediately modified and color by ensuing events.

Any idea he might have entertained that the Germans had suffered compassion evaporated quickly. The snipers, who moved in a group, from one area to another, were weary of carrying their heavy supplies. And there was this stranger on form for cover letters, a bicycle. Don't kill him, friends let use him! They did. While grinning Germans held his rifle casually on him, Roberts repaired the puncture in his bicycle's rear tire.

When everything was in chico state thesis, good order the squad of essay about value of trees snipers came up with their, supplies and gear. The bicycle became heavier and heavier as Roberts tied and lashed everything together. When he could barely stand with the machine, the chico state university master, Germans tied a small bag of biscuits for Roberts to eat, and with the muzzle of a rifle prodded him into value activity. State University Thesis Archieves? Cpl. Walter Roberts was now, the private packhorse of printing a squad of skilled German killers, and watching them at their work made it all too obvious just how slim his chances were of getting away alive. Well, at least it was better than. being penned up in state master, a prison camp. His captors made certain that Roberts remained in value, good health and decently fed. He would be of no use to them as a weakling. For five weeks Roberts hauled the equipment and state university master thesis, supplies of the German sniper squad from one place of concealment to another.

Every time he thought he might have a chance to escape he studied the aristotle prime mover, situation with extra care, then changed his mind because the chances far success seemed so dubious. But as he walked and wheeled his heavily loaded bicycle through fields of deep mud, along back roads, and chico state archieves, through heavy brush, he never stopped looking far opportunities. Finally, late one afternoon, the moment came. Research Paper? It was near sunset. The snipers were fully deployed in state master thesis archieves, combat gear, waiting in a carefully planned ambush for research paper, a squad of British troops who were approaching their position from the east. Chico State University Master? The snipers did their job with thoroughness. They left nothing to chance, and their ambush was so set up that the British Soldiers were facing directly into the blinding light of the sun. That could work for me as well , Roberts thought. He knew the Germans had already came to accept his presence as part of form for cover letters their own squad. They were concentrating so hard on the anticipated ambush that they had actually dismissed Roberts from their minds. Chico Thesis? As the Germans kept their sights on the approaching squad, Roberts casually began to unload the prime, heavy supplies from his bicycle.

No one paid any attention to him. A shot cracked out and chico state university master, Roberts flinched, dropping to one knee. Another shot sound, the bigger, the faster the trucks, cars, motorcycles, fighters, and bombers, the more frantically they were sought. We grasped eagerly at anything that expandimself onto his. bicycle, leaning far forward and pedaling far his life. Not toward the British but away from the 95 were them---straight into the brilliant setting sun. Anyone who looked his way could hardly see him, and besides, the Germans suddenly had a thundering fight, an their hands. Roberts wheeled wildly down a slope, swung along a ditch out of sight of the chico state master thesis, German snipers, and essay about value, began the long turn back to the east. That night he showed up at master thesis archieves, his command headquarters, a ghost who had been given up for dead. Before the long, dreary, and thesis weight, bloody war reached its end, the military cyclist was part and parcel of the vast system of machinery used to carryon the fight.

Almost every duty that required transport and archieves, mobility fell to the lot of the about of trees, cyclists-from rear-area carrying of messages to mortal combat in and behind the front lines. Small groups of cyclists grew to complete brigades shipped to the front, and state university thesis archieves, they formed the major elements from which entire campaigns were begun. By the time the introductions, war ended in November of 1918, more than six thousand cyclist troops had met their death in combat; another eight thousand were seriously wounded; and chico university master archieves, tens of thousands more were listed as missing or taken prisoner. The cyclist troopers thus took their place among the paper weight, bravest of the brave. Chapter 7: Between the Wars.

What the bicycle could do in the big war it could also accomplish in master archieves, small wars. Small wars is one way of describing insurrections, revolts, uprisings, takeovers, revolutions, protests, overthrow of authority, guerrilla warfare, and disruption. [EDITOR: a more accurate description is that large wars are NATION-STATE WARS (NSWs) and small wars are SUB-NATIONAL CONFLICTS (SNCs).] The echo of huge artillery shells was still dying away across the essays college, battlefields of university archieves continental Europe when new fighting broke out in the British Isles. The Irish Volunteers, fed to the teeth with what they considered to be repression, launched a campaign of hit-and-run -tactics, neatly mixed with devastating ambushes that sundered the country. The hard-pressed Irish Volunteers, as already noted, found the quick and quiet bicycle the perfect weapon with which to inflict punishment upon a superior military force and armed police. To stand and fight was to aristotle mover invite disaster. The only way to strike hard and survive was to hew strictly to state university master thesis the strategy of prime mover essay hit-and-run raids. The bicycle brought the guerrilla combatants to chico university master thesis archieves the scene of form their raids and chico state university master thesis archieves, removed them as silently and swiftly as they had come. A world in aristotle, which many great nations had been bled white found no way to exist without powerful military forces. No matter what other problems bedeviled a country, government leaders considered (and not entirely without reason) that not to maintain a powerful armed force was to invite disaster from chico state master thesis one's neighbors. The economic disaster of World War I, and accompanying minor conflicts, also demanded the maximum military for the minimum dollar. (That attitude hasn't changed.

Today the reference is to the biggest bang-for-the-buck .) To meet these special needs, military leaders studied the aristotle prime, lessons of the massive war that had just been fought. More than a half-million bicycles had been in use by the various combatants at one time. And this same bicycle imposed no economic hardship in chico state university, mass numbers as did the horse or the printing weight, motor vehicle. The demands of state master thesis archieves peacetime military forces are different from those same forces in time of war. It's easy too see that if you need a patrol to cover thirty miles a day, day after day, and month after month, you're going to be faced with a staggering logistics consumption. Using supplies is only the top of the iceberg. You've got to produce those supplies, purchase them, store them and ship them to their destination before they're consumed.

Keep this up for months and mover, years and the economic load becomes staggering. The Great War had ended, but smaller wars were raging, and the combatants in these head-bashing episodes had no choice but to make maximum use of the minimum material available. Chico State University Master Thesis? The strife chewing up the green fields and lovely villages of Ireland was perhaps the proper letters, best example. From all the various requirements of conflicting groups one vehicle emerged that met all economic needs: the bicycle. At this point, then, the bicycle acquired its between-wars popularity.

Military needs, hobbled by economic restrictions, demanded total performance from the two-wheelers, which remained free from fuel, food, or shelter require- ments. Even the most volatile critic of armed forces could hardly criticize the bicycle. The widespread acceptance of the bicycle by national armed forces had one glaring exception-the United States . The record of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I in Europe made it all too clear that the bicycle was an idler's toy-at least in the minds of state university master our military leaders. The two-wheelers that arrived in Europe with the AEF, were allotted strictly for programming research paper, odd jobs-carrying mail, personal transport in local areas-in general, for us wherever it was easier to pedal than to walk. No native resistance to the bicycle generated this attitude. State University Master Thesis Archieves? Rather, the United States had a smashing love affair going with all mechanical objects that roared and thundered and aristotle prime, spewed forth exhaust gases. The more powerful, the bigger, the faster the state university master, trucks, cars, motorcycles, fighters, and bombers, the proper form for cover, more frantically they were sought. We grasped eagerly at chico university master thesis archieves, anything that expanded our horizons and increased our performance.

This was an honest, if economically costly, attitude in the postwar period. Experienced men swept aside the bicycle because motorized machines were faster, could carry heavier loads, and had vastly greater endurance. Machines meant heavy weapons moving quickly over long distances. When the argument was put forth that the bicycle was superior in the economic sense, the answer was that economics were overshadowed by the need for performance. There was no shortage of fuel, nor was there likely to be any. It could also be argued that, on this basis of thesis paper weight thinking, the steamship was an economic disaster compared to chico university archieves the great sailing ships.

And to continue this line of reasoning, the ox-drawn cart could feed itself en route, whereas the locomotive had to rely upon thesis printing paper coal, oil, and thesis archieves, water. Such arguments can, of programming research paper course, become specious. It would be unfair to pass on from this attitude without a word about the philosophy underlying the decision of the chico university master thesis, United States to ignore the bicycle as a major adjunct to our armies. We were a nation of vast distances . Europe was, in essays, comparison a collection of small states with short distances between lands of different governments and university master thesis archieves, languages. A man could ride a bicycle for two days in Europe and cross several national borders. He could do the essay, same in the United States and crawl an inch or two on state master thesis, a map. The inclination to count upon motorized transport was a natural one and best suited to our needs. For all these reasons it came to pass that between the two world wars the United States kept the bicycle relegated to the status of an interesting experiment, or simply a transport or recreation device, while other nations, combined, put more than a million men on two-wheelers. Any vehicle-or other form of equipment-is developed for proper form for cover, military use on the basis of what may be done with that vehicle.

So it was with the bicycle. State University Master Archieves? Experiments had taken place in the past involving the projected use of the bicycle in form letters, two-, three-, and four-wheeled versions for hauling rapid-fire weapons into combat areas. The glorious predictions for such machines usually collapsed when it came to their practical use in the field. Testing a bicycle on a paved surface, as we have seen, is a far cry from trying to pedal that same machine through a road reduced to sucking mud. And a man who is chico state university master archieves, exhausted from that kind of effort will soon heave the offending machine to proper form for cover letters the side and revert to walking. One of the state thesis, problems of hauling heavy weapons about on bicycles, when conditions were less than perfect, was the. weight and cumbersome shape and size of the weapons themselves. All this was to change in the years following World War I. New metal alloys, vastly improved ammunition, and prime, air-cooled automatic weapons, all brought such powerful instruments to manageable size and weight, so that their use with bicycle-borne transport became a sensible venture. The bicycle itself had gone through a steady evolution. Its metal frame was lighter and stronger than ever before.

The wheels could endure far more punishment than older machines could have absorbed. University Thesis Archieves? New ball bearings, lubrication systems, drive trains-everything had undergone improvements. Gear systems had advanced to the extent that a man could pedal up a long slope with a heavily loaded machine as easily as a lightly loaded vehicle could be handled on a level stretch. There was another way-a broad view-to consider the military bicycle. Other weapons had improved, especially new explosives.

Pound-for-pound new explosives were anywhere from two to twenty times more powerful than older materials . This had a profound effect upon military thinking. It meant that one man, or a few men, in the right place at the right time, could enormously affect any given situation-because now they could carry, even on bicycles, a hundred times the prime essay, firepower available to state university them before . In the letters, old days, it might have taken twenty men to carry enough explosives to university thesis archieves blow up a certain bridge. Twenty men carrying supplies aren't that easy to hide . They cover a fair amount of ground physically when they're under way. The chances of making noise are greatly increased. They need protection from men who carry nothing. but weapons, so their total numbers in the force are increase at an a alarming rate.

But if one man can carry by computer programming, himself the state master, explosive force formerly handled by twenty or thirty men, then a tiny band of introductions college three men could do what might previously have required fifty . The use of such small teams, with their enormous potential for state master archieves, destruction, has made the bicycle all the more valuable. Among the nations that took the lead in developing the introductions, bicycle as an state university thesis archieves essential element in value of trees, their military forces were England (especially with its great success in chico state master thesis archieves, the Boer War), France; and Hungary. Hungary grouped its cyclists into in organization made up of seven battalions, breaking gown each battalion into proper form letters three companies of chico university archieves mounted cyclist troops. Within each company they established two rifle platoons and paper weight, a light machine-gun squad. State Master Archieves? Always available for any special operation then was a permanent force of forty-two bicycle-mounted rifle platoons and essay about value, twenty-one machine-gun squads. Field tests with the new bicycle force were so successful that the Hungarian army went so far as to establish a new table of organization. Before the extensive trials that proved the bicycle troops a powerful weapon in their own right they had always been tacked onto of other units. Now, for the first time, the Hungarians regrouped the bicycle troops into a special corps, on an equal footing with other elements of their field army. The Dutch had an, especially keen interest in a new bicycle military force. Having suffered particularly during the master, war, the Hollanders were determined to maintain a standing fighting ,force in excellent condition. At the computer programming research, same time, the.

limited resources of chico state university archieves Holland prevented free spending in this area. Investigation of all possibilities caused attention to focus on the bicycle. The Dutch reasoned that they could never establish a field army consisting mainly of heavy weapons. Massive tanks and artillery forces were too unwieldy and expensive. Essay Value Of Trees? What they needed most of all was a high-quality, always ready and mobile force of light divisions.

Accordingly, orders went out to equip each division with a special unit of bicycle-mounted infantry. Another change came about in archieves, the organization of reconnaissance groups. Until the period after the war, the Dutch reconnaissance forces were composed exclusively of horse cavalry and armored vehicles. Looking toward the long run and intent on minimizing the drain on the national coffers, the the 95 were, Dutch army created crack teams of cyclists for reconnaissance squads. Using multiple-speed bicycles and state university master thesis archieves, men selected for their excellent physical condition they built up squads that could easily cover more than a hundred miles every day. In a country as flat as the proverbial pancake, duty in theses, the bicycle squads became a favored choice for the infantryman. But it was in Italy that the archieves, bicycle took a down-turn in post-war organization. The Italian army, considered one of .the pioneering forces in proper letters, the use' of the military bicycle, decided that the rough terrain of the country, and chico university, the long distances separating the mover, north from the south, called for chico archieves, powered vehicles to handle the special forces equipped with light machine guns. The Italians kept infantry teams on bicycles within their celebrated bersaglieri regiments, but re-formed light-machine-gun squads around motorcycle sidecar equipment. Innovation was the the 95 were, keynote to the use of the bicycle in Russia. A vast land in which the wealthy seemed always to remain wealthy, it was filled with people who had lived on the thin edge of economic disaster all their lives.

Until their industrial muscle could grow far more than was possible after the Great War, the Russians preferred the thesis, use of manpower to machinery whenever this was feasible. The bicycle, therefore, came under serious consideration. At first it seemed that the essay about value of trees, bicycle could be used only in certain seasons. Mobility in Russia had to be equated with mobility during the infamous Russian winter. Could the bicycle be used when, the ground was not only frozen, but covered with ice and snow?

Moreover, distances were so vast that it might be necessary for Russian bicycle forces to live for long periods of time away from main supply bases . All these problems were seriously considered by the Russians. The result caught many people by surprise. Chico State Master Thesis Archieves? Using wider tires than were normally used on bicycles , the introductions, Russian Soldier proved adept at state university master archieves, maneuvering his machine, over computer, the most treacherous ground surfaces. It was appreciated that men sent into the vastness of the chico university master archieves, land must themselves have protection, and it would, been even better if they could present the unexpected to printing a potential enemy . Thus was created the archieves, bicycle-man-dog combination, a troika of weaponry. Consisting of the Russian trooper mounted on his bicycle, with a specially trained attack dog running by his side. It was a dazzling arrangement. Man and dog protected one another.

They could maintain the same steady pace while moving cross-country. Exhausted men could sleep after covering great distances, with the dogs providing the best sentry duty . Introductions Essays College? If the Russian troops. had need to enter forested areas, what better weapon than the chico thesis, extraordinary scent and hearing of their animals-always ready to open a slashing attack against prime essay any foe! It will undoubtedly come as a surprise for most readers, but the one nation that made the greatest use of the chico state university, bicycle as a military weapon was Germany . The surprise can be explained by the fact that the German army before and during World War II was famed for its powerful mechanized and armored forces . Theses Were? It is chico state thesis, difficult to imagine otherwise for proper, the Germans made blitzkrieg (lightning-fast attack) a household word. Yet the truth of the matter is chico, that a great percentage of the German army-before and during World War II was horse-drawn! Millions of horses were pressed into aristotle mover use for transport . On the Russian front alone the Germans lost more than one-and a half million horses killed in combat and by other factors. The Germans, then, could well be expected to consider the potential of the military bicycle.

Certainly their experience during World War I had established the value of the two-wheeler. Now they made their move to improve not only on the machine, and its weapons, but on the organizations using the thesis, bicycle, as well as different means of rushing bicycle troops to thesis printing weight combat zones where their particular advantages could be best employed . University Thesis? If horses were so important to the German army, it can be understood that a means of moving troops rapidly, without the supply problems of motorized vehicles or animals , would be welcome. The German High Command ordered bicycles by the tens of thousands and rushed them off to training units. Years. before the German army committed itself to the combat actions that would trigger World War II, every infantry regiment was assigned one complete company of computer bicycle troops.

Each company was issued rifles as standard arms and in addition, received nine light machine guns. Normally, the bicycle company marched and fought with its assigned regiment, but the German commandant had several options for special operations. The German Army in WW2 had several light bicycle infantry cavalry companies in every infantry division's reconnaissance battalion. Chico University Thesis Archieves? The reason was to have an unit MORE MOBILE THAN THE MAIN BODY THAT WAS WALKING. Prime Essay? The German infantry also had light tank assault guns embedded with them to chico state master work together just like the M113 Gavins we need today. Dr. Leo Niehorster's excellent organizational web pages document these facts. Infantry Division (1st Wave)

Infanteriedivision (1. Welle) (Commander on 22.06.1941) Gen.Lt. Frhr. Mover Essay? v. Chico University Master Thesis? Gablenz. Gen.Maj. Frhr. v. Schleinitz. Gen.Maj. v. Seydlitz-Kurzbach. Gen.Lt. Graf v. About Of Trees? Sponek.

Airlanding equipment was in chico, depots back in aristotle mover essay, Germany. Gen.Maj. v. Tettau. Gen.Lt. Fischer v. Weikersthall. recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without heavy company, but with armored car platoon.

German Radhfahrtruppes (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem. Cavalry Bicycle Company. 1 September 1939. KStN 353 dated 01.09.1939. 1 NCO as Headquarters Section Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle)

1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Messengers (Rifles)(on motorcycles) 1 Motor Vehicle Driver (Rifle) 1 car, light, cross-country (Kfz. 1) 1 Medic NCO (Pistol)(on bicycle)

4 Stretcher Bearers(on bicycles) 1 Senior NCO as First Sergeant / Trains Leader (Pistol) 1 NCO as Armorer (Pistol) 1 NCO for Equipment (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol) 5 Motor Vehicle Drivers (Rifles) 1 Motorcyclist (Rifle)(on motorcycle with sidecar) 3 Bicycle Mechanics truck escort (Rifle)

1 Cook truck escort (Rifle) 1 motorcycle with side car. 1 car, medium, cross-country (Kfz. 18) 1 truck, light, open, cross-country for field kitchen. 3 trucks, light, open, cross-country for equipment and ammo. 9 light machine guns (as equipment reserve) 1 Enlisted in charge of baggage / clerk (Rifle)(on motorcycle)

1 Cobbler (Rifle) 1 truck, light, open, for baggage and equipment. 1 Officer (Z) as Platoon Leader (Pistol)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Rifle Squads , each with. 1 NCO Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle)

1 Assistant Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 MG Gunner (Pistol)(on bicycle) 2 Assistant MG Gunners (Pistols)(on bicycles) 7 Riflemen (Rifles)(on bicycles) 1 light machine gun. Light Mortar Section. 1 NCO as Mortar Section Leader (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 3 Gunners / (Pistols)

6 Assistant Gunners (Rifles) 6 Motorcycle Drivers (Rifles)(on motorcycles with sidecars) 6 motorcycles with sidecars. 3 light mortars (50mm) 4 Officers, 24 NCO, 152 Enlisted; 134 Rifles, 46 Pistols, 18 LMG, 3 Light Mortars; 7 motor vehicles, 7 motorcycles, 7 motorcycles with side cars, 138 bicycles. He could group his cyclist companies and send them into battle as a complete battalion. They offered a unique mobile reserve . They could be sent out in teams of varying size as scouts and reconnaissance patrols. And they were always available for special operations calling for the movement of chico archieves troops to particular sectors.

Carrying ammunition, and as many machine guns as might be needed, they formed a highly effective means of moving concentrated firepower about in a combat area. Most armies concentrated the computer programming research, use of cyclist troops in two basic areas. The first was in the form of line troops little different from any other manned force. The second was for special operations as scouts or as cyclist-commandos venturing behind enemy lines. The latter assignment gave rise to the German use of cyclist troops that were sent far behind enemy lines by chico, parachute. Paratrooper teams fitted with folding bicycles operated as sabotage teams and commandos on special operations.

Intelligence units intended to operate in the midst of thesis paper enemy country were often dispatched on their missions by parachute, and then used bicycles to cover long distances on the ground, certainly far from where any tell-tale aircraft engines might have given them away. Another innovation for which the German army was cred- ited was the chico state thesis, chemical warfare unit assigned to bicycle operations. Men who received advanced training in chemical warfare, specializing in problems associated with poison gas, were rushed to the front lines and. to areas where an enemy gas attack was expected. Their bicycles were carefully modified in the frame went a complete chemical warfare detection kit, which would not only reveal the presence of even slight traces of poison gas, but would also permit immediate identification of that gas. Computer Programming Research Paper? Each bicycle was a small chemical warfare station 'on wheels.

The rider carried in his saddlebag pouches fastened to the bicycle complete protective equipment in the form of gas mask and impermeable suit with hood, boots, and gloves. On the chico thesis, other side of the world the Japanese were making their preparations for tens of thousands of troops equipped with bicycles to be used on the Asian mainland. China loomed large on the horizon as a target for essay, Japanese invasion. There were Korea and Manchuria in state master thesis archieves, the north, and the lands of Indochina to the 95 the south, and in all of these areas there was special interest in the vast campaign of conquest planned by the empire. Japan was a powerful industrial nation; but a small giant. Few people are aware that at the peak of her strength Japan never had even 10 percent of the industrial might of the chico master thesis, United States. Third World Bike Use: Logistics Kings (mouseclick power point show) To a nation with severely restricted resources, especially, petroleum products, the bicycle became a vital addition to the Japanese army. The average Japanese foot-Soldier was expected to walk to battle, but there would be times when speed was important, and the Japanese wanted that speed without the expense of motorized transport, with its vast consumption of fuel and oil. By the time the Japanese were on the move in essays, Asia, they.

had perfected the use of a cyclist-mounted light-machinegun corps operating as a permanent unit of state university a cavalry regiment. Fifty thousand Japanese Soldiers, armed with rifles, and sharing machine guns, were shipped across the seas surrounding Japan. World War II was about to begin. Chapter 8: The Bike and proper form, the Blitzkrieg. The role of the chico state university master thesis, bicycle in World War II has been greatly understated. The bulk of the records of bicycle troops vanished in for cover, the maw of fighting and destruction, Most of the men who rode bicycles off to thesis archieves war were killed, or so scattered that their stories were lost forever. Printing Paper Weight? And in the face of chico state archieves vast numbers of tanks and armored vehicles of proper form for cover letters tens of thousands of fighters and bombers and state university master thesis, other aircraft, in battles involving millions of men and in paper weight, the great struggles at sea, the military part played by the bicycle was tossed aside in the fury of the conflict.

Yet the bicycle played vital, if isolated, roles as an important weapon in a world war that lasted, from 1937, with the chico state university master archieves, first fighting in China, to the surrender of the Japanese' in form for cover, August of 1945 soon after the towering remnants of two mushroom clouds drifted away before the chico state thesis archieves, wind. Full-scale war in Europe began on the first day of essays college September in 1939, when the chico archieves, Wehrmacht of Germany unleashed its massive armored divisions against theses Poland. We have seen how much of the German, army was horse-drawn and mounted on bicycles, but it was the very use of such transport in state university archieves, rear areas that permitted the Germans to concentrate their armored and mechanized forces at about, the tip of their military spearheads . The leaders of Poland, in the final tense days before they were invaded, were not obsessed with fear of the German army. They respected the ability of the Germans to fight and chico master thesis, had no misconceptions about the quality of German weapons. But the Poles could not conceive of the extraordinary discipline and effectiveness of the Nazi fighting forces -and the shock was so great it quickly broke the back of the Polish defense. As the Germans moved their armor up toward the Polish border, the Poles took stock of theft own men and weapons, and concluded that, while they might suffer severe losses, they could throw back the essay of trees, strongest blows that could be directed at them. This was anything but blind confidence for the Polish armed forces were every bit as strong as those of France and, not incidentally, almost as powerful in state thesis, numbers as those of aristotle Germany itself. The Poles had mobilized thirty infantry divisions and a dozen cavalry brigades.

Their air force was on the alert and ready for any action against the enemy Luftwaffe . What they could not comprehend was the relationship between the armored spearhead of the Nazi panzers -the armored forces-and the long Polish borders. Chico Master? Against the type of mover essay attack expected by the Poles-a broad and steady advance along a wide front-they could have battled effectively against the invaders. But not against the blitzkrieg, a massing of the most powerful armored forces on the ground, operating beneath an umbrella of the chico university master thesis archieves, best fighters and bombers in the world. Shortly before six o'clock on the morning of September 1, 1939, Hitler unleashed his war machine. German fighter planes-the outstanding Messerschmitt ME-109s-ripped through Polish air defenses.

Polish pilots were outflown, outgunned, and outfought almost everywhere they turned. by the superior German fighters. And with the air cleared of any meaningful defense, German bombers-notably waves of Junkers Ju-87 Stukas -shattered Polish strongpoints as well as armored units in the field. And then came the panzers .. Row upon row of fast, deadly tanks. Thousands of men in armored personnel carriers . Powerful antitank killer teams. All of them moving swiftly and with deadly effectiveness behind the hammering blows of the Luftwaffe . Polish resistance crumbled on almost every front. The Poles were simply unprepared physically or mentally for the staggering weight of arms hurled against them. The Germans advanced as fast as their tanks could move. Where the mover, Poles massed for counterattacks they were ripped from the chico state university thesis archieves, air, then cut to pieces by fast-moving tanks.

The Poles had no time to form for cover letters adjust to the withering assault. No matter which way they turned, they were slashed and battered from the air and on the ground. All too quickly the chico state master, follow-up tactics became evident. Aristotle Prime Mover Essay? The armored juggernaughts kept moving. They swept past huge pockets of Polish infantry, for behind the state master, armored waves of the computer research, blitzkrieg came German infantry to finish off what the tanks had split wide open. And within the ranks of the crack German troops, in chico thesis archieves, a regiment of the Volks Grenadier Division, was a bicycle battalion hoping to get into the thick of fighting before the panzers had finished off the opposition. It was a curious change from the first Great War on aristotle, the continent. Then, in the period from chico university thesis archieves 1914 through 1918, the Soldier on his bicycle had been the theses, fastest mobile force on the battlefield. Those days were gone, and now the cyclist Soldier followed the spearheads of the panzers and personnel carriers into combat. The German cyclist troops, in fact, never had an opportunity to prove themselves in chico state university master archieves, full-scale fighting with the Poles.

The Polish army fell apart much too quickly for that. But there was a vast amount of mopping up to be done. Form For Cover Letters? Scattered Polish army units, fully armed and supplied, were on the loose and had to state university archieves be considered dangerous. Essay? The German tanks and chico university master thesis, motorized divisions were still needed along the introductions essays college, spreading wave of the invasion. Mopping-up operations fell to special units, which included the bicycle troops. Most of the university, Polish defenders had lost their vehicles and were retreating on foot along back trails and into remote areas. They could be located by German air reconnaissance, and bicycle-mounted Soldiers were sent rushing after them. What was important to the Germans was not the proper for cover, destruction of these scattered Polish units, but the need to keep them moving to prevent their joining into a cohesive force. State Master Thesis? And this mission the cyclist-Soldiers did well.

After all, the tanks and tracked vehicles would be back soon enough to finish the war. Aristotle Prime? Eight days after the invasion began, the chico state university, first panzers race through the outskirts of Warsaw. Less than three weeks later Poland surrendered. On October 5,1939, when Adolf Hitler came to the Polish capitol to review personally his victorious forces, the proud cyclist troops of the Volks Grenadier Division were among the crack units paraded before the man who had ordered the attack. In the spring of thesis paper 1940 the German army was again on the move, slashing with its panzer divisions into Denmark and Norway.

Danish defenses succumbed quickly to the heavy Nazi armored forces, but the battle for Norway extended beyond the planned timetable as unexpectedly stiff resis- tance slowed down the invaders. Here was no level ground over which the panzers could race forward, crushing everything before them. Even the Luftwaffe was hard-pressed to university master archieves do its work in steep fjords and mountain passes, where the essay about value, Norwegian resistance held fast behind its skilled mountain troops. For the first time, the Germans found a critical need for their bicycle troops. Accordingly, crack Soldiers on bicycles were thrown into the very spearhead of the fighting, inflicting and receiving heavy casualties. Norway was unsuited to great masses of men hammering their way forward. The available ground for movement and fighting was much too restricted for that . The battles became bitter struggles for state university, strongpoints that controlled roads, valleys, and proper form, backcountry areas. If the Germans moved forward with infantry on master thesis, foot behind tanks and armored vehicles, the paper weight, Norwegian mountain fighters set up deadly ambushes, picking off the German infantry from long range and setting off avalanches that roared down upon the armored units and foot Soldiers. If the Germans were to defeat their enemy, they needed the armor as a spearhead to grind along, the mountain roads, while the infantry moved out swiftly from, those roads to dislodge the Norwegians. State University Master Thesis? The system of armored personnel carriers following the tanks worked only college up to a point. The situation called for an orderly arrangement that could propel Soldiers in swift sorties along back roads.

The natural answer to the problem was to dispatch selected elements of state master bicycle-mounted troops down narrow trails and along mountain passes, while operating under the mover essay, protective fire from German armor. This is how the war proceeded. The cyclist troopers of the Wehrmacht suffered severe losses as they maneuvered over icy roads. Yet there was no stopping them. Heavily armed with grenade launchers and light machine guns, they kept moving, with their powerful firepower always at the ready. If they needed to shift quickly to gain an advantageous position, the bicycle was always there. If Norwegian resistance was too great to risk getting into the open, the cyclists remained close to German armor, while powerful tank weapons methodically blasted away at university master archieves, enemy strongpoints.

It was an effective combination, ideally suited to the unusual terrain of the country. The 95 Were? And when the battle ended, it was the bicycle-every bit as much as the state master thesis archieves, tank or the bomber-that crushed Norwegian defenses. Many of the first Americans to fight the Japanese in World War II were pilots, and the ground crews of fighter planes who started rolling on bicycles. The bicycles were not used as combat weapons, but as quick transport, grabbed hastily when the Japanese air strike on December 7, 1941, turned Pearl Harbor into introductions essays college a flaming shambles. It was a strange quirk of fate that many of our first casualties during the war should occur on bicycles. As the air shook from the concussion of Japanese bombs and exploding torpedoes, pilots caught away from their planes on that Sunday morning took to chico state university master cars and bicycles, as did ground crews, to reach their aircraft. Introductions College? And they fell victim to strafing Zero fighters, streaking low over the American installations just for chico state archieves, that purpose-gunning down pilots trying to get into the air to intercept the Japanese. The Japanese, as has been noted in the preceding chapter, had prepared 50,000 cyclist troops as part of their. spearhead forces to sweep through the Asian mainland.

And no military force in the history of the prime mover, bicycle was so well prepared for its task as the cyclist troops trained on Hainan Island by Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Tiger of chico state master archieves Malaya , whose forces finally swept through Malaya and into the great British stronghold of Singapore. Harsh discipline and training, meticulous attention to detail, and perfect timing-as well as playing on the fears of the British and essay about value of trees, native troops-gave the Japanese cyclists an advantage far beyond that achieved by any comparable force in chico archieves, any war. When we consider that the use of firecrackers along gloorny jungle trails helped convince the British that the Japanese were swarming through the undergrowth-when in reality only prime mover essay a comparative handful of men were creating that impression-it is clear that Yamashita had no competition as a master in state university master, bicycle combat. In the many years of fighting in China, the details of computer paper grinding advances and state university, the long occupation often went unrecorded by the combatants on proper form for cover, both sides. Yet there is no question that the bicycle formed a mainstay of transportation for, the Japanese army throughout China, Manchuria, and Korea, or that Japanese combat and chico university thesis archieves, security patrols were carried out by bicycle. Form For Cover Letters? In areas of university thesis archieves particularly strong unrest, the standard procedure was to send out one or two light armored vehicles as a rolling command post, while anywhere from a dozen to a hundred Soldiers kept pace on bicycles, with the weight, vehicles mounting radios and machine guns. The Chinese, of chico state master thesis archieves course, used the bicycle in letters, vast numbers as part of their daily lives, and chico state university master, it was inevitable that Chinese resistance, especially in mountain redoubts, would make maximum use of the bicycle for guerrilla warfare. Such resistance measured always depended on speed and aristotle prime, stealth and state thesis, the bicycle, of course, filled the bill admirably as a means of launching hit-and-run forays against superior forces.

In certain areas of heavy population and industrial concentration, occupying armies were hard-pressed to combat well-organized resistance. Computer Paper? Perhaps the best example of underground organization, making maximum use of the bicycle, was to be found in Belgium. In that small but fiercely independent country, a secret army was created to chico state master thesis archieves fight the Nazis. Five hundred bicycle-mounted sabotage teams struck repeatedly at aristotle prime, German communications lines, transport convoys, strongpoints, and bodies of troops. The destruction and killing became so great the Germans resorted to desperate measures specifically to counter this threat. The German moves in chico state master thesis, Belgium became their standard operation in almost all occupied areas during the war. Special platoons and essay about, companies were assigned to full-time duty to fight the underground.

They were organized into instant-response teams armed with light and, heavy machine guns and grenade rifles. To better organize the thesis, fight against the elusive underground guerrillas, the Nazis kept their units in touch by letters, radio with a central headquarters coordinating all movements. To maintain high mobility, the special teams were mounted on bicycles, motorcycles, and trucks. In most cases bicycles were loaded onto truck beds so they could be rushed along highways to trouble spots, and to state university thesis archieves the edge of narrow lanes where a truck could not enter. The cyclists unloaded their two-wheelers and set off in hot pursuit of the sabotage teams. Normally the Nazi patrols rode back and forth along pre-assigned roads and pathways so they could cover a strip several miles on either side of a major highway. But this was only during the daytime. Then the Germans might roll with heavy forces as much as twenty miles to each side of that highway, moving without warning into any town or community within the zone to be investigated. This freedom of action vanished at night. Then the smallest path, the narrowest lane, became an invisible artery for the Belgian underground traveling on bicycles.

To venture forth along isolated roads at night was for the German occupying forces an invitation to disaster. Value? Bicycle teams, warned ahead of time by radio, would swiftly set up ambushes that trapped and decimated the hapless Nazi troops. Bicycles maintained a freedom of action for the Belgian underground completely out of proportion to their military strength. And it was a freedom they used to the utmost, keeping the master, Germans on edge, and denying them great areas of country, until Allied armies hurled the enemy out of Belgium. When the American army moved into Europe during World War I, it brought with it, as already noted, a total of 29,000 bicycles. During World War II, fighting on many more fronts, American armed forces went overseas with a total of more than 60,000 bicycles.

But it was a case of mover history repeating itself-none of the two-wheelers were assigned to combat organizations to be used as weapons. Instead, the state master, bicycles filled subsidiary roles in personal transportation, message carrying, recreation, and other utility functions. In one of the paradoxes of the bicycle's employment during the war, American Soldiers in Europe ended up using the two-wheelers in pursuit of the Germans-on captured enemy machines. Prime Essay? Wherever G.I.s found bicycles abandoned by hastily retreating Germans, they snatched up their booty on the basis that it's better to be riding than walking. Hundreds of G.I.s used captured bicycles for their immediate needs, which were as wide as imagination allowed. After the invasion of Europe on June 6, 1944, and the breakthrough that followed, the American Soldiers found thousands of bicycles piled along French roadways. If the French got there first, the bicycles were gone. If not, they were there for the picking. One example will demonstrate a semiofficial use for vehicles. Pvt.

Oscar Mondoza of the chico university thesis, 101 st Airborne fighting at the time in Holland, came across a storage depot of German bicycles. One of Mondoza's duties was to theses keep a steady flow of rations and ammunition going to the members of his unit scattered in the area. Mondoza was handy with tools, and after several hours of chico state university thesis tinkering he rigged up a hauling bed, two feet wide and, four feet long, placing the theses, bed between two wheels he had mounted in front of the bicycle. The standard rear wheel with its chain connection provided footpower. Mondoza had contrived to assemble an chico thesis excellent and practical tricycle, complete with loading pallet for moving supplies through snow, mud, and even across fields. Of all the bicycles that were sent to combat areas in World War II, it would appear that no one machine could possibly be singled out proper letters, as a coveted prize by other men. Yet this was precisely the case in December of 1944 in the area of Manhay, Belgium, where American Soldiers of the 3 rd Armored Division were slugging it out with crack units of Germany's special SS troops. German Bicycle-Troops in Action Later in WW2. German Radhfahrtruppen (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem.

As Elite Panzerjager (tank hunter) Anti-Tank Forces. During several skirmishes, American Soldiers later reported that they had witnessed the incredible sight of one German SS trooper-powerfully built, daring, and seemingly possessed with nine lives---pedaling his bicycle into the worst of the fighting. State Master Thesis Archieves? Intelligence was at first inclined to water down the reports, but the grins accompanying the stories vanished quickly when it turned out theses, that the chico university master, bicycle-mounted SS trooper was also an effective killer. At times he would ride under cover of night to a spot selected as a point of ambush. There, concealed from view, he waited until American Soldiers were well within his sights. Then he opened fire. For Cover? The German was an expert marksman. Almost every time he struck, American Soldiers were killed or wounded. When the G.I.s finally succeeded in flanking the position from where they'd been attacked, there was no one there. All they found were bicycle tracks leading away from the scene. On other occasions the Nazi would ride full tilt within sight of Americans on chico archieves, patrol and open fire suddenly with a light machine gun.

As quickly as he appeared he was gone, his powerful legs propelling him away from the astonished and enraged American troops. The SS trooper burst from heavy snowfalls. He struck during day and at night. Hundreds of rounds were fired at the 95 theses, him, but he seemed to live a charmed life, weaving from side to side as he raced away from his pursuers. And still the toll rose, and the stories began to make some sort of cyclist superman of the chico thesis archieves, German. The word went out to get him . Even a cat runs out of essay value lives sooner or later, and so did the luck of the German. But not entirely. The phantom killer with his bicycle was captured. He had killed twenty-two American Soldiers with his daring hit-and-run attacks, by chico state thesis, himself, on his bicycle! He survived the war as a prisoner.

It was perhaps a fitting touch that the last use of the form for cover, bicycle as an offensive weapon against American troops was more pathetic than it was dangerous. In February of 1945 the 84 th Infantry Division- the Railsplitters -took on dug-in German troops in a pitched battle near Rickelrath, Germany. American Intelligence learned that the master archieves, Germans had been ordered to stand their ground. Computer Research? They were not to retreat a foot, but were to chico state archieves die where they were, or else hurl themselves at aristotle prime mover, the Americans in a final and gallant attack. And the attack did come-with German Soldiers appearing in university master archieves, the distance on bicycles. Armed with rifles and other small arms, the Nazi troops pedaled in an uneven mob directly at the astonished American Soldiers. It was an incredible sight to the G.I.s, but their first astonishment was replaced quickly by the grim preparation to meet the introductions college, weird and unorthodox enemy challenge. State? At a given signal a withering fire tore from the American positions.

Bicycles were flung and tossed in every direction as the riders were blasted from their seats. The G.I.s were starting to pick off the survivors when the command rang out to hold their fire. The best of the elite German forces had been reduced to. old men and young boys, hardly trained, ill-equipped, but still driven by a desperate hope to stand their ground. The shooting, for this battle at least, was over. Thesis Printing? The G.I.s lowered their weapons and shook their heads as the crying, broken cyclists dragged themselves away. Chapter 9, The Great Bicycle Commando Raid Throughout this book we have referred to chico university master thesis archieves the many occasions when the bicycle was adopted as the favorite mobile weapon for guerrilla fighters, special forces, members of the underground, and other special organizations that moved and fought with stealth as their ally. But special or limited operations were not the only province of such groups. There were occasions, and we have seen some of them, when the bicycle became a primary weapon for prime mover, a daring and critical operation on state thesis archieves, what must be considered a major scale. Among such actions, the one that stands out from all the others took place in February 1942. It demonstrates about introductions, as perfect a use of the state university, bicycle as was ever planned.

Our story begins at night, high over the French coast along the English Channel. At midnight the world was a silent clash between deep darkness and the sporadic brilliance provided by the light of a silvery moon that rode high along the tumbling rims of snow clouds. The clouds themselves formed a line of the 95 battlements towering over chico master archieves, the coastline of France along the English Channel. Mover Essay? The rushing night wind buffeted the drifting clouds, shredding them occasionally and creating gaps and valleys, troughs and holes, through which a single aircraft and-in some places-a dozen aircraft might slip with ease. State University Thesis Archieves? This is precisely what happened at midnight: through the theses were, gap of chico university master thesis archieves one great cloud ravine, gliding like silvery metallic minnows against the mile-high towets of clouds, flew a long formation of Whitleys . The Whitley was, by contemporary standards, an ancient machine, a bomber that had seen its best days in years past, a combat machine that dared not venture into skies filled with new German fighters.

But while it could no longer perform adequately in the thick of aerial conflict, it flew well, and it had a capacious fuselage into which men, instead of bombs, might fit. And if a special effort needed to be made, the lumbering Whitley could carry both men and bombs. So it was this night. The bomb bays carried their bulging cases of death, and the bellies of the airplanes were crowded with men. British commandos, clumsy in fighting gear and parachutes. Cold, jammed together, uncomfortable, waiting to introductions essays college plunge into action. The British formation of bombers was detected by chico thesis, the enemy.

German radar, German acoustic detectors, German ears saw and essays, heard the line of aircraft and plotted their probable target. Those targets ahead of the bomber formation were alerted about the chances of chico university master archieves a raid. Antiaircraft installations rumbled into action and at proper letters, remote airfields Luftwaffe pilots hurried with sleep-heavy eyes to their machines. There was no immediate rush to meet the bombers. They were swinging inland along a course that would take them to state thesis an industrial target some distance away. So the Nazis paid little attention, except for tracking, as the old bombers droned over the coastline. And no one on the ground saw the dark shapes tumble from the bellies of the Whitleys . Dozens of objects fell toward the earth below and then, suddenly, their plunge was arrested as dark canopies blossomed, with thin riflelike sounds. An entire commando force had left the old Whitleys , which continued on with a diversionary bombing strike. The men floated easily and silently through the cold air.

They had selected their landing area well, in open fields far from any community. The commandos assembled quickly. It had been a good drop. They were eight miles from their objective . If they continued to theses were move as planned, maintaining silence, there was every chance they would burst with complete surprise upon chico state university master the Germans. As guards searched the area, the other men unfolded strange contraptions of metal bars, wheels, spokes, pedals, and handles. Within scant minutes every British commando had beneath him a completely assembled bicycle . Quickly the paratroopers loaded their gear-grenades, ammunition, machine guns, iron rations, explosive charges. Using hand signals instead of voice commands they pedaled away, following a narrow trail covered with a thin layer of proper for cover letters fresh snow. The men rode steadily through the chico thesis archieves, night along the French coastline. Eight miles ahead of them lay a huge and secret radar installation, the most advanced system of its kind.

It was a powerful weapon in the hands of the aristotle, Germans, used fqr tracking aircraft flying to Europe from Britain. Knocking out the radar would effectively poke a stick in the electronic vision of the chico state university master thesis, Nazis. The 95 Were? Leading the commando force was Maj. John D. Sheffield. [EDITOR: then Lieutenant John Frost was a subordinate leader of state master thesis this raid] The major crossed his fingers. If events kept unfolding the way they had so far, they could do their job and get out proper form for cover, without suffering heavy casualties. Knocking out the radar installation might turn out to be a bigger bite than they could handle. The radar system was critical to archieves German air defense on computer, the (Continent and the Nazis were sure to have set up bristling defenses on the ground. Sheffield shrugged to himself. They'd know soon enough.

He had led his small force through brutal training for four solid weeks, and each man was already a crack professional before joining Sheffield's tight commando group. Every man knew as well as did Sheffield the layout of chico state thesis archieves their objective. The vital radar site lay near the village of Bruneval in northern France, about twelve miles north-northeast of Le Havre. As well-defended as was the value, radar installation, British army officials were gambling everything on the fact that the enemy would never dream an attack would be launched against the well-defended site by bicycle . It seemed too incongruous, this concept of trained killers pedaling their way into the mouths of German guns. Well, now they were for it. Sheffield and his commandos maintained a steady pace on their bicycles, on the way to their moment of destiny. The Royal Air Force had flown them in.

If they did their job and chico master thesis archieves, survived to essay value of trees get away, the Royal Navy would be waiting for them on chico state archieves, the beach to bring them out. There was only one small hitch about that. First, the commandos had to wrest control of the beach away from the Germans. Intelligence advised Sheffield and his men that the radar installation itself appeared to be housed within a cabin, standing deep inside a pit. The cabin itself was located near ari isolated house between cliffs that were 500 feet high. Proper Form For Cover? The Intelligence report, based on aerial reconnaissance photographs, described the house as lithe modern villa type and quite new . Undoubtedly taken over for the convenience of the Germans, judged Sheffield. Yet the information had presented a serious problem. The towering cliffs eliminated any hope of making an assault from the sea. Long before a small striking force could work its way to chico state university thesis the radar site it would come under a withering crossfire.

The answer was the parachute and the bicycle . Even as the commandos rode toward their objective, the old Whitleys were dumping their bombs on a distant target, and hoping the college, Germans would see nothing unusual in their flight pattern. Sheffield thought of one beach area in particular. It lay about a quarter of a mile south of the chico state university thesis, radar installation, a small steeply sloping beach of pebbles and sand lying at the foot of high chalk and aristotle mover, flint formations. He hoped to see that pebbly stretch of sand on schedule, for it was there the chico master thesis, Navy would pick them up for the dash home across the computer paper, Channel. Sheffield concentrated his thoughts again on the defenses of the chico state archieves, radar site. Most of the work crew, he had been told, would be German specialists attending to the radar equipment itself. They might or might not be armed. That situation would have to be handled as events developed. Immediately adjacent to the radar installation, the Nazis had prepared an extensive trench with regularly spaced dugouts, where the commandos might encounter heavy machine-gun fire.

A short distance from the site was a powerful pillbox covered by computer, a machine-gun detail and situated right on the edge of a cliff, so that it looked down on chico state archieves, the radar installation. Just south of Bruneval was another pillbox. Both pillboxes were so located that they could cover the cove in a devastating crossfire. Four hundred yards inland from the research paper, radar site was a farmhouse with a German garrison of unspecified strength, but believed to be strong in numbers. A small wooded area embraced the farmhouse, which was designated on Sheffield's map by the name of le Presbytere . In all, the radar site was defended by fifteen separate posts, most of master thesis archieves which covered approaches to the beach. The others were pointed seaward . Intelligence guessed that the German force in the immediate vicinity of the radar installation-the guard force-numbered about 100 men. Perhaps a mile or two away, the Germans had garrisoned a full regiment of infantry, and introductions college, a few miles beyond that was quartered an entire battalion equipped with armored cars. Any assault force that moved in daylight would also face attack from German fighters based on fields in the area. The strike, therefore, had to be executed with speed and precision or the commandos would be cut to pieces . The commandos bore down steadily on their target. Luck had been with them in several ways.

A bright moon reflected ideally along the chico university, snow-covered path before them, providing the men with more than adequate visibility without risking lights. And the light snow cover softened the the 95 theses were, inevitable small noises such a group might make. They reached their first planned stop point, only 200 yards from the chico state university thesis archieves, bulking radar installation, without any alarm being sounded. Everything was going with clockwork precision. Staying low, muffling their movements, the thesis paper, men looked to their commander for final orders.

Immediately, Sheffield divided his attack force into chico university master archieves four units. Programming Research? He would take the first group of commandos in a wide-open assault against the house nearby. The major believed the state university master archieves, reserve troops and a good number of the permanent guards would be in the house. If he could catch them unawares--in fact asleep--he could wipe out a dangerous part of the resistance that could be mounted against them. The second commando unit was ordered to aristotle mover essay move against the radar installation proper. State University Master? Group three would cover this move, taking up a position between the proper, le Presbytere farm and the edge of the cliffs. The fourth and last unit was assigned to chico master thesis archieves work its way around the cliffs to essay about value of trees reach the beach. Chico Master? If any opposition was encountered there, it was to letters be ruthlessly cut down.

At all costs the beach must be secured by chico university thesis, the remainder of the commando force for the purpose of embarkation. Everything was set. The men remounted their bicycles and Major Sheffield passed the word to commit. The first and second groups pedaled furiously toward the isolated house and the radar post. Essay About Value Of Trees? Still no alarm!

As quickly as they reached their objectives the men leaped off the bicycles and rushed to attack position. Sheffield headed straight for the farmhouse door. A heavy boot smashed it open and the major dashed inside, weapon at the ready. No one in sight. Sheffield blew a loud blast on his whistle and chico state master thesis archieves, other commandos rushed in on his heels, moving swiftly to break into the four rooms on the ground floor.

They were all empty. At once Sheffield pounded up the computer research paper, stairs, four men with him, to the second landing. Hiinde hoch! he called, shouting an order to surrender. A single thunderstruck German Soldier brought his the radar site. State Archieves? But that accounted only for enemy personnel in the immediate area. Sheffield realized that reinforcements would soon be rushing to the 95 theses the scene.

As things turned out, the troops assigned to permanent garrison duty were already on the move. Archieves? The first sign that all was not well came with a long burst of probing machine-gun fire from the prime mover, nearby farm of le Presbytere . German troops were on the move within the wooded area surrounding the farmhouse. First things first, reasoned Sheffield. Chico Archieves? Return to the house and get his men out. Firing on the run in computer research paper, short bursts, the first group with Sheffield raced back to chico state thesis the house where the twelve men were standing fast. Essay Value? Now the men ran outside again, crouching low and weaving from side to side. The German troops were completely over their initial surprise and laying down a heavy fire. Miraculously, only one man was hit.

Despite his wounds, he kept up with the rest of the men. Sheffield's group, joining up with the third-or covering-unit, scrambled to set up a heavy defensive fire in the vicinity of the chico master thesis archieves, radar post. The demolition team needed time to set their explosive charges. Well, murmured Sheffield when told he would have to hold off the Germans for awhile, we'll jolly well give you the time you need. Get to it, lads. The Germans moving in from the essay value of trees, farm worked their way steadily toward Sheffield's force.

The commandos held their fire until the last moment, then cut loose with a withering blast at the advancing enemy. As Sheffield had figured, the return fire from the British force was so heavy, and caught the chico state thesis archieves, Germans with such surprise, that they held back on further advances and resorted instead to heavy firepower. Two German machine guns, well protected from return fire, hammered at the British in the radar post. Bullets slammed into printing the house in a steady rain of death. Sheffield was more than content with the standoff. So long as the Germans kept their distance his demolition team could complete their work. Then the chico thesis archieves, situation began to paper change swiftly. The lights of three vehicles were seen in the distance, coming toward the thesis, radar site. Sheffield looked about him.

It was going to get very sticky in a hell of essay value of trees a hurry. Let's get cracking! he shouted to the demolition squad. Move it, lads! Reinforcements are coming in chico state university archieves, and we bloody well can't hold them off for long! His words were almost drowned out in another burst of machine gun fire. Sir! a commando shouted back. We're done!

Charges all set! All right! Sheffield bellowed to his men, sensing that there was no time to waste. Aristotle Essay? Everybody start moving out! Get to the beach! They began moving from the house, crouching low, the men situated in the rear cutting loose with bursts of machine-gun fire to cover the withdrawal. For the first time since they had left England, they abandoned their bicycles. The remainder of master archieves their travels would be across six hundred yards of open, rough country, south of introductions college their position, toward the village of Bruneval. But now they had a pack. of hellhounds at their heels. Archieves? German reinforcements had rolled to mover essay the scene and German firepower seemed to state university master thesis archieves increase with every moment. It was to printing weight their advantage that the enemy seemed to overestimate the strength of the chico state university archieves, commando force.

They moved toward the British in introductions essays, careful stages, covering every move with heavy blasts of machine-gun fire. Chico Master Archieves? The commandos were forced to retreat in form for cover letters, stages, running twenty or thirty yards, then turning and digging in to fire furiously at their pursuers. The going was getting uncomfortable even for chico thesis, Sheffield when the sky split wide apart with a terrifying mushroom of red flames. Computer Research Paper? Instantly there followed an ear-shattering crash of thunder. The commandos answered the blast of their demolition charges with shouted cheers, and an enthusiastic burst of fire in the direction of the chico master thesis, Nazis. No matter what happened now, their mission was fully successful. Another blast ripped through the radar site and about of trees, an angry red fireball licked upward, churning within itself like a thing alive. Low clouds were moving silently into the area, and the curling flames glowed with a sinister ruddy reflection along their bases.

Sheffield saw his men staring with fascination at state, the blood-red flames. All right! he shouted. The sightseeing is done with. Let's move it! Retreat, fire in short, massed bursts, then run like hell and flop down in the thin snow for another ripping fire at the Germans. They were at proper form letters, the cliffs and state university thesis archieves, a voice called hoarsely.

The boats are here. Form For Cover? It's all right, fellows. Come on down, and hurry it up, will you? Sudden elation became shock when German machine-gun posts on each cliff opened up with stuttering bursts. The troops in the pillbox had waited out the retreat in silence, knowing the commandos must venture into their crossfire when they tried to work their way down to state master thesis the beach. Now Sheffield and his men were being cut up by fire from their front and rear. Dig in! he roared to the commandos.

They had taken immediate hits. One man died instantly as he took the full effect of a long burst. A second commando tumbled wildly through the air, collapsing with several bullets in his legs and a third fell with three rounds in his abdomen. His stunned friends found him alive and cursing his luck. No one believed it then, but the man would be carried to safety and would survive the raid. Sheffield was trying to figure a way out about, of the mess when a voice called up to him from the beach. Don't come down, whatever you do! The beach isn't secured yet!

Sheffield recognized the voice of chico archieves Lieutenant Frost, commanding the thesis printing, fourth unit of commandos . It wasn't difficult to figure what had happened. Frost's group had run into stiff German resistance. Chico Master? All they could do was hold on until more commandos arrived. Sheffield ordered one group of his men to proper for cover letters concentrate their fire on the machine guns atop the chico university thesis archieves, cliffs. Thesis Printing Paper? With those weapons pinned down, he led a force of commandos through the chico state master thesis archieves, narrow pass and down onto computer programming the beach to link up with Frost's men. The unit firing at the cliff top Germans then withdrew hastily and joined Sheffield. With full strength at hand, the major began the rush against German outposts along the beach.

The biggest problem was a pillbox bristling with machine guns. Chico Master Archieves? Sheffield and several men with him went in low, against the pillbox walls, and hurled grenades through the gun slit. They mopped up swiftly until answering German fire from the beach died out. Further along the beach, the commandos discovered a small house that had remained unknown to them. Research Paper? Within the chico, house a single German orderly clung to his telephone, trying to explain to a major from the nearby garrison that the explosions along the beach were from research grenades thrown by British Commandos . Unable to understand the words because of the noise of gunfire and exploding grenades, the German officer was reduced to cursing and shouting.

He never had the chance to chico state master finish. The commandos burst into the house and the German signalman threw up his hands. Proper Form For Cover? The British troops took the signalman, and another wounded German hiding in a back room, as prisoners. These two men, along with one soldier captured along the edge of the cliff, were the chico state university archieves, only prisoners taken during the raid. Sheffield peered at his watch. It was two-thirty in the morning. The commandos had been on French soil twoand-a-half hours. Off the coast, the Navy rescue force had been watching, spellbound, as the night lit up with explosions and the glowing fireballs of tracer bullets. Finally they received the pickup signal and started in.

Assault landing craft rode directly to the beach, where the commandos poured aboard. Heavy German fire from machine guns swept the proper form letters, beach. Further out to master sea, supporting ships opened fire with heavy weapons. British guns raked the cliff tops with thundering blasts that killed many enemy defenders and tore huge chunks from the nearly vertical walls. The German fire died abruptly, and letters, the assault ships pulled away from the beaches. State? Of the commando force that rode its bicycles along the French coastline, eight men were left behind.

One had been killed. The other seven never made it to the beach, but Sheffield could no longer wait for them. The boats had to break from the beaches. As they headed back for England he counted his casualties. One dead, seven wounded, seven missing. They were fifteen miles from the French coast when dawn broke. Spitfires flew protection cover. But Sheffield and computer programming research, his men were looking at state master, the beach fading in the distance, where the ruins of the shattered radar installation were still smoking. Chapter 10: The Other Side of the World. First it was China.

Fifty thousand Japanese troops on about value of trees, bicycles with rifles, light machine guns, and mortars. A rolling mass of soldiery carrying supplies and food, spare parts and chico state university master thesis archieves, medicines, everything an the 95 theses army on the move might need. The officers rode on horses or in the rare motor vehicle, but when the Japanese army struck across a country where no rail lines stretched, they sent their best men on bicycles. While the Japanese chewed away at the vast mainland of China, more troops trained with bicycles on chico state master thesis archieves, Hainan Island under the essay about, fierce disciplinary rules set up by General Tomoyuki Yamashita. Others went through their drills in mainland Japan. These troops lived under primitive field conditions . State Archieves? Again and again they rehearsed beach assaults and invasion breakouts.

They were drilled until they were considered experts in maintaining their health in humid jungle conditions and knew how to use the jungle to obtain food. They were already loaded on troopships moving away from computer programming paper home ports when Peal Harbor was bombed into a blazing shambles. Across the Pacific went the Japanese. And into chico university thesis the Philippines went their best army-thousands of the Soldiers on bicycles. Without trains, without fleets of.

trucks, the Japanese army moved swiftly along roads, paths, and aristotle prime mover, trails . Retreating Filipino troops and state university, hard-pressed Americans were stunned,to find the college, Japanese foot Soldier always breathing down their necks. Then came Malaya and Singapore, where General Yamashita's earlier meticulous preparations for battle against the British paid off so handsomely. The victory he achieved in this theater of chico state master thesis archieves war is even more noteworthy in view of the almost insurmountable problem he faced of defeating an army three times stronger than the largest force Japan could bring to bear against the British-and the latter were embedded within a mighty fortress. It is important to note, also, that from the outset the bicycle affected every move the Japanese general was to make. The first thing not to do, Yamashita knew, was to hurl himself and his men into the teeth of enemy firepower. Open attack was suicide.

But what if the aristotle essay, defenders could be made to chico state master archieves believe that the Japanese attackers were many times stronger than their actual number? The ultimate purpose of any assault is to make the defenders change their minds about resisting . If they believe they can't hold out against attack, there's a good chance they'll give up quickly. Keeping this tactic in mind, Yamashita began his extensive preparations. Computer Programming Paper? Long before the Japanese planned to state university master archieves launch their invasion, he set up a network of espionage and intelligence. He recruited as his agents fishermen, plantation managers, merchants, barbers, and photographers from among the Japanese already living and working in Malaya. From the reports this network forwarded to headquarters in Japan, Yamashita acquired an of trees excellent inside view of conditions existing in the Malayan countryside and within Singapore itself. The old adage that truth is often stranger--and more unbelievable-than fiction applied in every way to Yamashita's careful preparations. For the methods he was employing were those taught annually at master thesis archieves, British staff war colleges ! Special studies conducted by the British showed that an attempt to take Singapore had .the best chance of succeeding if the printing weight, invader landed in Malaya and worked his way southward. Above all, the invader would do well not to attempt an assault by sea, where he would be met by massed big guns. That is so strange is chico university master, that what was established doctrine in the war colleges never seemed to essays college reach the state master, men who commanded the defense of Singapore, and they operated under the firm belief that the Japanese would never dare to attack except from the college, sea.

At the same time the British considered the jungle an impassable barrier, simply because no large military force had thus far penetrated it. The rest is history. Yamashita's troops spent months learning to university master thesis live in thick jungle growth, to cut bicycle trails through heavy undergrowth to move on bicycles and to fight at a moment's notice. As Yamashita had planned, his men used abandoned British trucks for transport wherever they were to computer programming be found. University Master? But most of his troops moved silently through the jungle on bicycles. Finally major contact was made with resisting British forces, and Yamashita opened his bag of surprises. First, the size of his force was less important than what the British believed that force to be. Yamashita sent picked troops riding through jungle trails on were, their bicycles, setting off firecrackers and chico university archieves, explosive charges. Everywhere the British turned they heard explosions and shots ripping through the heavy growth.

The constant barrage of the 95 explosions and shots, combined with well-timed and chico thesis archieves, fiercely mounted Japanese attacks, convinced the British that they were under assault by the 95 were, an enormous army grinding its way into chico university archieves Singapore from the land side-where its defenses were weakest. It took more than this grimly effective charade finally to aristotle prime mover defeat the British, of course. Chico Master Thesis Archieves? But Yamashita had gained an enormous advantage over his enemy. Large areas of jungle, as well as selected strongpoints, were yielded to his phantom army , when a minimum of resistance might have held the Japanese at proper for cover letters, bay. The defeat of Japan in the late summer of chico state master archieves 1945 was the beginning of one of the longest wars in modern history the bitter struggle for control of the mountainous jungle of Indochina. In the land we know today. Vietnam, North and South, insurgent guerrilla forces had waited out years of fighting against essay value the Japanese, prepared, to take over chico thesis, control of their lands when the Japanese were thrown out. The rest is, of course, history. The moment the printing, Japanese were gone, the French returned, convinced that they would resume their former position as rulers of Indochina. But the chico state university thesis, insurgency forces of Ho Chi Minh, led by value, the brilliant General va Nguyen Giap, had already steeled themselves to begin a new fight for liberation-to rid their land forever of thesis archieves foreign domination. For five years the Vietminh guerrilla forces prepared for their final battle.

They had nothing to thesis printing compare with the state university master thesis archieves, great weapons of their enemies. For Cover Letters? They lacked tanks and armored vehicles, trucks and warships. They counted no heavy artillery among their forces. There were no fighter. planes and bombers. No transports. No fleets of helicopters.

But they had the bicycle. From only a hundred feet away the eye can see nothing but thick jungle. But as, the viewer moves through the tangling plants and vines it is state archieves, possible to proper form letters discern a narrow trail winding through the growth. A trail barely wide enough for two men walking abreast. That was all. Chico State Master Thesis Archieves? A narrow dirt trail in the midst of teeming jungle: the guerrilla highway leading through Vietnam. Sounds are heard along the trail, and a convoy works its way into prime mover view. The word convoy invariably brings to mind great fleets of trucks. Not !here.

Instead the state university master thesis archieves, viewer sees a long column of weary Vietnamese. Were? They move single file along the narrow trail through the jungle. Each man walks alongside a bulging mass of supplies. Barely visible is the bicycle on which. Chico State University Master Thesis Archieves? one man can move a quarter-ton of about of trees materials. A Peugeot, modified with bamboo poles to master thesis archieves extend one handlebar.

A brake lever sticking well to essay about value of trees the side of the' machine. Chico University Master Thesis? Racks and handles all over the thing. Computer Programming? A bicycle impossible for a man to university archieves ride. Computer Programming Research? But he can walk his machine with its enormous supply load. A thousand men could move 250 tons steadily along the guerrilla highway. Ten thousand men could move 2,500 tons down this highway. If you had a dozen trails-well, the numbers add up alarmingly: If you need materials moved with greater speed, you reduce the load per bicycle, and the men pedal instead of walking. Invisible in the jungle.

Narrow tributaries. Dozens of them. A lifeline impossible to choke off. The weapon that was to defeat the chico state university master, French in Vietnam. The guerrilla porters who pushed their swollen bicycles. ever southward to bring up the essays, supplies that would be used against chico university thesis archieves the French were like pack horses. Their days were spent in the 95, muscle-tearing toil to move their groaning bicycles.

Their nights were filled with weary, leaden sleep. When they were awake and state archieves, moving, their visible world stretched narrowly before them, its horizons the thick greenery of the jungle. Day after day, for paper, weeks and months, this was their lot in life. At times they crossed marshland or long stretches of paddies. They wheeled their bicycles along narrow trails. They crossed water on bridges made of bamboo and planks. Chico University Archieves? They suffered under broiling heat, endured hordes of weight insects, and worried about chico state university master, snakes and other creatures deadly to man. They ate and form letters, drank small quantities of the food and state thesis archieves, liquid carefully rationed out to them. When they emerged from jungle, there was a vast expanse of plains. About Value? And beyond the plains were limestone cliffs.

Beyond these, rugged mountain ranges thrust their jagged peaks toward the sky, while fast-flowing streams cut across rolling green terrain. The guerrilla highway. If you could stand high enough to chico university master thesis gain an eagle's view of the land, you could see for aristotle prime, hundreds of, miles across Vietnam-a land where the ground rises and falls in steep slopes, blanketed with sturdy trees and lush jungle growth. Only the crude trails of the natives, or those pounded and hacked out by the guerrillas, offer a way through. And even the trails are not enough, for there are enormous gorges to be crossed, heavy, rains and mud landslides often make the footing perilous.

Away from the state thesis archieves, worst of the terrain are the communities. Wherever a strip of theses land makes cultivation possible, there. one finds a collection of the inevitable straw-thatched wooden huts. If there is enough land, a village grows up. Chico? Now they can raise pigs and poultry, and on for cover, slopes where heavy growth has been burned away it is possible to grow corn and poppies. It seems to be a geographical chaos. An impassable land with far-flung and haphazardly located communities. Not so. There are also deep and beautiful valleys. And it was here that the Vietnamese began to state university close in on thesis paper, the foreigners who occupied their land. The cultivated valleys were the garden spots of Vietnam.

And it was in these areas that the chico master archieves, French settled. Here the French Expeditionary Corps dug in with solidly entrenched bases. Each individual military camp shut in upon itself like a hedgehog rolling into a ball for defense. The isolated base was called Facilite' , a strange play on words by the French. At every Facilite' roads were hacked out of the earth and laid across the proper form for cover, paddies so that any part of the chico thesis archieves, local valley could be reached by motorized vehicles. Computer Programming Research Paper? There was almost always an airstrip for transport planes, and, all too often, for a force of deadly fighters and bombers. The individual [EDITOR: forward operating] bases, the Facilites' , were hated by the Vietnamese.

And the largest and most hated was in the largest of the valleys, located to form a center of communications between China, Vietnam, and Laos. The French were certain the size and military strength of this particular Facilite ' made it impregnable to guerrilla attack. They called it Dien Bien Phu , loosely translated as the big administrative center of the frontier . This French military complex alone was eleven miles long and three miles wide. In all directions limestone hills rose in the form of a jagged amphitheater, the chico state master, peaks crowned thickly with. trees, the highest peak reaching 2,000 feet about the Nam Rom River. Any enemy who approached Dien Bien Phu from the east, toward the Mekong, would be tempted to try passage through the introductions essays college, valley. But whoever controlled Dien Bien Phu controlled the valley, and state university master thesis, the entire region in all directions. And if he controlled the surrounding amphitheater of mountains he controlled all movement throughout this vital section of aristotle prime mover Asia. For years the hidden jungle beyond the military complex had been filling with guerrillas waiting patiently to seize Dien Bien Phu from the French. For years they had been moving supplies secretly by state thesis archieves, bicycle along the jungle trails to the valley. For years they had buried those supplies in huge caches among the mango, breadfruit, palm, orange, and lemon trees.

With their supplies in caves and computer programming, tunnels , and their bicycles hidden, the guerrillas could mix with the local population, receiving no more attention than the pecking hens or the grunting little black pigs. Like other guerrilla commanders, General va Nguyen Giap had long dreamed of master crushing the French in Dien Bien Phu. Giap was a man slow in his gestures, clumsy in paper, bearing. He affected a loose-fitting uniform without any badge of rank or honor. Chico State University Master Thesis? He had been raised in the sandy spaces of mover central Annam.

The stolid man in the jungle had studied philosophy and law at the University of Hanoi. Even then he was known for infinite patience and an unshakable faith in himself. Giap realized that much more than revolutionary zeal would be required to break the viselike clamp of state university thesis a powerful European nation. He studied other men who had done the impossible. He seized on the lessons of Mao Tse-tung, whose religion of military tactics demanded using every. means of fighting at one's command, as well as knowledge of the terrain on which one must fight, far better than does the theses, enemy. There was another lesson. If one remained invisible , then even the guns of a vastly superior enemy could be minimized and blunted.

Giap kept to the jungles, bided his time, and built up his supplies. Two hundred thousand Vietnamese toiled day and night, month after month, until the jungles surrounding Dien Bien Phu became an enormous storehouse of guns, ammunition, and food. Giap had waited a long time for the moment now drawing near. Long before he was prepared to smash Dien Bien Phu, Giap's wife had been arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment by state university master archieves, a military court-martial in thesis, Hanoi. She had fought to oust the French and had died in a French prison. Anticipating the battle against the French, as it would be fought under the command of Giap, Ho Chi Minh stated: It will be a war between a tiger and an elephant. If ever the tiger stops, the elephant will pierce him with his tusks. Only the tiger does not stop.

He lurks in the jungle by day and emerges only at night. He will leap onto chico state master archieves the elephant and rip his back to shreds before disappearing again into the shadows, and the elephant will die from value of trees exhaustion and loss of blood . Following the state university master, lessons of China's Mao Tse-tung, Giap knew he would gain his claws and tiger's teeth only by building military strength over a long and patient waiting period. In his land transport was everything. Food, weapons, and ammunition were not enough. Essay Value Of Trees? They had to thesis archieves be brought to the right place for use at the right time. Everything depended upon the bicycle. Giap increased his military force from guerrilla bands to. a battle corps.

He formed six infantry divisions, each comprising three regiments. He created a division of engineers and artillery experts. He established antiaircraft commands. And he built an thesis paper weight enormous supply organization. This, if it were to survive-and his entire army along with it--must be kept off known roads where French fighter-bombers could tear them to pieces . The rule was expanded. Everything depended upon the bicycle within the chico university thesis archieves, jungle.

Careful planning soon proved itself. Essay Of Trees? In January of 1951 Giap fought a vicious battle against master archieves the French that lasted five days and five nights. Prime? The French were astonished at university master archieves, the ability of the essays college, Vietnamese to state master archieves remain in the battle zone while consuming enormous quantities of supplies. One hundred and eighty thousand transport workers of Giap's army brought a thousand tons of ammunition and supplies into the battle area every day. Unseen by the French, untouched by the French, the bicycle brigades rolled steadily to their fighting men. When it came time to set up Dien Bien Phu for the kill, the guerrillas intensified their transport flow with bicycles. The Soldiers closed in to encircle the great French bastion. Seventy thousand men took up positions around Dien Bien Phu, and the bicycles were right behind them, moving in supplies to combat positions. Mover Essay? Another 20,000 Soldiers remained in the highlands, ready to leap into action when called. With the chico university master thesis archieves, airstrip the mover essay, only safe exit from the garrison, many French officers drew close to panic, convinced they were cut off from escape.

The last thing they had ever expected from the communist guerrillas was a major assault with heavy firepower . The flow of combat supplies to chico university master thesis advance positions began. on March 8, 1954. Two days later the first mortar and artillery shells slammed into the airport runway at Dien Bien Phu. For the next five days the porters worked relentlessly to bring up additional ammunition. The bicycles rolled in with seventy tons of food, as well as two tons of medical supplies, every day. As fast as the Vietnamese consumed supplies, the bicycles came in relentlessly to replaced what had been used.

On March 13, three days after the runway came under shellfire, the final battle began, as the programming paper, Vietminh attacked in heavy waves. From the crests dominating the valley, thousands of Soldiers in latania palm-and-bamboo helmets began their move toward the encircled French. In Dien Bien Phu, despite initial panic, the French were convinced they could throw back the guerrillas. The natives would be shredded by chico master archieves, heavy firepower from the complex of fortresses that made up the research paper, Falicite '. The longer they tried to batter their way in, the more casualties they would suffer, and the faster they would waste their supplies. General Henri-Eugene Navarre, commander of the French] forces in chico university thesis archieves, Indochina, committed what was to be a mortal error in computer, his gross underestimation of chico university thesis what the proper for cover letters, bicycle could do in state master archieves, the hands of determined men . Navarre planned his estimates of the fighting on the basis of what he thought could be moved by bicycle-and it was this error of judgment that undermined French strategy to the point of computer research defeat. A bicycle, Navarre stated to his officers, could carry only two to two-and-a-half times the weight of the man pushing that bicycle.

He reminded his men, not without answering laughter, that the chico university master thesis archieves, Vietnamese really didn't weigh very much. A coolie at 100 pounds could never move more than. 200 to 250 pounds, if conditions were perfect. Navarre, then, was 50 to 70 percent under in his judgment of proper for cover Giap's bicycle supply system. The French general was also convinced that any attempt to move supplies into the combat zones immediate to Dien Bien Phu would provide excellent target practice for his pilots. The pilots, in their turn, complained bitterly about chico university master archieves, poor reconnaissance, abominable weather, and the fact that the Vietnamese preferred to move during the nighttime (when they couldn't be seen) or during bad weather (when the essay, planes couldn't fly ). And when the French pilots did find evidence of bicycle transport moving through the jungles, the targets seemed to vanish as quickly as the first shot was fired. The bicycle porters preferred roads to jungle trails, of state master archieves course. Theses? Hard-packed and decently wide, they permitted greater speed and ease of travel. The French planes went after these targets daily. If they didn't find bicycles as targets, they would tear up the roads with bombs and, for good measure, dump out a load of delayed-fuse bombs that could go off hours later.

In this way, through creating fear-of the exploding bombs, they believed the chico state, bicycle porters could be stopped. Local villagers, sometimes under the prodding of the introductions essays, guerrilla Soldiers, swarmed from the jungle with shovels, pickaxes, and baskets to university thesis archieves fill in bomb craters. If an aristotle prime mover essay unexploded bomb was the problem, a man would crawl to the bomb and hook a cable to a tail fin. A rope party at a respectable distance would haul on chico state university master, the bomb and roll it away to be exploded harmlessly. Meanwhile, the bicycles rolled on. The angry French resorted to deadly butterfly bombs. Thousands of the small devices were strewn along roads. and trails.

They exploded only when there was physical contact with the bombs. Essays? But movement on chico university master archieves, roads and trails was impossible with the deadly weapons waiting to explode. The guerrilla Soldiers sent buffalo from the local villages onto the roads. Printing Weight? When this road-clearing project ended, there were a lot fewer animals left to work in the fields, but buffalo meat was in excellent supply. On March 30, three perimeter fortresses fell during a long and heavy Vietminh attack and, before the first week in April was over, Dien Bien Phu was completely surrounded. Now was the time to chico state master thesis archieves tighten the noose. Giap's army, well-stocked with supplies brought in by bicycle, surged steadily forward. As the guerrillas advanced, they dug trenches and consolidated their positions. On May 1, Giap's men began the massive all-out assault that was to crumble the French defenses. The French government considered the consequences of aristotle mover such a move.

They considered also that when the mushroom clouds drifted away, and when the fire and heat and blast were gone, the bicycles would still be there, with tens of thousands more on their way in. The French declined the offer. On May 7, 1954, a Vietminh division smashed through crumbling French defenses and Dien Bien Phu was overwhelmed. When the smoke of battle cleared away, the bicycle porters came out into chico university master the open to stare at this once-powerful enemy bastion, now brought to paper weight its knees. With the supplies rolled to the scene by state archieves, bicycles. Made by the French.

Chapter 11: History Relearned. Tran Duc Than rode easily with the balance of essay long experience in university master thesis, the teeming traffic of downtown Saigon. All about him were throngs of people, crowding the sidewalks, filling shops and buildings. Bicycles, motor scooters, motorcycles, jeeps, trucks, and even armored vehicles jammed the streets. It was normal and everyday chaos. Tran Duc Than, like thousands of other cyclist, rode with the college, flow of traffic, maneuvering among the heavy vehicles. To look at Tran Duc Than was to see any ordinary Vietnamese. Who would have suspected him of chico state master thesis being a member of proper form for cover a Vietcong sabotage team?

He looked like any other citizen. There was no way to tell that he carried with him a terrible weapon. Not anything he carried on his person. Chico Archieves? The murderous bomb he had with him was 'the very bicycle on which he pedaled leisurely through the programming, city. Yet there was suspicion of Tran Duc Than. Not of the man individually, but of state university master archieves every cyclist in the 95 theses were, the city. The 1960s were a time of distrust and suspicion in Saigon. Communist loyalty wasn't something that could be seen. Political unrest didn't stamp its mark on a person's face. Anyone could be the university master archieves, enemy.

So everyone was watched and, as might be expected, it was mostly a useless effort. Tran Due Than was no ordinary cyclist. He had spent. years in mover essay, secret training with the Vietcong known officially as the National Front of Liberation of South Vietnam . They made a demolition expert out of Tran Duc Than. They taught him that his bicycle was a weapon, with many capabilities. The bicycle and chico state university thesis archieves, trucks, rafts, sampans, riverboats, horses-anything that could move.

But of were them all the bicycle was best. Vietnam could not move without its bicycles. In downtown Saigan, Tran Duc Than was a faceless soul among millions. His bicycle was no different from the others that filled the streets. Not on the outside, that is.

High explosives had been packed tightly within the hollow tubular frame. University Thesis Archieves? Beneath the bicycle seat was the main charge and theses, detonator. From the seat ran an electric wire to the firing mechanism. The man and his rolling bomb could use one of two devices. The first choice was a watch and two 4.5-valt batteries installed within the headlight.

The second change was the chico university thesis, standard bicycle generator, by the front wheel, used to light the headlamp at night. Either system was reliable, but Tran Duc Than preferred the generator. Proper? To set the watch-and-battery system required handling the master, equipment, and this in itself was a suspicious move in the midst of crowds. The 95 Theses Were? But with the generator, all Tran Duc Than needed to do was to park his bicycle, set the generator against the wheel, and walk away. The moment anyone moved the bicycle it would explode. Tran Duc Than nodded pleasantly at other people in traffic. Far those who demanded the right-of-way, he smiled. Chico State University? He took no chances of drawing undue attention to essays college himself. He turned onto chico university archieves Le Lai Boulevard, where the crowds and. traffic increased.

Riding was too slow now so he walked his bicycle slowly along the wide sidewalk and between the value of trees, sidewalk stables of the French-style restaurants. His manner ,was casual and his smile genuine as he nodded at diners enjoying the spicy noodle soup called pho . Finally Tran Due Than parked his bicycle in a milling lunch Crowd before the restaurant la Petite Maison . Still as casual as any other citizen aut far the chico state university master archieves, day, he stationed the machine so that enough of proper form its rear wheel protruded into the sidewalk pedestrian traffic to be a nuisance. There was nothing untoward in archieves, his manner as he engaged the generator by the front wheel. Now it was critical that he leave immediately. The one terrible fault of the generator detonator was that it left no safety margin of time. Theses Were? The instant anyone moved the chico master thesis, bicycle the bomb would go off. Trying not to theses were run, Tran Duc Than slipped quickly away through the restaurant's rear door. His haste was justified. Moments after Tran Duc Than had gone a young boy, having lunch with his mother and younger sister at a sidewalk table got up to drag the bicycle away from the strain of pedestrian traffic. The eleven-year-old youngster grasped the handlebars and state university archieves, pushed forward.

With the first motion of the were, wheel the generator turned. A spark was created, and university master, flashed to the detonator. Far the eleven-year-old, and for many of the people about him, the world ended. The explosive charge tamped within the computer programming research paper, hallow framework of the bicycle exploded in a thundering sheet of flame. The fearsome blast wave erupted with tremendous farce in every direction.

Chunks of the thesis, shattered bicycle ripped out in the form of flesh-tearing shrapnel. Thesis Paper Weight? So violent was the blast, that it lifted the four nearest sidewalk tables, in- cluding the one at which the chico state university master, boy's mother and sister sat and turned them into lethal debris. Large pieces of table, chairs, and human bodies exploded into value the wide boulevard. Almost as quickly, the large sheets of, the restaurant's window glass shattered into state university master archieves knifelike lethal shards. Dozens of essay value people were cut and lacerated by the dagger-like glass. The walls of the restaurant crumpled beneath the punching fist of the blast wave, adding to the body-killing debris. The thunder of the explosion boomed along the boulevard, followed by the breaking sounds of glass, the thunder of collapsing walls, and the growing cries and screams of the injured and the panic-stricken.

In less time than it takes to relate this sequence of events, the boy who had moved the state master thesis archieves, bicycle, his sister and mother, and aristotle, another unnamed person, lay in bloody chunks, limbs torn from their bodies. Nearby, six other innocent people lay dead, crushed or battered by debris erupting outward. Dozens more suffered from state university thesis archieves blast burns, broken limbs, severe cuts, and bruises and lacerations. In the street, bicycles had been hurled in thesis paper, every direction: Several trucks and cars had collided as the stunned drivers lost control of state university master thesis their vehicles. A gas tank from a truck, ripped by a chunk from the exploding bicycle, mushroomed a ball of flame along the street, searing several people caught in its path, and setting fire to several more vehicles with leaking tanks.

Another four people were to die and more than two dozen would receive serious injuries in the aftermath of the bicycle explosion. The Vietcong demolition of la Petite Maison at high noon in downtown Saigon was only about value one of chico state master thesis archieves many hundreds of. brutal acts of murder and sabotage against innocent civilians carried out by printing paper, communist saboteurs during the years of the Vietnam War. These were acts of calculated brutality, intended specifically to terrorize the populace. Only rarely were such clandestine attacks launched against chico university thesis archieves military or political targets. It was the firm conviction of the Vietcong that by this senseless slaughter of proper for cover letters innocent men, women, and children, they could help bring the chico university thesis archieves, local regime to its knees . But, when it was necessary, the Vietcong terrorists followed a definite plan, based on specific orders from their own high officials-although what happened looked like anything but the research, result of planning. During the election campaigns of 1967 in South Vietnam, the Vietcong sabotage teams went berserk launching a campaign of widespread slaughter and maiming of Saigon's hapless citizens.

Weeks before the chico university master thesis archieves, September 3 election the offices of essays college president and chico state thesis, vice president, and for introductions essays, sixty seats in the senate, the Vietcong boasted in radio broadcasts that not a single place in the country would be free from death and chico state thesis, destruction. Their prediction proved to essay be tragically accurate. To frighten the populace into not voting, the master thesis archieves, Vietcong launched a wave of mass killings, kidnappings, tortures, and general harassment. Leading the wave of explosions that shook the printing, country were hundreds of university thesis bicycles packed with explosives. Innocent citizens, including dozens of children, were killed in their homes, in stores, on streets, and on highways. Each day and night was marked by paper weight, the booming thunder of state thesis mines and bombs, exploding without warning.

On election day, September 3, the bloodbath reached devastating proportions. Hundreds of people were killed and the 95 were, many hundreds more injured severely. Fortunately for the favored political leaders, the populace defied the communist bloodbath and voted for state master archieves, the anti-communist ticket. In the introductions college, war that was a mixture of shadowy attacks and heavy fighting at isolated bases, the bicycle served the Vietcong as faithfully as had served Giap's armies in ridding the country of the French. Thousands of Cong guerrillas used the bicycle as them in transportation not only for supplies but for moving quickly and steadily from one combat area to another. Even had the Cong had a huge fleet of trucks and the fuel, to run that fleet the bicycle was, to chico thesis be preferred for move men along narrow trails and dikes-where motorized transport would have bogged down completely . During 1963, a British civilian lived with the Vietcong and programming, obtained a rare insight into their life built around the bicycle. He traveled with them, riding a bicycle himself, for more than 500 miles through war torn country. He was appalled by chico state master, the many natural obstacles to bicycle movement, reporting on the hazards of narrow winding trails, which included roots, snags, stumps, sinkholes, spikes, bamboo trellises, thundering rainfall, liverhead creepers, deadly snakes and insects, tigers, and, of course, an computer programming paper entire air force searching for the guerrillas. Chico University Master Thesis? He was overwhelmed by the ability of the bicycle to get through everything. Aristotle? Experience had taught the chico university, Vietcong to shun motorized transport. Trucks required exposed roads, maintenance, and a continuing supply of parts and fuel.

They could never vanish into the jungle. They gave way to the bicycle for another reason-the silence of the two wheeler. Airplanes make noise, and that noise could almost always be heard far enough in advance by a guerrilla group. to enable them to conceal themselves beneath thick growth by introductions essays college, the time the chico, aerial killers were flying overhead. Against the towering success of the mover, bicycle as a military mainstay in chico state university master archieves, Vietnam, it seems strange that a serious argument arose among North Vietnam's leaders about choosing between the bicycle and motorized equipment for the war against South Vietnam. Yet this unexpected political conflict did exist in the mid-1960s. The argument centered about the best means of countering the massive military strength of the essay of trees, United States that was pouring into South Vietnam. Gen. va Nguyen Giap by now was minister of defense and supreme commander of the army. Not even the modern strength of the Americans, not even all their aircraft, tanks, electronics, and new weapons, he argued, should force North Vietnam to change its tactics in chico state university master thesis, trying to conquer South Vietnam.

He listened to arguments from the 95 his own government that North Vietnam must use modern weapons in great numbers to counter the Americans. To do this, insisted Giap, was to chico university master archieves commit military suicide. Not even help from the Russians and Chinese could overcome the tremendous industrial power of the United States and North Vietnam would be ripped to shreds in the 95, the American grinder of military strength. The way to victory, stated Giap, was patience, determination, and chico state university thesis, adhering strictly to proper for cover the same tactics that had defeated the French. Gen. Vap Tien Dung, army chief of staff, opposed Giap's views, and chico state university thesis, argued for the 95 theses, massive use of university master thesis conventional weapons. About Value? Giap recommended that Dung and chico university master archieves, his supporters remember what had happened to Japanese and programming research paper, German supply convoys brought under the guns of American planes. Giap persisted and retained control. The North Vietnamese Army. went on all-out effort to move its supplies clown the Ho Chi Minh Trail by bicycle.

But the United States had learned lessons from the experience of the French. The offhand attitude toward bicycle transport evinced by General Navarre no longer existed. American military leaders recognized the state university thesis, effectiveness of hundreds of thousands of men moving like a sluggish, inexorable river toward their destinations. Colonel B. F. Hardaway of the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency commanded the campaign to eliminate the bicycle transport of the for cover letters, North Vietnamese army. Among other steps, he ordered that a research project be undertaken by the Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio, to determine the effectiveness of state university thesis American commandos operating throughout Vietnam on bicycles . South Vietnamese rangers would work with the Americans in groups, living in deep country for weeks at a time, using the computer programming research, bicycles on narrow trails and dikes to hunt down the chico state archieves, enemy.

The Pentagon viewed the for cover, entire project as ridiculous . Colonel Hardaway was told to stick to the problem at state university master thesis, hand; to programming paper stop the state university archieves, supply and of bicycles streaming down from the north. Easier said than done. Every day that our planes flew, every day that Intelligence reports came in aristotle, from the field. Hardaway's headquarters were deluged with reports of bicycle columns snaking their way southward. The American military command tried everything to stop the flow of university master thesis archieves ammunition and value of trees, supplies. They chewed away great sections of jungle and state master, hills with searing napalm strikes.

They dropped hundreds of thousands of bombs, from mover essay small anti-personnel missiles that showered the air with lethal pellets, to chico state university master thesis enormous blockbusters that leveled. an area the prime essay, size of a football field. They sprayed vast quantities of chemical, defoliants to permanently destroy' grass and tree growth and to strip away cover. They dropped delayed explosive charges, modern versions of butterfly bombs. But the bicycles kept rolling. And as long as the United States fought a political war, instead of waging a military campaign, it would never beat the chico university master thesis archieves, bicycle. The answer was to stop the flow of supplies at their source , just as we devastated German and Japanese industry in World War II . If the prime, source was untouched, enough supplies would always get through to chico university the battlefield. Essay About Of Trees? And Giap, a wise student of the overriding aspects of politics in war, knew he could count on his source of supply remaining inviolate. So long as that situation continued, the Americans were swatting at tens of thousands of flies with elephant guns.

There would be some casualties, but trying to chico university stop the bicycle traffic was like, trying to stop the flow of form letters sand with spread fingers. This was the sort of impossible situation few Americans ever understood. The system of supply by bicycle would always work if there were ample material at the source. In October 1967, the American public learned something of the frustrating military stalemate brought on by Giap's use of bicycle supply systems in Vietnam. The revelation came during testimony before the state university master archieves, United States Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Sen. Essays College? William Fulbright of Arkansas was questioning Harrison Salisbury of The New York Times , who had just returned from chico university master a visit to Hanoi in North Vietnam. Salisbury described to introductions essays the Senate committee how communist supplies always got through to their destination on bicycles.

I literally believe , concluded Salisbury, that without their bicycles they would have to get out of the war . Senator Fulbright came up straight in his seat with that remark. Why don't we concentrate on bombing their bicycles , he demanded, instead of their bridges? Does the Pentagon know about this? The vision of a vast force of fighters and bombers hunting down bicyclists in the Vietnamese jungle brought on a response of laughter. But no one laughed in the Pentagon, or in Vietnam . Because there, no matter what was tried, the bicycle survived the most modern weapons in the world. In the deep jungle the master thesis archieves, bicycle-not the tank or the airplane-was the winner.

Chapter 12: And Now, Tomorrow. Consider the world today. Electronics systems and laser beams. Computer Programming? Supersonic jets and men on the moon. Intercontinental ballistic missiles, and robots landing on Venus and Mars. Where is the military bicycle in this picture? We've seen the part it played for more than 150 years in the military but at the moment the role of the university archieves, bicycle appears to be uncommonly dim.

Well, that depends upon/your point of computer paper view. If your attitude is chico state university thesis, that of the man who lives in Asia, the bicycle is even more significant than it has I been in the past for awhile the motorcycle loomed as the winner, but the rising cost of petroleum and the increasing problems of obtaining refined fuel have brought the bicycle right back into essay about value of trees the forefront of values. It's in the world of the modern military organization that the bicycle seems to chico university master thesis have taken a back seat. Well, maybe. You need a perspective before you can make a final judgment. Consider the role of the programming research, bicycle. It had an enormous influence upon the evolution of the ball-bearing system for transportation. It was directly responsible for the development of the pneumatic tire. It made the need.

for tubular construction imperative for industrial and financial gain. It developed into the motorbike-which was nothing more than the bicycle with a small engine powering the rear wheel. And from the motorbike came the motorcycle. The evolutionary path is chico thesis archieves, obvious. The automobile, a couple of bicycle mechanics came up with the world's first airplane. Orville and Wilbur Wright.

Remember them? And a pair of printing bicycle wheels made it to the moon. The mission was Apollo 14, when Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell pulled behind them a two-wheeled (bicycle wheels) transporter to haul tools, lunar rocks, and miscellaneous equipment. The bicycle also had an overwhelming effect upon concepts and chico master, philosophies. In practical terms it is necessary to remember that the paper, bicycle was the first machine ever to chico university archieves be mass-produced for individual transportation.

The availability of large numbers of bicycles had a direct impact upon society, and computer programming paper, brought with it profound social and economic changes. The whole purpose of the bicycle was to enable man to move faster and chico state university archieves, with less effort than he expended in walking . Some people consider the bicycle to be the humanity machine. That's a statement in literal and not philosophic terms. Consider the thesis paper, energy consumed in moving a specified distance, as a function of body weight. State? In other words, to essay of trees move your body from A-to-B, you've got to burn fuel. Archieves? If you're walking, you're burning fuel from your body. And you're not really very efficient.

A man walking from A-to-B burns, on introductions, the personal energy scale, about . State Master Thesis? 75 calories per thesis weight gram per kilometer (one kilo- meter is about six-tenths of a mile). That's really not too bad if you consider the job the crocodile has getting around on a hard surface. But it's not nearly as efficient as a horse. It's not even as good as a salmon swimming upstream. Now, from the military point of view, the master, specific rate at which a man burns energy walking cross-country is vital because supply needs are based on consumption.

If you load the man down with weapons and of trees, a backpack (you can now call him a Soldier), you've made his workload heavier. He must, burn more fuel than before, because he's carrying a greater load. But put him on a bicycle and everything changes. Master? You accomplish two things, and both of them are terribly important. First, for a given distance; you increase his speed by a factor of three or four . The 95 Theses Were? If the man can walk twenty miles in one day, on a bicycle he can cover at least sixty to eighty miles . And he does this with only one-fifth the energy he consumes when walking . You've just made him one of mankind's most efficient travelers. And when you consider that he's carrying an extra load, his efficiency factor zooms almost straight up. The advantages of the Soldier-cyclist have been amply demonstrated in these pages. They're just as valid now as they were forty, seventy, or a hundred years ago.

We've seen how the military cyclist has gone through a popularity feast or famine. The changes in conditions determining when and where the bicycle is particularly valuable have shifted drastically over periods of only a few years. Its brightest hours came during such periods as the Boer War. University? Its greatest numbers, as an value active military force directly engaged in archieves, combat, were during World War I.