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Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal1. La danse est a l’origine du renouveau contemporain du tango en France. Manchurian Candidate. A travers la creation du bal tango et la reconstruction d’une culture du bal indexees sur la milonga de Buenos Aires, les danseurs ont renouvele l’approche du genre musical, suscitant la decouverte du patrimoine peu connu des annees 40, inflechissant le repertoire des orchestres, developpant un entendement musical lie a la danse. Study On Social Analytics. Les conditions de cette resurgence, ou la danse affirme une preeminence, interrogent les hierarchies implicites contenues dans le terme de « musique a danser ». Dance rather than music alone gave rise to manchurian, the contemporary renaissance of thesis tango in essay, France. Research. Through the manchurian essay, creation of study on social media tango public dances and manchurian candidate, through the and contrast friendship essay, reconstruction of candidate essay a dance culture shaped by and contrast friendship, the Buenos Aires milonga, dancers have revitalized the manchurian candidate, approach of grendel essay this music genre : they initiated the essay, discovery of case study media analytics this little-known heritage from the essay, 40’s, thus shifting the marketing and communications essay, band’s repertoire and manchurian, developing a musical understanding connected to alternative medicine research paper, dance. Manchurian. The conditions of study media analytics this revival, in manchurian, which dance asserts its preeminence over thesis authorship music, question the manchurian, implicit hierarchies of the alternative research, expression “dance music”. 1 Je tiens a remercier pour leurs relectures Saskia Cousin, Elisabeth Dorier-Apprill et Sara Le Menes (. Candidate. ) 1 Nombreux sont les cliches qui enrobent le tango, dont celui qu’il serait « une musique a danser ». Marketing And Communications Essay. Cet enonce, qui caracterise d’autres musiques (valse, paso doble), contient plusieurs attendus, dont celui d’examiner le statut du tango comme musique a travers l’analyse de la mediation de la danse, tout en exprimant la domination implicite de la musique sur la danse.

Mais cette position de force au regard de la danse est fragile au sein de l’univers musical. Essay. Comme « l’herbe a chat », la « bonne a tout faire », la « chair a canon » ou le « roman de gare » , l’horizon d’une telle construction grammaticale est ferme. Media Analytics. A la fois qualite (faire lever de la chaise), et depreciation (l’ecoute distraite d’un genre populaire), cette categorisation jette sur l’objet un voile pejoratif qui le place a l’ecart de la haute culture musicale. Manchurian Essay. Appartenant au monde de l’art, la musique au contact de la danse produite dans le contexte du bal, se trouve devaluee et comme entrainee vers les profondeurs abyssales ou sont releguees les pratiques sociales. Grendel. Mais toutes les musiques qui font danser – comme la techno par exemple – ne sont pas considerees comme des « musiques a danser ». Manchurian. Ce terme designe implicitement des genres musicaux qui renvoient a des danses, mais pas n’importe quelles danses : « la danse », celle des theatres, qui s’inscrit dans une histoire de l’art, des reseaux de production et de diffusion contemporains, n’est pas concernee. Thesis. Les danses ainsi nommees sont les danses de couple produites depuis un siecle dans le contexte du bal. Manchurian Essay. Aucune inversion n’est possible : point de « danse a jouer de la musique ». Penn Essays Jeremiah. La danse sous-entendue dans cet enonce a besoin de la musique, quand celle-ci peut se passer de la danse, difference qui reaffirme l’appartenance de l’une au monde de l’art, et de l’autre aux pratiques sociales. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Appartenant au sens commun, cet enonce met en tension les caracteres populaires et savant de la musique et de la danse, dans un pas de deux ou se croisent les regards : les musiciens vers la musique et vers les danseurs, les danseurs vers la danse et vers les musiciens. Marketing. C’est la complexite des echanges de ces deux foyers triangules que nous proposons d’examiner a travers l’exemple du tango argentin. 2 Sa definition sociale et musicale est parfois associee : « De 1880 a 1900, le tango, en tant que mu (. Manchurian Candidate Essay. ) 3 Porteno : habitant de Buenos-Aires. Authorship. 4 Musicalement, la periode 1920-1960 peut etre divisee entre la Guardia nueva (1920-1940) et la Post (. Candidate. ) 5 La premiere association est creee en 1987.

Elles sont 43 en 1997, et plus de 120 en 2005. 2 Issu des musiques et chants de communautes diverses (noires, creoles, immigres d’Europe du sud et centrale) qui composaient la population de l’Argentine dans la seconde moitie du 19 e siecle, le tango est ne dans un milieu populaire puis s’est impose dans la bonne societe. Study Analytics. Tantot centree sur la musique (Monette, 1991; Strada, 1995; Plisson, 2001), plus rarement sur la danse (Pelinski, 1995; Hess, 1996; Pujol, 1999), l’historiographie analyse peu cette origine populaire qui fait partie des lieux communs2. Manchurian Essay. En revanche, en la citant systematiquement, elle a contribue a construire sur cette origine le mythe d’une territorialite miserabiliste et canaille : « de mauvais garcons » en« bas fonds », de« lupanars » en« trottoirs », l’alliance reglee de la debauche, de l’erotisme, de la sensualite et de la violence sociale, compose des stereotypes qui hantent son imaginaire. Authorship. De l’Amerique du sud a l’Europe, il serait possible pour chaque epoque et peregrination de suivre les oscillations de son statut, qui le mene des bouges populaires de Buenos Aires aux bastringues proletaires de la rue de Lappe, des cabarets portenos 3 aux salons luxueux et bals clandestins parisiens, ou l’aristocratie s’encanaille (Sem, 1925; Roueff, 1997; Apprill Dorier-Apprill, 2001). Essay. Mais par dela cette empreinte mythologique qui donne le ton, la musique semble davantage qualifiee par les relations qu’elle a entretenues avec la danse au cours du 20 e siecle. Compare And Contrast. Passe les premiers temps de sa naissance (1890-1920) ou le tango chante s’affirme deja comme un genre distinct de la danse, on essay peut distinguer trois phases dans les relations entre le genre musical tango et la danse. Marketing. Apres une periode d’osmose (1925-1955), le tango entre dans un declin durant lequel musique et danse connaissent des evolutions divergentes. Manchurian Essay. Puis a la fin de la dictature en 1982, il retraverse une nouvelle fois l’Atlantique, et c’est la resurgence de la danse qui entraine dans son sillage celle de la musique. Essay. Apres avoir fait fureur dans les Annees Folles, la danse affirme une seconde fois sa preeminence dans l’univers des musiques dites « a danser ». Candidate. De la concorde a la rupture, de l’osmose a l’emancipation, les rapports entre la musique et la danse tisses autour des principaux courants musicaux ( Guardia vieja du debut du siecle, tango bien marcado des annees 40, nuevo tango des annees 604 etc.) composent les grands traits de son regime. Essay Conclusion. Si le statut de la musique a ete a certaines epoques etroitement lie a celui de la danse, il n’est pas non plus reductible a une seule musique a danser qui serait au fil du temps devenu une musique a ecouter.

Jusqu’au debut des annees 1980, le tango etait en France insere dans le systeme des danses de couple : sa forme la plus repandue etait le musette des guinguettes, des thes dansants et des dancings. Essay. Apres la presentation du spectacle Tango Argentino en 1983 au theatre du Chatelet, un reseau associatif5 independant des ecoles de danse de couple s’est constitue pour developper la culture tango a travers l’organisation de cours, stages, bals, pratiques, expositions, conferences et concerts (Apprill, 1998, 2003). Study Media. Cette forte implication associative reunissant des amateurs de danse a ete relayee par plusieurs acteurs (DJ, musiciens, plasticiens, producteurs, maisons de disque). Manchurian. La notion meme de bal tango n’existait point en France. Study Analytics. Pure creation, le bal tango s’est elabore autour de la danse, dont la resurgence contemporaine s’est traduite par la reconstruction d’une culture du bal. Candidate. Referencee au berceau de Buenos Aires, elle interroge, aussi bien chez les musiciens que chez les danseurs, les notions de tradition et de renovation musicale, a l’instar de ce qui s’est produit avec le revival du bal folk (Guilcher, 1998) et le renouveau des guinguettes (Argyriadis, Le Menestrel, 2003). And Communications. La multiplication des bals en France a genere une valorisation de la musique : decouverte des orchestres des annees 1925-50, essor de l’impression musicale, inflechissement du repertoire des orchestres contemporains, developpement d’un entendement musical specifique. Manchurian. Les conditions d’actualisation de la danse offrent une chambre d’echo aux questionnements sur la musique, tout en interrogeant la categorie de « musique a danser » : dans le tango, ne serait ce pas plutot la danse qui se joue de la musique ? 1925 a 1955 : la symbiose entre musique et danse. 6 G. Jeremiah Evarts. Matos Rodriguez, P. Manchurian Essay. Contursi, E. Case Study On Social Analytics. Maroni, 1916.

Autres themes tres connus : El Entrerriano (Rosen (. Manchurian Essay. ) 3 Durant l’age d’or qui va des annees 1925 aux annees 1950, l’association de la musique, de la danse et de la culture du bal produit une explosion de la creativite musicale : les themes ecrits avant 1945 deviennent de veritables standards dont le plus connu demeure la Cumparsita 6. Grendel Essay. A partir de 1935, date de la mort de Carlos Gardel, un rapport singulier se noue entre la danse et la musique. Essay. Si le tango d’alors ne se reduit nullement a la danse, c’est toutefois elle qui oriente le style de certains orchestres et qui est l’une des scenes de son expression : Juan D’Arienzo interprete alors les tangos selon un rythme vif et pique, apprecie par les danseurs. Thesis Authorship. Il se fait une reputation parmi ces derniers et devient « El rey del compas » (le roi de la cadence). Candidate Essay. Le rythme est alors « tellement appuye que la melodie semble secondaire ». Compare And Contrast Friendship Essay. La place accordee au chant s’adapte elle aussi a la danse en se limitant a un seul couplet suivi du refrain(Monette, 1991). Candidate Essay. D’autres musiciens comme M. William Jeremiah Evarts. Calo, A. Manchurian Essay. Troilo et O. Authorship. Pugliese privilegient les arrangements et complexifient le tango. Manchurian Candidate. Et sur la piste, les danseurs sont a l’ecoute des nuances musicales qui differencient chaque orchestre : 7 Gancho : « litteralement, crochet realise entre les jambes du (de la) partenaire ». And Communications. Boleo : « batte (. Manchurian Candidate Essay. ) 8 Entretien (Buenos Aires 1996) avec le danseur Rodolfo Cieri (1933-2000). Selon les orchestres, on and communications dansait de differentes facons : avec Di Sarli, on manchurian essay dansait tango salon, bien droit, bien caminado [en faisant attention a la facon de marcher], sans ganchos, ni boleos. And Contrast Friendship Essay. Bien paradito [avec de belles pauses]. Essay. Avec le Troilo des annees quarante, on compare friendship dansait plus orillero. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Avec les disques de Canaro, tu cherches le style canyengue7 : pas de posture, plus balance, chaloupe8. 9 Jusqu’a cinq bandoneonsdans l’Orquesta tipica de Rodolfo Biaggi vers 1940.

Cf . Thesis Authorship. Plisson, 2001. 4 Jouee pour les danseurs, ce type d’orchestration existe peu en dehors du bal et la notion meme de concert est marginale. Manchurian Essay. Le tango devient une culture partagee par le plus grand nombre : dans ses versions musicales, chantees et dansees, il devient emblematique de la culture et de l’identite des portenos et de tous les Argentins, et s’inscrit dans la sociabilite et le territoire des bals urbains. And Communications. Ces derniers exercent alors deux fonctions : dans les quartiers peripheriques, ils sont l’un des maillons du marche matrimonial, et dans le centre, ils representent un moment de loisir festif ouvert sur le flirt et la rencontre. Manchurian Candidate. Des clubs de quartier qui accueillent les equipes de foot aux salons parquetes du centre ville, la perception de la musique est intimement liee au contexte du bal qui s’insere dans des territoires urbains socialement heterogenes, et qu’il est difficile d’assigner a une categorie sociale particuliere.

Quant aux sentiments des musiciens vis a vis de la danse, leurs compositions, leurs interpretations et le marche economique qui entraine une augmentation de la taille des orchestres9, montrent qu’ils evoluaient en relation etroite avec l’univers de la danse. 10 Selon l’accordeoniste Jo Privat (Billard et Roussin, 1991 : 25). 5 Introduit en France peu avant le declenchement de la Grande guerre, base sur l’improvisation, le tango rompt avec le regulier tournoiement de la valse et dessine de nouvelles repartitions des roles masculins et feminins dans la danse (Hess, 1996 : 23-32). Friendship. La ou la valse mettait en scene l’ivresse de la rencontre dans une evolution etourdissante, le tango place l’homme et la femme face a face dans un duel qui oscille entre lenteur et vitesse. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Sa force de retenue troublante place le couple « en majeste » : ce n’est plus la perdition du couple qui est valorisee, mais sa conscience. Essays. Une veritable fievre tango parcourt les capitales d’Europe occidentale apres la guerre. Candidate Essay. Le chroniqueur Sem (1913) a rendu compte de « cette crise de tangomanie eperdue » avec une serie de dessins. Study. Sur l’un d’entre eux, qui porte la legende « every body is manchurian essay, doing it now », un homme moustachu en habit de corrida (gilet rouge avec dorures, pantalon noir, chemise blanche et n?ud papillon noir) joue de la guitare sur une plage, assis sur le T du titre. Marketing Essay. Au loin, on manchurian candidate essay apercoit la mer et quelques voiles au vent.

Des poissons enlaces fretillent sur le sable, ainsi qu’un crabe. Study On Social. Le ciel est barre par un piquet et un fil a linge : trois paires de calecons s’y agitent en couple dans des postures evocatrices, le bras droit enlacant la taille, et pour une autre pubis contre fesse. Essay. Apres avoir suscite des polemiques, cette frenesie se poursuit durant les annees vingt. Case Study Media. Les thes tango ou l’on se rend avec des jupes couleur tango (orange) font fureur. Candidate. C’est l’une des rares danses a la mode des annees 20 qui ait perdure tout au long du siecle et ait connu une propagation geographique sur les cinq continents (Pelinsky, 1995). Grendel. Avec ces autres danses venues d’outre Atlantique (Decoret, 2004), il provoque le recul des danses ouvertes du 19 e siecle (quadrille, berlines, pas de quatre). Manchurian Candidate Essay. Et dans l’entre-deux-guerres, il s’ajoute a la valse et a la java qui constituaient « la base du musette »10. Complementary. Mais apres avoir ete epure de sa sensualite par la corporation des professeurs de danse, et rendu conforme aux normes corporelles de l’epoque (Apprill, 2003), le tango investit egalement les dancings les plus « selects », ces temples de la mondanite, de la modernite et de la fete dont C. Candidate. Lalo (1921) note qu’ils ont ete « le seul art dont la guerre mondiale ait produit une floraison incontestable depuis 1918 ». De 1955 a 1982, declin et evolutions divergentes de la musique et de la danse.

6 A partir de 1955 (fin du gouvernement Peron), une cesure se forme entre la musique et la danse. Compare And Contrast. Plusieurs facteurs contribuent a l’expliquer : les lois reprimant les reunions, l’evolution du tissu urbain et la demolition de nombreuses salles de danse, le gout des jeunes generations pour les musiques et les rythmes anglo-saxons, l’association du tango a des valeurs reactionnaires, mais aussi l’essor de la musique folklorique dans laquelle les immigrants de l’interieur, les cabecitas negras , qui s’installent massivement a Buenos Aires a partir de la fin des annees trente, se retrouvent davantage que dans les themes des tangos (Vila, 1995). Candidate Essay. Pendant ces annees de dictature, le tango danse s’efface de la trame urbaine et sociale mais subsiste dans l’univers familial. Complementary Alternative. De nombreux argentins s’exilent et parmi eux des musiciens. Manchurian Candidate. Dans les annees 1970, c’est a travers la chanson engagee (Cuarteto Cedron), folklorique (Atahualpa Yupanqui) et le nuevo tango de Piazzolla, que le public francais entre en contact avec l’univers du tango « argentin ». Complementary Research. Tout en devenant les figures artistiques de l’opposition intellectuelle en exil, ces musiciens operent une rupture radicale avec l’univers du bal et de la danse. Essay. Les chansons qui abordent avec gravite les situations de crise en Argentine et au Chili sont ecoutees, et plebiscitees par le public, comme le precise Juan Cedron lorsqu’il evoque son repertoire a son arrivee en France : C’est dans les annees 72, 71 que nous avons commence a jouer ici, c’etait tout pres de mai 1968, il y avait un public soixante huitard, que j’aime beaucoup; ils ont decouvert le Cuarteto par rapport au cote ideologique et politique, notre position vis a vis des problemes politiques qui se sont passes en Argentine, en Uruguay, au Paraguay, au Chili, au Bresil. Marketing And Communications Essay. On critiquait tout ca : on manchurian chantait des chansons d’une tuerie qui a eu lieu a Buenos Aires en 1972. Grendel Essay. Il y avait un public dit de gauche, pour simplifier les choses. Manchurian. Le phenomene, c’est que je voulais aussi chanter un tango traditionnel, Bahia Blanca.

On finissait (tape trois fois sechement dans ses mains). William Penn Evarts. Les gens n’aimaient pas le tango traditionnel ! (Entretien, Juan Cedron 1998). 11 « Piazzolla demontre (. Manchurian Essay. ) que le tango n’a besoin ni de la chanson, ni de la danse pour exister, q (. Authorship. ) 12 D’apres un entretien avec Eve Griliquez, 1998. Candidate Essay. 13 Expression de Michel Egea, professeur de danse a Marseille, lorsqu’il evoque « les danses du dancin (. William Penn Evarts. ) 7 Hors jeu, la danse est consideree par le public de l’epoque a la fois comme desuete et futile. Essay. Si la creation musicale est renouvelee par une reactivation de la culture de l’aller-retour et de l’entre-deux constitutive de l’histoire sociale des Argentins, elle le fait au detriment de la danse dont elle s’ecarte resolument. Marketing. Musicalement, par l’abandon du temps fort bien marque dont les danseurs ont besoin, le nuevo tango affiche ouvertement sa scission avec l’univers du tango danse. Essay. Piazzolla prend ainsi ses distances avec les orchestres des annees 1940, et promeut le tango au rang de musique moderne11. Thesis Authorship. Passe le temps des chants militants, la creation musicale des argentins vivant en France s’oriente vers des formes de tango renove (J. Manchurian Essay. J. Alternative Medicine Research Paper. Mosalini, G. Candidate Essay. Beytelmann) qui s’inscrivent dans l’esprit des compositions de Piazzolla.

Ce qui n’empeche pas les institutions francaises de lui denier le statut de culture savante : en 1982, le premier concert radiophonique de la chanteuse Haydee Alba est diffuse sur France Culture, et non sur France Musique qui decline l’opportunite12. On Social Media. Puis son disque est edite en 1990 chez Ocora Radio France dans la serie Chanson-tradition. Candidate Essay. Cette meconnaissance dont le tango est l’objet semble nourrie par l’imaginaire deprecie qu’il vehicule dans les annees 80 : evoquant le passe suranne des generations precedentes, il est associe a une pratique sans releve, qui renvoie a la culture populaire du bal et du systeme des danses de couple qui sont entres en crise apres 1945. And Communications Essay. C’est dans ce contexte ou la danse de couple dans le bal est devalorisee, et percue comme un « zinzin »13 bon pour les vieux, que le tango revient. Manchurian Essay. Il traverse une nouvelle fois l’Atlantique en 1983, a la faveur de l’avenement de la democratie en Argentine et de la tournee internationale du spectacle Tango Argentino . 8 Progressivement, a partir de 1992-93, une autre facon de danser s’est imposee, differente de celle spectaculaire que les precurseurs ont decouvert sur la scene des theatres. Complementary Medicine. Il s’agit d’un tango entierement fonde sur l’improvisation, pratique en bal, et qui rejette toute forme choregraphiee. Manchurian Essay. Ce n’est pas une rupture brutale avec l’espace de la scene qui s’amorce, mais au contraire une forme de retour aux sources, c’est-a-dire a la milonga de Buenos Aires. Case Media. La notion emergente de bal tango est alors indexee a deux formes idealisees, celle hexagonale du mythique bal populaire (Histoire de bal, 1998; Guy, 1998), et celle des salons du centre de Buenos Aires.

9 En France, le lien entre la sociabilite specifique du bal et une culture de la danse partagee s’est distendu dans les annees 1950. Candidate. Deux entites presque distinctes se sont retrouvees face a face : d’un cote la danse apprise en cours, de l’autre le bal. Case Study. Malgre l’importance des raves, boites de nuit et soirees techno, la notion de bal demeure ancree dans une forme heritee du passe ou les danses de couple detenaient le statut singulier de mediateur de la rencontre. Candidate. Cette confrontation des sexes se realise selon une « discipline dramaturgique » (Goffmann, 1973) qui repose sur une grande maitrise de soi. Essay Conclusion. Ce controle de soi et des sentiments est amplifie par la technicite requise pour evoluer sur la piste de danse, tandis que la posture des danses de couple fermees accorde la primaute au contact corporel, et inaugure dans le moment de danse une primaute inusitee, celle des corps qui font signes et langage. Manchurian Candidate. Le contact de l’autre y precede parfois le dialogue : un dialogue brut des corps, degage de l’appareillage construit du langage. And Contrast. Les relations qui s’instaurent subitement sont victimes du vertige suscite par ce raccourci, et la rencontre de l’autre est centrale comme le rappelle la chanson Le petit bal perdu : « Non je ne me souviens plus. Du nom du bal perdu. Ce dont je me souviens. C’est de ces amoureux. Qui ne regardaient rien.

‘Y avait tant d’insouciance. Dans leurs gestes emus. Alors quelle importance. Le nom du bal perdu. Ce dont je me souviens. C’est qu’ils etaient heureux. Les yeux au fond des yeux. Texte de Robert Nyel, musique de Gaby Verlor. 14 « Ces parcours [migratoires] sont aussi des cheminements urbains : en allant de la possession au sp (. Manchurian Essay. ) 10 Cette puissante figure de l’harmonie renvoie au double versant de l’imaginaire du bal : celui de territoire de rencontre et celui de la realisation d’une concorde. Case On Social Media. En organisant des bals tango, les amateurs s’efforcent de renouer avec cette representation mythique d’une sociabilite ou se melent ceux qui dansent et ceux qui regardent, jeunes et vieux, hommes et femmes dans le tourbillon de la danse.

Ce retour sur l’imaginaire du bal cree des espaces de rencontre entre les sexes autres que les boites de nuit consacrees. Essay. Il investit des lieux de nuit, dont la tradition est celle de la fete a travers les danses de couple (le Balajo et le Bataclan a Paris, La Paloma a Barcelone), et realise une occupation de lieux publics avec des bals en plein air qui generent une revalorisation de l’espace urbain. Marketing And Communications Essay. Du salon a la rue, cette trajectoire prend appui sur le mythe du trottoir, en renouant avec son cheminement urbain historique, mais a l’envers14. Essay. La musique et les paroles du tango, a travers l’evocation d’un certain nombre de lieux emblematiques comme le grand cafe chic, le champ de courses, le trottoir, les quais du port (Benaros, 1993), le tout englue dans une chape de nuit, de tristesse et de nostalgie, venerent ce creuset que fut la ville pour le tango. On Social Media. Leur evocation dans les films des vingt dernieres annees (depuis Sur de Solanas a La lecon de tango de Sally Potter) en retient invariablement les docks et les trottoirs. Manchurian Candidate. Fonde en 1981 a l’initiative d’un groupe d’intellectuels argentins parmi lesquels se trouvait Julio Cortazar, les Trottoirs de Buenos Aires furent longtemps le principal lieu des nuits parisiennes ou se jouait du tango. Thesis Authorship. Buenos Aires et le tango sont comme lies par cette topographie urbaine devenue indispensable au mythe actuel. Manchurian Candidate. Reifie par les textes des chansons de tango aussi bien argentin que musette, des auteurs comme Borges (1969), la prose des chroniqueurs de l’entre-deux-guerres (Boulenger, 1920; Warnod, 1922; Germain, 1923; Sem, 1925; Bertaud, 1927), la corporation des professeurs de danse et guides pour apprendre a danser (Giraudet, 1911; Levitte, 1922; Boucher Gaffet, 1928), ce mythe est entre dans la posterite. Thesis Authorship. L’origine du tango compose le soubassement d’une historicisation du genre, mobilisee en permanence a travers le florilege des stereotypes qui en enoncent une vision essentialiste : sulfureux car erotique, parti de la plebe, le tango s’est impose dans la bonne societe, et de « diablerie orgiaque, il est devenu une facon de marcher » (Borges, 1969 : 135-136). Manchurian Essay. A l’instar du jazz (Roueff, 2001), il est ordonne par un evolutionnisme dialectique qui recouvre ses contenus sociaux, moraux, techniques et emotifs.

11 Les promoteurs de sa resurgence contemporaine ont reactive ce mythe : dans de nombreuses villes, les tangueros se retrouvent dans l’espace public pour danser. Grendel Essay. Mais les lieux investis sont l’exact oppose de la mythologie : point de zones de banlieues entre entrepot et ligne de chemin de fer, point de friche industrielle qui rappellerait le decor du port de la Boca. Essay. Le tango contemporain est celui de la rue pietonne et du parvis amenages pour le confort des citadins, genereusement eclaires la nuit, et impregnes de centralite. Complementary Medicine Research Paper. Realisee spontanement, cette occupation de l’espace public a pris de court la politique urbaine, tout en l’inspirant parfois. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Avec l’emergence des premieres emeutes urbaines (Venissieux, 1981), le debat sur la ville au debut des annees 1990 s’est porte sur la question de la citoyennete, tandis que la recherche urbaine dans son ensemble se preoccupait de la notion de cohesion sociale. Marketing And Communications. Dans ce contexte, le bal et les danses de couple ont ete valorises par les collectivites locales qui les ont convoque comme outil de creation de lien social et vecteur de concorde. Candidate Essay. La multiplication des festivals d’ete (notamment de theatre de rue) et les strategies de developpement touristique reposant sur une offre culturelle importee, tout comme l’organisation de bals, s’inscrivent dans un elan de qualification des lieux qui contribue a rendre consommable l’espace urbain et la campagne alentour (Di Meo, 2001). Complementary Alternative Research Paper. Le contenu festif du bal et de la danse est investi d’une presumee propriete a recoller l’atomisation d’un tissu social rompu aux strategies individualistes.

Bonifies par le rappel d’un passe mythifie, ils ont ete integres a la panoplie des outils de l’action culturelle, sociale et urbanistique charges de produire de la socialite en ville. Manchurian Candidate. Aussi bien a l’echelle du commanditaire, de l’organisateur que du participant, ce processus s’appuie sur une valorisation des caracteristiques propres aux danses de couple (et de groupe) ou une concorde sociale et entre les sexes est recherchee. Marketing. La notion de fonctionnalite est battue en breche : celle de l’espace urbain a travers sa requalification, qui n’emprunte rien a la carte desormais tres conventionnelle des festivals de theatre de rue, et celle de la danse de couple dont le jeu interne depasse de loin le classique prelude a l’acte sexuel dont on manchurian essay la pare facilement. Compare Friendship Essay. Le bal combine a la fois une sociabilite locale synonyme de cohesion sociale, une occupation de l’espace publique qui restitue dans des espaces fonctionnalises a l’extreme la notion de rassemblement ludique, et une mise en representation theatralisee du couple dansant dans les murs de la cite (Chaudoir, Ostrowetsky, 1996). Candidate Essay. Lorsqu’elles manient la notion de bal, les collectivites locales se referent a tout un contenu fonctionnel et symbolique dont elle s’est chargee a partir de la 3 e Republique avec l’avenement des bals du quatorze juillet. Complementary Alternative Medicine. Autour de cette celebration, la conception du bal, « a la fois federative et genealogique, fut mise au service d’une ambitieuse mise en scene de la figure du peuple » (Ihl, 1998 : 75) tandis qu’ailleurs, la tenue des bals publics etait strictement surveillee et souvent interdite. Manchurian Essay. Sous controle des pouvoirs publics (financiers et/ou policiers), c’est dans l’Europe entiere que des manifestations fabriquent de la sociabilite – a la fois mitoyenne et inverse de celle des internautes – en favorisant le contact corporel.

Elles deroulent a partir de la danse un espace codifie (rave, bal moderne, bal tango, bal dingue . And Contrast Essay. ) ou la rencontre de l’autre dejoue un certain nombre de tabous. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Les manifestions de ce type (fete des vendanges organisees par le theatre de Suresnes, le grand bal de l’Europe, les bals de la biennale de la Danse de Lyon depuis 1988 relayes par les defiles) essaiment un peu partout, et sont avant tout fondees sur la participation active du public, amateur ou non, a la difference des festivals d’ete dont chaque ville moyenne de France s’est dotee, qui restent fondes sur la passivite du public. Case On Social. Mais si le bal est ouvert a tous et se presente a priori comme un foyer de mixite sociale, il n’en reste pas moins que le tango comme danse agit comme un discriminant : celui qui ne sait pas danser ne peut s’integrer au bal. Manchurian Essay. Le bal tango n’impose au public qu’une condition pour s’integrer : savoir danser. Thesis. C’est donc la danse elle-meme qui est devenue le principe actif de selection a travers la reconstruction d’une culture du bal. 12 Hormis quelques sanctuaires comme les thes dansants et dancings de l’apres midi, tout ce qui par ailleurs a pu constituer la culture du bal s’est aujourd’hui dissout. Essay. Aussi, le bal tango reinvente une culture en s’appuyant sur des rituels reactives a partir d’elements empruntes ici et la. William Evarts. C’est un veritable bricolage qui assemble, emprunte et melange des parts de culture musicale et dansee, des elements de posture, des rituels d’invitation et des codes vestimentaires, en se referant a l’univers mythique du berceau du tango.

La culture qui en resulte procede d’un ensemble de rituels techniques et sociaux qui genere des sentiments d’appartenance ou de rejet des danseurs et spectateurs. Manchurian. La technique releve de savoir-faire : il s’agit des competences de chaque partenaire qui forment les couples (l’enlacement, les pas de danse), et celle des couples dans leur rapport aux autres couples (evoluer sur la piste en tenant compte des autres couples, tourner dans le sens du bal, envisager le bal comme un espace collectif). Case. Au-dela des signes d’appartenances individuels comme les soins vestimentaires (le noir et le rouge, la jupe fendue), les pratiquants s’efforcent d’entrer dans un moule qui depasse les simples apparences : ils se mettent a vivre la nuit, a parler l’espagnol de Buenos Aires, a hispaniser leur prenom (Robert devient Roberto), a se feminiser/viriliser, a changer de trajectoire de vie. Manchurian Essay. C’est bien l’adhesion a la sociabilite entiere du groupe qui est defendue et revendiquee, tandis que se realise un travail de production de soi touchant a l’intime de l’identification sexuee. Thesis Authorship. Les processus et strategies d’invitation font l’objet d’une negociation permanente : attente de la femme (faire banquette ou tapisserie), prerogative masculine quasi patriarcale et transgression du code par les danseuses. Candidate Essay. Cette combinaison des savoir-faire techniques et des ritualites du bal contribue a construire l’ethos du danseur de bal. Complementary. Parvenir a tourner dans le sens du bal necessite de maitriser les changements de direction, et donc de pouvoir combiner un certain nombre de pas dans l’improvisation.

C’est l’addition de ces deux poles qui compose la specificite du danseur de bal, alors qu’en danse contemporaine ou en hip hop, c’est davantage dans le corps que s’inscrivent les traces d’un travail corporel particulier. 13 Ce bricolage s’appuie sur des analyses historiques et geographiques dont la fonction est double. Candidate Essay. Il s’agit de reactiver un tango tenu pour mort, mais pratique dans un pays lointain, et faire jouer les attraits de « la beaute du mort » (De Certeau, 1974) et de l’exotisme. Case Study Media. D’autre part, cette resurgence est validee par une argumentation « scientifique ». Manchurian Candidate. Syncretique et codifiee, cette culture du bal reconstruite se refere au modele « argentin », considere par les amateurs comme authentique. And Communications Essay. Ils accordent la priorite au tango porteno traditionnel qui est« un tango territorialise, culturellement et geographiquement enracine dans sa propre histoire et dans son lieu de naissance », contrairement au tango nomade (Pelinski, 1995 : 26). Candidate Essay. Par l’usage du terme tango argentin, les amateurs cherchent a se distinguer des autres styles (musette, retro, dancing, standard, anglais, de competition) qui sont relegues dans les spheres depreciees d’une sociabilite populaire. Alternative Medicine Research. Le qualificatif d’argentin contient l’affirmation d’un objet plus noble, car a priori plus rare et aureole d’une gloire mysterieuse. Manchurian Candidate Essay. La distance geographique confere a la culture argentine du bal un exotisme qui la valorise, quand la culture francaise du bal musette encore vivante est negligee, alors qu’elle y ressemble en de nombreux points. William Penn Essays. Les amateurs defendent une ethique du tango pratique pour le bal, la convivialite, l’echange, les rencontres, le voyage, et se desolidarisent fondamentalement de l’ethique des danses sportives de competition et du musette des thes dansants. Manchurian. C’est en puisant dans la mythologie du tango qui insiste sur les aspects « populaires » tant dans les personnages, les themes que les territoires, que les composants tangibles de cette reconstruction sont actualises (Apprill et Dorier Apprill, 1998).

Les references contradictoires au mythe. 14 La conscience de la mythologie « populaire » du tango n’est pas le moindre des vecteurs qui attire ces amateurs vers une pratique, ou le desir d’encanaillement le dispute a l’immersion veritable dans un univers qui genere des recompositions profondes du quotidien et de l’identite. And Communications. Mais qu’il s’agisse des amateurs a l’origine de la resurgence, de sa facon d’investir l’espace ou son instrumentalisation par les collectivites locales, le mythe est mis a distance par les conditions memes dans lesquelles s’est realise ce renouveau. Manchurian Candidate Essay. La composition socioprofessionnelle des fondateurs d’association montre que les professions peu qualifiees sont minoritaires ( graphique 1 ). William Penn Jeremiah. Au contraire, les professions intermediaires, techniciens, instituteurs et les cadres, professions liberales ingenieurs dominent largement. Manchurian Essay. Parmi la categorie des professions intermediaires, les metiers artistiques l’emportent tandis que parmi la categorie des cadres, les metiers de la recherche et de l’enseignement dominent. Case On Social Analytics. Au total, enseignants-chercheurs et metiers artistiques representent 40% des fondateurs ( tableau 1 ). Candidate Essay. Disposant de temps libre, de revenus, mobiles geographiquement, ils sont les instigateurs de cette quete du bal qui, en realisant une occupation de l’espace public, se referent au mythe et le contredisent. Grendel Conclusion. Un decalage identique caracterise le rapport des danseurs a la musique puisque leurs faveurs s’adressent au repertoire des annees 1925-1950, et non a celui plus ancien qui a accompagne les premiers developpements du tango. Professions des fondateurs d’associations de tango (1987-2001) Professions intermediaires, techniciens, instituteurs. Cadres, professions liberales, ingenieurs.

Chomeurs, etudiants, actifs. Professions des fondateurs d’associations de tango (1987-2001) 15 « L’orquesta tipica, ou orchestre typique, est le nom de la formation classique de tango argentin; (. Manchurian Candidate. ) 15 Du style de jeu (Tango Andhorina sextet) aux denominations (Orquesta Tipica Fernandez) referes au repertoire des annees 40 qui faisait danser Buenos Aires, la tendance actuelle conduit de nombreux orchestres a s’inserer dans le moule de « la tradition ». Compare And Contrast. Ce n’est pas l’un des moindres paradoxes d’observer que c’est le renouveau de la danse sur la scene sociale du bal qui a genere une decouverte de l’ orquesta tipica 15. Manchurian Candidate. Apres la decouverte de la danse proprement dite, c’est la partie musicale de la culture du bal qui est devenue l’objet d’une investigation. Thesis Authorship. L’evolution est inverse a celle des musiques savantes de l’opera, « dont la frequentation s’est peu a peu ralentie jusqu’a nos jours » (Pedler, 2003 : 25) : de terra incognita , le tango de bal de l’ Orquesta Tipica est devenu un continent explore avidement par les tangueros passionnes de danse. Candidate Essay. Suite a quelques lecons, s’informant sur les musiques qu’ils pourraient ecouter pour se familiariser avec l’univers rythmique et melodique du tango, la plupart des debutants mentionnent la possession de disques de Gardel et de Piazzolla. Grendel Essay Conclusion. Mais ces deux musiciens sont precisement absents de la programmation musicale traditionnelle des cours et des bals. Manchurian Candidate. Tant du cote des danseurs que des musiciens, le rapport a la musique est traverse par une distinction entre les tangos dansables et ceux qui ne le sont pas. 16 Certains musiciens de tango distinguent les tangos stables et les tangos instables . Thesis. Un tango argentin est stable lorsque les formules rythmiques et melodiques sont clairement enoncees et ceci generalement sur les temps forts de la mesure (1 et 3). Candidate Essay. La polyphonie du tango est pratiquement toujours soutenue par une superposition rythmique comprenant une formule reguliere, qui sert de pulsation de base et qui represente la colonne vertebrale de l’?uvre. Complementary. Sur cette pulsation qui ponctue la construction harmonique viennent se greffer des variantes rythmiques, melodiques et plus rarement harmoniques, mais la construction de base initiale n’est jamais parasitee par toutes ces variations.

Certaines caracteristiques des tangos argentins stables se retrouvent dans les tangos composes par Piazzolla, qui pourtant sont boudes par la grande majorite des danseurs. Manchurian Essay. C’est sans doute parce que les formules rythmiques sont plus sous-jacentes que clairement enoncees, et que l’utilisation des silences comme moyen rythmique y est plus frequente, surtout dans les valeurs rythmiques courtes. Grendel Essay Conclusion. Le rythme offre souvent aux danseurs des blancs sur les temps forts, ce qui induit une difficulte a s’y conforter. Essay. Les rythmes se succedent entre eux de facon plus rapide, et il est donc difficile de se caler sur une pulsation reguliere. Case Study Media Analytics. La melodie est de toute evidence plus difficile a retenir et a chantonner. Manchurian. La Cumparsita interpretee par les orchestres de la periode 1925 a 1955 correspond a un tango stable . Essay. Avec ses multiples silences et le temps fort qui devient evanescent, Adios noninos compose et interprete par Piazzolla est l’exemple type du tango instable. Candidate. Les danseurs associent le plus souvent les tangos stables au repertoire des orchestres des annees 40. Study Analytics. Ceux-ci representent l’essentiel de la programmation musicale d’un bal, a la difference des tangos instables qui n’en composent pas le repertoire traditionnel. 17 Tangos stables a danser, instables a ecouter, ces deux genres generent une guerre de tranchee des representations. Essay. Du chant militant au bal, l’evolution du Cuarteto Cedron illustre l’adaptation des musiciens face au renouveau du bal. Conclusion. Comme la plupart de ceux qui sont arrives en France dans les annees 1970, Juan Cedron ne s’est veritablement preoccupe de la danse qu’a la fin des annees 1980.

Il accepte alors sur scene la presence d’un couple de danseur, et anime parfois un petit bal en fin de concert. Manchurian Candidate. En juin 1998, il rassemble 14 musiciens pour former la Tipica Cedron, ou il delaisse la guitare pour le chant. Compare And Contrast Essay. Cet orchestre a regulierement joue a Paris lors de bals au Cabaret sauvage. 16 Bal au Cabaret sauvage a la Villette (1998). Manchurian Candidate. 17 Issu d’un melange d’influences musicales hispaniques et africaines, le Candombe est presente comme (. Marketing And Communications. ) Hier dans le bal16, on manchurian essay a joue un Candombe17, et il y a un couple de jeunes qui sautait comme si c’etait une samba bresilienne . Marketing Essay. Parfois, on manchurian joue des morceaux de Piazzolla un peu lents qui sont bien pour etre ecoutes. Essay Conclusion. Il est disons le porte drapeau des musiciens contre la danse; il voulait etre ecoute, c’est lui qui a commence avec les premiers concerts, il jouait comme un musicien classique. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Mais un morceau de Piazzolla lent, pour danser, c’est, c’est . Conclusion. Hier, il y a un morceau au milieu que nous jouons de Piazzolla, tres joli, que j’aime beaucoup, mais pour danser, c’est une tristesse enorme. 18 Ce recit montre les ambiguites dans la facon dont Juan Cedron aborde la danse.

Pourquoi, si l’objectif est d’animer un bal, proposer un candombe et un morceau de Piazzolla ? Est-ce pour tester l’ecoute des danseurs, leur culture du tango, leur capacite a distinguer les tangos qui se dansent de ceux qui ne se dansent pas ? Ce temoignage permet de souligner deux phenomenes. Manchurian Essay. D’une part, les musiciens de tango redecouvrent eux aussi la culture du bal, dont ils se complaisent a souligner la meconnaissance par les danseurs. Thesis Authorship. Cela leur coute toujours de jouer pour la danse, continument et sans interruption. Manchurian Essay. Parfois, une melopee plus lente, plus musicale, a ecouter, vient se glisser irresistiblement dans leur repertoire. Compare. D’autre part, les musiciens cherchent, a travers cette forme de provocation plus ou moins consciente, une reconnaissance de la part des danseurs. Manchurian Candidate. Insatisfaits de voir ceux-ci danser a cote du rythme, ne pas suivre les variations rythmiques et melodiques, etre prisonnier de l’execution de pas et de figures, quel que soit le type de tango, les musiciens devient du repertoire de bal et jouent un Piazzolla, ou un standard joue tres lent. Thesis Authorship. Et les couples qui continuent de danser les confortent dans cette idee que musique ou pas, le danseur danse.

Il est cependant possible de souligner la part de non-dit de Juan Cedron quant au tango. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Cette musique, qui constitue la banniere de l’Argentine a l’instar du samba pour le Bresil, renvoie a l’identite profonde de l’Argentine du 20 e siecle (Vila, 1995). Penn Evarts. Or, ce pays a ete le theatre d’une succession de dictatures depuis l’entre-deux-guerres jusqu’en 1982. Manchurian Candidate. Au soutien apporte aux exiles nazis apres 1945 s’ajoutent les annees noires de 1976 a 1982, durant lesquelles le regime a torture et fait disparaitre des milliers de personnes. Thesis. Ce passe aussi proche que douloureux n’a pas encore fait l’objet d’un veritable travail de memoire. Essay. Il demeure le plus souvent un sujet tabou, y compris pour les nombreux artistes qui ont trouve refuge en Europe. Thesis Authorship. Il est probable que la fracture entre le tango danse et le tango a ecouter (avec le serieux diurne des reunions militantes) procede aussi de la perception du passe trouble du pays. Manchurian Essay. Pour des musiciens comme Juan Cedron, jouer une musique qui operait une rupture avec l’univers du tango de bal etait un acte autant artistique que politique, une facon de chanter un autre avenir pour une societe endeuillee. Thesis Authorship. Propre a la culture des musiciens argentins, cet aspect s’est trouve accentue en France par les conditions de reception : eloigne de la danse, le tango a d’autant ete bien recu qu’il s’inscrivait dans une societe ou les danses de couple dans le bal etaient en declin.

18 « C’est la danse qui attire le plus, plus que la musique. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Cela passe plutot par la danse, le tango. Case Media Analytics. (. Candidate Essay. ) 19 C’est lorsque la resurgence du tango en France renove le bal au milieu des annees 1980, que le repertoire des musiciens s’inflechit, et que la musique tango sort de sa confidentialite18. William Penn Essays. Argentins ou francais, la nouvelle generation de musiciens vivant en France a pris conscience que le bal constitue un marche economique d’importance qu’elle ne peut ignorer. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Son regard sur le bal traduit les recompositions a l’?uvre a la fois dans le champ musical, et dans la relation qu’elle nourrit a la danse. Alternative Medicine Paper. Le bandoneoniste francais Olivier Manoury a forme en 1998 l’orchestre Tempo di Tango « dont l’ambition est de recreer les conditions d’un tango qui s’ecoute et se danse » . Manchurian Essay. Soumis a l’injonction de jouer des tangos stables dans les bals, il les considere pourtant avec mepris. Marketing And Communications. Fin connaisseur de l’histoire musicale du tango et digne descendant de Piazzolla, le voila donc place dans une posture schizophrenique face au traditionnel conflit tradition-modernite. Manchurian. Prend il un plaisir particulier a jouer pour le bal ? Quand ils dansent bien, oui. Complementary Medicine Research. Moi, j’aime beaucoup ca, mais je trouve que c’est extremement fatiguant, parce qu’il faut jouer tres longtemps, et on candidate sent vraiment qu’il faut donner, si on thesis authorship veut que ca passe. Candidate Essay. On n’a pas affaire a des gens qui sont en silence dans un concert, qui vont ecouter chaque note. Thesis Authorship. Il faut jouer le jeu, il faut plus de contrastes; il faut trouver le swing, s’il n’y a pas de swing, ca ne marche pas.

Il faut un partenaire avec qui on manchurian candidate essay s’entend bien. And Contrast. C’est un peu pour les musiciens comme un couple de danseurs. Essay. Et moi, ce que j’aime bien, c’est de voir quand se cree le silence, comme un silence de concert, les gens sont absorbes dans la danse et dans la musique, quand on complementary medicine research ralentit, ils ralentissent . Manchurian Candidate. Il y a beaucoup de jolies filles aussi, ca fait partie du plaisir, il n’y a pas raison de le nier. (Olivier Manoury, bandoneoniste). 20 La prudence de ce propos montre que son plaisir renvoie egalement a son deplaisir lorsque la salle danse a cote de la musique.

Ce qui se degage avec force, c’est sa situation privilegiee d’observateur qui le rend sensible a la nature de l’interaction. Evarts. Et c’est bien la structure meme de cette interaction qui fragilise la position du musicien : il joue pour faire danser, mais si le public danse mal, alors, sa qualite de musicien est menacee. Manchurian Candidate. Au-dela d’une qualification theorique du genre, c’est en situation dans le bal que le musicien prend conscience de la fragilite de sa posture et de son statut, a travers la perception des facons dont sa musique est recue : On doit jouer de maniere tres rythmique, assez marquee, pour les gens qui dansent. Paper. Cela ne donne pas lieu par exemple au solo d’un instrument. Manchurian Essay. On ne peut pas jouer le repertoire de Piazzolla. Authorship. (. Manchurian Candidate Essay. ) Le danseur ecoute en fonction de ce qu’il doit faire pour la danse. Thesis Authorship. Mais ils n’apprecient pas je pense un travail tres fin que tu peux faire. Candidate. Ce n’est pas autant apprecie que dans un concert.

Dans un concert, il y a du silence, les gens sont prets a ecouter ca. Marketing Essay. C’est pour ca que c’est interessant de jouer en concert parce que les gens viennent pour ecouter le travail que tu as prepare. Candidate. Le travail peut etre moins elabore pour un bal. (Gustavo Gancedo, guitariste). 21 Gustavo Gancedo etablit une distinction entre la reception en bal et en concert, et entre l’interet qu’il prend a l’un et a l’autre : facon euphemisee de dire que le tango joue pour les danseurs, c’est de « la confiture donnee aux cochons ». And Communications. Il faut egalement comprendre que si les danseurs ecoutent « la plupart en fonction de la danse », une faible partie ecoute vraiment la musique, et une autre partie n’y entend rien. Manchurian. Si le regard de ces deux musiciens ne manque pas d’humour, il ressasse egalement l’amer constat d’une regression vecue comme un assujettissement inedit : la multiplication des bals tangos en France est le signe que l’epoque joyeuse de l’affranchissement de la musique sur la danse, dont Piazzolla fut l’illustre representant, est terminee. L’ entendement musical des danseurs. 22 L’entendement musical des danseurs, que l’on peut definir par « l’inlassable frequentation d’un petit nombre d’?uvres » (Pedler, 2003 : 132), s’est realise progressivement en concurrence avec la production d’une danse de couple, ou la mise en ?uvre d’un savoir faire releve autant d’un contentement egocentrique que de la realisation d’une performance envers le partenaire et le groupe observateur. Grendel Conclusion. L’accueil de danseurs argentins pour donner des stages, ainsi que les voyages a Buenos Aires, ont permis aux amateurs de se familiariser avec ce repertoire. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Cependant, comme toute appropriation d’un univers culturel et sensible etranger, cette exploration se plait a visiter les marges, les limites, et s’inscrit autant dans la conformite au modele que dans la rupture. Complementary Medicine. C’est donc une ligne de partage subjective entre les tangos dansables et non dansables que trace l’entendement musical des danseurs : Q : Qu’est ce que vous ecoutez dans la musique ? « Il y a des musiques ou j’ecoute le rythme.

Il y a des musiques ou j’entends plus la melodie. Manchurian. Ca depend des jours aussi. Grendel Conclusion. Et ca depend des danseurs. Candidate Essay. Il y a des danseurs qui dansent plus sur le rythme et des danseurs qui dansent plus sur la melodie. Thesis. Donc, quelque fois, ca ne va pas du tout parce que moi, j’ai envie de danser sur le rythme et ca fonctionne pas s’il est sur la melodie. Candidate. D’autres fois, cela va m’amener moi a me brancher plus sur la melodie, mais cela depend, quand c’est tango, c’est plus melodie, quand c’est milonga ou valse, c’est plus rythmique pour moi. Grendel Essay Conclusion. Enfin, la valse, c’est entre les deux » (A., nee en 1959, trois ans de tango). « Des fois, c’est plutot la melodie, et oui. Manchurian Candidate. Parfois, je ne vais pas ecouter tous les instruments en meme temps, je vais choisir d’ecouter un violon, un bandoneon. Alternative Medicine Research. Quand c’est une voix qui me plait, je vais ecouter la voix.

Mais pas tout en meme temps c’est vrai » (C., nee en 1976, un an essay, de tango). « Ce qui resonne en moi de la musique, c’est ca que j’ecoute. And Contrast Friendship Essay. Ce qui resonne en moi ? Un grand plaisir, un plaisir a danser, a etre avec quelqu’un d’autre dans la danse. Manchurian Essay. Et la musique est la dans cet instant-la, ce moment-la. Thesis Authorship. Et d’ailleurs, danser sans musique, c’est possible, mais c’est fade. Manchurian Candidate. Tandis qu’ecouter la musique sans danser, c’est comme un rappel de certains moments. Authorship. C’est etrange comme les parfums d’un ancien poeme, un parfum, une couleur ou une musique viennent rappeler des moments, des instants».

(A., nee en 1971, cinq ans de tango). 23 La presence d’une relation triangulaire est bien perceptible chez ces danseuses lorsqu’il s’agit de savoir si elles ecoutent davantage le partenaire ou la musique. Manchurian Essay. S’il est question de la notion de stabilite, de » rythme carre » et de melodie, l’affectif et les sensations occupent une place importante. On Social Analytics. A partir de deux a trois annees de pratique, homme ou femme, tous peuvent nommer des orchestres et des standards, ce qui traduit combien la seule approche sensible de la musique, qui qualifie le moment de danse, est completee par une approche plus conscientisee du type de musique, qui procede ou non d’une preference musicale. Manchurian Candidate. Mais comme le note la danseuse argentine Maria Cieri, cet entendement musical reste fragilise par la distance culturelle qui separe les pratiquants du berceau d’origine : 19 Entretien avec Maria Cieri (2000), Dorier Apprill, 2001. Avant, a Buenos Aires, les gens ne faisaient pas de grands pas comme aujourd’hui, mais ils suivaient la musique, on penn jeremiah marchait avec et s’il y avait un ocho, c’est parce que la musique te le permettait. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Jamais il ne serait venu a l’idee d’un milonguero de faire un corte quand arrivait la partie de violon ! Ou une partie de piano ! Oui, c’etait vraiment l’ecoute de la musique, et c’etait ca danser le tango. And Communications. [. Manchurian Candidate Essay. ] Je te dirais qu’aujourd’hui, du point de vue de la souplesse des danseurs, les choses qu’ils font me paraissent merveilleuses, mais elles n’ont rien a voir avec la musique ! J’ecoute la musique et je vois ce qu’ils font et il n’y a rien en commun ! C’est ca que j’aimerais que les Europeens comprennent : peu importent les pas qu’ils font, qu’ils se laissent porter par la musique19 . 24 Les observations du guitariste Gustavo Gancedo vont dans le meme sens : Quand on essay conclusion fait un concert de tango, a Paris en tout cas, tu vois tres peu de danseurs, environ 5%.

Le reste, ce sont des gens qui aiment le tango comme musique, qui ne savent pas danser, qui viennent ecouter un concert. Manchurian Candidate Essay. (. Research Paper. ) La plupart des danseurs apprennent un certain nombre de codes, ils les utilisent mais ce n’est pas tout a fait la musique qui les amene a danser. (Gustavo Gancedo, 1998). 20 Quatre a cinq unites de danse entre deux cortinas (intermede musical de jazz ou variete entre deux (. Manchurian Candidate. ) 25 Au-dela de la critique d’une meconnaissance de la musique par les danseurs, c’est la realite d’un rapport de force qui est stigmatise : en France, bousculant la hierarchie traditionnelle, la danse a affirmee sa preeminence sur l’univers musical. Conclusion. En orientant la programmation musicale des bals vers les orchestres consideres comme « dansables », elle a instrumentalise la musique pour servir son entreprise de distinction. Essay. Si l’appropriation de ce repertoire s’est accompagnee de la joie de decouvrir un continent musical peu connu, elle a egalement permis aux amateurs d’autonomiser le tango argentin dans le champ des danses de couple, par la distinction toujours reaffirmee d’avec l’histoire francaise du tango (musette, salon, competition). And Communications Essay. La technique, l’exotisme, la noblesse, la complexite, la sensualite, sa capacite a monter sur scene : pour les danseurs, tout distingue le tango argentin danse du « zinzin » des dancings. Essay. Ils aiment a preciser que leur tango « argentin » n’a rien a voir avec le tango musette. Thesis Authorship. Et la difference de style musical est venue redoubler celle du style de danse : s’il est difficile d’exposer les subtiles differences de pas de danse, de posture et d’interpretation rythmique, en revanche, l’evocation du repertoire musical est un argument convaincant : « Vous ne connaissez pas Di Sarli, D’Arienzo et Pugliese ? Mais ce sont precisement sur ces orchestres que l’on danse. Candidate. ». Case Analytics. Si la categorisation savant/populaire leur est totalement etrangere pour la musique, elle est en revanche operationnelle en danse : les danseurs de tango font l’amalgame entre les differents styles musette, salon, dancing et competition qui sont couramment qualifies de populaires. Candidate Essay. Si le terme savant n’est pas utilise pour le tango argentin, celui-ci est l’objet d’une distinction qui s’appuie sur le recours au mythe, la reference au berceau d’origine, la difference de style et la singularite musicale.

Cette incapacite a categoriser temoigne du fait que la majorite des danseurs portent un regard flou sur la musique. Friendship. Il appert qu’un hiatus separe musiciens et danseurs. Candidate. Les premiers vivent comme une offense la reduction de leur talent a de simples faiseurs de musique a danser. Thesis Authorship. A l’instar des musiciens de jazz sur lesquels H. Candidate. S. Thesis. Becker (1985) a enquete, ils ne sont pas loin de traiter les danseurs de « caves ». Manchurian Candidate Essay. Et les seconds ont construit leur competences dans la danse avant d’elaborer un entendement musical lie au repertoire des orchestres « des annees 40 », y compris pour ceux qui sont arrives au tango via la chanson militante des annees 1970 (Atahualpa Yupanqui, Mercedes Sosa, Cuarteto Cedron). Medicine Research. Les danseurs vouent aux musiciens un culte leger et insouciant, qui exprime leur position dominante dans cette confrontation : il est toujours possible de les remplacer par des CD. Candidate. Aussi, le regard des amateurs de danse sur la musique procede du rattrapage. William Jeremiah. Constituees autour du tango comme des societes savantes, la sphere associative ne fait pas simplement de la musique, mais s’efforce de la produire et de l’instituer (Cheyronnaud, 2002) a travers le recours a des orchestres pour les bals, l’ouverture de debats et d’exegeses dans les revues ( La Salida ) et les bulletins associatifs (Tango de soie). Essay. Au fait de passer des musiques au petit bonheur a succede une facon plus savante d’envisager le role de DJ,dont temoigne l’usage du neologisme musicalisation inspire de l’argentin. Grendel Essay Conclusion. Reclus jusqu’a la fin des annees 1990 dans l’anonymat, le DJ a gagne un surcroit de consideration : une courte notice biographique annonce sa presence, et il est convoque pour donner des conferences sur la culture musicale du bal. Manchurian Candidate. Tant pour la programmation des orchestres que pour la succession des rythmes, la musicalisation des bals participe d’un alignement sur la tradition musicale et sociale des milongas de Buenos Aires, presentee comme etant la seule apte a transmettre et reconstruire la concorde entre musique et danse.

Une place predominante est accordee aux orchestrations des annees 40-50, et la succession des rythmes a integre les regles qui prevalent a Buenos Aires : tanda 20, orchestres d’un meme genre, succession de rythmes differents (valses, tangos, milongas). Marketing And Communications. Ainsi, les bals de puristes se presentent comme des imitations assez fideles de cette ritualite musicale, a la difference qu’ils evacuent les intermedes de musique « tropicale » qui ponctuent la programmation des bals argentins. Manchurian. Seuls tango, valse et milonga s’enchainent toute la soiree. Grendel Essay Conclusion. Dans les bals tango moins orthodoxes, en province surtout, des parentheses de rock, valse, cha-cha-cha et salsa sont programmees, mais elles s’inscrivent davantage dans une filiation avec l’univers du musette qu’avec celui de l’intermede « tropical » argentin. Essay. En definitive, c’est la nature des intermedes musicaux qui constitue le plus grand decalage entre la culture musicale des milongas de Buenos Aires et celle des bals en France. 21 L’association les Trottoirs de Marseille dispose en 2005 de 250 disques a l’attention de ses adhere (. And Communications. ) 26 Ce renouveau de la danse a suscite un essor de l’impression musicale. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Depuis la parution en 1989 de « El inmortal Pichuco » d’Anibal Troilo, le catalogue de la maison de disques espagnole El Bandoneon a depasse la centaine de titres. Marketing And Communications. Excepte une vingtaine de disques de Carlos Gardel et quelques autres de Libertad Lamarque, tous explorent le repertoire des orchestres de tango qui faisaient danser Buenos Aires de 1925 a 1950. Essay. Les sites d’achat en ligne comme Musicargentina.com se sont multiplies et permettent d’acceder a l’offre des maisons de disque argentines.

A la faveur de voyages a Buenos Aires, les associations effectuent des achats groupes et constituent d’imposantes discotheques entierement dediees au tango21. Case Study On Social Media Analytics. Et les amateurs rapportent pour eux memes des enregistrements « depoussieres » et des copies de vinyles crachotantes. 22 Titre de l’article de Christian Glaize, La Salida (30), oct.-nov. Candidate Essay. 2002 : 24-25. Essay. 23 Fondee en 1996 par les principaux animateurs de l’association parisienne Le temps du tango , les pre (. Manchurian. ) 24 (1), dec. Marketing And Communications. 96, janv. Manchurian Candidate. 97; (27), 2002. Penn Jeremiah. 25 (30), 2002. Manchurian Essay. 26 (20), 2000; (21), 2000; (33), 2003. Essays Jeremiah. 27 La Salida (1), dec.

96, janv. Essay. 97 : 4. William Evarts. 28 « Dans le tango, il n’y a pas de musique sans les mots. Manchurian. Il n’est pas possible de creer une musique (. Complementary Medicine Research. ) 29 Le sentimiento designe la part d’emotion, de c?ur, de sensualite . Essay. bref, d’intention qui habite l (. Thesis Authorship. ) 27 Cet attachement a la tradition, revendique par de nombreuses associations, est parcouru par les soubresauts de la renovation, dont la scene du bal est le terrain d’expression. Candidate Essay. Paradoxalement, c’est au moment ou de nouveaux orchestres sont revenus a des formes musicales qui permettent de danser, que la danse s’est transformee sous l’influence de la scene, tout en restant ancree dans le bal. Thesis. Elle a subi un renouvellement profond dont la particularite est qu’il n’est pas exclusivement lie a une virtuosite technique (velocite, souplesse), mais qu’il procede d’une alteration des structures de base du tango. Manchurian. Leurs possibilites combinatoires ont ete developpees par une nouvelle generation de danseurs, tout en conservant dans une premiere etape la reference a l’univers musical des annees 40?50. Grendel Essay. Ce n’est qu’a la fin des annees 1990 que cette renovation de la danse s’est confrontee a un repertoire musical traditionnellement dedaigne par les danseurs. Manchurian. En composant leurs choregraphies sur Piazzolla, des danseurs comme Fabian Salas et Chicho ont rompu avec l’academisme musical des orchestres des annees 40. Study Media. Cet affranchissement spectaculaire de la reference obligee aux racines de la tradition s’est propage a la programmation musicale des bals. Candidate Essay. Les incursions vers une creativite musicale (Piazzolla, Caceres, Gotan Project, Narco Tango) jugee peu orthodoxe par les puristes se multiplient. On Social Analytics. « Piazzolla or not Piazzolla22 » ? Ce musicien est au centre du debat tradition/modernite qui traverse la sphere des danseurs. Manchurian. Le DJ est au carrefour de cette lutte d’influence entre les tenants de la « tradition » (qualifies d’anti-Piazzolla par le DJ C. Marketing Essay. Glaize) et les partisans de la renovation.

Dans neuf numeros sur 39 parus a ce jour, cette question des relations entre la danse et la musique est posee par la revue La Salida 23 . Candidate. L’analyse de ce corpus montre que les questionnements tournent autour de themes tels que l’essence du tango (qu’est ce qui le constitue, quelle hierarchie peut on william penn essays evarts tracer dans cette nebuleuse entre la danse, la musique, la poesie et la chanson24 ?), le rapport a la tradition de Buenos Aires (le sentiment portegne en relation a la musique et la danse, quelle musique programmer lorsqu’on est DJ25), le rapport entre la musique de bal et la creation musicale26. Manchurian. Une large place est accordee a la vision des artistes argentins qui dedramatise les enjeux metropolitains de cette appropriation. Marketing And Communications Essay. Fils d’Astor Piazzolla, Daniel Piazzolla estime qu’« a Buenos Aires, la jeunesse decouvre l’univers du tango avant tout par la danse et donc passe par le repertoire musical traditionnel et non par la musique contemporaine du tango. Manchurian Candidate. La demarche d’aller ecouter du tango en concert se fera dans un second temps »27 (n° 1, dec 96, janv 97). Compare Essay. A la question de savoir si le tango est plutot de la danse, de la musique ou de la poesie, le metteur en scene Alfredo Arias exprime une vision holiste28. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Tout en renouant avec des stereotypes culturels repandus, ils mettent a plat un grand nombre de questionnements, le premier en rappelant la puissance de la danse, le second par une conception qui, en evacuant toute hierarchisation, evoque le sentimiento 29 qui selon les argentins impregne la danse.

30 500 000 exemplaires vendus en 2003. 28 A la renovation deja ancienne de Piazzolla est venue s’adjoindre celle de l’electro tango. Grendel Conclusion. Avec l’album La revancha del tango 30, Gotan Project exprime ce retour sur le devant de la scene d’un genre musical qui se renove dans sa globalite. Manchurian Candidate. D’une part, la revanche n’est pas seulement celle de la musique mais de la culture tango dans son ensemble et d’autre part, en s’inserant dans le genre de la musique electro, le tango echappe a sa representation de musique vouee a une danse desuete. Study Media Analytics. Par cette operation, l’electro tango reaffirme une position dominante face a la danse. Manchurian. Mais l’enjeu s’est deplace : il ne s’agit plus de savoir si la musique peut parvenir a conquerir le statut de culture savante sur lequel la preeminence de la danse a porte une ombre, mais de s’inscrire dans une evolution contemporaine, referencee a l’univers des musiques electroniques, et degagee de l’affiliation historique a la danse. 31 « Rien dans la theorie du symbolisme social n’interdit l’hypothese que l’inconscience des relations (. Marketing And Communications. ) 29 Le tango comme genre musical a trouve des territoires de diffusion par sa mise en situation dans l’espace du bal et de la danse.

Peut-il pour autant etre qualifie de « musique a danser » ? D’une part, l’usage de cette categorie discursive reifiee est dementi par le va et vient subtil qui irrigue la pratique de la danse, du bal, du concert, de l’ecoute en des lieux intimes, et qui temoigne des modes d’appropriation diversifies d’un repertoire passe et contemporain actualise par la danse. Candidate Essay. D’autre part, la relation forte qui s’etend de la musique a la danse peut tout autant accrediter l’idee que c’est la danse qui fait jouer la musique31. Study On Social Analytics. Mais comme le montre les tentatives des musiciens, qui lorsqu’ils jouent pour le bal, s’efforcent egalement de produire une musique subtile pouvant « etre ecoutee », le tango demeure enclave dans la force des representations propres a cet enonce : une « musique a danser » reste mineure au regard de la grande musique, tout comme la danse sociale du bal le demeure par rapport a l’univers de la danse de scene. Manchurian Candidate. Pourtant, des musiciens tels Juan Cedron et Gustavo Gancedo considerent qu’un tango qui serait a danser, et un autre qui serait a ecouter, detiennent la meme valeur. Grendel Conclusion. Au-dela de l’opposition traditionnelle entre la musique a danser populaire, et celle a ecouter savante, il est a se demander si ce ne sont pas les valeurs associees a la danse qui viennent deprecier le tango comme musique a danser.

Ce serait donc la danse sociale, releguees dans l’univers de la danse, qui viendrait entacher la respectabilite de ce genre musical. Manchurian Candidate. Il s’agit d’un retournement de situation inedit au sein de la hierarchie omnipresente qui structure les relations danse/musique, puisque dans le formatage institutionnel et dans le spectacle vivant, la danse se situe systematiquement dans les organigrammes et les grilles de salaires derriere la musique. Thesis Authorship. Dans le tango, cette domination traditionnelle de la musique s’est trouvee renversee puisque c’est dans la danse que se trouvent les ferments de la resurgence actuelle de la creativite musicale. Candidate Essay. Sans elle, la musique serait sans doute restee dans la confidentialite de cercles restreints. 32 « Le Contact Improvisation : forme democratique de duo qui emprunte aux arts martiaux, aux danses d (. Compare. ) 30 La mediation de la danse sur la musique est loin d’etre anodine, puisque qu’elle joue sur le terrain du corps; a la difference du Contact Improvisation 32, il ne s’agit pas d’un rapport desexualise, mais au contraire d’une etreinte plus ou moins enlacee, dont la puissance evocatrice, a l’?uvre dans l’imaginaire comme dans sa pratique, fait mauvais menage avec le qualificatif de savant.

Bien plus que les autres danses, le tango figure une metaphore de la relation amoureuse et sexuelle. Manchurian Candidate. Amoureuse car animees par des scansions similaires (rencontre/fusion/separation), et parce qu’il est desir et plaisir d’aller a deux dans le mouvement. William Penn Essays Jeremiah Evarts. Les pratiquants evoquent simplement cette evidence (« nous ne faisions qu’un ») du corps a corps qui renvoie aux amoureux des bancs publics. Essay. La posture qui exige le face a face, la relation a l’autre fonde sur une repartition des roles (actif-passif/passif-actif) et l’indispensable rencontre des desirs sont un reflet a peine voile de la relation sexuelle. Thesis Authorship. Le conformisme postural va jusqu’a dire des couples en tango qu’ils font debout ce que l’on fait couche. Manchurian. A la difference du jazz, cet imaginaire qui habite la pratique de la danse contamine le domaine musical.

Mais si la musique est redevable a la danse de son essor, c’est aussi sans doute que celle-ci trouve dans la force de retenue de ce genre musical un espace pour deployer et traduire ce qu’elle recele de sensualite. Case On Social Media Analytics. A la fois couple inseparable et freres ennemis, danse et musique sont le terrain d’une quete, tantot voilee, tantot surexposee, ou se donne a voir, a sentir et a vivre sensualite, desir et erotisme. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Aussi, le tango figure-t-il une mise en discours du sexe qui apparait etrangement perenne, non verbal, a la fois socialement mis en scene et artistiquement assume. Case Media Analytics. La singularite de la mediation de la danse, ou ce discours tient une place centrale, est d’arraisonner la musique et d’exercer sur elle une hegemonie peu commune dans l’univers des « musiques a danser ». A gier , Michel, 2001. Manchurian. « De la possession a la comedie rituelle », in complementary medicine paper, Dorier-Apprill (dir.), Danses latines.

Le desir des continents , pp. Candidate. 48-53. Authorship. Paris : Autrement. A pprill , Christophe, 1998. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Le tango argentin en France . Complementary Alternative. Paris : Anthropos. A pprill , Christophe, 2003.

Les danses de couple : lieux et territoires de pratique et d’apprentissage en France . Manchurian Candidate. Marseille : Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales, these de doctorat. A pprill , Christophe Elisabeth D orier - A pprill , 1998. Essay Conclusion. « Espaces et lieux du tango, la geographie d’une danse entre mythe et realite », Le voyage inacheve , pp. Manchurian Candidate Essay. 583-590. Thesis Authorship. Paris : Orstom Editions. Argyriadis , Kali Sara L e M enestrel , 2003. Manchurian Candidate. Vivre la guinguette . Case Study On Social Media. Paris : PUF. B anes , Sally, 2002. Candidate. Terpsichore en baskets. Study Media Analytics. Post-modern dance . Manchurian Essay. Paris : Editions Chiron.

B ecker , Howard S., 1985. Alternative Paper. Outsiders . Manchurian. Paris : Metailie. B enaros , Leon, 1993. Essay. « El tango y los lugares y casa de baile », in candidate essay, La Historia del tango . Essay. vol. Manchurian Candidate. 2., pp. Marketing. 207-287. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Buenos Aires : Ed. Medicine Research. Corregidor. B ertaut , Jules, 1927.

Les belles nuits de Paris . Essay. Paris : Ernest Flammarion Editeur. B illard , Francois Didier R oussin , 1991. Thesis Authorship. Histoires de l’accordeon . Candidate Essay. Castelnau-le-Lez : Editions Climats. B orges , Jorge Luis, 1969. And Communications Essay. Evaristo Carriego . Manchurian Candidate Essay. Paris : Editions du Seuil. Boucher , P. And Contrast Friendship Essay. P. Manchurian Essay. G affet , 1928. On Social Media. Toutes les danses pour tous, etude detaillee des danses classiques et du one step, fox trot, tango, maxixe, paso doble, valse hesitation, java, shimmy, blues, samba, charleston, black-bottom, heebies-jeebies, yale blues . Manchurian. Besancon : imprimerie Jacques et Demontrond. B oulenger , Jacques, 1920. And Contrast Friendship. De la walse au tango, la danse mondaine du 1 er Empire a nos jours . Candidate. Paris : Devambez. C haudoir , Philippe Sylvia Ostrowetsky , 1996. And Communications. « L’espace festif et son public », Les Annales de la recherche urbaine, 70, pp.

78-88. Cheyronnaud , Jacques, 2002. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Musique, politique, religion. And Contrast Friendship Essay. De quelques menus objets de culture . Manchurian Candidate. Paris : L’Harmattan. D e C erteau , Michel, 1993. Essay. La culture au pluriel . Manchurian Candidate. Paris : Editions du Seuil. D ecoret -A hiha, Anne, 2004. Conclusion. Les danses exotiques en France, 1900-1940 , Pantin : CND.

D i M eo , Guy (dir.), 2001. Manchurian Candidate Essay. La geographie en fete . Jeremiah. Paris : Ophrys. D orier - A pprill , Elisabeth (dir.), 2001. Candidate Essay. Danses latines. Essay Conclusion. Le desir des continents. Candidate. Paris : Autrement. G asnault , Francois, 1986. And Contrast Friendship Essay. Guinguettes et lorettes, bals publics a Paris au XIX e siecle . Manchurian Candidate. Paris : Aubier.

G erbod , Paul, 1989. Complementary Research. « Un espace de sociabilite. Candidate. Le bal en France au XX e siecle (1910-1970) », Ethnologie Francaise , 4, pp. Study Media Analytics. 362-370. G ermain , Jose, 1923. Manchurian Essay. Danseront-elles ? Enquete sur les danses modernes . Conclusion. Paris : Editions J. Candidate. Povolozky et Cie.

G iraudet , Eugene, 1911. Penn Jeremiah Evarts. Journal de la danse et du bon ton, 40 lecons de danse, sous-titre : Mes 40 lecons de danse, ou la maniere d’apprendre et d’enseigner la danse et les pas seul ou collectivement. Manchurian Essay. Tome III, n° 171 a 180, Paris. G offmann , Erving, 1973. Case On Social Media Analytics. La mise en scene de la vie quotidienne. Candidate. La presentation de soi . Marketing Essay. Paris : Editions de Minuit.

G rignon , Claude Jean-Claude P asseron , 1989. Manchurian. Le savant et le populaire. Grendel Conclusion. Miserabilisme et populisme en sociologie et en litterature . Manchurian Candidate Essay. Paris : Editions du Seuil. G uilcher , Yves, 1998. On Social Media. La danse traditionnelle en France . Manchurian Candidate. Saint-Jouin de Milly : FAMDT Editions. G uy , Jean Michel, 1998. William. « La popularite du bal en France : quelques reperes », in manchurian candidate, Histoires de bal , pp. Thesis. 209-215. Manchurian Candidate. Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. H ennion , Antoine, 1993. Authorship. La passion musicale. Manchurian Essay. Une sociologie de la mediation . Grendel. Paris : Editions Metailie.

H ess , Remi, 1996. Candidate Essay. Le tango. Jeremiah Evarts. Paris : Que-sais-je ? Histoires de bal , 1998. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. I hl , Olivier, 1998. On Social Media Analytics. « Le rire et le sacre. Manchurian Essay. Sur les bals du 14 juillet sous la III e Republique », in essays jeremiah, Histoires de bal, pp.71-83. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. L alo , Charles, 1921. Alternative Medicine Research. L’art et la vie sociale . Manchurian Candidate Essay. Paris : Doin.

L evitte , L., 1922. Marketing And Communications. Les quinze danses modernes pour devenir un parfait danseur mondain . Manchurian Candidate. Alger : imprimerie de Jonathan. M onette , Pierre, 1991. Essay. Le guide du tango . Manchurian Candidate Essay. Paris : Syros/alternatives. P edler , Emmanuel, 2003. Essay. Entendre l’opera. Manchurian Candidate. Une sociologie du theatre lyrique . And Contrast Essay. Paris : l’Harmattan.

P elinski , Ramon (dir.), 1995. Manchurian. Tango nomade . Thesis. Montreal : Editions Triptyque. P lisson , Michel, 2001. Manchurian Essay. Tango. Penn Essays Jeremiah Evarts. Du noir au blanc . Manchurian Candidate. Arles : Cite de la musique, Actes Sud. P ujol , Sergio, 1999. Paper. Historia del baile. Manchurian Essay. la milonga a la disco. Compare And Contrast. Buenos Aires : Emece Editores. R oueff , Olivier, 1997.

Troubles chez les mondains. Manchurian. Danses et seduction dans quelques romans des annees vingt . Authorship. Paris : ENS-EHESS, memoire de DEA. R oueff , Olivier, 2001. Manchurian. « Les mots du jazz », L’Homme 158-159, pp. Thesis. 239-260. S em (Marie-Joseph-Georges Goursat, dit), 1913. Candidate. Tangoville sur mer. Complementary. Paris : imprime par « succes ». S em (Marie-Joseph-Georges Goursat, dit), 1925. Manchurian Essay. Ronde de nuit . Authorship. Paris : Fayard. S trada , Jorge, 1995.

Historia orientativa del tango (1880-1995) . Essay. Buenos Aires : Ediciones Fundacion Papelnonos. V ila , Pablo, 1995. William Penn Essays. « La nomadisation interieure. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Le tango et la formation des identites ethniques en Argentine », in thesis authorship, Ramon Pelinski (dir.), Tango nomade , pp. Manchurian Essay. 77-108. Thesis. Montreal : Editions Triptyque. W arnod , Andre, 1922. Candidate. Les bals a Paris . Essays Jeremiah. Paris : Editions G. Manchurian. Cres. 1 Je tiens a remercier pour leurs relectures Saskia Cousin, Elisabeth Dorier-Apprill et Sara Le Menestrel. 2 Sa definition sociale et musicale est parfois associee : « De 1880 a 1900, le tango, en tant que musique, est un genre populaire defini rythmiquement par une mesure binaire de 4/8 » (Strada, 1995 : 21).

3 Porteno : habitant de Buenos-Aires. 4 Musicalement, la periode 1920-1960 peut etre divisee entre la Guardia nueva (1920-1940) et la Post Guardia nueva (1940-1960). And Communications Essay. Ibid . 5 La premiere association est creee en 1987. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Elles sont 43 en 1997, et plus de 120 en 2005. 6 G. Study Analytics. Matos Rodriguez, P. Manchurian Essay. Contursi, E. And Communications Essay. Maroni, 1916. Candidate. Autres themes tres connus : El Entrerriano (Rosendo Mendizabal, 1897), El Choclo (Angel Villoldo, 1903), A la gran muneca (Ventura, Oses, 1920), Quejas de bandoneaon (Juan Dios Filiberto, 1927), Milongueando en el cuarenta (Armando Pontier 1941). Case Study On Social. Milongas : De mi arrabal (Roberto Firpo, 1937), Pena Mulata (S. Essay. Piana, H. And Communications Essay. Manzi, 1936). 7 Gancho : « litteralement, crochet realise entre les jambes du (de la) partenaire ». Candidate. Boleo : « battement de la jambe de la femme produit a partir d’un guidage de l’homme qui contrarie un huit arriere ou avant » (Dorier–Apprill, 2001 : 257-258).

Orillero : vient de orilla , litteralement la lisiere, la rive, et par extension les quartiers mal fames. Marketing Essay. Canyengue : « Il s’agit, en quelque sorte, d’une allure particuliere, d’une gestuelle qu’on peut qualifier d’“ air canaille ”. Candidate Essay. D’autre part, cette allure est devenue une posture, une maniere de danser le tango en adoptant une gestuelle et des attitudes corporelles s’apparentant a ce maintien faubourien » (Monette in alternative research paper, Pelinski, dir., 1995 : 418). 8 Entretien (Buenos Aires 1996) avec le danseur Rodolfo Cieri (1933-2000). 9 Jusqu’a cinq bandoneonsdans l’Orquesta tipica de Rodolfo Biaggi vers 1940. Manchurian Essay. Cf . William Penn Jeremiah Evarts. Plisson, 2001. 10 Selon l’accordeoniste Jo Privat (Billard et Roussin, 1991 : 25). 11 « Piazzolla demontre (. Essay. ) que le tango n’a besoin ni de la chanson, ni de la danse pour exister, que toutes les formes musicales peuvent lui etre appliquees, fugue, contrepoint, cadence, improvisation, que le tango est libre de son harmonie et de ses melodies et qu’il est une musique a part entiere » (Plisson, 2001 : 140). 12 D’apres un entretien avec Eve Griliquez, 1998. 13 Expression de Michel Egea, professeur de danse a Marseille, lorsqu’il evoque « les danses du dancing ou les danses retro que l’on voit a la tele ». Essay Conclusion. Entretien, 1999. 14 « Ces parcours [migratoires] sont aussi des cheminements urbains : en allant de la possession au spectacle, la danse est allee du temple a la rue, de la rue au salon, et du salon a la scene » (Agier, 2001 : 53). 15 « L’orquesta tipica, ou orchestre typique, est le nom de la formation classique de tango argentin; il s’agit traditionnellement d’un sextuor constitue de deux bandoneons, deux violons, un piano et une contrebasse » (Monette in manchurian, Pelinski, 1995 : 418).

16 Bal au Cabaret sauvage a la Villette (1998). 17 Issu d’un melange d’influences musicales hispaniques et africaines, le Candombe est presente comme la musique des Noirs du Rio de la Plata (Monette, 1991 : 51) . 18 « C’est la danse qui attire le plus, plus que la musique. Complementary Research. Cela passe plutot par la danse, le tango. Manchurian Candidate. Donc, on case on social est pas mal appeles pour animer des bals. Manchurian. Evidemment, je prefere jouer en concert, je suis musicien. William Essays Jeremiah. Mais jouer pour le bal, bon, ca fait partie du tango aussi, comme cela se passait dans les annees 1940 a Buenos Aires » (Gustavo Gancedo, guitariste). 19 Entretien avec Maria Cieri (2000), Dorier Apprill, 2001. 20 Quatre a cinq unites de danse entre deux cortinas (intermede musical de jazz ou variete entre deux tandas ). Manchurian. Une tanda est homogene : meme orchestre ou des orchestres de meme style, meme rythme (tango, valse ou milonga). 21 L’association les Trottoirs de Marseille dispose en 2005 de 250 disques a l’attention de ses adherents. 22 Titre de l’article de Christian Glaize, La Salida (30), oct.-nov.

2002 : 24-25. 23 Fondee en 1996 par les principaux animateurs de l’association parisienne Le temps du tango , les premiers numeros se presentaient comme un repertoire des stages, bals, concert et spectacles. Thesis Authorship. Puis la revue, dont les derniers numeros atteignent 50 pages, s’est progressivement enrichie d’articles sur la musique, la danse, les femmes, le cinema, la peinture . Manchurian Candidate Essay. et le tango. 24 (1), dec. Alternative Paper. 96, janv.

97; (27), 2002. 26 (20), 2000; (21), 2000; (33), 2003. 27 La Salida (1), dec. Manchurian Candidate. 96, janv. Essay. 97 : 4. 28 « Dans le tango, il n’y a pas de musique sans les mots. Candidate. Il n’est pas possible de creer une musique d’inspiration populaire sans les poetes. Complementary Medicine Research Paper. Quand on candidate ecoute du tango, l’emotion est tres liee a la parole : le regret, le deuil, le sentiment de perte, les mesaventures de l’existence.

Je suis d’accord avec Sabato, qui disait que le tango est nede la rencontre de deux solitudes a Buenos Aires : celle de l’homme de la campagne, qui avait perdu la campagne et celle de l’immigrant europeen, qui avait perdu l’Europe. Grendel Conclusion. Et dans la danse, les jambes dansent, mais le haut du corps, la tete, se souvient de ce qui a ete perdu.» La Salida ( 27), 2002 : 24. 29 Le sentimiento designe la part d’emotion, de c?ur, de sensualite . Manchurian Essay. bref, d’intention qui habite le danseur. Marketing And Communications. Cette notion est frequemment utilisee chez les danseurs pour distinguer ceux qui dansent en reproduisant une technique de ceux qui dansent avec leur ame ou leurs « tripes ». 30 500 000 exemplaires vendus en 2003. 31 « Rien dans la theorie du symbolisme social n’interdit l’hypothese que l’inconscience des relations sociales soit aussi productrice de sens que la conscience. Manchurian. Faute de quoi il faudrait supposer que le symbolisme social ne s’engendre que par la pensee adequate des structures sociales, que toute pensee sociale n’en contient qu’autant qu’elle se rapproche de la sociologie : c’est bien ce a quoi tend, a la limite, le sociologue-intellectuel ou l’intellectuel-militant lorsqu’ils tendent a ne reconnaitre un sens a des pratiques ou a des idees populaires que pour autant qu’elles s’orientent explicitement vers des realites et les valeurs dont ils parlent » (Passeron in study on social analytics, Grignon Passeron, 1989 : 92). 32 « Le Contact Improvisation : forme democratique de duo qui emprunte aux arts martiaux, aux danses de societe, aux sports et aux jeux d’enfants » (Banes, 1987 : 105). Christophe Apprill , « Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal », Civilisations , 53 | 2006, 75-96.

Christophe Apprill , « Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal », Civilisations [En ligne], 53 | 2005, mis en ligne le 24 janvier 2009, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. Candidate Essay. URL : http://civilisations.revues.org/548 ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.548. Christophe APPRILL est sociologue et danseur. Thesis Authorship. Docteur de l’EHESS, il est ATER a l’Universite Jean Monnet de Saint Etienne et membre du Shadyc (sociologie, histoire et anthropologie des dynamiques culturelles) (EHESS, UMR 8562). Manchurian Essay. Il a publie Le tango argentin en France (Anthropos, 1998). William Penn Essays Evarts. Ses recherches portent notamment sur l’epistemologie de la recherche en danse. © Tous droits reserves.

Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014. Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011. Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009.

American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004. Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001.

La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991. Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989.

ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.

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mini-dissertation 42.1 Research proposal must meet the format requirements as prescribed by the School. 42.2 Research proposal must first be presented and manchurian candidate, approved within the Department and essay, then to the School Senior Degrees Committee prior to submission for approval. 42.3 No research proposal will be allowed to be presented at the School Senior Degrees Committee in the absence of the manchurian candidate, major supervisor. 42.4 Research proposal must be presented no later than six months after first registration for full-time study and no later than 10 months for part-time study and all masters' coursework study program. 42.5 Mini-dissertation/dissertation must meet the format requirements as prescribed by the School. CLOSING DATES FOR SUBMISSION OF THE MINI-DISSERTATION/DISSERTATION. 43.1 In order to be awarded the degree during a particular graduation, the assessment report must be submitted in its final form for approval by the Executive Committee of Senate at least three months before the graduation ceremony. 43.2 Students who aim to graduate during the first graduation of the year, but who, for case on social media analytics some reason, do not make the deadline described in Rule SAES42.1, must re-register before 31 March and complete all outstanding requirements for the degree. SUBMISSION OF MINI-DISSERTATION/DISSERTATION.

44.1 The title page of the copies of the mini-dissertation/dissertation which are submitted shall contain the following information: The full title of the mini-dissertation/dissertation. The full name of the candidate. Mini-dissertation/dissertation submitted in partial (fulfilment) of the requirements for the degree of . in the Faculty of Science and Agriculture, at the University of Limpopo, South Africa. 44.1.1 Year and essay, Month of essay, submission. 44.1.1 Name(s) of manchurian candidate essay, supervisor(s). 44.2 The candidate must sign the following statement on submitting her/his mini-dissertation/dissertation: “I declare that the mini-dissertation/dissertation hereby submitted to the University of Limpopo , for the degree of . (degree and field of research) has not previously been submitted by me for essays jeremiah a degree at this or any other university; that it is my work in design and in execution, and manchurian essay, that all material contained herein has been duly acknowledged.”

44.3 The candidate is required to submit to complementary medicine research paper his/her supervisor, 44.3.1 An abstract of the mini-dissertation/dissertation, in English. The abstract should further be bound into each copy of the mini-dissertation/dissertation. 44.3.2 One spirally bound copy of a mini-dissertation/dissertation. for each supervisor and manchurian candidate, assessor. 44.3.3 One spirally bound copy for the Examinations Office for viewing purposes by members of Senate and Faculty. 44.4 With the copies of the study on social media, mini-dissertation/dissertation, the manchurian essay, supervisor and co-supervisor (s), must indicate to the Faculty that the candidate is ready for and contrast essay assessment.

ASSESSMENT OF THE MINI-DISSERTATION/DISSERTATION. 45.1 On the recommendation of the supervisor, the Executive Committee of Senate appoints an assessment panel consisting of the supervisor, the co-supervisor(s) (if any) as internal assessor(s), and at least one external assessor (a co-supervisor may not act as an external assessor). 45.2 As soon as the mini-dissertation/dissertation has been submitted for assessment, the Examinations Office shall notify the candidate essay, members of Senate and the Faculty concerned in writing that the mini-dissertation/dissertation is ready for grendel conclusion inspection. Within fourteen days, any member of Senate or the Faculty concerned may submit comments, in writing, through the Executive Dean, to the Examinations Office for submission to, and consideration by, the supervisor. 45.3 The members of the assessment panel must submit their independent comments on the mini-dissertation/dissertation in writing within six weeks to the Examinations Office who will forward them, with comments received, to manchurian essay the supervisor through the Office of the complementary alternative paper, Executive Dean.

A summarised report will be submitted to the Faculty Assessment Committee within two weeks. Upon approval the supervisor oversees corrections and manchurian, submits the report, with one spirally bound copy of the mini-dissertation/dissertation to penn essays the Office of the Executive Dean. 45.4 After assessment of the mini-dissertation/dissertation by manchurian essay, external assessors, the student must submit to the Examinations Office. 45.4.1 One corrected hard bound copy for alternative paper each assessor, including internal assessor(s). 45.4.2 One corrected hard bound copy for the Examinations. 45.4.3 One corrected hard bound copy and an electronic copy. for the Library. 45.5 If a student fails in a mini-dissertation/dissertation, s/he may submit an candidate essay amended or different mini-dissertation/dissertation within one year. 46.1 The final mark achieved for the mini-dissertation/dissertation, is the average of the marks allocated by all assessors (internal and external). 46.2 If an assessor indicates in her/his examination report that s/he has to view the complementary alternative paper, mini-dissertation again after the corrections are effected, it may be done so once only.

46.3 Where an external assessor awards a mark below 50%, Senate may seek a second external opinion once only. 46.4 In order to essay pass the alternative paper, degree, a minimum of manchurian candidate, 50% should be allocated by all assessors (internal and external). CONFERMENT OF THE MASTERS DEGREE. PUBLICATION OF A MINI-DISSERTATION/DISSERTATION. 48.1 If a mini-dissertation/dissertation is not published by the student within one year after the conferment of the degree, or no actual steps regarded by the School Management as satisfactory are taken to effect the william, publication thereof in the said period, the School is entitled to publish the whole of the dissertation or part thereof or a summary.

48.2 The term “publishing” implies that the mini-dissertation/dissertation is made available to the public, free or against payment, privately or through the trade, in the form of a typed volume or in the form of a volume multiplied by candidate essay, other processes or as a journal article or by other means. 48.3 At publication, the School must state that it is authorship a consequence of a mini-dissertation/dissertation submitted by manchurian, the candidate in compliance with the requirements for the degree.…. of the University, and with the supervisor, co-supervisor (s) and student acting as co-authors. CONVERSION OF A MASTERS DEGREE STUDY INTO A DOCTORAL DEGREE. 49.1 Should a dissertation be deemed of exceptional merit by the supervisor (s) and/or co- supervisor (s), it may be converted to a doctoral thesis, subject to the Rules governing doctor's degrees, provided that Rule G54, is and communications essay understood to mean that the degree shall be awarded at candidate essay, least four years after the conclusion, Bachelor's degree has been conferred on the candidate. 49.2 In addition to manchurian G48.2, the grendel essay, Senate will seek independent outside assessors who are experts in the field to manchurian candidate essay look into the upgrading of thesis. E. MASTERS STUDY BY RESEARCH. The minimum duration of study is one year and maximum duration is four years if full-time study. William Penn Essays Jeremiah Evarts. For part-time study the manchurian essay, minimum duration is thesis authorship three years and the maximum duration is five years. REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDING A MASTERS DEGREE. 51.1 A research masters degree is awarded on candidate essay, the grounds of: 51.1.1 A dissertation, in addition to which;

51.1.2 An oral exit presentation. F. MASTERS STUDY BY COURSEWORK. The minimum duration of study is one year and maximum duration is four years if full-time study. For part-time study the minimum duration of complementary alternative research paper, study is manchurian three years and the maximum duration is five years. REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDING A COURSEWORK.

53.1 A coursework masters degree is grendel awarded on the grounds of: 53.1.1 Completion of the required modules. 53.1.2 A mini-dissertation, contributing at least 50% towards. 53.1.3 An oral exit presentation. G. RULES FOR DOCTORAL DEGREE STUDY.

ADMISSION FOR DOCTORAL STUDY. • In addition to manchurian candidate the rules in this Section, those contained. under Section A (General Rules) and. Section C (Rules for Postgraduate Study) also applies. 54.2 Admission criteria: 54.2.1 A relevant masters degree or equivalent qualification. 54.2.2 If a candidate does not have a masters degree, s/he.

may be admitted to the doctoral study provided that the. School is satisfied that such candidate has reached the. standard of a masters degree. 54.3 Before a candidate is accepted for doctoral study, the School must be convinced that the candidate has sufficient knowledge of the friendship, field of study to be able to fulfil the requirements for the degree. 54.4 Doctoral studies in the SAES are the essay, following: 54.4.1 Doctor of Philosophy Agriculture in and contrast essay, Agricultural Economics, Animal Production, Agronomy, Horticulture, Pasture Science, Plant Protection, Plant Breeding, Soil Science, Remote Sensing or Agricultural Extension. 54.4.2 Doctor of Philosophy in Geography. 54.4.3 Doctor of Philosophy in candidate, Aquaculture. 54.4.4 Doctor of Science Agriculture in Agricultural Economics, Animal Production, Agronomy, Horticulture, Pasture. Science, Plant Protection, Plant Breeding, Soil Science,

Remote Sensing, Aquaculture or Agricultural Extension. 54.5 The module description for doctoral studies are. summarized from 54.4.1.1 to 54.4.4. The minimum duration of study is two years and the maximum duration is five years. 56.1 Candidates for doctoral study are not subject to marketing essay the registration date for bachelor's degrees only for manchurian essay the first registration. 57.1 A candidate who has been registered for a doctoral degree must renew her/his registration each year before the closing date for on social analytics academic registration and pay all prescribed fees until the candidate has complied with all the requirements for the degree. On renewal of registration, the student is required to pay the registration fee only. 57.2 A doctoral student may be required to register for Experimental Design and Analysis, Scientific Writing and any other relevant selected module(s).

57.3 If a student's progress is candidate not satisfactory, the student's registration for doctoral study may be cancelled. REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDING A DOCTORAL DEGREE. 58.1 A doctoral degree is awarded on the grounds of a completed thesis. 58.2 A candidate will present an thesis authorship oral exit seminar. 59.1 The title and proposal of a thesis is approved for a period of five years, after which the student. may apply for essay an extension of time. 59.2 A thesis must: 59.2.1 Demonstrate a high level of research capability. 59.2.2 Make a significant and marketing and communications, original academic contribution in. the discipline or field.

59.2.3 Be of a quality to satisfy peer review. 59.2.4 Merit publication. 59.3 Material from the student's own published work may be. incorporated in essay, the thesis, but should not substitute the. full text. A collection of published works shall not be. accepted as a thesis.

• No publication may contain a statement to the effect that. the published material was or is to be submitted in fulfilment of the degree. • In order to be awarded the degree during a particular graduation, the assessment report must be submitted in its final form for approval by grendel, the Executive Committee of Senate at least three months before the graduation ceremony. • Students who aim to graduate during the first graduation. of the year, but who, for some reason, do not make the candidate, deadline, must re-register before 31 March and complete all outstanding requirements for the degree. • A thesis previously submitted as a whole or in part for a.

degree at another tertiary institution will not be accepted. G58 applies. Marketing And Communications Essay. Rules SAES43.1 to SAES43.4 also applies where ‘thesis' will replace mini-dissertation/dissertation as necessary. 61.1 Thesis will be assessed by the supervisor, the co- supervisor (s) (if any) as internal assessor(s), and at least two external assessors. (A co-supervisor may not act as external assessor). The assessment panel will be approved by the Senate Executive Committee. 61.2 As soon as the thesis has been submitted for assessment, the candidate, Examinations Office shall notify the members of Senate and case study on social media, Faculty concerned, in writing, that the thesis is ready for inspection. 61.3 Within fourteen days after the abovementioned notice, any member of candidate, Senate or Faculty concerned may submit comments on the thesis, in writing, through the Executive Dean, to research the Examinations Office for submission to, and consideration by the assessment panel. 61.4 The members of the essay, assessment panel must submit their independent comments on the thesis in writing within six weeks to and communications essay the Examinations Office who will forward them, with comments received to the supervisor through the Office of the Executive Dean. 61.5 The supervisor compiles a summary report for submission to the Faculty Assessment Committee within two weeks. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Upon approval, the supervisor oversees corrections and evarts, submits the report, with one spirally bound copy of the thesis to manchurian candidate essay the Office of the Executive Dean.

61.6 Before the degree is conferred, the candidate must hand in to the Examinations Office: 61.6.1 One corrected hard bound copy for each assessor, including all internal assessor(s). 61.6.2 One corrected hard bound copy for the Examinations office. 61.6.3 One corrected hard bound copy and an electronic copy for the library. 61.7 A candidate may not submit a thesis for a doctoral degree if it has been formerly rejected in a different form. 62.1 A Doctoral degree is not awarded unless the compare and contrast friendship, candidate has been registered for the degree at least two academic years before the presentation of candidate essay, her/his thesis. 62.2 If a thesis is accepted and an assessor decides that the candidate has to make certain changes, the degree is compare and contrast not conferred until the changes have been effected to the satisfaction of the School.

62.3 The doctor's degree is manchurian candidate essay conferred on complementary medicine, a student who, in the opinion of the assessment panel and manchurian essay, Senate, has fulfilled the william penn, requirements of the degree. 62.4 The doctoral degree is manchurian not awarded with distinction.

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Aggression Regression Therapy Essay Sample. Many youth have developed anti-social skills manifested by candidate essay behaviors of teasing, bullying, harassing and intimidating their fellow youth and in other instances their teachers, parents or caregivers. Thesis Authorship. This can be attributed to manchurian many factors which can also be referred to as risk factors whose sources are the compare and contrast friendship essay, individual, family, school, peers and the community. Individually risk factors are for instance possession of guns by youth, inability to communicate non agreement with an candidate issue, becoming a parent at a young age, being mentally unstable and having attitudes that are inclined towards use of drugs. Family background also affects youth’s personalities because instability of the family unit affects how a child grows. A family that adequately provides nurturing and structure is not likely to have any delinquents. On the contrary a family with management problems is likely to have children who have delinquent behavior which includes drug and substance abuse. The school can predispose children to delinquency especially if they are labeled as notorious or some other negative term.

A risk factor is also in the loom if the child has negative attitudes towards school which can be evidenced by suspensions or constant change of schools. Peers will be a risk factor if those that the youth is william jeremiah evarts hanging out are delinquents themselves because even a morally upright child can have his morals corrupted by his acquaintances such that they start having unacceptable behavior. The community can also be considered a risk factor if it is cumbered with incidences of crime. Most of the children that are brought up in high-crime areas usually turn to the crime themselves. If a neighborhood is not safe for manchurian candidate essay, the youths, they are likely to case study on social media be problematic as well as they try to protect themselves.

Additionally a neighborhood that is not endowed with resources and is constantly having challenges e.g. financially and essay economically, has a likelihood of bringing up children who will commit offences in the pursuit of trying to essay survive or search of a livelihood. Most of these youths do not know how to handle different situations that come up in life. They mostly handle those situations without self control causing a lot of trouble in the neighborhoods. Manchurian. Picking fights, using abusive language and conclusion addiction to candidate essay substances and drugs are some of the behaviors that can be attributed to such. The public is subjected to many losses and case study insecurities. Such behavior has seen many youth incarcerated because of their inability to candidate essay co-exist peacefully with the community around them. And Contrast Friendship. Some youth behave like this because of their involvement in drugs or because of poor socialization.

Aggressive Replacement Therapy is an intervention program that is designed to assist the youth to develop life skills as well as promote appropriate social skills through well planned sessions that usually take place groups. Candidate. Every group has a member of staff and a professional specialized with mental disorders. The therapy is sometimes used a part of the treatment especially if the people taken in for treatment are offenders who have been arraigned in court and convicted. It is aimed at helping the youth replace these anti-social skills with those that are morally acceptable by the society. This paper aims at elucidating on the details of the program. This program’s major components are training the youth on how to control anger, reasoning in accordance to acceptable morals and skill development. The program also pays particular attention to the issue of alternative medicine, motivation as well as reaction to change. Teaching is candidate essay done in ten to twenty sessions that take 45-60 minutes.

It usually takes 10 weeks with the compare and contrast, youth attending twice or thrice a week. Trained private contractors as well as prison probation officers carry out the manchurian essay, training. Grendel Conclusion. More often than not this therapy takes place in prisons or other facilities constructed for manchurian candidate, confinement of juvenile delinquents. Training is done alongside activities like role plays whereby students dramatize different situations, watch videotapes, do simulation games, and essay hold group discussions. In addition to this they also model proper behavior to help them visualize what is expected of them. Each group is comprised of a leader who can be a teacher or a counselor and also a mental health officer (Feindler, E. Ecton, R. (1986). Students are taught on how to carry themselves in manchurian candidate essay situations that are anger provoking. According to Glick, 1996, a teen faced with such a situation needs to complementary research identify the factors that fuel feelings of anger. These can be external for instance what other people do to manchurian candidate the teen.

An example is opposition from others or in other words people failing to agree with the student or patient. Internal factors have everything to do with one’s personality like feelings of confusion, inadequacy or superiority complex. Once identified, the student needs to make out what physical signs show that he or she is angry like clenching of case study on social media, fists, tightening of candidate essay, muscles and grinding of teeth. Glick further states that after the first two steps, the grendel essay conclusion, student should try and look at things positively. This can happen if the student takes some time and instead of focusing on the ‘bad picture’, he should use some imagination in picturing a peaceful situation. Another way could be watering down the whole incidence and convincing oneself that the provokers did not mean what they said or did not mean to manchurian hurt their feelings. Having followed all the complementary medicine research paper, above steps, the student is supposed to engage themselves in manchurian candidate essay activities that reduce the hurtful feelings such as taking long deep breaths, numerically counting numbers backwards or contemplating and considering the negative effects that violent reaction would produce and thus refrain. The final step under this anger control therapy is that of self evaluation in authorship which the students assess themselves to candidate essay establish whether they followed the fore mentioned steps and grendel essay conclusion thus establish whether they are making any positive progress.

Under moral reasoning students are taken through some moral dilemmas in manchurian candidate essay order to case study media analytics initiate group discussions that touch on manchurian essay how to deal with issues fairly without fear or favor, being there for others, being concerned about them or even how to get oneself in others shoes so as to essay better understand where they are coming from. It is here that the student is encouraged to embrace responsibilities and manchurian candidate essay also be well versed with their personal rights. Marketing And Communications Essay. The objective here is to help the students to candidate essay be accountable for what they do and not be impulsive in doing things. Under social skills training, students are taught about courteous behavior like being appreciative of things done to them by saying ‘thank you’, asking for help in areas that they cannot manage all by themselves, requesting for favors when thy want some done for them by using such words as ‘please’. Evarts. They are also taken through the candidate, importance of apologizing when one has gone wrong or even seeking for approval before getting into any activity, for instance permission from parents, teachers or any other authority (Feindler, E. Ecton, R. 1986).. They are also taught on how to compare and contrast set their own goals of what they would want to achieve in a given time. Afterwards some role play is manchurian essay done whereby it symbolizes one thing that the student does not like or that provokes anger for the teen. Afterwards the thesis authorship, trainer discusses with the teen what action he or she ought to have taken. Actors incorporate many skills which are supposed to guide the candidate essay, students and study on social help them pick up those that are acceptable to the society.

Generally they are taught on how to candidate take time before reacting to a provocation. And Contrast Friendship. It encourages them to first relax before taking any rash action and do some moral reasoning. They ask themselves “what should I do now?” or “what is the best thing to do in candidate this situation?” This training basically revolves around self control. It is done with the objective that the essay, students that are prone to aggression will know how best to candidate handle situations without having violent confrontations with those in authority or their fellow counterparts. Those in authority could be teachers, parents and guardians.

Besides practicing self control the alternative medicine, students are trained on how to make out problems, after which they are educated on how they can look for other solutions and how to choose how best to respond to the problem. Manchurian Candidate. It does not end here because they are also encouraged to grendel essay conclusion figure out manchurian candidate what effect their response would produce. Aggression Replacement is also keen on students who do not like being viewed as weak and thesis authorship are always striving to be the ones giving the last word or being the last one to hit another such that this makes them feel like they have won. Trainers are supposed to manchurian candidate instill to the students that this is grendel conclusion instead a sign of failure. Trainers have a responsibility of framing the therapy such that it becomes relevant to those who are being treated. They do this by helping students see that every time they feel pushed to manchurian the wall and ‘hit last’ , or have the final word, they have been ‘manipulated to loose their self control’ which in itself is a defeat of grendel, sorts. They encourage them to be the first to manchurian essay walk away in research paper case of a confrontation or see to it that they are not the ones who have the final word in any stand off. Manchurian. Aggression replacement therapy is described by Edward as a cognitive behavioral intervention. It has advantages and disadvantages. It is advantageous because it has been proven to bring about change in aggressive youth whereby they have reduced their recidivist behavior. Improvement of william essays jeremiah evarts, this nature is highly appreciated not only by the close members of the family but also by the entire community because they would have been subject to nasty, violent confrontations or would have been victims of crime.

There are organizations that are mandated with this responsibility of protecting the public as well as correctional services to the youth. An example of these organizations is the Oregon Youth Authority. Students who have developed self control due to the therapy have inward peace and also enjoy peace from the outside world. Candidate Essay. Aggression replacement therapy is also advantageous because it has seen Juvenile delinquency highly decline such that there are fewer children arraigned in on social courts (Latessa, E. J.(2004). This therefore is beneficial to the taxpayer because he will no longer need to meet the expense that would have otherwise been incurred in the judicial processes of the essay, juvenile offenders. It also works positively because costs of treating injuries are highly reduced due to reduced fights. Performance in school work has been reported as a result of the positive changes attributed to the aggression replacement therapy. Students now replace the bad social habits with good ones which therefore means that they are able to interact well with their teachers as well as their fellow students.

Due to the new pro-social skills that they acquire, they can distinguish which is the right company to essay conclusion hang around and candidate essay which to thesis avoid. Chances of the essay, would-be offenders to secure employment are also increased due to their ability to co-exist with other people who may be fellow employers. Employment opportunities also increase because people who have less records of prosecutions and thesis convictions stand a higher chance of landing jobs. According to Landenberger and Lipsey,(2004) as cited by Latessa,(2005), of the 79 studies that were carried out, where 26 were random samples, 27 were matched samples and the remaining 26 that were convenient samples, it was found that Aggression Replacement therapy was one of the cognitive behavior control curriculums that reduced recidivism by 35%. The fact that the therapy cannot be effective on its own without the inclusion of other programs is a disadvantage. Additionally, this therapy only seems to manchurian candidate work in the short term unless it is made a life long process. This program takes some time before progress is seen and sometimes can be discouraging to the trainers.

Disadvantages of this program are minimal when compared to disadvantages. The outcome of the therapy is usually measured in terms of frequency of sentences and police suspicion reports. The program would be said to be effective in the event that the number of sentences as well as that of suspicion reports goes down. According to(Helping American Youth), some positive results have been realized after some studies were conducted. In one study, 60 youth participated most of whom had been imprisoned because of committing various felonies like drug offences, theft and burglary.24 of them were put on the aggressive replacement therapy which was to take 10 weeks. Thesis Authorship. Another 24 were introduced to a brief control group which did not have anything to do with the therapy. The remaining 12 were not put under any control group. The second study involved youth that had been confined as a result of more serious crimes like sodomy, rape, manslaughter and murder. The same procedures and activities that took place in the fore mentioned study were incorporated for this experiment. The number of students that were involved in this study was 54 . Further a third study was also carried out this time involving many entities, with the main objective being to establish whether the aggression replacement therapy was going to be efficient intervention when taken up by candidate the community as a whole.

Under this study youths, their parents as well as other family members were put under this therapy. In another setting but still under the same study, the therapy was administered only to the youths leaving out other family members, while in a third setting but still under the same study, neither the youth nor the family members were put under the aggressive replacement therapy. To establish the results the period that these studies were going to conclusion take was 18 months. The results were very encouraging because the manchurian candidate essay, youths who had been introduced to the aggression replacement therapy seemed to marketing and communications essay have acquired new pro-social skills like verbally expressing a complaint in case something that they did not like happened, they also exemplified signs of composure when faced with stressful situations or when in a conversation that was not pleasant. They also seemed to be at a position to handle pressure from the candidate essay, group. As a result, 54 of the 60 youths that had been incarcerated were released from their confinement. It was found that aggressive replacement therapy was very effective for essay, juvenile delinquents who had been incarcerated because it helped them acquire new skills that were going to boost them socially. It also helped them develop behaviors that were socially acceptable and would enable them fit well in the society. Additionally it was observed that the delinquents took some time before taking any action and did not act impulsively.

Prior to the therapy they would normally be violent and very difficult to control. Participants seemed to have learnt how to act out of moral reasoning for instance first considering how their actions would affect the other people. In the third set-up it was found that the candidate, youth that had gone through the aggression replacement therapy together with their other family members did better than those who had it on their own. The incidences of the former being re-arrested were less than those of the latter. One thing that was noticeable in the two groups that had undergone therapy is the improvement in their interpersonal skills and competence in marketing essay other fields. Performance differed significantly between the youth that had been on the therapy and manchurian candidate essay those that were in control programs. However the complementary, difference between the two groups that had gone through the therapy but in different settings was very little. Measurement is candidate taken in terms of alternative medicine research paper, weighted indices of the repeat of felonies or in other words recidivism. Essay. The number of arrests, suspicion reports and acquisition of grendel essay conclusion, new skill as well as their implementation gives a clear picture of how the manchurian candidate, program is doing i.e. Medicine Research. whether it is effective in what it is supposed to candidate essay do.

Less incidences of arrest are a clear indication that the program is truly working or feasible. The clients of this program are youth who are overly aggressive, as well as young children. Other clients may be juvenile delinquents who may have been referred to thesis an institution with the aim wanting them to candidate be corrected in their way of thinking or acting. It can also be very helpful for the youths with mental imbalances such as autism, asperagers complex or other mental instability that makes them not understand things as the communicator would want to be understood. Grendel Conclusion. Lack of this understanding tends to manchurian candidate make them very violent and aggressive even after a gentle contact. Psychiatric patients can also benefit from this program as shown in the study carried out by S.Aos etal, 2004, where by adult women in high security prisons as well as their male counterparts in Sweden received this treatment. Essay Conclusion. Juvenile delinquents were also given this treatment. Other people that are candidates for this program are children who lack empathy, those that have who have poor social skills e.g those that like bullying others around, teasing and harassing them. Manchurian. This program is not devoid of costs because on average the cost for each student is $759 according to (S.Aos etal, 2004).

This study was carried out to alternative medicine research paper find out whether there was any benefit per unit cost of essay, undertaking the program. In his analysis he goes further to compare the cost to benefit. His findings indicate that the benefit per dollar of cost is $12.60. The benefits less costs totaled to william penn essays evarts $8805 per candidate, student. An effectively implemented program cost turns out to be a benefit especially when change happens to the youth. This comes into being because the study analytics, youth stop being engaged in non lawful activities like burglary, robbery and even murder. This in turn translates to less arrests and manchurian essay imprisonment which in itself presents a cost to the taxpayers. The safety of the public, if it was possible to change it into monetary form, would amount to large sums of money. It is an marketing and communications expense worth incurring because the candidate essay, program has the potential of changing one’s life to his or her advantage. This program when introduced to high-risk youth i.e those that do not have a history of crimes, goes a long way in preventing them from compare and contrast, actually involving themselves. A dollar spent on prevention saves many more that would have been used for curative purposes.

Aggression Replacement Therapy is a good intervention for delinquents because it has been proved to candidate have more positive results than those other forms of punishments. Where as in other forms of confinement, the delinquents are at a risk of picking very bad traits from complementary alternative medicine paper, their colleagues; this therapy has proved to be more friendly and able to transfer pro-social skills to delinquents. It is therefore highly recommendable to use this therapy for correctional purposes. Feindler, E. Ecton, R. (1986). Adolescent anger control. New York: Pergamon Press.

Glick, B. (1996). Aggression replacement training in children and adolescents. In Hatherleigh Guide to Child and Adolescent Therapy. New York: Hatherleigh Press. Candidate. Latessa, E. J.(2004) What Works and case study What Doesn’t in manchurian Reducing Recidivism: Principles of Effective Intervention. University of grendel conclusion, Cincinnati. S.Aos, R.Lieb,J. Mayfied,M.Miller,A.

Penucci.(2004)Benefits and Costs of Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth. Olympia: Washington State Institute for essay, Public Policy. Available at http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/rptfiles/04-07-3901.pdf accessed on william jeremiah evarts 19th May 2008. HEPING AMERICA’S YOUTH. Aggression Replacement Training.

Available at http://guide.helpingamericasyouth.gov/programdetail.cfm?id=292 accessed on 20 th May 2008. Is this the manchurian, perfect essay for complementary research, you? Save time and candidate order Aggression Regression Therapy. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Aggression Regression Therapy. Early research concentrated on chromosomal abnormalities but no specific genotype has been associated with aggression. Alternative Research. Genes determine how much testosterone a person’s body produces and how quickly it circulates around#8230; Solution Focused Therapy for Children. Solution-focused therapy has a unique orientation toward non-problem times. The purpose is to help people target and manchurian amplify resources and strengths toward change (Berg, 1994). The article that I researched#8230; Outline and Evaluate Two Social Psycholoical Theories of jeremiah evarts, Aggression.

The first psychological theory of aggression is the social learning theory. This uses the principles of manchurian essay, Bandura’s Bobo Dolls experiment which involved children observing aggressive and non-aggressive adults and then#8230; Outline and evaluate two social psychological explanations of human aggression. Outline and evaluate two social psychological explanations of human aggression (24 Marks) Deindividuation theory is a social psychological explanation of aggression. It explains how rational individuals can become aggressive hooligans#8230; The Concept of Control of Human Aggression. Abstract Human aggression is a subject of interest not only in the social sciences but also in other fields of the academe.

Although there is a common definition of what#8230; Abstract for thesis, Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Manchurian Essay. Cognitive behavioral group therapy is based on behavioral practitioners using a brief, active, directive. Collaborative, present-focused, didactic, psychoeducational model of therapy that relies on empirical validation of its concepts, and#8230;

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40 Useful Words and manchurian candidate, Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and complementary alternative medicine, the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Manchurian Candidate Essay. Developing the language skills to and contrast friendship, build an manchurian candidate argument and to write persuasively is compare essay, crucial if you’re to manchurian candidate, write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. Thesis Authorship. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to manchurian candidate, help you make an instant improvement to friendship, your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English.

Let’s start by essay, looking at language for general explanations of marketing and communications, complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an manchurian essay explanation for the purpose of an and communications essay argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. Manchurian Candidate Essay. In other words, they live on thesis the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and manchurian, can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance.

Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. Grendel Conclusion. To put it another way, they will die without the essay, sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to william penn jeremiah, “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other.

To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of manchurian candidate essay, using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of grendel conclusion, a point they’re making, or to candidate essay, build an argument. Case On Social. Here are some cleverer ways of manchurian candidate, doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at thesis, the start of manchurian candidate essay, a sentence to add extra information in support of authorship, a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in manchurian essay, support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information.

Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in thesis, favour of candidate essay, this point of view.”

Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at penn jeremiah, the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the manchurian candidate, phrase “another key point to grendel essay conclusion, remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and essay, nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of complementary medicine research, “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in manchurian candidate, some way more surprising or unexpected than the and communications, first piece of information.

Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of manchurian essay, being the essay, first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at essay, a time. Example : “Coupled with the compare and contrast, literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the essay, other. Example : “There are many points in support of compare, this view.

Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. Manchurian. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to case on social media analytics, present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”.

This section covers words you can use instead of the manchurian, “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of william essays jeremiah evarts, evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to manchurian candidate essay, suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of thesis, what happened that day.”

Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an candidate essay agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the complementary alternative medicine research paper, archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on essay an assertion.

Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. And Contrast. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on manchurian candidate essay this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the case analytics, most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of manchurian essay, evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of case study on social, doing so.

Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of essay, this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to william essays, the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. Essay. With this in compare, mind, let’s look at manchurian, a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”.

You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the case on social media, limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on candidate something else. Example : “In light of the complementary medicine paper, evidence from the essay, 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for grendel essay, its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the essay, methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the on social, human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time.

Here are a couple of other ways of saying the manchurian candidate essay, same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to authorship, avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for essay, instance, leave the UK in jeremiah evarts, early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of manchurian, what I mean, let’s look at research paper, the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is candidate essay, particularly important, there are several ways of marketing and communications, highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent.

Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the candidate, same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from grendel conclusion Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the candidate essay, situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”

You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. Case On Social Media. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the candidate essay, arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the grendel conclusion, concluding paragraph or sentence of an manchurian essay essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to complementary alternative, be the most significant point, and essay, the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to thesis, remember that…” Usage : This is manchurian candidate, a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing.

Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by and communications essay, financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for manchurian candidate, her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in thesis, the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is manchurian essay, presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of authorship, these words and phrases will you get into candidate your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in case on social, the comments below! 221 Responses to manchurian, “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays”

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Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black’s writing .also,his romantic way in manchurian candidate essay, nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at authorship, 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. Candidate. For example, ‘As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly – they are not a series of points that are additive.

They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the marketing essay, other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the manchurian, negative impact of the compare and contrast essay, Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Candidate. Consequently he foregrounded the marketing and communications essay, importance of improving the manchurian essay, relationship between humankind and nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in marketing essay, academic writing. September 19, 2016 at manchurian candidate essay, 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at thesis authorship, 5:33 pm, Dr.

Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and manchurian, I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, “In order to” can simply to be “To.” June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I’m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and conclusion, you really helped me. Manchurian. I’m sure i can score an A now #128512;

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April 23, 2017 at 9:49 am, Matorankle said: September 02, 2015 at manchurian candidate essay, 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for marketing and communications essay, providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper. September 10, 2015 at manchurian, 3:31 am, Sarah said: what a great help in teaching children in writing essay…… September 16, 2015 at 8:04 am, josphat lowoi said: Good work..I greatly appreciate. September 21, 2015 at 2:45 pm, David said: September 23, 2015 at 1:04 am, haripriya said:

Thanks a lot! It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is helpful! Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list.

I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the essay conclusion, thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for manchurian candidate, example, “Jacob states that teachers need to friendship essay, consider the learning abilities of all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the candidate essay, writing skills of thesis, ESL learners”. It sometimes becomes boring to manchurian, keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful. Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in grendel essay conclusion, language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an essay amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an compare and contrast essay elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at essay, 3:41 pm, Ayushi said:

Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at paper, 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of manchurian candidate, course.

Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and friendship essay, monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to manchurian essay, essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. Study. said: Tom, I must agree.

In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.” October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous impact..in my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great… thanks for the A grade.

November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though: The example given for manchurian, phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to william penn jeremiah evarts, X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points… does anyone else feel the manchurian candidate, same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the media, suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the manchurian candidate essay, use of complementary medicine research, cliches.

Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. Manchurian. “To put it another way” and “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of authorship, “In conclusion” to introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the manchurian candidate, only one who feels this way. To quote the Writing Center at compare friendship essay, Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of manchurian essay, the. pages, when an essay is about to study on social media, end. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.”

If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at essay, 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of thesis, course, that my “comment above” is actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense…

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One of media, his stories begins ‘Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in some quicklime.’ March 23, 2017 at manchurian candidate essay, 5:39 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. Many writing students would do well to read Zinsser’s book “On Writing Well.” He emphasizes clarity in compare friendship essay, writing, and manchurian, no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at 1:43 pm, angielski said: Very useful to have it in research, one place. Thanks ! May 10, 2016 at 7:57 pm, Cheese said: Hello Oxford Royale community, Thank you for manchurian candidate, this extremely helpful guide on improving flow using phrases.

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