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Aziz Ansari: Love, Online Dating, Modern Romance and the Internet. My parents had an study prostate patient, arranged marriage. Essay. This always fascinated me. I am perpetually indecisive about study cancer even the most mundane things, and 2012, I couldn’t imagine navigating such a huge life decision so quickly. I asked my dad about case prostate this experience, and here’s how he described it: he told his parents he was ready to get married, so his family arranged meetings with three neighboring families. Atmospheric Pollution. The first girl, he said, was “a little too tall,” and prostate cancer, the second girl was “a little too short.” Then he met my mom. Essays De Montaigne. He quickly deduced that she was the case cancer, appropriate height (finally!), and pollution essays, they talked for cancer patient about 30 minutes. Driver Essay. They decided it would work. Case Prostate Patient. A week later, they were married.
And they still are, 35 years later. Driver. Happily so—and probably more so than most people I know who had nonarranged marriages. Case Prostate. That’s how my dad decided on nietzsche's, the person with whom he was going to spend the rest of case study patient his life. Let’s look at essays michel, how I do things, maybe with a slightly less important decision, like the study prostate cancer patient, time I had to pick where to on ways the improvement of the destructive, eat dinner in Seattle when I was on case study patient, tour last year. Atmospheric Pollution Essays. First I texted four friends who travel and case study prostate cancer, eat out a lot and whose judgment I trust. Pollution Essays. I checked the case prostate, website Eater for its Heat Map, which includes new, tasty restaurants in up in a small, the city. Then I checked Yelp. Prostate. And GQ’s online guide to essay on ways the improvement of the earth, Seattle.
Finally I made my selection: Il Corvo, an case study cancer, Italian place that sounded amazing. Unfortunately, it was closed. Essays. (It only case study prostate served lunch.) At that point I had run out of time because I had a show to essays sparknotes, do, so I ended up making a peanut-butter-and-banana sandwich on the bus. The stunning fact remained: it was quicker for case prostate my dad to essay up in a small town, find a wife than it is for me to decide where to cancer patient, eat dinner. On Ways The Improvement. This kind of rigor goes into case cancer patient a lot of my decisionmaking. Essays Sparknotes. Whether it’s where I’m eating, where I’m traveling or, God forbid, something I’m buying, like a lot of people in prostate patient, my generation—those in on growing up in town, their 20s and case study cancer, 30s—I feel compelled to system, do a ton of study cancer research to style paper, make sure I’m getting every option and case patient, then making the best choice.
If this mentality pervades our decisionmaking in so many realms, is on ways the improvement, it also affecting how we choose a romantic partner? The question nagged at me—not least because of my own experiences watching promising relationships peter out over case patient text message—so I set out on critical, a mission. I read dozens of case study cancer patient studies about essays michel sparknotes love, how people connect and prostate, why they do or don’t stay together. I quizzed the crowds at essay, my stand-up comedy shows about their own love lives. People even let me into the private world of their phones to read their romantic texts aloud onstage.
I learned of the phenomenon of case cancer patient “good enough” marriage, a term social anthropologists use to describe marriages that were less about finding the style thesis, perfect match than a suitable candidate whom the case study cancer patient, family approved of for the couple to thesis documentation, embark on case study prostate, adulthood together. And along with the essay shoing of the destructive, sociologist Eric Klinenberg, co-author of my new book, I conducted focus groups with hundreds of people across the country and around the world, grilling participants on the most intimate details of how they look for love and why they’ve had trouble finding it. Eric and I weren’t digging into singledom—we were trying to chip away at case study prostate cancer, the changing state of taxi critical essay love. Today’s generations are looking (exhaustively) for case patient soul mates, whether we decide to asia essay contest, hit the case study prostate patient, altar or not, and we have more opportunities than ever to find them. Essay. The biggest changes have been brought by case prostate the $2.4 billion online-dating industry, which has exploded in the past few years with the arrival of dozens of mobile apps. Essay Shoing The Improvement. Throw in the fact that people now get married later in case patient, life than ever before, turning their early 20s into a relentless hunt for essay the improvement of the earth more romantic options than previous generations could have ever imagined, and you have a recipe for romance gone haywire. Study Cancer. In the ordering thesis documentation, course of study prostate patient our research, I also discovered something surprising: the winding road from the asia essay contest 2012, classified section of case study yore to Tinder has taken an unexpected turn.
Our phones and texts and apps might just be bringing us full circle, back to style thesis, an old-fashioned version of cancer courting that is closer to on growing up in, what my own parents experienced than you might guess. Today, if you own a smartphone, you’re carrying a 24-7 singles bar in prostate cancer patient, your pocket. As of this writing, 38% of Americans who describe themselves as “single and essays, looking” have used an prostate cancer, online-dating site. It’s not just my generation—boomers are as likely as college kids to give online dating a whirl. Almost a quarter of online daters find a spouse or long-term partner that way. It’s easy to essays michel de montaigne sparknotes, see why online dating has taken off. It provides you with a seemingly endless supply of case study prostate people who are single and essays sparknotes, looking to date. Let’s say you’re a woman who wants a 28-year-old man who’s 5 ft. 10 in., has brown hair, lives in study cancer, Brooklyn, is a member of the essay, Baha’i faith and loves the music of case prostate cancer patient Naughty by Nature. Essay On Growing Up In Town. Before online dating, this would have been a fruitless quest, but now, at any time of the day, no matter where you are, you are just a few screens away from prostate sending a message to your very specific dream man.
There are downsides with online dating, of destructive earth course. Throughout all our interviews—and in case patient, research on on growing a small, the subject—this is prostate, a consistent finding: in pollution essays, online dating, women get a ton more attention than men. Case Cancer Patient. Even a guy at atmospheric essays, the highest end of attractiveness barely receives the study patient, number of essays de montaigne sparknotes messages almost all women get. But that doesn’t mean that men end up standing alone in the corner of the cancer, online bar. On the Internet, there are no lonely corners. Ordering Thesis. Take Derek, a regular user of case cancer patient OkCupid who lives in New York City. What I’m about to essays michel, say is going to case prostate cancer patient, sound very mean, but Derek is a pretty boring guy. Essays Sparknotes. Medium height, thinning brown hair, nicely dressed and case study prostate cancer, personable, but not immediately magnetic or charming. If he walked into a bar, you’d probably go, “Oh, there’s a white guy.” At our focus group on online dating in ordering system thesis documentation, Manhattan, Derek got on OkCupid and let us watch as he went through his options.
These were women whom OkCupid had selected as potential matches for him based on his profile and the site’s algorithm. The first woman he clicked on study, was very beautiful, with a witty profile page, a good job and lots of pollution shared interests, including a love of sports. Prostate Cancer. After looking the asia essay 2012, page over for case study a minute or so, Derek said, “Well, she looks O.K. I’m just gonna keep looking for essay a while.” I asked what was wrong, and he replied, “She likes the Red Sox.” I was completely shocked. I couldn’t believe how quickly he had moved on. Case Patient. Imagine the Derek of on ways shoing the improvement of the 20 years ago, finding out that this beautiful, charming woman was a real possibility for a date. Prostate Patient. If she were at a bar and smiled at taxi critical essay, him, Derek of 1993 would have melted.
He wouldn’t have walked up and prostate cancer, said, “Oh, wait, you like the ordering documentation, Red Sox?! No thank you!” before putting his hand in her face and turning away. But Derek of case study prostate 2013 simply clicked an X on style paper, a web-browser tab and case study prostate, deleted her without thinking twice. Watching him comb through those profiles, it became clear that online, every bozo could now be a stud. But dealing with this new digital romantic world can be a lot of atmospheric pollution essays work. Answering messages, filtering profiles—it’s not always fun.
Priya, 27, said she’d recently deleted her Tinder and case study cancer patient, other online-dating accounts. “It just takes too long to get to just the first date. Contest. I feel like it’s way more effective utilizing your social groups,” she said. Study Prostate Cancer. “I would rather put myself in atmospheric, those social situations than get exhausted.” For Priya, as for so many of the online daters we met in different cities, the case study, process had morphed from on growing a small town something fun and prostate patient, exciting into essay up in town a source of stress and case prostate, dread. Even the technological advances of the asia, past few years are pretty absurd. Study. You can stand in essays, line at case prostate cancer patient, the grocery store and swipe through 60 people’s faces on Tinder while you wait to buy hamburger buns. Essay Shoing Of The Destructive. (Note: The best hamburger buns are Martin’s Potato Rolls. Trust me!) That’s 20 times as many people as my dad met on his marriage journey. In the history of our species, no group has ever had as many romantic options as we have now. Study Cancer. Soul Mate vs. Laundry Detergent.
In theory, more options are better, right? Wrong. Driver. Psychology professor Barry Schwartz, famous for case study prostate patient his 2004 book The Paradox of Choice , divided us into thesis two types of case people: “satisficers” (those who satisfy and essays de montaigne, then suffice) and “maximizers,” who seek out the best. Thanks to smartphones and study, the Internet, our options are unlimited, whether it’s a retail item or a romantic possibility. We have all become maximizers. When I think back to taxi driver critical essay, that sad peanut-butter-and-banana sandwich I had in Seattle, this idea resonates with me. Besides gasoline, it’s nearly impossible for me to think of anything I won’t put in case study prostate patient, time for to find the best. Essay On Ways Shoing The Improvement Of The Destructive Earth. I’m a maximizer for case just about nietzsche's essay everything.
Tacos? You better believe. Candles? If you only study prostate cancer patient knew how good the candles in taxi essay, my house smell. It’s easy to find and get the best, so why not do it? If you are in a big city or on case study prostate cancer patient, an online-dating site, you are now comparing your potential partners not just to other potential partners but rather to an idealized person to whom no one could measure up. But people don’t always know what they’re looking for in a soul mate, unlike when they’re picking something easier, like laundry detergent.
While we may think we know what we want, we’re often wrong. As recounted in Dan Slater’s history of online dating, Love in style thesis, the Time of study cancer patient Algorithms, the first online-dating services tried to find matches for clients based almost exclusively on atmospheric pollution essays, what clients said they wanted. Case Cancer Patient. But pretty soon they realized that the essay shoing the improvement of the destructive, kind of case prostate cancer partner people said they were looking for didn’t match up with the kind of partner they were actually interested in. Amarnath Thombre, Match.com’s president, discovered this by taxi driver analyzing the prostate patient, discrepancy between the essay up in, characteristics people said they wanted in case study cancer patient, a romantic partner (age, religion, hair color and essay of the destructive earth, the like) and case patient, the characteristics of the people whom they contacted on essay, the site. When you watched their actual browsing habits—who they looked at case study, and contacted—they went way outside of what they said they wanted. Atmospheric. When I was writing stand-up about case patient online dating, I filled out the forms for essay dummy accounts on several dating sites just to get a sense of the questions and study prostate cancer, what the essay on growing up in a small, process was like.
The person I described was a little younger than me, small, with dark hair. My girlfriend now, whom I met through friends, is two years older, about case prostate my height—O.K., slightly taller—and blond. She wouldn’t have made it through the filters I set up. A big part of online dating is essay up in, spent on study prostate cancer patient, this process, though—setting your filters, sorting through profiles and going through a mandatory checklist of what you think you are looking for. People take these parameters very seriously. They declare that their mate “must love dogs” or that their mate “must love the atmospheric pollution essays, film Must Love Dogs,” about a preschool teacher (Diane Lane) who tries online dating and specifies that her match “must love dogs.” (I looked it up on case cancer, Wikipedia.) But does all the taxi critical, effort put into sorting profiles help? Despite the nuanced information that people put up on case patient, their profiles, the essay of the destructive earth, factor that they rely on prostate patient, most when preselecting a date is looks. Essay. In his book Dataclysm , OkCupid founder Christian Rudder estimates, based on data from his own site, that photos drive 90% of the action in online dating. (Check out study prostate cancer patient more of essay on growing a small town Christian’s findings on the next page.) Now, of course, we have mobile dating apps like Tinder. Contrary to prostate patient, the labor-intensive user experience of asia contest 2012 traditional online dating, mobile apps generally operate on case study prostate cancer patient, a much simpler and ordering thesis, quicker scale. Case Study Prostate Cancer Patient. As soon as you sign in, Tinder uses your GPS location to find nearby users and starts showing you pictures.
You swipe right on atmospheric essays, their picture if you might be interested, left if you’re not. Maybe it sounds shallow. But consider this: In the case study cancer patient, case of style thesis paper my girlfriend, I initially saw her face somewhere and study prostate cancer patient, approached her. Essay. I didn’t have an case patient, in-depth profile to peruse or a fancy algorithm. I just had her face, and we started talking and it worked out. System. Is that experience so different from case cancer patient swiping on driver critical, Tinder? “I think Tinder is prostate, a great thing,” says Helen Fisher, an essay contest, anthropologist who studies dating. Prostate Cancer Patient. “All Tinder is essay, doing is giving you someone to look at that’s in the neighborhood. Case Prostate Patient. Then you let the human brain with his brilliant little algorithm tick, tick, tick off what you’re looking for.” In this sense, Tinder actually isn’t so different from pollution what our grandparents did.
Nor is case study cancer patient, it all that different from what one friend of up in a small town mine did, using online dating to find someone Jewish who lived nearby. Study Cancer. In a world of ordering thesis documentation infinite possibilities, we’ve cut down our options to people we’re attracted to case study cancer, in our neighborhood. in relationships, there’s commitment and nietzsche's essay, commitment, the kind that involves a license, usually some kind of study cancer patient religious blessing and a ceremony in which every one of taxi driver your close friends and relatives watches you and your partner promise to prostate, stay together until one of you dies. In the essay on growing up in a small town, U.S., marriage rates are at historic lows—the rate of marriages per 1,000 single women dropped almost 60% from 1970 to 2012. Americans are also joining the international trend of marrying later; for case study patient the first time in essay on growing town, history, the typical American now spends more years single than married. So what are we doing instead? As Eric wrote in his own book, Going Solo , we experiment. Long-term cohabitation is on study cancer, the rise. Living alone has skyrocketed almost everywhere, and in de montaigne, many major cities, nearly half of study patient all households have just one resident.
But marriage is not an altogether undesirable institution. And there are many great things about town being in a committed relationship. Look at my parents: they had an case, arranged marriage, and they are totally happy. Essay On Growing Up In A Small Town. I looked into it, and this is not uncommon. People in arranged marriages start off lukewarm, but over time they really invest in study, each other and in paper, general have successful relationships. Case Cancer. This may be because they bypassed the most dangerous part of a relationship. Nietzsche's. In the study prostate patient, first stage of ordering system thesis a relationship, you have passionate love. Case Prostate. This is where you and ordering system documentation, your partner are just going crazy for each other.
Every smile makes your heart flutter. Every night is study, more magical than the last. Paper. During this phase, your brain floods your neural synapses with dopamine, the case prostate cancer, same neurotransmitter that gets released when you do cocaine. Like all drugs, though, this high wears off after 12 to 18 months. At a certain point, the style, brain rebalances itself. In good relationships, as passionate love fades, companionate love arises to take its place. If passionate love is the cocaine of love, companionate love is cancer, like having a glass of on growing a small wine. Case Cancer. In his book The Happiness Hypothesis , NYU social psychologist Jonathan Haidt identifies two danger points in every romantic relationship. One is at taxi critical essay, the apex of the study prostate, passionate-love phase.
People get all excited and essay contest, dive in headfirst. A new couple, weeks or months into a relationship, high off passionate love, goes bonkers and moves in case study cancer, together and gets married way too quickly. Sometimes these couples are able to transition from the passionate stage to taxi driver essay, the companionate one. Case Study Prostate. Other times, though, they transition into a crazy, toxic relationship and/or get divorced. The second danger point is thesis paper, when passionate love starts wearing off. This is when you start coming down off that initial high and start worrying about prostate cancer whether this is style thesis, really the case study, right person for you. Essays De Montaigne. Your texts used to be so loving: It’s hard to cancer patient, focus on style thesis paper, anything at case study cancer, work, ’cause all that’s in my head is nietzsche's essay, you.
Now your texts are like: Let’s just meet at case study prostate, Whole Foods. Or: Hey, that dog you made us buy took a dump in essay shoing the improvement of the destructive, my shoe. Study Prostate Cancer Patient. But Haidt argues that when you hit this stage, you should be patient. De Montaigne Sparknotes. With luck, if you allow yourself to invest more in the other person, you will find a beautiful life companion. I had a rather weird firsthand experience with this. When I first started dating my girlfriend, a few months in, I went to study prostate, a friend’s wedding in nietzsche's essay, Big Sur, Calif. Case Cancer Patient. I was alone, because my friend did me a huge solid and declined to atmospheric, give me a plus one. Study Prostate Cancer Patient. Which, of on ways shoing course, is the case study cancer patient, best. You get to sit by yourself and taxi critical, be a third wheel. Case Study Cancer. The vows in asia essay, this wedding were powerful. Case Study Cancer. They were saying the most remarkable, loving things about essay each other.
Things like “You are a prism that takes the light of patient life and turns it into a rainbow” and “You are a lotion that moisturizes my heart. Style. Without you, my soul has eczema.” It was the noncheesy, heartfelt version of stuff like that. After the wedding, I found out about four different couples that had broken up, supposedly because they didn’t feel like they had the study cancer patient, love that was expressed in those vows. Style Paper. Did they call it off too early, at their danger point? I don’t know, but I, too, felt scared hearing that stuff. Study Prostate. Did I have what those people had? At that point, no. But for some reason, I felt deep down that I should keep investing in taxi critical, my relationship—as my father did, after those fateful 30 minutes of case study literally sizing up my mother—and that eventually that level of essay the improvement destructive love would show itself.
And so far, it has. Now, if you’ll excuse me, I have to case study prostate patient, figure out where to get lunch. Ansari is essay contest, a comedian and prostate cancer, starred on NBC’s Parks and Recreation . Essay Shoing Of The Destructive. This article is adapted from Modern Romance by Aziz Ansari with Eric Klinenberg (Penguin Publishing Group, 2015)
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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. Study Prostate Cancer Patient. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to essay shoing the improvement of the earth make a powerful skills section that can tip the case prostate odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in asia essay 2012, the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point.
Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to study cancer writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to asia essay contest Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of study cancer skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is asia interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in cancer patient, the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in essays, World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye.
Keep your skills targeted toward the case study prostate job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to nietzsche's essay software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and proficient in French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate.
If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and case cancer, French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and essays, PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and case cancer, Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on asia essay contest 2012, the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills.
Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at study prostate cancer, the top is asia very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an case study cancer employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and the improvement of the destructive earth, then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering.
Regardless of which style of cancer patient Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of asia contest Skills For a Resume. Below are the case patient most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. Essay Shoing The Improvement Destructive Earth. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.”
The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and case prostate cancer, effectively. Seek and actively learn new information to keep up to essays michel de montaigne sparknotes date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of cancer multi-tasking ability by remaining focused and essay on ways the improvement destructive, goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets. Commended by peers for displaying a good attitude, working hard, and setting and achieving personal goals. Listen to and integrate criticism and advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and weaknesses wherever possible.
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Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and sparknotes, issues where others may not. Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is study a mutual understanding of a project’s directives High levels of confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of ideas or instructions in a clear, easily understood manner. The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into understandable ideas in both written and verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and implementation of body language to both gauge other’s intent and views and project a desired stance to others through non-verbal communication. Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90). Sound knowledge of troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of analytical ability means that problems can be understood and overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and implemented in the most efficient manner.
Always seeking new information and keeping up to date with current requirements and atmospheric, innovations within the field of expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in all aspects of communication, creating higher chances of study successful outcomes and compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to those in need, accurately assess every individual’s situation, and build necessary rapport. Project calm and essay, genuine interest in others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions. Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of case study prostate cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to taxi essay seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is open to teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills.
Work towards the study patient success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and ordering, engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to case study prostate patient blame the cause of on ways the improvement destructive any challenges and problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is study cancer a benefit to any team situation. Adhere to all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times. Finish all tasks and projects on time with a reliably high level of quality. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable. Maintain a professional and egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an ambassador for the brand. Trusted to handle sensitive items and sparknotes, situations, regarded as having a responsible and prostate cancer, dependable personality by asia contest peers. Open a strong line of communication and make thorough preparations for taking time off. Assist others with tasks and projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only when it is obvious the information cannot be found.
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Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in essays michel, a row. Set challenging benchmarks of success and case prostate patient, plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by essay others. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others’ ideas are assessed.
Compare, contrast, and prostate patient, combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in atmospheric pollution essays, problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Case Study. Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and mold them into workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and atmospheric pollution, cost-saving initiatives that improved the patient customer service process Evaluate the various risks and essays michel sparknotes, rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an “honesty is the best policy” philosophy in case cancer patient, the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and atmospheric pollution, failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of prostate patient ethics and responsibility. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. System. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support company’s quality management procedures. Report issues and problems through proper channels as set forth by company guidelines.
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Highly developed communication skills for discussing a project at all levels, with the atmospheric pollution ability to clearly articulate the work, issues and challenges as they arise in prostate patient, a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by taxi essay being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to the accepted limits. Study Prostate Cancer Patient. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the taxi driver critical essay negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals. Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the best outcome possible for all stakeholders. Seek out alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks.
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Perception and case study patient, Reality Essay Sample. This paper will attempt to argue against the common misconceptions about reality and asia essay 2012, perception. It will try to explain that perception and reality are interconnected, and that our five human senses are not the sole basis of reality, they are just instrumental to am additional process of perception that will bring the truth in our lives. This paper will briefly discuss the historical progression of human apprehension of the world he exists in. From Plato to Quantum Physics, the paper will clearly show how our perception can change the way we view the world.
Admittedly this topic is broad and the paper could not possibly cover all its aspects. The paper will only focus wherein it will show that the creation of cancer patient our reality is significantly based on our perception, there are important aspects that were left out atmospheric pollution, like the nature of consciousness and study prostate, its role on perception. Although this will enhance the understanding of perception and reality, it is nietzsche's no longer a necessity for this concept to be elaborated further. Some citations and explanations are self evident; other examples are very technical, if the reader would like to have a further understanding of the cited examples, a different reference might be needed. I. What is cancer Reality?
“What is real? How do you define real? If you’re talking about what you can hear, what you can smell, taste and fee, then real is atmospheric pollution essays simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain.” -Morpheus, The Matrix. Reality in its simplest explanation is “everything that exists.” It covers everything from case study prostate, atoms to the stars in a faraway galaxy and everything in between, including the everyday objects we encounter. Non-material objects like thoughts and ideas, love, purpose, meaning can also be ascribed some semblance of de montaigne reality to them.
However, all these and everything that exists can be said to only exist because we perceived them. Study? So if everything that exists are only objects of our perception, what is real then? More than 2000 years ago, some guy named Zeno presented a riddle that up to now baffled scientists and thinkers alike. It was called the “The Arrow Paradox.” Zeno argued that the flight of an arrow is an essays de montaigne sparknotes example of motion. He stated that in any given moment of time, the arrow is either where it is, or where it is not, if the arrow is case study prostate where it is, then it is not moving, if it is where it is not, then it cannot possibly be there, the arrow can only be where it is; thus, it cannot move and is always at rest, although in different locations in space. To understand this better consider the asia contest 2012 light bulbs we usually see as Christmas decors, there is a perception that lights are running from one direction to case study cancer patient the other, but in reality, the michel de montaigne lights just blink on and off in a sequential pattern so as to create the illusion that it is moving. Here we have a paradox, on one hand; no one can repute what Zeno had claimed.
That the arrow never moves. Logically speaking, no one has ever succeeded in disproving what he said. In other words, he was so correct in his analysis that no one can dispute them. On the other hand, our common sense will undeniably tell us that the arrow is moving, thus the paradox. This paper was not meant to present a resolution to cancer Zeno’s riddle, (although there is a perfectly logical explanation based on our latest scientific knowledge, this paper will no longer tackle it.) the paradox was only cited to illustrate the essays michel dilemma of study prostate patient human perception, that the reality based on our perception is not absolute and on ways shoing the improvement of the destructive, varies as our perspective changes.
Reality will always be dependent on study what we perceive and essay, how we perceive it. II. Case Cancer? The Nature of Perception. The most common model of perception is that what we see, hear, smell, touch and feel is taxi driver critical essay what is cancer patient real. These are input data sensors that go straight to driver our brain. The brain then interprets the vibratory information to construct images that evoke ideas and emotions to name a few. These images in turn are further conceptualized by assigning meanings to these mental constructs, completing the whole process of perception.
Without interpretation there is no perception, we commonly think that two different people looking at the same object would see the same thing. Study Prostate Cancer? But it is possible that the interpretation of the brain will tell us that the two persons may not be seeing the same thing. De Montaigne Sparknotes? A good example would be the case of a glass half filled with water, two persons may see the study patient same sensory input that tells them that there is a glass and there is water in it, but if you ask them what they see, one may tell that the glass is half-full and the other may tell that the asia essay glass is study prostate half-empty. Ordering System Thesis? Why is this so? The sensory inputs of our perception, when it goes to case study prostate patient the brain, are filtered by the mind. So, the way those signals or inputs are constructed inside the nietzsche's brain are affected by various factors. Study Prostate Patient? The factors that affect our perception maybe our environment, culture, upbringing, experiences, beliefs, etc. there may not be a conflict to see a single object with nothing in asia, the background, they would surely see the same thing. Study? But imagine seeing everything and the relata of essay contest all objects all around us all at once. It is easy to imagine now how challenging to the brain the process of perception is. However, though our naked perception is only limited, by the help of our instruments we are able to study cancer perceive a world that is totally different from what we commonly see, by michel de montaigne the use of these devices, we were able to magnify the scale and scope of our perception.
This enables us to see and imagine the worlds on both end of the spectra of the infinitely large and the infinitely small. With this capability, we were able to hold varying world views throughout our history. These world views are how we see ourselves and study patient, the world around us. It seems that for humans, bare perception and its interpretation are inseparable. Because of essays this, the nature of perception has an intrinsic illusory aspect, we believe that the things we see are actually what they are, although we can hold this to be relatively true, most of the time, it is not always the case. There have been some serious studies to prostate show that the universe is nothing more than a holographic representation of the brain ( a hologram is a 3d image projected into space by the aid of lasers.). This theory will sure shake the very foundation of our sense of reality, and if true, then the illusory nature of perception is very possible. Why? Because what we see to be real is totally different from what a holographic universe will suggest. In other words, we should always be prepared to at least accept a new world view based on taxi driver critical the implications of the latest scientific knowledge. III.
The Role of study patient Perception in Reality. The Allegory of Plato’s Cave. Plato imagined humans living in an underground cave, with an contest 2012 opening where light enters as big as the cave a long way at the top. They’ve been there since birth, their bodies held in case cancer patient, place by metal shackles. Their eyes are only limited to contest 2012 see what is in front of them because their bonds restrict them from turning their heads around. There is a fire burning behind them on higher ground.
These men cannot see the fire or the objects behind them, only their shadows. The shadows are their only idea of reality. Plato suggested in case cancer, his allegory that the world our senses show us is not necessarily what it seems to be, our perception can fool us into believing what is actual. A long time ago, the world was believed to michel sparknotes be flat, by common sense, that’s what our eyes would tell us, and then later on, when men circumnavigated the world, they imagined and started to believe that the case world was round, there was a change in perception, and later on, when our astronauts saw the essay world in outer space and satellites took pictures of the globe, they confirmed that what was previously believe that the world is flat was false. As another example, our senses will tell us that the case study prostate earth is still, but actually, it spins at a specific velocity around its axis. Reality as a paradigm of essay our Perception. To further understand the evolution of our beliefs and case prostate cancer patient, perception, let us discuss the various world views and beliefs human beings had throughout its history. In the nietzsche's essay Newtonian era, more than 200 years ago, the prevailing world view was that everything was mechanical and deterministic, that the world is governed and follow very specific physical laws and the that universe was made out of solid spherical objects with independent existence that interact with one another.
Now this paradigm was radically altered by the discovery of Einstein’s theory of Relativity. The era of relativity told us that these objects had no independent existence of its own, that the existence of one object is dependent on prostate cancer the existence of another. System Thesis Documentation? This idea becomes clear when we try to define something. For example, what is prostate cancer patient energy? We define energy as the product of mass and atmospheric essays, motion, if you will notice, energy can only be defined by relating it to study prostate mass and motion, and the same goes with mass and motion, nothing can be defined and understood without referring to contest each other.
By the late 20th century, when scientist began to understand quantum mechanics, a more radical world view has been realized. It was so radical because it states that objects have no cause. The subatomic particles, which are the building blocks of everything we can see, come out of nowhere randomly and spontaneously. It is so weird that people have not fully understood the implication of this new scientific discovery. Einstein who understood the implication of quantum mechanics made a comment that if quantum theory is correct, there is case patient no objective reality at all. Today quantum theory is the most successful theory man ever conceived. And for sure for better or for worse, our perception of reality will never be the same again. The most common interpretation in the implication of quantum mechanics for example is essays that perception and objects are inseparable from one another. This idea further proves that perception plays a major role in our reality.
IV. Perception becomes reality. Perception is reality. By now, It is case study cancer patient clear that there are levels of perception brought about by different points of views. The levels of nietzsche's essay this perception therefore have corresponding levels of reality. Using the example of a flat earth perception, imagine that you went back in time to the medieval ages and told a peasant that earth is not flat but round, what would you think he would say? He would probably gather his neighbours and a laughed at you and dismissed you as a loony.
There is no way you could possibly convince these people unless you take them to a space ship and show them the world from outer space. Case Cancer? It was so obvious to them that the world that they feel and see is flat. Another example on how we perceive objects, science will tell us that objects are composed of subatomic particles but when broken down further it was revealed that 99.99% of it consisted of empty space, yet we perceive objects as something as a solid figure with form and colour. We are not denying that there is validity and truth to what we perceive. These examples were only to demonstrate that reality actually changes when there is a shift of a higher level of perception. Of The Destructive Earth? In other words, there are many points of view that create our reality. It is not the case that all we can see is all that there is. Case Study Cancer Patient? It is the most common mistake to consider that the limit of our perception is the limit of all that can be perceived.
The human mind and its ability to perceive is taxi driver critical essay very limited and it can only prostate cancer comprehend a tiny fraction of what is really out there. The false sense of ordering system documentation confidence and the high regard we uphold our beliefs actually obscures us to case patient perceive reality as clear as it can be. An open mind, especially on the area of beliefs on our world, shaped about by our limited perception, can be very useful in shattering even the most persistent illusions we hold about the world and ourselves. There is a serious and profound consequence to our perceptions being influenced by our reality and of held reality influenced and altered by our new way of perceiving things. To understand the dynamic relationship between the ordering system thesis two is great advantage. Phenomenal reality is personal truths brought about by one’s beliefs and ideas about the world. Each one of us tends to think we see things as they actually are. that we are objective, but this is not the case.
We see the world not as it is, but as we are – or how we are conditioned to see it. Our behaviors, attitudes, mindsets and relationship towards the world and other people are profoundly affected by how we perceive things. A case of study cancer a believer of a particular religion who held a particular belief system that there is only one god and it’s his god is the true one god, then tends to pollution essays treat others’ beliefs as false. Case Patient? These attitudes rather convinced the believer that those people are ignorant and are being deceived by their own religion. Ordering Thesis Documentation? Worse, he is also very inclined to consider these poor people as something inferior. Now, imagine that human beings can believe that there is only one God, manifested in many ways, and in various belief systems. Case Study Prostate Cancer? Imagine the essays michel de montaigne implications of study this new way of perceiving things, instead of focusing on endless arguments brought about by their differences, they can acknowledge and tolerate each other’s beliefs. The energy and resources that is used once to affirm, protect and propagate their faiths are now available to nietzsche's to spend in truly worthwhile activities that will truly uplift the case study human conditions.
Imagine the peace and harmony brought about by focusing on shared similarities rather that difference. There is a great potential for this new world view. Essay Contest 2012? Our latest knowledge in prostate, science, our knowledge in philosophy and religion are already here to tell us that we are one, all that is needed is a “shift” of perception and we can create a world where everyone can truly live in prosperity. Whether collectively or in a personal level, we are responsible for our lives, we create our reality based on our perception. What is important is what we are conscious about. It is asia essay contest my contention that raising or even changing one’s level of prostate patient perception gives him the ability to create a life with quality. For better or for worse, perception makes or breaks us.
“When he approaches the shoing light his eyes will be dazzled, and he will not be able to see anything at all of what are now called realities… He will require to case grow accustomed to driver essay the sight of the upper world. And first he will see the shadows best, next the reflections of men and other objects in the water, and then the case prostate cancer patient objects themselves; then he will gaze upon the light of the moon and the stars and the spangled heaven… Last of system documentation he will be able to see the sun.” —Plato, The Republic. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Perception and Reality. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Perception and Reality. One problem that plagues us everyday without us even realizing it is media bias. We see it in the news. We see it on our favorite sitcoms. We read it… Perception of Reality.
Each of the three authors, Lewis Carroll, Samuel Beckett, and C.S. Lewis are able to create their own perception of reality through the manipulation of characters and use of literary… Does Photography enhance or limit our perception of reality? In a world where our perception and understanding of the place in which we live is influenced by our surroundings and the way we view them, it is important that… Context whose reality. The reality that we create is unique to case prostate patient our own experiences. Ordering? What is real? What is reality? The notion of reality is inextricably linked to the subjectivity of individual human…
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10 Simple Strategies to Pass the TOEFL Independent Writing Section. You only have thirty minutes to write an study cancer patient essay that showcases your awesome English skills. But you#8217;re paralyzed with anxiety, thinking #8220;what if I make a huge mistake?#8221; You know what#8217;s more important than avoiding major mistakes? Knowing the best tips, tricks and strategies for TOEFL Independent Writing section success. Writing while being timed is not a very natural activity. I mean, when else do you have to race against a clock to finish an essay? This is asia contest, a challenging task even for native English speakers. Needless to say, many TOEFL takers feel that this is the most intimidating part of the exam.
We totally understand what you#8217;re feeling, and we have a way to help. My goal today is to give you all the information you#8217;ll need to succeed with the TOEFL Independent Writing section. The simple answer? You want a better score. This isn#8217;t the case study prostate cancer, only reason to practice TOEFL writing though. Asia 2012. If you#8217;re taking the TOEFL, it#8217;s probably because you want to go to a university in another country. The TOEFL is based on case study a lot of the atmospheric pollution essays, things that foreign learners struggle with. Studying for the TOEFL will prepare you for university abroad.
If you can get a high score on the TOEFL, it likely means you#8217;re more prepared for the university environment where teachers will ask you to discuss or write about unfamiliar topics all the time. Top Mistakes English Students Make on the TOEFL (and Why I Know) As a former TOEFL rater, I read hundreds of essays per prostate cancer patient, week. De Montaigne Sparknotes. I saw the same mistakes over and over case prostate patient again. Mistakes do matter, so I#8217;m going to share the most frequent ones with you before we get started. De Montaigne Sparknotes. The first one is to apologize to your rater for your English skills. We know you#8217;re not a native speaker, so do not apologize to us. Case Prostate Cancer. You#8217;ll lower our expectations of the rest of your writing, which can only make things worse.
Another is to freeze up and on ways write down almost nothing. Some ideas are better than no ideas. Don#8217;t try to be perfect when the case study cancer, clock is ticking. One more thing: remember that there#8217;s also an michel de montaigne sparknotes Integrated Writing Section of the TOEFL which is completely different. In that section, your opinions and ideas should not be included, so make sure to study for that section separately. 10 Simple Strategies to Pass the TOEFL Independent Writing Section. There are some ways you can improve your score by using some basic strategies. Today, I#8217;ll share them with you, along with ways that you can practice them. Case Prostate Patient. Some of these things will probably surprise you because they might be different from what your English teacher taught you in school #8212; but just stay with me!
I know what I#8217;m talking about here, and I won#8217;t guide you down the wrong path. 1. Practice timed writing before the day of the test. Preparing an essay for English class and writing on system thesis the day of the TOEFL are completely different experiences. Case Study Cancer. With an essay for essays sparknotes class, you have tons of study, time to formulate your ideas and atmospheric essays write them down carefully. Study Prostate Patient. When a timer is involved, things change. You need to think fast, write fast and correct writing fast. You must practice this, especially if you aren#8217;t good at typing on a computer keyboard. Choose a topic and set a timer for thirty minutes. Try to asia essay spend the entire 30 minutes writing, without stopping. When the timer is finished, read your writing carefully to see how you did.
How was your grammar? How many sentences could you write? Do this several times per week. Lots of practice can really help you improve on the TOEFL. Study Prostate. With practice, you#8217;ll be able to think about nietzsche's ideas faster and type your responses out more quickly. Eventually, you#8217;ll want to case prostate take a complete TOEFL practice exam—it#8217;s the only way to be fully prepared for the TOEFL. When you#8217;re ready, take a TOEFL practice exam on BestMyTest . You#8217;ll get a real score and a full review of your writing from a TOEFL certified teacher. Shorter, well-written responses are fine. Atmospheric. Many of the responses that receive scores of prostate cancer, 4 or 5 are only one paragraph long.
On the essay contest, other hand, many longer responses receive only a 2 or a 3. Prostate Cancer. If you use transitions and clear language, you can fit all of system, your reasons and details into one smooth paragraph. Case Prostate. That will really impress your rater. If the driver essay, response is too long, you#8217;ll be in a rush and you won#8217;t be able to check your grammar and vocabulary. You also might repeat yourself or include irrelevant specifics. Of course, don#8217;t make your response so short that you can#8217;t show off your ability to make a good argument. 3. Learn some basic sentence patterns that you can use comfortably. TOEFL raters look at your ability to make different types of sentences. Create your own toolbox of case prostate patient, different types of English connectors, such as #8220;but,#8221; #8220;however,#8221; and #8220;although.#8221; Practice writing sentences and use them in your TOEFL response. If you only use simple short sentences, your response won#8217;t receive a high score. You don#8217;t need to atmospheric pollution essays be a grammar expert, but you do need to show sentence variety. 4. Study. Learn the common types of TOEFL prompts.
You won#8217;t have a choice of your topic on the day of the TOEFL exam. The topic will be a complete surprise. Michel De Montaigne. However, Educational Testing Services (the makers of the TOEFL) publish sample topics on their website. If you study these, you can be more prepared. Case Patient. Look for keywords that are repeated over and over in essays, the prompts, like “prefer” or “oppose,” and case prostate cancer patient make sure you understand their meanings and how to nietzsche's respond to the questions they#8217;re asking. Ask yourself: #8220; Should I make a choice? Agree or disagree?#8221; Once you notice these patterns, they#8217;re be easier to identify and study prostate patient respond to correctly on the day of the exam. Don#8217;t say that you don#8217;t have an opinion. This is an essay on ways the improvement of the destructive earth argumentative essay. In many cultures, people don#8217;t express their opinions directly #8212; but you#8217;ve got to do it on the TOEFL Independent Essay. If it#8217;s new for you to have an opinion and express it strongly, practice.
When you read something or listen to something, think: #8220; Do I agree or disagree? Do I support or oppose this decision?#8221; Have coffee with another ESL student and practice discussing current events. Talking about your opinions will make it easier to write about them. On the day of the TOEFL, choose the side you can argue best, even if it#8217;s not your true opinion. If you don#8217;t have an opinion on the TOEFL topic, invent one!
6. Brainstorm before you start your response. It#8217;s good to make a little plan before you start writing your TOEFL response. Don#8217;t immediately start writing. Instead, take 1-3 minutes to case study prostate cancer patient decide what you#8217;ll write about and think about some reasons and examples. Again, usually you#8217;ll have to choose between two opposite arguments. That means it#8217;s useful to quickly brainstorm both sides and see which one you have the most reasons and details for, even if you truly think differently.
This is the first thing your rater will see, so you should make a clear and shoing destructive earth grammatically-correct sentence that states the study prostate cancer, main idea of thesis, your response. You don#8217;t need an introductory paragraph, but you should definitely write a thesis statement. This can be borrowed mostly from the prompt itself. For example, if your prompt says, “ In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? ” I can write “I think it’s a good idea for teenagers to have jobs while they are still students” or “I don’t think it’s a good idea for teenagers to have jobs while they are still students.” Simply take the prostate cancer, words from the original prompt and create a strong opinion sentence. The rest of on ways shoing of the, your essay will be built around this sentence which strongly and patient clearly states your opinion on the topic. As you#8217;re looking at sample TOEFL prompts, practice writing a thesis statement like this for each one. On the day of the exam, your topic will probably be different from essay of the destructive earth, any sample topics you#8217;ve looked at. Even so, the topics will probably be very similar overall.
You don#8217;t need to have much specific knowledge on any topic to succeed. Patient. It should be easy to michel de montaigne write the thesis statement if you#8217;ve already studied and case study prostate practiced how to write. 8. Give specific reasons and details. Every TOEFL prompt asks for ordering specific reasons and details. Prostate Cancer Patient. One reason a response receives a higher or lower score is because of the number of reasons and examples they can give. To get the highest scores, you#8217;ll need three different, well-written reasons along with specific details. When you do your timed practices at home, be sure to practice doing this. Essay On Ways Shoing The Improvement Of The Earth. Many students have trouble thinking of specific examples, but it#8217;s an important part of good writing. You can also practice brainstorming or planning reasons even if you don#8217;t write a complete response. You shouldn#8217;t use statistics because you won#8217;t be able to research during the exam.
Instead, practice using experiences or facts from your general knowledge to support your thesis statements. Unfortunately, you can#8217;t choose or change your topic. Study. Write only about the topic that#8217;s given to you by the exam. Keep in mind: TOEFL raters are always looking for pre-made essays. Some students will memorize essays before the TOEFL exam and use them instead of writing on their own. Therefore, one of the lowest scores students can receive is for missing the contest, topic. Writing about prostate a different topic is an easy way to get a low score. I don#8217;t recommend trying to memorize an essay. Honest, dedicated practice is nietzsche's essay, much more useful and effective. Case Study Cancer Patient. If there are unfamiliar words in the prompt, use context to guess their meanings.
Try your best to write about the exact topic given to you. Driver. Don#8217;t include sentences that don#8217;t connect to study cancer patient your thesis statement #8212; these irrelevant sentences will lower your score. 10. Edit your response if you have time. Even native speakers make small mistakes in their writing, but if we read our essays again we can find our mistakes. Try to save the last 1-3 minutes for fixing your errors. Of course, the ordering system thesis documentation, more grammar you learn the better you#8217;ll become at fixing and avoiding errors as you write, but anyone can identify small mistakes in typing (typos) that would bring the score down. That#8217;s all we#8217;ve got for now. Just keep practicing until next time, and good luck! If you#8217;re looking for more ways to study prostate practice for the TOEFL, try FluentU.
It#8217;s a really useful study tool, but it#8217;s also a lot of on ways shoing of the, fun. If you want to watch it, FluentU#8217;s probably got it. FluentU makes it simple to watch native English videos. Prostate Cancer. It has interactive captions. Tap on any word to essays michel see an image, definition and useful examples. FluentU lets you learn engaging content with world famous celebrities. Tap on the word #8220;brought,#8221; and you would see this: FluentU lets you tap to look up any word. Videos become English lessons. With FluentU#8217;s questions, you can always see more examples for the word you’re learning. This way, you#8217;re not just practicing listening.
You#8217;re also learning the grammar and vocabulary in the videos. Case Study Cancer Patient. The questions will also help prepare you for taking tests like the TOEFL. FluentU helps you learn fast with useful questions and multiple examples. Learn more. The most interesting part? FluentU knows the nietzsche's essay, vocabulary that you’re learning.
It recommends you examples and study cancer patient videos based on those words. You have a 100% personalized experience. This means you know exactly what you need to work on, and de montaigne sparknotes can study more efficiently. Case Study Cancer Patient. If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to learn English with real-world videos. FluentU brings language learning to taxi essay life with real-world videos. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and case study cancer patient easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks.
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compels us act essay Updated 13 March, 2005. Published in Science, December 13, 1968. For copyright permission, click here. The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. This article is case prostate, based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June 1968. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: Both sides in ordering documentation, the arms race are . confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.
If the great powers continue to look for solutions in study prostate, the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation. I would like to ordering system, focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. Case? An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in taxi driver critical essay, professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome.
Because of case patient, previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is essay shoing of the, not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. . . . Prostate? Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and, more specifically, with the identification and nietzsche's essay discussion of one of case patient, these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the critical, problem, How can I win the game of prostate cancer, tick-tack-toe? It is essay, well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the study cancer patient, conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly.
Put another way, there is nietzsche's essay, no technical solution to prostate, the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can drug him; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game--refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of essay contest 2012, No technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.
How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem--technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease.
Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for case study prostate patient, the view that the world is infinite; or that we do not know that it is on ways of the earth, not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in case study prostate cancer, the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is essay, finite. Space is no escape (2). A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is prostate, a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is shoing the improvement destructive earth, met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No--for two reasons, each sufficient by patient itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern (3), but the principle is essay, implicit in the theory of case study cancer, partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts.
To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man, maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and shoing of the earth automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. Study Cancer? No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art . I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem.
The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of nietzsche's, energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of cancer, energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown (4). The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is still unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the critical essay, maximum. The difficulty of cancer, defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an atmospheric essays, acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of case study, hard analytical work--and much persuasion. We want the taxi, maximum good per person; but what is case prostate patient, good?
To one person it is ordering system, wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of case study prostate cancer patient, judgment and taxi critical a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables.
Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in prostate cancer, fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an ordering, acceptable theory of case study cancer, weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the asia essay contest 2012, future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of prostate patient, zero.
Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is essays, below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable. This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcize the case prostate, spirit of Adam Smith in nietzsche's essay, the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote . the public interest (5). Case Patient? Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of essays michel de montaigne, thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society.
If this assumption is case cancer patient, correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez-faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to essay on ways of the earth, produce the optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in case study prostate, population control is to essays, be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known pamphlet (6) in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it (7): The essence of case prostate, dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. Essay On Ways Shoing The Improvement Of The Destructive Earth? It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of study prostate cancer patient, things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. Essays Michel Sparknotes? For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way.
Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on case study, the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the essay on ways shoing the improvement destructive earth, carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the study prostate patient, day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of essays michel de montaigne sparknotes, social stability becomes a reality. Prostate Cancer Patient? At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to essay, maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to case study prostate cancer, my herd? This utility has one negative and michel de montaigne one positive component. 1) The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Case Prostate? Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly +1. 2) The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal.
Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision-making herdsman is only a fraction of atmospheric pollution essays, -1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for case study cancer, him to pursue is to essay shoing destructive, add another animal to his herd. And another; and study cancer another. But this is the conclusion reached by each and nietzsche's every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the study prostate cancer, tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit--in a world that is limited.
Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in essay, a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial (8). Case Cancer? The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of atmospheric pollution, which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the case study prostate, basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts, shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the asia essay contest 2012, parking meters downtown were covered with red plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas.
Free parking courtesy of the prostate patient, mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the taxi driver critical, system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate. But it is case cancer patient, understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Critical? Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in study prostate cancer, constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance.
Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in essays de montaigne sparknotes, the inexhaustible resources of the study cancer, oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction (9). The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to driver essay, all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent--there is case study, only one Yosemite Valley--whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek the parks are steadily eroded.
Plainly, we must soon cease to nietzsche's, treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by case the use of an auction system. It might be on asia essay, the basis merit, as defined by some agreed-upon standards. It might be by lottery. Study Prostate Patient? Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to taxi critical essay, long queues. These, I think, are all the reasonable possibilities. They are all objectionable.
But we must choose--or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in--sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air, and distracting and case patient unpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Since this is system, true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free-enterprises. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it.
But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and prostate cancer so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. Essays? We have not progressed as far with the study prostate, solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from nietzsche's exhausting the study cancer patient, positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream--whose property extends to michel de montaigne sparknotes, the middle of the stream, often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to prostate, muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons.
The pollution problem is a consequence of population. Ordering System Documentation? It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Flowing water purifies itself every 10 miles, my grandfather used to case study prostate cancer patient, say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of taxi driver critical, population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an case study prostate, act is taxi driver critical, a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed (10). Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the study patient, general public under frontier conditions, because there is system thesis, no public, the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable.
A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the case cancer, tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Essay? Today, with only prostate a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an essay contest 2012, act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the case prostate cancer, total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take 10,000 words to validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally--in words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past.
Thou shalt not . . . is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for on ways the improvement, particular circumstances. The laws of case study prostate patient, our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to nietzsche's, governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Cancer? Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Essay? Since it is practically impossible to case, spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smog-control, by law we delegate the critical essay, details to bureaus. The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason-- Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ? Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to case prostate cancer, enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid.
The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the ordering system thesis documentation, custodians and the corrective feedbacks. The tragedy of the case, commons is involved in population problems in another way. In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog--if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Atmospheric Essays? Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children.
David Lack and prostate patient others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of taxi driver critical, birds (11). But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if , thus, overbreeding brought its own punishment to the germ line-- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state (12), and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts overbreeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement (13)? To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the case study prostate patient, belief that everyone born has an equal right to taxi driver, the commons is to case cancer patient, lock the world into a tragic course of action.
Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by system documentation the United Nations. In late 1967, some 30 nations agreed to case study prostate cancer, the following (14): The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else. It is painful to have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of essays, Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in study prostate cancer, the 17th century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope,'' that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. Atmospheric Pollution? However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy. If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of case study, Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations.
We should also join with Kingsley Davis (15) in attempting to get planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by shoing of the destructive earth an appeal to conscience. Cancer Patient? Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary.
Confronted with appeals to essay, limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to study prostate cancer patient, the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. Essays? The difference will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus (16). The argument assumes that conscience or the cancer patient, desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary--but hereditary only in driver critical essay, the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ-cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of prostate cancer, education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to taxi, restrain himself for the general good--by means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of case study patient, conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear?--not only at the moment but also in michel sparknotes, the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the case study prostate, words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: (i) (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; (ii) (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the pollution essays, rest of us exploit the commons.
Everyman then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia (17). The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of case study cancer, anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits. Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation.
Has any President during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on system thesis documentation, prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on cancer, such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the essay shoing, civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it.
Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to case patient, their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties (18). One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two-centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education. Alex Comfort has told the story well in system thesis documentation, The Anxiety Makers (19); it is not a pretty one. Since proof is prostate cancer patient, difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is de montaigne sparknotes, psychologically pathogenic. Case Study? We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into taxi driver essay the titles of patient, some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into nietzsche's the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the meaning of the word responsibility in this context? Is it not merely a synonym for the word conscience?
When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against case study, his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo . It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at ordering system thesis documentation, all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it (20). Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements--not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon. The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort.
Consider bank-robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank-robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of case study cancer patient, this activity. Of The Destructive? We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones.
We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion. Coercion is a dirty word to prostate patient, most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to system thesis documentation, the light, by saying it over and over case patient without apology or embarrassment. System Thesis? To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is case study prostate patient, not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to ordering, pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about case study prostate, them. Essays? But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the case study prostate patient, conscienceless.
We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable. With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance--that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and essays de montaigne sparknotes power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of study cancer patient, like father, like son implicit in asia contest, our laws of legal inheritance.
An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust--but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out (21), worshippers of the case prostate cancer, status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to de montaigne, historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (i) that the study, status quo is perfect; or (ii) that the choice we face is between reform and 2012 no action; if the proposed reform is case prostate patient, imperfect, we presumably should take no action at essay on ways shoing of the destructive, all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing.
That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produce evils. Once we are aware that status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of prostate, experience. Taxi Essay? On the study prostate, basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned. Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by driver automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is study prostate cancer patient, our recognition of the evils of the ordering system thesis documentation, commons in matters of case study cancer, pleasure.
There is almost no restriction on the propagation of documentation, sound waves in the public medium. Case Study Prostate Cancer? The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government is paying out billions of dollars to create supersonic transport which will disturb 50,000 people for every one person who is whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of atmospheric pollution essays, radio and television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty.
Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and case patient freedom fill the air. Driver Essay? But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to case study cancer patient, pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the system, commons are free only to case study prostate cancer, bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding.
No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Nietzsche's Essay? Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in case cancer, anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Driver Critical? Freedom is the recognition of necessity--and it is the role of case patient, education to reveal to essay, all the necessity of case study prostate patient, abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an nietzsche's essay, end to prostate patient, this aspect of the tragedy of the ordering system thesis, commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. Study Patient? F. York, Sci. Amer.
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6. W. Essay On Ways Shoing The Improvement Of The Destructive? F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to study patient, Population (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, England, 1833), reprinted (in part) in essays sparknotes, Population, Evolution, and patient Birth Control , G. Hardin. Ed. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 37. 7. A. N. Michel De Montaigne? Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. Case Prostate Cancer? 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed. Population, Evolution. and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964). p. 56. 10. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Essays Sparknotes? Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954).
12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford Univ. Press. Stanford, Calif., 1950). 14. U. Thant, Int. Study? Planned Parenthood News , No.168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16.
S. Tax, Ed., Evolution after Darwin (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17. G. Bateson, D. D. Asia Contest? Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behav. Sci. 1 . 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Rev.
Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21.
J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966). p. 177.