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Dec 19, 2017 Praxis ii biology content essays,
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Start with the company name and praxis ii biology content essays, included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the proper written ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to praxis ii biology essays include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template.
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I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Jaws Essays! Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for ii biology content essays, a career in dissertations, education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience.
Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on praxis ii biology essays the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and proper written format, South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi!
Which resume template would you recommend for praxis essays, someone trying to tap into the finance and literature in case study research, accounting market. Looking for praxis ii biology, an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Maturity Essay! Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of praxis ii biology essays, my elderly father and acknowledgment, online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to praxis content earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template.
Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and acknowledgment, interviewing is our project for praxis ii biology essays, the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out dissertations, with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on ii biology your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for proper, the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.
Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to content check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from literature study research there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to ii biology go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference.
Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on on the trial of socrates your skills qualifications critical to praxis content essays the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to jaws essays get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field.
I understand that some regulations and praxis ii biology essays, rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the scout maturity essay functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Ii Biology Content Essays! Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at building dissertations, the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to ii biology essays choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of jaws essays, a professional experience section, and praxis content essays, you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and building, easy export to praxis ii biology essays MS Word and PDF.
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Acculturation, Biculturism and Marginalization Essay. Ross-Sheriff (2011) commented that international migration patterns have * changed as a consequence of broad social, political, economic, and environmental * trends and explained the causes of the driving forces were including war, * globalization, urbanization, and changing cultural norms regarding social roles and * responsibilities (Ross-Sheriff, 2011). With these complex trends of migration * patterns, Van Hear (2010) viewed migration as a process which was an integral part * of broader social transformations, but which also had its own internal dynamics with * other factors related to the migrating process, shaping social transformation in their * own way. Migration was also linked in complex ways to class, gender, generation, * ethnicity and other social factors, which were embodied in positions in home and host * communities, and in work and domestic relationships, all of which might be * transformed in praxis ii biology the course of the migratory process (Van Hear, 2010). To understand this complex process of migration, especially under changing circumstances of one culture to another, it might be useful to build conceptual tools for understanding these transitory processes in review in case research migration studies and in social science more widely (Van hear, 2010). They also include mediating agents and transitions that need also to be accounted for, as well as intersections among class, gender, generation, ethnicity and other social ruptures as well as the main driving forces of ii biology content essays migration (Van Hear, 2010). Of course there were other important concepts such as relations between time and written format space, between dynamics or processes and outcomes, and between structure and agency that needed to get attention (Van Hear, 2010). However, it is impossible to discuss all different theoretical concepts involved in praxis content essays different types of migration process in the current limited study. Jaws Essays! Rather, this study tried to focus on psychological impacts such as ethnic identity and self-esteem on migration through acculturation processes particularly on family- related migration because different patterns of migration produced different communities and resulted in praxis producing different migrant identities including varying levels of psychological distress (Jones, 2008). Further, few empirical studies have focused on migrant adults populations. Most migrants identification related literatures tended to review in case study research relate more for adolescents or young children because identity formation might be particularly challenging in this cohort, especially when the values and beliefs of their natal culture differed significantly from those of the ii biology content host society (Sodowsky, Kwan, Pannu, 1995; as cited in literature review study Farver, Narang, Bhadha, 2002).
Therefore, this study focused on ethnic identity and self-identification issues of adult migrants’ themselves within a family structure according to praxis content different theoretical models relevant to adaptation of new cultures, because family was the basic instrument in the society (Nesdale, Rooney, Smith, 1997). In fact, most cultural acquisition theories developed and evolved in 1990s when international migration became a key issue in international politics at the beginning of 1990s. As Castle (2002) argued that migration, development and international relations were closely connected as migration was a major factor of transformation for both sending and dissertation receiving countries for content, different types of migrants (Castle, 2002). Essays Trial And Death! With this perspective, this study generally focused on those migration culture acquisition theories developed in 1990 rather then looking at current perspectives in praxis ii biology essays the most recent literatures, which actually have evolved from these original theories in 1990s (Castle, 2002). As the findings from these research studies has had been mixed or sometimes contradictory, it was important to understand the exact nature of the relationship between migrant ethnic identification and the acculturation process both need to be specified and assessed properly with coherent measurements and theoretical assumptions (Nesdale et al. , 1997).
Important theoretical concepts: ethnic identity, acculturation, biculturism, and marginalisation. According to jaws essays Phinney (1990; as cited in Farver, Narang Bhadha., 2002), ethnic identity and acculturation were related but separate constructs. Ethnic identity involves an individual’s self-identification as a group member, a sense of belonging to an ethnic group, attitudes toward ethnic group of membership, and degree of ethnic group involvement (Farver et al. Praxis Ii Biology! , 2002). The term acculturation was defined in anthropology as those phenomena, which resulted when groups of individuals having different cultures came into maturity, continuous first-hand contact with subsequent changes in the original pattern of either or both groups (Redfield, Linton, Herskovits, 1936; as cited in Birman, 1994). Although acculturation was a neutral term in this context (that is, change might take place in either or both groups), in practice, acculturation tended to induce more changes in one of the content groups than in the other (Berry, 1990a; as cited in Berry, 1997) Berry (1997) argued that in all plural societies, cultural groups and their individual members, in both dominant and non-dominant situations, must deal with the issue of how to acculturate. According to Berry (1997), four acculturation strategies were introduced: assimilation, separation, marginalization, and integration.
When individuals do not wish to maintain their cultural identity and seek daily interaction with other new cultures, the assimilation strategy is defined. Building! In contrast, when individuals place a value on holding on to their original culture, and at praxis ii biology content, the same time wish to avoid interaction with others, then the dissertations separation is defined (Berry, 1997). When there is an ii biology content interest in dissertation acknowledgment both maintaining one’s original culture, while in daily interactions with other groups, integration is the content essays option; here, there is some degree of cultural integrity maintained, while at the same time seeking to proper written format participate as an integral part of the larger social network (Berry, 1997). Last, when there is little possibility or interest in content cultural maintenance (often for acknowledgment, reasons of enforced cultural loss), and little interest in having relations with others (often for ii biology content, reasons of exclusion or discrimination) then marginalization is defined (Berry, 1997). However, this acculturation categories model has been criticized methodologically (Rudmin, 2003, 2009; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) because all four of Berry’s categories were represented in trial and death of socrates the same way by creating the two by praxis content essays, two matrix of acculturation categories between high and low. However, the cut off point between high and low was arbitrary and would differ across samples, making comparisons across studies difficult, resulting in the fact that all four categories existed and were equally valid (Rudmin, 2003; as cited in Schwartz et al., 2010) and suggesting that not all of Berry’s categories might exist in a given sample or population, and that some categories might have multiple subtypes (Schwartz et al. , 2010). In particular, Berry (1997) viewed the term “biculturism” as referring to acculturation that involved the individual simultaneously in the two cultures that were in contact in integrative ways, which appeared to be a consistent predictor of more positive outcomes than the three alternatives of assimilation, separation, or marginalization. Berry and his colleagues (Sam Berry, 1995) assessed the acculturation strategies of essays trial various immigrant groups in North America and the results showed that bicultural individuals experienced less acculturative stress, anxiety and praxis content essays fewer psychological problems significantly, while marginalized individuals suffered the most psychological distress, including problems with self-identification and cultural alienation, which adversely affected their self-esteem (Farver et al. , 2002).
However, Shiraev and Levy (2007) explained acculturative stress as a negative feeling that a marginalized person might experience as a distressing psychological reaction to any unfamiliar cultural environment based on the assumption that person and groups undergoing any social and cultural change should experience a certain amount of psychological distress. Generally, many early definitions of acculturation focused on jaws essays exposure to two cultures simultaneously as a culture shock, which was a reactive state of specific pathology or deficit, rather than taking advantage of being bicultural (Berry Annis, 1974; Shiraev et al., 2007). The validity of marginalization as an approach to acculturation by Berry (1997) was also questioned (Del Pilar Udasco, 2004; as cited in praxis content Schwartz et al. , 2010). Schawartz et al. argued that the acknowledgment likelihood that a person would develop a cultural sense of self without drawing on either the heritage or receiving cultural contexts would be less likely to. The marginalization approach might be true only for the small segment of migrants who rejected both their heritage and receiving cultures (Berry, 2006b).
Indeed, studies using empirically based clustering methods have found small or nonexistent marginalization groups and scales that attempted to praxis ii biology essays measure marginalization typically had poor reliability and validity compared with scales for the other categories (Cuellar, Arnold, Maldonado, 1995; Unger et al. , 2002; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010). As described earlier, the impact of migrant ethnic identity on psychological distress had comparatively diverse points of acknowledgment views if they were either negative or positive reactions, depending on different theoretical frames. For example, Social Identity Theory (Tajfel Turner, 2001) and Self-Categorization Theory (Turner, 1987) emphasized more on the importance to individuals of their identification with particular social groups. Social Identity Theory (Tajfel Turner, 2001; as cited in Yip, Gee, Takeuchi, 2008) viewed a possible explanation for why ethnic identity might buffer the effects of discrimination. According to this theory,individuals chose from an array of possible social identity groups and, once those groups were chosen, individuals focused on praxis essays the positive aspects of maturity their in-group, which helped to boost their own esteem, suggesting that ethnic identity was more important to their overall identity (Yip et al. , 2009). In contrast, if ethnicity was a central component of one#8217;s identity, it might actually exacerbate the effects of essays discrimination, resulting in a greater negative impact on mental health, according to self-categorization theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, Wetherell, 1987; as cited in Yip et al., 2008), suggesting that people should be more in tune with environmental cues that were relevant to an important aspect of their identity. That is, experiences of racial discrimination might be such a cue relevant to their ethnic identity. Indeed, research suggested that African American adults and adolescents who reported strong racial centrality were also more likely to report experiences of dissertations racial discrimination (Neblett, Shelton, Sellers, 2004; Sellers, Caldwell, Schmeelk-Cone, Zimmerman, 2003; Sellers Shelton, 2003; as cited in Yip et al., 2008).
However, despite this emphasis by praxis ii biology essays, social theorists, they tended to forget the larger literature that involved with both ethnicity and the acculturation process (Liebkind, 1993; 1996; as cited in Nesdale, Rooney Smith, 1997). First of all, these different findings resulted from written essay lack of inclusion of praxis ii biology essays acculturation itself as a variable methodologically when acculturation was considered as a phenomenon in research designs (Sam and trial and death Berry, 2006). Without including acculturation as a variable, the explanations for human behavior similarities and praxis essays differences across populations would remain incomplete (Sam et al. Scout Maturity! , 2006). Second, a further criticism of the acculturation literatures was that the same two acculturation processes, and the same four-acculturation categories, characterized all migrants equally—regardless of the type of migrant, the countries of content essays origin and essays on the and death settlement, and content essays the ethnic group in question, according to Berry’s (1980) model and other similar approaches (Sam et al., 2006). Jaws Essays! Finally, the vast majority of studies in the acculturation literature have focused on behavioral acculturation (Schwartz et al. , 2010). That is, most widely used acculturation measures included primarily (or only) items assessing language use and other cultural practices (e. g. , Cuellar, Arnold, Maldonado, 1995; Stephenson, 2000; Szapocznik, Kurtines, Fernandez, 1980; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) due to accepting the fact that cultural practices might provide only a fair proxy for cultural adaptation (Schwartz et al., 2010). Theoretical frameworks for ii biology, acculturation research Shiraev Levy (2007) claimed that cross-cultural psychologists usually used three approaches to examine human activities in various cultural settings. They were the sociobiological approach, the sociological approach and eco-cultural approach (Shiraev et al. , 2007).
In particular, the eco-cultural approach emphasized both the environment and the individual were seen as open and interchanging systems (Shiraev et al., 2007), introducing John Berry whom originally developed this theory further in contemporary cross-cultural psychology. Shiraev et al. (2007) also pointed out that specialists should to be able to dissertation acknowledgment explain how, why, and to what extent people differed from one another, when ecological, biological, cultural, and acculturation factors were identified and taken into consideration (Berry, J. W. , Poortinga, Y. H. , Segall, M. H. Praxis Ii Biology Content Essays! , Dasen. P. R. ,1992; as cited in Shiraev et al. Dissertation Acknowledgment! , 2007). In related to the concerns pointed by Shiraev et al. (2007), Berry (1997) argued earlier there were important links between cultural context and individual behavioural development, demonstrating what happened to individuals who developed in one cultural context when attempting to re-establish their lives in another one through his acculturation research framework, by praxis, confirming the fact that acculturation was one of the essays trial most complex areas of research in cross-cultural psychology because the process involved more than one culture and in praxis ii biology essays two distinct senses (Berry, 1997). According to Berry (1997), the concept of acculturation was employed to refer to the cultural changes resulting from different ethnic groups encountered, while the concepts of psychological acculturation and adaptation were employed to refer to the psychological changes and acknowledgment eventual outcomes that occur as a result of individuals experiencing acculturation. In another words, acculturation phenomena resulted from contact between two or more cultures and research on acculturation had to praxis be comparative in order to understand variations in essays on the psychological outcomes that were the result of cultural variations in the two groups in contact (Berry, 1997). In particular, this framework viewed the integration model of acculturation strategies the content essays most desirable among other strategies, considering it the same as the biculturalism model (Berry, 1997). For example, Berry and his colleagues (Berry, 1980; Berry, J. W. , Kim, U. , Power, S. , Young, M, Bujaki, M. , 1989; Berry, Kim, Minde, Mok, 1987; Sam Berry, 1995 as cited in Farver et al., 2002) assessed the acculturation strategies of various immigrant groups in North America and the result showed that integration was the most psychologically adaptive attitude, arguing that integrated or bicultural individuals experienced less acculturative stress and anxiety and manifested fewer psychological problems than those who were marginalized, separated, or assimilated, whereas marginalized individuals suffered the essay most psychological distress, including problems with self-identification and cultural alienation, which also affected their self-esteem (Farver et al. , 2002). However, Phinney, Cantu, and Kurtz (1997) found that American identity was associated with self-esteem only for non-Hispanic Whites, but not for other ethnic groups. These mixed results as explained above raised two issues in the acculturation literatures.
First of all, cultural practices might offer only a substitute for cultural adpatations, as Portes and Rumbaut (2001 as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) mentioned that many Asian American young adults in their sample were not proficient in their native languages, even though they still perceived their identification with their parents’ countries of ii biology content origin and maintained many of their values (Schwarz et al. , 2010). Secondly, most researchers on biculturism did not sufficiently define an accurate operational definition of biculturism so that interpretation of those research results were problematic (Birman, 1994). Indeed, one finding in the United States, was that self-identification as American was markedly higher in non-Hispanic Whites than in ethnic minority groups (e. g. , Devos Banaji, 2005; as cited in in case Schwartz et al. , 2010) and many White Americans did not perceived themselves as members of an ethnic group (Schildkraut, 2007; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010). In brief, different operational definition problems of acculturation arose from different theoretical models of acculturation regarding to their assumptions (LaFromboise, Coleman, Gerton, 1993). LaFromboise et al. (1993) assumed acculturation as one of substitutes among the biculturism models. Biculturism as defined in content this theory was viewed as the dissertation alternation model, which implied an individual in two culture contacts could be competent in both cultures without losing one of the cultures’ competencies in distinct cultural contexts as alternation model, whereas, fusion model meant a blended cultural identity, consisting of ii biology a synthesis of aspects of both cultures (LaFromboise et al., 1993). However, Berry’s (1997) integrating approach of jaws essays biculturism differed from the bicultural model (LaFromboise et al. , 1993; as cited in Birman, 1994) and it emphasized more on ii biology content essays the relationship between the two cultural groups based on its implicit assumption that one of essays of socrates two cultures were higher than the other within a single social structure (LaFromboise et al. , 1993).
Benet-Martinez and colleagues found that “blended” bicultural individuals tended to report higher self-esteem and lower psychological distress than a marginal population (Chen et al. , 2008 as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) because the consistent availability of both cultural flows within the person’s everyday life increased the praxis essays ease of activating the dissertations correct cultural schema in accordance with their environmental situations (Schwartz et al. , 2010). In contrast, Tadmor, Tetlock, and Peng (2009) argued that the bicultural model considered those marginal individuals in positive ways, when there was little interest in praxis content essays cultural maintenance and little interest in having relations with others, suggesting positive aspects of being a marginal person might be (1) sharing his or her condition with others of the same original culture; (2) engaging in building institutional practices that were shared by other marginal people; (3) experiencing no major frustration from social expectations; and (4) still perceiving himself or herself to be a member of a group (LaFromboise et al., 1993). According to Sam and Berry (2006), many studies of how migrants coped with intercultural contacts had discrepancies in the ways in which they were operationalized and measured. As no standardized or widely accepted acculturation measures existed, it was necessary to design a clear and explicit formulation of acculturation instrument in order to assess acculturation adequately (Sam et al. Ii Biology Content! , 2006). Further Sam and Berry (2006) pointed out maturity, that most empirical studies widely used a self-report type of questionnaires that had been recognized limitations such as social desirability, emphasizing obtaining divergent validation by ii biology essays, source of information other than the dissertations respondents’ reports.
Therefore, it is vital to understand each theory within its specific assumptions and not to generalize across all situations regardless of their similar findings (LaFromboise et al. , 1993). As this study discovered migrants’ acculturation processes so far within specific theoretical frameworks, literature findings in different research were mixed as to whether individuals could be highly acculturated and at the same time be strongly identified with their ethnic group (Farver, Narang, Bhadha. Ii Biology! , 2002). Written! These confusing problems initially evolved because of the context in which migration arrangements and their acculturation processes were fundamentally transformed and increasingly uncertain due to globalization (Landolt Da, 2005). Ii Biology Essays! Shiraev Levy (2007) suggested a new approach to cross-cultural psychology in the twenty-first century, which was linked to the concept of globalization. Globalization was defined as a proliferation of cross-border flow and dissertation transnational networks due to new technologies of communication and transport that allowed frequent and praxis ii biology essays multi-directional streams of people, ideas and cultural symbols (Castle, 2010). Castle also argued that globalization leads to major changes in building the character of international migration.
In other words, the context for migrant incorporation has already changed radically and praxis ii biology content essays will continue to do so. The rise of multiculturalism itself rather than assimilation or biculturism is one sign of this, but is not the dissertation acknowledgment end of the essays story: new forms of identity and belonging go beyond multiculturalism (Castle, 2010). Even though there is limited empirical evidence for clear statements for globalization, there probably are highly cosmopolitan groups who feel at home everywhere such as global business and professional elites might correspond with this image. But most members of transnational communities fall between these extremes, and probably have contradictory and proper format fluctuating identities (Castle, 2002). Conclusions This study explored that a special case of ii biology content essays cultural psychology was the study of how individuals respond to situations where they were in transition between their original culture and another that differed from it in some respects in terms of acculturation, especially within a specific theoretical frame that could apply to the specific situation (Adler Gielen, 1994). And Death! There was no single theory widely accepted by ii biology essays, all social scientists to agree with the emergence and perpetuation of international migration patterns in the world under globalization (Van Hear, 2010),suggesting that the contemporary migrating context in which such migrating arrangements were realized fundamentally kept transforming so that it became increasingly uncertain (Landolt and trial of socrates Da, 2005) Although the topic of cultural contact and ii biology content individual’ change has attracted considerable attention in contemporary cross-cultural psychology, the field has been characterized by scout maturity essay, a lack of theoretical coherence, definitional problems with key constructs, and single sample studies that limit the external validity of empirical cross-cultural research (Ward and Kenney, 1994). As acculturation is a process which takes place over time, and which results in changes both in the culture and in the individual culture changes, it would be ideal o compare two sets of essays data are compared over time using the same people. However, in practice, it is impossible in most acculturation research settings (Sam et al. Literature Review In Case! , 2006).
Instead, a common alternative to longitudinal research is cross-sectional research in praxis essays which a time-related variable, such as length of proper written essay format residence or generational status can be used for ii biology, the generalizability of acculturation theories (Sam et al., 2006). In general, researchers of migrating studies need to essays on the trial and death be aware that it is the selective nature of the sample that happens across all migrating research. That is, individuals who chose to migrate would be different from those who do not (Sodowsky, G. , Kwan, K. , Pannu, R. , 1995; as cited in Farver et al. Praxis Ii Biology! , 1997). Finally, acculturation research generally focused on immigrants assumed to be permanently settled in their new host countries. As a result, the terms “migrants” or “international migrants” referred to the same type of migrants collectively. Moreover, many countries were both sending and receiving countries for building dissertations, different types of migrants, or in the process of transition from one type to the other (Castel, 2002). Therefore, where applicable, it is viable to design acculturation research studies classifying different types of migrants. References Adler, L. L. , Gielen, U. P. Essays! (Eds. Proper Written! ). (1994). Cross-cultural topics in praxis ii biology psychology. Westport: Praeger Publishers. Berry, J. W. Scout Essay! (1980).
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Dev Psychol, 44(3), 787-800. doi: 10. 1037/0012-1649. 44. 3. 787. University/College: University of California. Type of ii biology content essays paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Dissertations! Date: 29 December 2016.
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combat medic resume Photograph above by Renan Ozturk. The wind slams into me, and I desperately grip my ice axes to keep from being ripped off the mountain face. I push my head against praxis ii biology content, the snow, calm myself, and look down. Beneath my crampons is a 5,000-foot drop. It’s like looking down from the open door of an airplane. I am roped to my two companions, with nothing attaching us to the mountain. A fall here would send all three of us plummeting to our death.
When the wind subsides, I pound an aluminum stake into essays on the, the snow and clip the rope to praxis content essays, it. It wouldn’t hold if I were to fall but gives me enough psychological comfort to continue. I concentrate, methodically swinging my ice tools and kicking my crampons. At a rock rampart I place an anchor and essay, belay my partners, Cory Richards and ii biology essays, Renan Ozturk, across the chasm. “Nice lead, dude!” Cory shouts above the roar of the wind when he arrives. He climbs onward, slanting left, searching for a passage up through the granite and snow.
When Renan reaches me, there is no room on my ledge, so he traverses out to his own perch. Cory carefully tiptoes the teeth of his crampons along a thin ledge above us and disappears from sight. Renan and written, I wait, hunched against the wind. We stomp our feet and painfully slap our gloved hands. We are too far apart to talk. We just stand there, together but alone, on the side of the snow-plastered cliff more than three miles in the sky. After a half hour we begin to freeze. Ii Biology Content! After an building, hour we can no longer feel our fingers or toes. “I can’t take it anymore,” Renan yells through his frozen beard. “My feet are gone. I have to start moving.” We don’t know what Cory is praxis ii biology doing above us, but we’re so cold it doesn’t matter.
Renan starts climbing, then I follow. We’re all still roped together, so it’s crucial that none of us fall. The rope is supposed to be secured to the mountain to catch a fall, but mortal predicaments like this happen often in proper format, mountaineering. When there are no good anchors, your partners become your anchors, physically and emotionally. You must trust your life to their judgment and ability, and they entrust their lives to yours. This is the code of the mountains. Stretched to the limit, the teamwhich included (left to right) videographer Renan Ozturk, author Mark Jenkins, photographer Cory Richards, climber Emily Harrington, and expedition leader Hilaree O’Neillbegan running low on food on the hike out. “None of us anticipated we’d get that strung out,” says Cory. Renan and praxis ii biology content, I halt in scout, a small rock recess overlooking the north face of the mountain.
Through blowing spindrift we can see Cory traversing another expanse of snow. It is too dangerous for praxis ii biology essays Renan and me to keep moving. Again, we must wait. We huddle close, but we’re still freezing. The wind swirls around our bodies, howling and biting at us like invisible hyenas. “My feet are turnaround cold,” Renan says. What he means is that they’re close to frostbite. I wonder, for at least the tenth time on this expedition, whether this is the end of our quest to climb the highest peak in Myanmara journey that has pushed us to our physical and jaws essays, emotional limits. Far below us on the mountain, our other team members are pulling for us in spirit. Our base camp manager, Taylor Rees, is at the foot of the mountain. The previous day we left Hilaree O’Neill and Emily Harrington at camp 3, a tent nested on ii biology content a snowy ridgeline, where our weary team had a bitter argument over maturity essay, who would try for the summit.
I tell Renan to take off his boots and place his feet underneath my down parka, against my chest. Praxis! He has socks on, and dissertations, my chest isn’t exactly a furnace, but it’s the best we can do. When Cory makes his way around a rock buttress, we start moving. An hour passes before we finally regroup on praxis ii biology essays a thin ledge. Our immediate goal remains far above usthe crest of the west ridge, glistening like the edge of a sword.
“My lead,” Renan says. He begins climbing, woodenly kicking his crampons into the snow. He disappears into the sun. The rope tightens, and Cory takes off. After he vanishes, I follow. When I reach the ridge and push my ice-crusted face into the sun, it’s like poking my head into jaws essays, heaven. Praxis Content Essays! The sudden warmth renews my hope. I pull my body onto the ridge, and a blanket of maturity sunlight envelops me. After the ii biology content, dark, soul-sucking cold of the north face, it feels like rebirth. Renan and Cory have dropped over scout maturity essay, the ridge to get out of the wind and discovered a stone platform hanging above the south face. The sun is spread over the rock like honey. “Lunch ledge!” I bellow, christening our aerie.
Within minutes I’ve got our tiny stove roaring. Renan takes off his boots and begins rubbing his toes. Cory gets out his camera and begins snapping pictures. After more than a week of climbing, this is the first time we can actually see the summit: a steep, shining pyramid of snow. But we can also see what we have left to praxis, climb: a menacing, serrated ridge of scout maturity essay rock and snow, guarded by a dozen dagger-like pinnacles. “Let’s do an praxis ii biology essays, old-school adventure,” Hilaree had said, “an expedition to someplace still remote and unknown.” It was the spring of proper written essay format 2012, and we were coming off Mount Everest. Hilaree is the toughest woman I’ve ever met. After summiting Everest, she climbed its neighbor, Lhotse, with two torn ligaments in her ankle. We had a lot in praxis ii biology, common. Both of us had grown up loving mountains.
We were both married with two kids and trying to find a way to balance family life with expeditions. And we were both disillusioned by Everest’s commercialism and crowds. We needed to get back to what made us climbers to begin with. But finding someplace truly remote is jaws essays tricky. A plane will take you to the North or South Pole, you can hop a helicopter to the base camp of Everest or Makalu, tourist boats cruise the praxis, Nile and dissertations, the Amazon. Real remotenesssomewhere that requires days or even weeks of walking just to praxis content essays, reachhas almost vanished from Earth. And yet I knew a place, a mountain that had long held me in its thrall.
But because of my private history with it, I was reluctant to say anything. Eventually, after bouncing ideas back and forthPakistan, Papua New Guinea, Kazakhstanmy enthusiasm got the scout, best of me. “What about,” I hesitated, “Hkakabo Razi?” Hkakabo Razi (pronounced KA-kuh-bo RAH-zee) is said to be the highest peak in praxis, Southeast Asia. It is a jagged massif of black rock and white glaciers that rises improbably out of the steaming green jungles of northern Myanmar. Located just beyond the eastern edge of the Himalaya, on the border with Tibet, it was first measured by a British survey published in 1925 at 19,296 feet high. Literature Review In Case Study! It is a peak so remote, few climbers have heard of ii biology content essays it even today. Building Dissertations! Getting to the mountain would require a two-week trek through dense jungle riven with plunging gorges and inhabited by content essays venomous snakes. Acknowledgment! Hilaree was hooked immediately. We were planning our expedition before we left Kathmandu.
I had learned of Hkakabo in praxis essays, the 1980s, when I picked up a yellowed copy of literature review in case Burma’s Icy Mountains by content essays British explorer Francis Kingdon-Ward. It described his 1937 expedition into the region and his audacious attempt to literature study, climb Hkakabo Razi solo. He reached almost 16,000 feet before being stymied by an insurmountable “granite wall … beyond my powers.” The Rawang were not immune to the vagaries of the praxis content, jungle. A toddler was brought to us with infected insect bites. A tribal elder told me, “Everyone here either gets better on dissertations their own or dies.” Kingdon-Ward’s “powers,” as I learned from reading his many other books, were protean.
A brilliant botanist, lyrical writer, indefatigable plant hunter, and purportedly a British spy, Kingdon-Ward was one of those hard-as-iron adventurers in the mold of content essays polar voyager Roald Amundsen or Amazonian explorer Percy Fawcett. Kingdon-Ward could tramp through jungle for months on rice and tea, writing in his journal at night beside a campfire. Scout Maturity! From 1909 to 1956, he made more than 20 expeditions into content, Central Asia, during which he survived a fall off a cliff and one of the proper written essay format, century’s worst earthquakes. Along the way he collected hundreds of plants and named many, including species of rhododendrons and praxis essays, lilies that now adorn gardens worldwide. I was entranced by scout Kingdon-Ward’s journeys and was determined to make the first ascent of Hkakabo Razi. Praxis Essays! So in the fall of literature review in case study 1993, I enlisted my climbing buddies Steve Babits, Mike Moe, and Keith Spencer. We called ourselves the Wyoming Alpine Club. Mike had been my best friend since high school in Laramie, and I’d met Keith and Steve at the University of Wyoming. Since then, Mike and I had done several first ascents in content essays, the Rockies and the first kayak descent of the Niger River in West Africa. At that time the military junta controlling Burmalater renamed Myanmarhad declared the building dissertations, north off-limits to foreigners.
We naively planned to avoid this obstacle by accessing the mountain from Tibet, illegally crossing the border, traveling light and fast with no porters. We flew to Lhasa with our rucksacks and ii biology essays, proceeded to sneak across eastern Tibetalso closed to foreignershitching rides in the backs of trucks and talking our way past checkpoints. It took more than a month just to get near the building dissertations, base of the mountain. Mike and Steve had to return home, leaving only Keith and me to climb. We ran out of food on the north side of Hkakabo and had to descend to ii biology, a Tibetan village. There we were promptly arrested by the Chinese military, interrogated, and jailed. We signed a four-page confession of dissertations “misconduct” and were deported. Two years later, to ii biology content, my chagrin, the Myanmar government granted Japanese mountaineer Takashi Ozaki permission to climb Hkakabo Razi. Ozaki was an unstoppable Himalayan veteran, having made the first full ascent of the north face of Everest in 1980. Dissertations! (He would die climbing there in 2011.) He made two failed attempts on Hkakabo in 1995, but in September 1996, after two months of climbing, Ozaki summited with Tibetan-born mountaineer Nyima Gyaltsen. He told the Asia Times, “I can say absolutely that Hkakabo Razi is one of the most difficult and dangerous mountains in the world.
I was never scared before, like this time.” Ozaki published a detailed account of praxis ii biology content essays his expedition, but he did not measure the summit elevation with a GPS, which left the building, mountain’s exact height undetermined. The climbers hired a caravan of motorcycles in the northern town of Putao to transport their gear and supplies across Kachin state. They rode for three days before the wet and muddy route became passable only on foot. Young and convinced of our invincibility, Mike, Keith, and I talked about returning to Hkakabo. (Steve had moved on to different adventures.) But it was not to be. Praxis Ii Biology! Mike died on an expedition in 1995, along with his brother and literature review study, two others. A bowhead whale tipped over their boat in praxis ii biology content essays, the Arctic Ocean, and they all perished from hypothermia. Mike left behind a wife and three kids. None of us ever quite recovered.
Still, Keith and jaws essays, I continued doing expeditions and often ice climbed together. Praxis Ii Biology Essays! On January 2, 2009, we were on the fifth pitch of an icefall in north Wyoming. Written Format! I was belaying him from a small alcove in the ice. He was cheerfully climbing 15 feet below me when we heard a deafening roar. Praxis Ii Biology Content! A section of proper written essay format ice above us had cut loose. Seconds later tons of praxis essays ice crashed down. Keith was killed, his neck broken by the impact. There was no reason why I lived and Keith died. Jaws Essays! We’d taken the praxis essays, safety precautions.
He didn’t do anything wrong, and I didn’t do anything to save myself. There was no moral, aside from the inescapable truth that mountains are dangerous, and occasionally inflict horror and sorrow on those who dare to jaws essays, climb them. Lounging on our lunch ledge in the sun on Hkakabo Razi, slurping down hot noodles with Cory and Renan, I am reminded of my lost friends. Mike was funny like Cory, who’s kept us going through some of the trip’s worst moments with perfectly timed wisecracks. Keith was quiet like Renan, always taking in the grandeur around him, always the praxis ii biology, calm voice in essay, the midst of crisis. During these past weeks I’ve spent with Cory and Renan, it’s been a bit like looking back in time at myself and my dead friends. I recognize in these two younger men the same passion for praxis ii biology content essays climbing mountains, the same determined toughness, the building dissertations, same boundless ambition, and at moments the content, same sense of being bulletproof that Mike, Keith, and I had 22 years ago.
Our resolve replenished, we begin to study the crenellated ridge before us that leads to the summit. Because the literature, mountain has remained largely unexplored, we are climbing with little knowledge of the terrain. Even satellite images don’t reveal the true difficulty of the climb. From the lunch ledge, the route ahead looks more demanding than what we’ve encountered so far. Along their 151-mile jungle trek, the team stayed in the homes of praxis ii biology content essays local Rawang who live in Myanmar’s far north. Unlike Nepal, where commercial climbing is essays on the trial of socrates well established, the people here encounter few foreign mountaineers. Hkakabo’s west ridge is a two-mile-long saw bladea series of stone towers separated by sharp cols of snow. Unlike on some mountains, where you can shoot right up to praxis ii biology content essays, the summit, we have been climbing up and down the review in case study research, jagged ridgeline the whole wayup a tooth of rock, rappelling down the praxis ii biology, backside, balancing across a bridge of snow, then up the next craggy pinnacle. We try to identify a potential route, but the spiked ridge weaves like a serpent’s tail so we can’t see all the obstacles. We do, however, spot a notch that looks like the best location to bivouac for the night.
We pack up and start moving, trying to stay on the sunny side of the essays on the and death, ridge. It takes us four hours to praxis content, reach the notch. We are so fatigued that we can barely stomp out a tent platform. Our faces are rimed with ice from breathing so hard. While trying to shove the poles into our tent, the wind lifts it like a kite. We throw in our packs, guy it down, and written essay format, pile inside. “The shiver bivvy begins,” says Cory as he zips the praxis ii biology, tent, closing off the screeching blackness that has descended on the mountain. We knew this night was going to be misery.
At camp 3 we could see that the ridge became technical and treacherous. So we ruthlessly cut the building dissertations, weight of our packs, bringing only bare essentials, hoping it would be enough to get us to the top and back down. We left our winter sleeping bags and carried only the thin overbag shells. We have one stove, one fuel bottle, one pot, one spoon, two instant pasta meals, and the three of us are crammed into a two-person tent. Sitting knee-to-knee, our backs pressed against the tent, we set our stove on our boots and nearly asphyxiate ourselves boiling water from snow. Praxis Essays! One person holds the stove, another the pot. We are wearing everything we have.
Only our headlamps and runny noses stick out from beneath the hoods of on the trial and death our parkas. Content Essays! Renan says little, which is normal. But even Cory is maturity quiet. We have been sleeping with each other for weeks, like poor brothers in one bed. Praxis Ii Biology! We know each other’s secrets. I know Renan is dealing with the betrayal of a friend. I know Cory’s struggling to stay married and be a world-traveling photographer. They know I’m haunted by memories of building dissertations my dead friends, that this mountain is praxis content essays my white whale.
My thoughts drift to how close we are to our goal and our team’s ugly fight and the toll it’s taken on my friendship with Hilaree. The past weeks spent with Cory and Renan have been like looking back in time at myself and my two dead friends. In these two younger men I see the same passion for proper format climbing, the same sense of ii biology being bulletproof we had 22 years ago. Just getting to the foot of Hkakabo Razi took a month. The very thing that Hilaree and I had wished for on the slopes of jaws essays Everestremotenesswas the essays, very thing that threatened our expedition from the beginning. First we had to cross most of Myanmar. From Yangon we took an overnight bus to Bagan, then a ferry up the review study, Irrawaddy River to Mandalay, where we got on a train that bucked and swayed as if it would derail at any moment. In Myitkyina we boarded a plane where a fellow passenger checked an AK-47 as carry-on luggage. On arrival in essays, Putao, the northernmost town in Kachin state, we spent five days “under arrest” while our climbing permits were batted back and forth among officials. Proper Written Essay Format! Finally, we loaded our gear onto a caravan of praxis content essays motorcycles and set off for three days, crashing through streams and proper written essay, churning through mud until the trail became passable only on foot.
Then began the 151-mile trek to the base of praxis content Hkakabo through the wet, dark jungle. The dense forest canopy cast a dim green glow. For two weeks we moved along this tunnel-like track, always rising steeply or plunging suddenly, from one local enclave to the next, exactly as Francis Kingdon-Ward had done 77 years earlier. We slept in scout essay, the bamboo homes built on stilts of the Rawang people. Although Kachin state is known for praxis ii biology content its jade and gold mines and for illegal logging, people this far north mainly raise pigs and chickens and grow little plots of of socrates rice. On the first day trekking in the jungle Hilaree was almost struck by a snake. She saw it coiled on the trail at the last moment and leaped over it. Essays! Poised to jaws essays, strike, the serpent’s flat head floated side to side, its black tongue squirting in and out. We all kept our distance except Cory, who knelt down and began snapping photos. “White-lipped pit viper,” he declared. It was one of a dozen snakes toxinologist Zoltan Takacs had warned us about before we came to ii biology essays, Myanmar. If one of us were bitten, the venom could cause bleeding from the nose, eyes, gums, and rectum and could be fatal.
We carried two antivenoms, one for vipers, the other for cobras and kraits, but Takacs had warned us that relying on antivenom in jaws essays, the jungle was dicey. Far less dangerous were the leeches. Ii Biology Content Essays! They would drop down onto our necks as we pushed through wet branches or suck onto our feet and legs during stream crossings. All day we’d pluck their blood-engorged bodies off our skin, leaving bites that didn’t fully heal for weeks. And then there were the spiders. We continually pushed through cobwebs the size of fishing nets. Some held spiders baring fangs so large they were visible from a few feet away. Buddhist prayer flags surround a stupa in Dahongdam, the last village on the jungle trek to the base of Hkakabo. Though Myanmar is 90 percent Buddhist, most communities the team encountered on proper written the route were Christian.
The Rawang were not immune to the vagaries of the praxis content, jungle. In one village a distraught mother brought a screaming child to us, her tiny body swollen from infected bites. Hilaree and Emily smeared antibiotic cream on her arms, legs, and face. When I asked what would become of the child, a tribal elder told me, “Everyone here either gets better on their own or dies.” The legs of one of our youngest porters, a schoolgirl of about 12, were so welted with bites that her skin was as bumpy as a toad’s. Jaws Essays! She was one of three girls of ii biology essays similar age whom we shamefully hired, along with their brothers, parents, and grandparents, to carry our gear.
We hired anyone we could find. Scout Maturity! They all hefted loads with practiced efficiency. Praxis! We’d recruit porters from format, one village to content essays, help us get to the next village up the trail. Some would work for jaws essays a few days, others just for a few hours. Sometimes they’d abandon us without a word, slipping away in content essays, the night. The truth is, we had brought far too much stuffcameras and lighting equipment, laptops, extra batteries, even two drones to get aerial footagethe paraphernalia of dissertations a modern expedition. Praxis Ii Biology Content Essays! But it was all useless without enough strong backs to on the trial of socrates, carry it. So we began leaving bags of gear in the villages we passed through until we were down to a quarter of our initial load. At almost any other time, we would have encountered plenty of locals along this trail willing to make $15 a day, twice the local wage. But when we arrived in praxis content, the fall of 2014, Hkakabo Razi had improbably become front-page news. On September 10, 2014, three weeks before our team left the jaws essays, United States, an Associated Press headline read: “Search for missing climbers begins in Myanmar.” An eight-man, all-Burmese expedition had set out for Hkakabo to put one of praxis ii biology content essays its citizens atop the country’s highest peak.
It was a matter of national pride. On August 31, after two weeks of climbing, two team members signaled from somewhere near the summit. They were never heard from on the of socrates, again. An enormous search effort was mounted. Porters were recruited from content, local villages to supply the building, search teams. Choppers buzzed over praxis, the jungle between Putao and the mountain.
Then one of the helicopters, with two pilots and a passenger, disappeared. The search for the climbers was suspended, and a search for the helicopter ensued. Nine days later, the helicopter’s passenger stumbled out of the jungle and led rescuers to the pilots: One was alive but severely burned, the other dead. After decades of quiet obscurity, Hkakabo Razi had claimed three lives in essay, one month. Porters take a break on a bed of bamboo leaves. In some villages, the team hired entire families, even grandparents, to carry gear. Most were Rawang people who live in remote valleys near the Tibetan border. Another American climbing team was partly behind this sudden Burmese attention to the mountain.
The year before, Andy Tyson, a Teton-based guide, had led an American-Burmese expedition to a neighboring peak called Gamlang Razi. After studying modern Russian topographic maps, as well as images from Google Earth, Tyson had determined that Gamlang might actually be higher than Hkakabo. Tyson’s team made the praxis ii biology essays, first ascent of Gamlang Razi in September 2013. Using a survey-grade GPS, they measured its height at 19,259 feet. Literature! Although this was still 37 feet lower than Hkakabo’s 1925 British survey height of 19,296, it was higher than the 18,671 feet that Russian surveyors had calculated in the 1970s and 1980s. “No one in praxis ii biology content essays, Burma wanted to believe that Gamlang was higher than Hkakabo,” Tyson told me last year, noting that Hkakabo is a long-revered symbol of national pride, and a foreigner calling its prominence into question embarrassed some Burmese. Dissertations! (Tragically, Andy Tyson was killed in a plane crash in April.) In fact the Burmese expedition had set out to prove that Hkakabo Razi was still the country’s highest peak. Before disappearing on the upper reaches of the mountain, their ill-fated climbers had transmitted a GPS reading of 18,996 feet.
In my own research, I had contacted Robert Crippen, an Earth scientist for NASA. We discussed the various methods for measuring Gamlang and Hkakabo. “The real bottom line is that errors of 30 meters [100 feet] or more might not be evident, and this is praxis ii biology essays about the on the trial of socrates, difference in these peaks,” he said. Content Essays! “So we have evidence, but no proof, for which one is higher.” The highest mountain in Myanmar would remain a mystery until someone stood on the summit of building Hkakabo with a GPS. If one of us were to slip off the ridge, the only way to save his life would be for the next climber on the rope to quickly jump off the opposite side, both men praying in the millisecond that the rope wouldn’t sever. Renan, Cory, and I pass the spoon, each of us gulping down hot soup, while the wind punches at ii biology content essays the tent like a boxer working a heavy bag. When the pot has cooled, we hand it around and swill the last of the liquid.
We pack snow inside the pot, put it back on the stove, and keep melting snow until each of us has a full hot water bottle, which we will sleep with on our chests. It is so cold we would prefer to just stay locked together around the purring stove all nightscrew the toxic fumesbut we don’t have enough fuel. Proper Essay Format! We turn off the stove knowing that the next hours will feel like several days. We arrange our ropes and packs underneath ourselves and try to find some way we can all stretch out. If we lie on our sides, it’s just possible. “Nothing I like more than spooning with two really smelly dudes,” Cory quips.
We are so smashed together that none of us can move without elbowing or kneeing each other. We don’t expect to sleep. We expect to suffer. We pull our balaclavas down over our faces like knights closing their visors in preparation for battle. We put our mittens beneath our hips to insulate them against the snow. Renan and ii biology essays, I are on the outside, up against building, the frost-covered tent walls, while skinny Cory is in the middle. It’s like being buried together inside a small tomb. Praxis Ii Biology Essays! We lie there for hours, each of us floating in our own dark thoughts. “I’m freezing,” I say in the black of night. I have been trying to hold it in for a couple of hours.
My back has been against literature review study research, the tent wall for so long the cold has penetrated through to my chest. Ii Biology Essays! “I need to start the stove or something.” “Get in jaws essays, the middle, I’ll take the outside,” says Cory. We trade places, and I don’t get warm, but I don’t get any colder. We stay in praxis ii biology, this position for as long as we can stand it. In the darkest, coldest hour, I start imagining someone finding our bony bodies lined up in the snow like crooked logs. Finally, finally, daybreak comes.
Back in the jungle, two days before reaching base camp, we met a bone-weary, hollow-eyed Japanese team that was retreating from Hkakabo as if returning from the front lines of an epic battle. We’d heard about jaws essays, them and had been concerned that they’d summit ahead of praxis us, rendering all our efforts meaningless before we even got to proper essay format, see the mountain. But they’d been delayed by the rescue of the Burmese climbers. Eventually, they had made their own attempt via the content essays, west ridge, which was also the route we intended to take. Their team leader, Hiro Kuraoka, was injured. Dissertation! He had slipped among the boulders and badly bruised his buttocks. Despite lying in a sleeping bag with a bulging hematoma on his backside, Hiro was animated and praxis essays, generous, explaining their route in detail and showing us numerous photos of the topography from various camps. He said they had been stopped several hundred feet from the summit by essays trial and death a razor’s edge of praxis ii biology snow and sharp, insurmountable pinnacles. Like two military platoons passing in the night, we exchanged supplies.
We gave Hiro a bottle of ibuprofen, and he gave us stove fuel and written essay, ropes. His team was defeated but alive, which in the end is all that really matters. After nearly two weeks of trekking, we finally climbed out of the fetid jungle onto the rising southern flank of Hkakabo. The tropical humidity gave way to a bracing alpine mist, and essays, we dug into our bags for fleeces and down jackets. We’d all lost weight and were tired from the arduous trek. And we were running out of time. In planning the jaws essays, expedition, we had agreed to be home by Thanksgiving.
In Kingdon-Ward’s time, the end point of an expedition was rarely based on a preset date, but in our modern age, time is the least available commodity. We had just 10 days before we had to praxis content essays, begin our hike out. I knew Ozaki had needed 25 days from base camp to climb the mountain. Blocked by building tooth-like rock spires, Mark turns back from the ii biology, ridge leading to Hkakabo’s snowy summit. To go on, the team would’ve had to spend a night without food, a tent, or sleeping bags. “We’d have lost digits, if not our lives,” says Cory. Over the next week, we put in three camps up the scout maturity essay, spine of the west ridge, but under time pressure and praxis content, faced with the literature in case, difficulty of the terrain, relations among the team were fraying. I was especially concerned when Hilaree reached camp 2 dangerously hypothermic. We got her warm, but it was a cautionary moment. The next day, climbing to camp 3, neither Emily nor Hilaree appeared comfortable on the steep, exposed faces of ice and snow and moved slowly. In retrospect we should have expected this slower pace.
Emily is a national sport-climbing champion but had little experience climbing this kind of praxis content mixed terrain. Hilaree is a renowned ski mountaineer with some challenging alpine climbing expeditions on acknowledgment her resume. But Cory, Renan, and I have deeper backgrounds in this type of environment. Cory had been the first American to summit Pakistan’s 26,362-foot Gasherbrum II in winterand survived an praxis content, avalanche in the process. Renan had been part of the team that summited India’s 20,702-foot Meru Central via the proper essay, Shark’s Fin, a brutal climb many thought impossible. And over 35 years of content climbing, I’d done first ascents in Antarctica and the Rockies, Alps, and literature review study, Himalaya. These experiences didn’t change any of the inherent dangers, but it did mean we three were able to praxis content essays, move faster and implicitly trust each other with our lives as we tried for the summit. That night, at camp 3, Renan and Cory both privately expressed concerns about climbing any farther with the literature review, entire team. Essays! We spent the next day in our tents acclimatizing, and essay, there was no way around the painful conversation. In his soft-spoken way, Renan noted that the climbing was going to get more dangerous.
It was also pointed out that three people moving fast had the best chance of summiting in the brief time we had left. Emily readily agreed that she was in over her head. Ii Biology! But Hilaree was deeply offended and insisted that she should go for the summit. I explained it was an acknowledgment, issue of praxis ii biology content safety for the whole team, but Hilaree was wounded. “I’m going to say one thing,” she said, her voice welling with emotion as she left the tent, “[Expletive] you, Mark, for the vote of confidence.” This expedition was sponsored by a grant from National Geographic’s Expeditions Council and The North Face. Nothing is more damning in the mountains than hubris, yet hubris is essays and death fundamental to climbing mountains.
All serious mountaineers possess big egos. You cannot take on the risks and constant suffering of big mountains without one. We may talk like Buddhists, but don’t be fooled, we’re actually narcissistsdriven, single-minded, masochistic narcissists. Nearly all of praxis ii biology essays us, on some mountain at dissertations some time, have defied logic and refused to turn around, as Hilaree was doing now. Praxis Ii Biology Content! Some of us have been lucky enough to survive those misguided moments. This may sound harsh, but I’m at a season in dissertation acknowledgment, my climbing career where openness and honesty trump polite silence, even with my friends. We were all weary, light-headed from the essays, thin air, and fearful of what lay ahead, and the conversations over dissertation acknowledgment, the next hours devolved into shouting, accusations, and recriminations. Eventually, Cory couldn’t stand the rancor and said Hilaree could take his place on the summit team. Renan and ii biology essays, I were concerned but reluctantly agreed to the new plan. At three the dissertations, next morning, as we began to rope up, with a freezing Tibetan wind howling, Hilaree made the correct decision.
She said it was too cold for praxis ii biology content her, reasoning that if she had a second bout with hypothermia, she might endanger the team. She told Cory to go instead. “Why do we do this?” Cory asks, struggling like a contortionist to building dissertations, put his boots on praxis inside the tiny tent. “Really! Why?” His hands are too numb to tie the laces. “Because it’s so much fun,” Renan says drily, pressing his elbows against the snapping tent walls. After 39 days of boats and trains, snakes and leeches; after clawing up the written format, sheer faces of Hkakabo’s west ridge; today is summit day. We each take slugs of steaming tea until the pot’s empty, then reluctantly crawl out of the praxis essays, tent into the battering wind. Essays Trial And Death Of Socrates! Spindrift is whirling around us. The sun is a distant cold ball. Praxis Content Essays! We click on our crampons, rope up, and start climbing. Our feet and fingers are numb, but moving beats trembling in the tent. Of Socrates! Our blood starts pumping, and warmth gradually returns to our cores.
All serious mountaineers have big egos. You cannot take on the risks and constant suffering of big mountains without one. We may talk like Buddhists, but don’t be fooled, we’re actually hard-driving narcissists. Together we traverse the ii biology content, first of a series of large rock spires. Format! To either side, a mile below us, is an ocean of clouds. If one of us were to slip off the praxis ii biology essays, lance-like ridge, the only way to save his life would be for the next climber on the rope to quickly throw himself off the opposite side, both men praying in the millisecond of potential oblivion that the proper written essay format, rope isn’t pulled taut over a knife-sharp rock and praxis content essays, severed. This is the depth of trust required in mountain climbing.
This is how you transcend yourself and bond with your climbing partners. It is the reason we climb. We gather on a little point of snow to maturity essay, reassess. “I’m scared,” Cory says. “I’m really [expletive] scared. I think we should turn around.” His naked honesty is strangely comforting. He’s saying what we all feel. But Renan and I aren’t ready to praxis ii biology content essays, turn back.
I lead down around a snowcapped block, up through a narrow hallway between two slabs of rock, hook along a crescent of snow, and dissertation, suddenly the entire route to the summit appears before me. I am aghast. We knew we had one more deep notch in the ridge to negotiate, but I see now that it is filled with massive stone teeth, like the jawbone of a dinosaur. It would take us hours, well into the night, to climb through this wind-gnashed maw. To summit would require another night on the mountain, but this time without a tent, stove, food, or water. We would be perched on a ledge on the side of the mountain in the wind in ii biology essays, the dark, and we would freeze to death. It is the dissertation, point of no return.
I realize we will not reach the top. We will not measure the height of Hkakabo Razi. We will not solve the mystery of Myanmar’s tallest mountain. I have been carrying a photo of Mike Moe and Keith Spencer for the entire expedition. In it, Mike and Keith are standing on a mountain wearing puffy down coats, helmets, and content essays, wide grins. Review! I so fiercely wanted to place this picture on the summit. But it is not to praxis, be.
I paw out a little hole and place the photo in scout essay, the snow. I take a GPS reading at our high point, 18,841 feet, then climb slowly back along the ridge to ii biology essays, Renan and scout maturity essay, Cory. They already know our expedition is over. All we want now is to get down alive.