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biology exam essay The process of creating a protein from the information given from DNA consists of climate change essays conclusion, two parts: transcription and translation. The first process transcription is copying the information from DNA to mRNA. The process starts when DNA double helix opens and in one strand a RNA polymerase attaches and change essays conclusion starts to bind free nucleotides to DNA, so G bonds with C and A with U (because RNA does not have T). When this RNA polymerase reaches a part of DNA called the terminator, the transcription process stops and mRNA leaves the nucleus. A sequence of three bases code for one aminoacid. In mRNA this is called a codon.

The second process translation does the “translation” from the language of climate change essays conclusion, bases to on islamic art, the language of climate essays conclusion, aminoacids which make up proteins. Shakespeare Essays Twelfth Night! After mRNA leaves the nucleus it travels to ribosomes, a cell part where proteins are made. In ribosomes, another type of thesis, RNA, the tRNA is used as a “translator” between mRNA and aminoacid. Change Conclusion! In one end of tRNA there is a “anticodon” which is elizabethan essay, complementary to the codon of mRNA. (example if the codon in mRNA says AGG, the anticodon of tRNA will be UCC). This was the tRNA knows in which specific mRNA to attach to. Thesis! In the other end of climate change conclusion, tRNA there is a site where the specific aminoacid is attached. Thesis Statement On Abortion! Ribosomes have several sites.

The P site holds the growing polypeptide chain, the A site holds the next aminoacid that comes, and the E site is the exit site where the polypeptide chain detaches. Change! A particular tRNA called initiator tRNA comes in and bonds with the mRNA on the P site. This tRNA always carries a particular amino acid – always methionine (MET) which is the “Start” aminoacid. A new tRNA with its amino acid comes in to climate essays, the ribosome and statement bonds to climate, the A site. The first tRNA on the P site leave, and the new tRNA with the two amino acids now moves to the P site.

This process continues until the whole polypeptide is science papers, made. The process stops where mRNA codes for a tRNA that never carries an amino acid. This is called a stop codon. This way the process stops and the newly made polypeptide chain leaves the ribosome. 2.Describe the process of DNA replication. During DNA replication, the DNA makes copies of itself. This happens during the S phase of biology, cell cycle.

The replication starts in specific parts of DNA called “origins of replication.” DNA helicase- is an change essays enzyme that opens or unzips the double helix so there are two strands ready to be replicated. SSBP are proteins that keep the strands apart from each other, and DNA topoisomerase deals with the twisting problem. the replication starts when an five on islamic RNA primer attaches to the origins (because free nucleotides can not attach unless there is something to hold to). Then DNA polymerase starts attaching nucleotides to the strands so A pairs with T and G with C. it is important to mention that the replication only climate conclusion, occurs in 5’ to 3’ direction. Conclusion! As we know the DNA strands are twisted in opposite direction (on in 5’ to conclusion, 3’ and the other in 3’ to 5’ direction). So in one strand, DNA polymerase continuously adds nucleotides to make the new DNA. Climate Change! This process is fast and thesis this is called the leading strand. But on the strand the DNA polymerase has to work kind of backwards because it has to go on change essays the other direction in order to replicate from 5’ to 3’ direction. This is a discontinoual process and this is the lagging strand. The DNA that is made is fragmented in so called “okazaki fragments.” When the process is stoped, DNA ligase links these fragments and shakespeare essays twelfth night the DNA is replicated in two identical copies. 3. If a DNA molecule has the message: I will insert a DNA sequence here , what would be the amino acids in the protein?

What would happen if the DNA message changed to I. will insert a different sequence with a base change? Be specific in your answer. Change Essays! 4. How does DNA replication ensure accuracy. When DNA is replicated, you wind up with 2 DNA molecules. However, one strand of essays on islamic, each of the new DNA molecules is the ORIGINAL DNA, and change conclusion one strand is newly synthesized. Cell And Molecular Biology Questions! The proof reader enzymes check the new copy against the original strand to make sure the bonding rules are followed. 5. Fully explain the try operon in bacteria. The trp operon is another type of operon in bacteria. Again it consists of phdcomics, a promoter, operator and functional genes: trp E, O, C, B and A. These 5 genes make enz which synthesize tryptophan, a necessary amino acid. This gene is change essays conclusion, always ON, the repressor is essays, not active when formed, so will not bond onto the operator.

This allows free access of the RNA polymerase to move down the DNA, transcribing all 5 genes. 6. Climate Change Essays Conclusion! Describe an shakespeare essays twelfth operon in prokaryotes. Explain the significance of climate change essays, each part of the operon. The way prokaryotes organize and regulate genes is by shakespeare twelfth night use of change, what is on islamic, known as an operon. An operon has several regions to climate change essays, it: The promotor region is where the RNA polymerase bonds onto phdcomics thesis, the DNA, initiating transcription of the DNA into mRNA. The operator region comes next. Essays Conclusion! This DNA region acts as a switch, turning on/off the gene, by allowing or not allowing the RNA polymerase to essays, get to thesis statement on abortion, the genes on the DNA. Then there are the sections of the DNA with the genes. In prokaryotes all related genes are located together.

7. Explain two ways that genes can be controlled in eukaryotes. Transcriptional control is the most common. In this type of change essays, control you prevent transcription from occurring. ! Translational control. In this type of control you prevent the process of translation.

8. What is the Human Genome Project? What were its goals? The Human Genome Project started as an international scientific project to identify all human genes and their location in the chromosomes. Its goal was to cell and molecular, know the sequence of genes and to use this information to cell and molecular biology essay, find cures for genetic diseases. 9. Climate Change Essays Conclusion! We now have bacteria making human insulin. Explain how this is essays night, possible. Human insulin can be made through DNA recombination.

Scientists can combine different sequences of climate conclusion, DNA that code for the desired protein (insulin). This is , then put in bacteria, in host cells, which offer growing conditions for the protein. Five! 10. Explain how a DNA fingerprint is done. DNA fingerprinting is change essays, a process that involves the identifying and evaluating of a person's genetic material (DNA).

DNA fingerprinting has a host of different uses including paternity testing, crime scene forensics and science papers the identification of a decayed or destroyed body. DNA fingerprinting can be done either through blood samples from a vein, or the use of climate essays, a heel prick. Vein: It is done just like a simple blood test. A needle is inserted into a vein, and blood drawn into a sample container. The blood sample can then be sent off to a laboratory for DNA testing. Essays Conclusion! Heel: This is much better way done by a hole stick.

A heel prick is done by pricking the heel with a lancet. The blood that is phdcomics, expelled from the wound is collected and essays sent to a DNA laboratory. Art! RNA has almost the same structure as DNA. The difference is the sugar which in this case is ribose, and one base: Uracil which substitutes Thimine. Also RNA is a single strand.

DNA is made of two strands which are bonded together with hydrogen bonds and are twisted to form a double helix. Theatre! DNA is change essays conclusion, a polymer of nucleotides. Thesis Statement! Nucleotides are made of: a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group and a base. Climate Change! The base can be Adenine, Thimine, Citozine or Guanine. The way that two strands are bonded with each other is , that A pairs with T and C with G. Climate Conclusion! One strand goes from 5’ to 3’ direction and the other strand goes on the opposite direction.

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resume withdrawal Protracted Withdrawal Syndromes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Vol. 8 pp. 19-28 · 1991. Professor C Heather Ashton DM, FRCP. School of climate, Neurosciences. Division of Psychiatry. The Royal Victoria Infirmary.

Queen Victoria Road. Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP. Abstract: The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is elizabethan theatre essay a complex phenomenon which presents serious difficulties in definition and measurement. It is particularly difficult to set out precise limits on its duration. Climate Change? Many withdrawal symptoms are a result of pharmacodynamic tolerance to benzodiazepines, some mechanisms for which are discussed. Such tolerance develops unevenly in different brain systems and thesis statement on abortion may be slow to reverse. Change Conclusion? Withdrawal symptoms occurring in the first weeks after cessation of drug use tend to merge with more persistent symptoms that may last for many months. These prolonged symptoms do not necessarily constitute true pharmacological withdrawal symptoms, but are nevertheless related to long-term benzodiazepine use. Such symptoms can include anxiety, which may partly result from a learning deficit imposed by the drugs, and a variety of sensory and motor neurological symptoms. The protracted nature of elizabethan, some of these symptoms raises the possibility that benzodiazepines can give rise not only to climate change essays conclusion, slowly reversible functional changes in the central nervous system, but may also occasionally cause structural neuronal damage. Keywords: benzodiazepines; withdrawal syndrome; tolerance; protracted symptoms; tinnitus; brain mechanisms.

Drug withdrawal syndromes, in general, tend to consist of elizabethan, mirror images of the conclusion, drugs' initial effects. ? Thus, abrupt withdrawal from conclusion, chronic usage of beta adrenoceptor antagonists such as propranolol may give rise to phdcomics, tachycardia and palpitations; abrupt withdrawal from antihypertensive doses of climate conclusion, clonidine may be followed by hypertension, anxiety, and other signs of increased sympathetic activity. Benzodiazepines are no exception: On sudden cessation after chronic use, anticonvulsant effects may be replaced by epileptic seizures, muscle relaxation by increased muscle tension, hypnotic effects by increased anxiety. The same symptoms can occur in attenuated form when the drugs are withdrawn slowly. However, all of these symptoms are not inevitable in any individual patient. The particular features of the withdrawal syndrome and their time of on abortion, onset, duration, and severity are greatly modified by many other factors. Such factors include pharmacokinetic variables, dosage and duration of drug use, rate of withdrawal, the climate change essays conclusion, presence or absence of the original disorder (such as anxiety) for which the 12 angry essay, drug was prescribed, personality characteristics, physical makeup and susceptibility, and the use of concomitant treatments. These variables alone make it difficult to characterise specific features of the withdrawal syndrome. This difficulty is essays compounded by the fact that, as long-term medication, benzodiazepines have mainly been prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, disorders which themselves include most features of the conclusion, drug withdrawal syndrome.

When such patients undergo reduction of benzodiazepine dosage, especially slow reduction, how can one specify which emergent symptoms are true, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, which are pseudowithdrawal symptoms (Tyrer, Owen, Dawling, 1983), which represent a return of the original anxiety state, and which are the natural reactions of an anxious personality undergoing the stress of withdrawal? In circumstances such as these, the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome becomes largely a matter of essays, definition. Nevertheless, the existence of a benzodiazepine withdrawal reaction, from both high and essays conclusion low (therapeutic) doses of benzodiazepines, is no longer in dispute, and many attempts have been made to define and measure it and to men leadership, estimate its incidence and climate essays duration. Definitions and Measurements. Symptoms occurring during benzodiazepine withdrawal have been described by related research papers many authors (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto, Sellers, Naranjo, Cappell, Sanchez, Sykora, 1986; Hallström Lader, 1981; Murphy, Owen Tyrer, 1983, 1984; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Smith Wesson, 1983; Tyrer et al ., 1983; Tyrer, Rutherford, Higgett, 1981; Winokur, Rickels, Greenblatt, Snyder, Schatz, 1980; among others). Commonly described symptoms are shown in Figure 1. Conclusion? None of theatre, these symptoms are specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal: They include all of the psychological and climate somatic symptoms of anxiety, although certain symptom clusters are characteristic. Owen and essay Tyrer (1983) and Petursson and Lader (1981a b) emphasised the appearance of new symptoms, not experienced before withdrawal and change uncommon in anxiety states.

These new symptoms include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli (sound, light, touch, taste, and smell) and perceptual distortions (e.g., sensation of the floor undulating, feeling of 12 angry essay, motion, impression of walls or floor tilting). There also appears to be a higher incidence than usually seen in anxiety of depersonalisation, derealisation, paraesthesiae, and extreme dysphoria, an amalgam of anxiety, depression, nausea, malaise, and climate change essays depersonalisation (Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b). Visual hallucinations, distortion of body image, psychotic reactions, formication, muscle fasciculation and twitching (occasionally resembling myoclonus), and thesis considerable loss of weight are also described during benzodiazepine withdrawal and are unusual in anxiety states. Smith and Wesson (1983) and essays Ashton (1984) drew attention to the characteristic fluctuation of thesis statement on abortion, symptoms, which may wax and wane without obvious psychological provocation. Smith and Wesson (1983) suggest that this wavelike symptomatology is an important marker for distinguishing the low-dose benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome from symptom re-emergence. However, since symptoms may fluctuate in the course of the day or over periods of days or weeks, accurate recording is difficult. Since no particular symptom is change essays conclusion exclusive to benzodiazepine withdrawal, how can one define the syndrome? Tyrer et al . (1981, 1983) have attempted various methods in elizabethan theatre, placebo controlled studies: The appearance of two or more new symptoms during the withdrawal period. New symptoms in essays, one study included perceptual disturbances, sensory hypersensitivity, and fear of imminent death (1981), and in another study (1983), psychotic symptoms, depression and dysphoria, muscle twitching, and abnormal sensations of movement. The choice of two new symptoms as the minimum number necessary to qualify as withdrawal is clearly arbitrary.

An increase in self-rated symptoms (Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale) to essay huck finn, greater than 50% of baseline levels, followed by change a return to essay tom sawyer finn, lower values. Symptom resolution is clearly an change conclusion, important feature in differentiating between symptoms due to withdrawal and symptom re-emergence, emergence, or overinterpretation. As Smith and thesis Wesson (1983, p. 88) point out: Withdrawal symptoms subside with continued abstinence, whereas symptoms of other aetiology persist. However, a measure of symptom resolution is essays not applicable to related research, patients who drop out of withdrawal studies, perhaps because of intolerable true withdrawal symptoms. It is noteworthy that 45% of patients dropped out of one study (Tyrer et al ., 1981).

A combination of methods (1) and (2) so that a withdrawal reaction is defined as the climate essays conclusion, appearance of new symptoms that resolved before the end of the thesis, study (20 and 14 weeks after the climate essays, end of withdrawal [Tyrer et al ., 1983]). Compare Contrast Tom Sawyer Huck? More recently Tyrer, Murphy, Riley (1989) have produced a questionnaire of conclusion, symptoms that are relatively specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal in that they mainly occur during periods of drug withdrawal and return towards baseline levels after withdrawal. Pseudowithdrawal symptoms were defined as symptoms occurring when patients thought they were reducing but their drug consumption and blood concentrations of benzodiazepines were unchanged. Such definitions, derived from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, have been extremely helpful in the recognition of on abortion, benzodiazepine dependence, especially low-dose dependence. However, they are of necessity arbitrary and can only climate, be approximate, since the appearance or severity of any particular symptom or symptom cluster may actually represent a variable combination of true withdrawal, pseudowithdrawal, and re-emergence of , anxiety, and the same patients liable to pseudowithdrawal reactions are also likely to be most vulnerable to true withdrawal effects. Furthermore, definitions based on differences from prewithdrawal symptoms do not take into account the possibility that, due to the development of tolerance, withdrawal symptoms may already be present while patients are still taking benzodiazepines. Such a situation is climate change essays most clearly seen with relatively short-acting benzodiazepines. Men Leadership? For example, patients taking triazolam as a hypnotic commonly develop daytime anxiety (Oswald, 1989) and even hallucinations or psychotic reactions. Essays Conclusion? These are almost certainly withdrawal effects since they are immediately relieved by taking the drug but eventually disappear after the drug is theatre stopped (Ashton, 1987). Similarly, with lorazepam and alprazolam (Hermann, Brotman, Rosenbaum, 1987) patients often develop increasing anxiety and panic as well as craving between doses (Ashton, 1984). They appear to climate change essays conclusion, undergo a miniwithdrawal between each dose, which is temporarily relieved by the next tablet, but disappears after total cessation.

An analagous condition is seen with alcohol: alcoholics commonly complain of tremor and insomnia, symptoms which are temporarily relieved by alcohol but which only disappear after a period of abstinence. Even with long-acting benzodiazepines such as diazepam, there is usually a history in long-term users of steadily increasing anxiety, with the development over science research the years of new symptoms such as agoraphobia, often with perceptual distortions and depersonalisation, despite continued usage of these supposedly anxiolytic drugs. These symptoms have often been temporarily alleviated by a moderate increase in dosage or the change essays conclusion, addition of another benzodiazepine, but eventually re-emerge during further chronic use and only disappear after the benzodiazepine is stopped (Ashton, 1984, 1987). Mechanisms of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms are discussed below, but tolerance is difficult to demonstrate in clinical practice. Because of these many immeasurable factors, it is doubtful whether the boundaries of a true benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome can ever be clearly demarcated. The overall incidence of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is unknown.

As with cigarette smokers (Ashton Stepney, 1982), there may be a large, uncounted population who quit regular benzodiazepine usage after months or years without ever coming to medical attention. Tyrer (1990) notes that it is surprising how many patients in ordinary practice have no difficulties whatsoever in , reducing their benzodiazepines, and the incidence of a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in general practice appears to be around 30% (Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983; Tyrer, 1989; Tyrer, Murphy, Riley, in press; Tyrer, 1990). On the other hand, in selected patients referred for specialist treatment, the incidence may be 100% (Ashton, 1987; Lader Olajide, 1987; Petursson Lader, 1981a). It is also worth noting that withdrawal syndromes in the form of climate essays, rebound insomnia (Kales, Scharf, Kales, 1978) or more general symptoms can occur in experimental subjects and in nonanxious patients prescribed benzodiazepines for statement on abortion sports injuries (Lader, 1988). In addition, a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome has been described in neonates whose mothers took therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines during pregnancy (Rementeria Bhatt, 1977). Not surprisingly, the observed incidence of climate change, benzodiazepine withdrawal reactions depends not only on patient selection but also on the criteria used for measurement. In the study of climate change essays conclusion, Tyrer et al . (1983), when definitions of withdrawal (1) and (2) (see above) were used singly, the incidence of pseudowithdrawal reactions was around 20%.

With the combined definition (3) (see above) the , incidence of true withdrawal symptoms was 44% and there were no pseudowithdrawal reactions. This incidence of course only change conclusion, applies to those consenting to take part in the study and managing to change, finish it. It cannot account for dropouts during withdrawal or for individuals declining to statement on abortion, undergo withdrawal (45.5% of climate change essays, eligible patients in the study of Tyrer et al ., 1981). Phdcomics Thesis? Thus the climate conclusion, incidence of five art, benzodiazepine withdrawal, like its diagnosis, becomes largely a matter of definition. The identification of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is climate conclusion difficult enough; its duration is even more difficult to delineate. Most estimates suggest a duration of elizabethan theatre essay, approximately 5-28 days, with a peak in severity around 2 weeks post withdrawal, after which most symptoms return to essays conclusion, prewithdrawal levels (Busto et al ., 1986; Murphy et al ., 1984; Owen Tyrer, 1983; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983).

To a large extent the apparent duration depends upon how long the patients are followed up, and several authors have drawn attention to the prolonged nature of postwithdrawal symptoms in some cases. Essay? For example, Smith and Wesson (1983) observed that symptoms after withdrawal from low-dose benzodiazepine typically take 6-12 months to subside completely. Prolonged symptoms included anxiety, insomnia, paraesthesiae, altered sensation, muscle spasms, and psychosis. Ashton (1984, 1987) reported a similar protracted time-course. Change? Tyrer (1990) refers to a post-withdrawal syndrome in , the 6 months after withdrawal.

Hallström and Lader (1981) found the Hamilton Anxiety Score still raised above baseline levels by follow-up several months later when successfully withdrawn patients had resumed their normal life (Hallström Lader, 1981 p. 237). Olajide and Lader (1984) suggested that depression may be an integral part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and may last several months after withdrawal in susceptible individuals; this phenomenon was also observed by change conclusion Ashton (1987). Busto, Fornazzari, and research Naranjo (1988) described two cases in whom severe tinnitus first appeared during benzodiazepine withdrawal and persisted for 6 and 12 months after discontinuation before finally diminishing or disappearing. In one of these cases the tinnitus was immediately alleviated by diazepam in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted over 1 week, 6 months after withdrawal; after a further 6 months of abstinence the tinnitus had became tolerable. In a recent study of 68 patients who were withdrawn from benzodiazepines over a 6-week period and followed for a further 4 weeks, Tyrer et al . (1989), using a self-report scale, found a wide variation in the time at which individual symptoms peaked.

Mean scores for some symptoms (depression, dizziness, paraesthesiae, feeling of unreality) peaked early, while mean scores for others (nausea, memory impairment, faintness, touch sensitivity, and motor impairment) were maximal 8 weeks after the climate change essays, start of , withdrawal. Although individual patient's scores were not reported, and 30% withdrew from the change essays, study, these findings suggest that symptoms can persist beyond the , 5-28 days usually regarded as the duration of the change essays, withdrawal syndrome. Ashton, Rawlins and Tyrer (1990) used the rating scale shown in Figure 1 to essays art, record the symptoms of patients undergoing diazepam withdrawal under double-blind placebo controlled conditions. Withdrawal took place over 4 weeks, and patients were followed for change essays 8 weeks after the end of phdcomics, withdrawal. Essays Conclusion? Half the patients received placebo and the other half withdrawal. Analysis of the time-course of selected symptoms in the 11 out of 12 patients in the placebo group who successfully completed withdrawal is shown in Table 1. Eight weeks after the end of withdrawal, mean scores for headache, dizziness, depression, tinnitus, paraesthesiae, and motor symptoms remained higher than prewithdrawal scores; other symptoms had declined although few had disappeared. These findings again show that duration of symptoms after benzodiazepine withdrawal is often a matter of months rather than weeks. Different symptoms persisted in the Tyrer et al . (1989) and Ashton et al . (1990) studies, which differed also in size of sample, patient selection, and rate of withdrawal. To what extent such persistent symptoms are true withdrawal symptoms is unknown. A further problem in assessing the duration of the withdrawal syndrome is the interpretation of the baseline (prewithdrawal) symptoms and anxiety scores.

Patients presenting for benzodiazepine withdrawal often have high levels of anxiety and many psychological and somatic symptoms. ? Figures 2 and 3 show Hospital Anxiety Depression (anxiety) (Zigmond Snaith, 1983) and symptom rating scores for 12 patients on change conclusion benzodiazepines compared with the scores of phdcomics thesis, 18 healthy university students approaching their exams. Both groups took placebo tablets and climate essays conclusion were followed for 20 weeks. The benzodiazepine group withdrew from the benzodiazepines between weeks 8 and compare contrast tom sawyer huck finn 12. Climate Change? It is five clear that the patients had considerably higher scores than the change essays, normal subjects on both scales, even at the beginning of the study while they were still taking benzodiazepines. Certainly in thesis, these patients the benzodiazepines were not effectively controlling anxiety and, as argued above, it is possible that at least some of the presenting symptoms were due to withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of the drug, as a result of the development of drug tolerance. Such symptoms would be expected to climate conclusion, disappear after withdrawal, but they could be slow to resolve. There was no evidence of resolution below baseline levels 8 weeks after withdrawal, but unfortunately (as in phdcomics, most studies) formal assessment stopped at this point. However, continued clinical contact with most of these patients has shown that anxiety symptoms have declined over time. This slow improvement bears out the observations quoted above (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto et al ., 1988; Hallström Lader, 1981; Olajide and Lader, 1984; Smith Wesson, 1983) that symptoms improve gradually for climate change essays many months after withdrawal, and some patients are able to resume normal lives after years of incapacity before withdrawal. Which of these long-lasting symptoms can one attribute to true drug withdrawal effects?

Is it possible to essays on islamic art, pinpoint a time at which the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome ends and to say with certainty that any residual symptoms must be due to other factors? The problem is similar to that of designating which effects of a bout of influenza or infectious mononucleosis can be attributed to climate essays conclusion, the specific virus. Phdcomics Thesis? Do such effects include only those of the viral toxaemia? Do they include secondary bacterial infection consequent upon the impact of the virus? Do they include the period of postviral lethargy and change depression which, like benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms, tends to recur in wave-like fashion for several months? Once again, the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome appears to slip through the fingers and contrast tom sawyer finn one is led back to a question of definition. Probably a clear definition of duration is impossible because drug-induced perturbations of central neurotransmission merge imperceptibly into the background of individual, genetically determined, and learned patterns of brain activity. Protracted Symptoms After Benzodiazepine Withdrawal. All the problems of definition discussed above are multiplied in any attempt to climate, describe protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes. Yet anyone observing patients for long periods after withdrawal cannot fail to be struck by the persistence of essays art, certain symptoms in some patients. These may not be true benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms; nevertheless they are possibly related to benzodiazepine use and often present a clinical problem.

Listed below are examples of some protracted symptoms that from personal observations and other reports appear to be relatively common after benzodiazepine withdrawal. Unfortunately, there are no data available on the incidence and climate conclusion duration of such symptoms in men leadership essay, comparable patients not treated with benzodiazepines, nor of their relative incidence in patients undergoing benzodiazepine withdrawal. Nor are there any known predictive factors to essays, indicate which patients might be especially vulnerable. Anxiety: As discussed above, anxiety may persist for many months after benzodiazepine withdrawal, yet slowly decline below prewithdrawal levels after 1-2 years (Ashton, 1987). 12 Angry? One reason for the slow resolution may be that benzodiazepines inhibit the learning of climate change essays conclusion, stress-coping strategies.

Such effects have been demonstrated in animals and man (Gray, 1987). Consequently there is a long period after benzodiazepine withdrawal when patients have a decreased ability to cope with stressful situations (Ashton, 1989; Murphy Tyrer, 1988; Owen Tyrer, 1983). Recovery may require many months of learning new strategies of stress control to replace the years of coping with stress by means of exogenous drugs. Hence persisting anxiety after benzodiazepine withdrawal does not necessarily imply the art, re-emergence of an anxiety state existing before benzodiazepine treatment; it may represent the conclusion, uncovering of a type of learning deficiency induced by long-term benzodiazepine use. People who take benzodiazepines tend to elizabethan theatre essay, have high ratings for trait anxiety (Ashton and Golding, 1989; Golding Cornish, 1987; Golding, Harper, Brent-Smith, 1983) which may confer a particular vulnerability to change conclusion, the stress of withdrawal. Nevertheless, even without formal treatment, protracted anxiety symptoms, including agoraphobia and panic, may gradually resolve after benzodiazepine withdrawal (Ashton, 1987) although the process may be hastened by behavioural treatments.

Depression: Depression can be caused or aggravated by chronic benzodiazepine use (Lader Petursson, 1981), yet it also appears to be a feature of the withdrawal syndrome (Olajide Lader, 1984). It may be severe enough to qualify as a major depressive disorder (Ashton, 1987) and may persist for statement some months. Olajide and climate change essays conclusion Lader (1984) suggest that the mechanisms for postwithdrawal depression may be central serotonin depletion, but there is no direct evidence for this. Thesis? Clinically, the depression is not different from depressive illness in general, and it responds to antidepressant drugs. It is climate conclusion not clear whether protracted depressive symptoms are more common in patients with a previous history of statement on abortion, depression or whether it recurs in subsequent years after withdrawal. Tinnitus: Tinnitus is a common symptom of climate change, benzodiazepine withdrawal and may initially result from the characteristic general hypersensitivity to contrast essay tom sawyer finn, sensory stimuli.

It usually resolves in a few weeks, but occasionally qualifies as a protracted symptom. Busto et al . (1988) describe two cases in which tinnitus persisted for essays conclusion 6 and related research 12 months after withdrawal and mention a third patient who was unable to withdraw from benzodiazepines because of severe tinnitus at each attempt. Climate Essays Conclusion? Further cases of protracted tinnitus personally observed are described below. Case 1: Female, aged 54. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 8 years. Withdrawal slowly from oxazepam 45mg daily in 1986. Right-sided tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal; became severe after final withdrawal and is still constantly present and severe 2 years later, remaining mainly unilateral. 12 Angry Men Leadership Essay? No abnormality detected on climate change conclusion skull x-ray, CAT scan, EEG, or ENT examination, apart from slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness.

Not clinically anxious or depressed; all other withdrawal symptoms resolved quickly. Contrast Huck? Taking no medication. Case 2: Female, aged 62. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 18 years. Withdrawn slowly from diazepam 15mg daily in 1988.

Bilateral tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal, becoming severe after final withdrawal, and still present, severe, and continuous 1 year later. ENT investigation: moderate bilateral high-tone deafness; wears hearing aid. No clinical anxiety or depression; no other withdrawal symptoms; no medication. Case 3: Female, aged 58. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 20 years.

Withdrew from diazepam 20mg daily over 4 weeks in 1988. Developed acute psychotic reaction, which resolved in one week. First noticed left-sided tinnitus 1 month after withdrawal. Climate Change? Three months later restarted diazepam 20mg daily because of unremitting tinnitus, but experienced only elizabethan theatre essay, slight improvement. Climate? Second withdrawal over one year 1988-9. Left-sided tinnitus severe throughout withdrawal and research still persisting though becoming intermittent.

ENT examination negative except for slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Medication: mianserin 30mg daily, started after onset of change conclusion, tinnitus; carbamazepine recently added with no effect on tinnitus. Case 4: Female, aged 70. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. First noticed tinnitus, mainly right-sided, on essays on islamic art withdrawal from climate change conclusion, flurazepam 30mg daily in contrast essay tom sawyer huck finn, 1985. Tinnitus continuous ever since, not relieved by a course of diazepam. ENT examination normal. Climate Change Essays Conclusion? Drugs: no psychotropics; inhalers for asthma. Tinnitus is fairly common in elizabethan essay, the general population and the apparent relation to benzodiazepine use may be incidental, but these cases raise the conclusion, suspicion that benzodiazepines may occasionally cause permanent or only slowly reversible brain damage. Such damage may not be detectable on CAT scans; one study (Lader Petursson, 1984) suggested a mild degree of cortical shrinkage in chronic benzodiazepine users, but this finding was not confirmed in a later study (Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987).

Two of the above patients also complained of unilateral headaches. Paraesthesiae: Paraesthesiae, in the form of tingling, pins and needles or numbness of the extremities or circumoral region, is another common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal. 12 Angry Men Leadership Essay? The symptom also occurs in climate change essays conclusion, anxiety and possibly results from hyperventilation. Benzodiazepines depress the sensitivity of the , respiratory centre to carbon dioxide (Gilmartin, Corris, Stone, Veale, Gibson, 1988) and it is possible that the climate change essays conclusion, respiratory centre becomes hypersensitive during withdrawal, triggering hyperventilation. Resolution of elizabethan theatre, paraesthesiae usually occurs within a few weeks of essays conclusion, withdrawal. Occasionally, however, patients complain of , numbness or of a burning sensation affecting the fingers, feet, and legs that may be protracted for months or years.

The symptoms suggest a peripheral sensory neuropathy and there may be demonstrable sensory impairment to light touch. Two patients summarised below typify several similar cases personally observed at a benzodiazepine withdrawal clinic. Case 1: Female, aged 56. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 15 years. Severe continuous burning pain of feet first noticed in 1984 during slow reduction of lorazepam 7.5mg to 1.5mg daily. Changed to climate change conclusion, diazepam and slowly withdrawn over 1 year 1987-8.

Burning feet persisted for a further year, gradually decreasing in intensity and now almost disappeared. No abnormal signs; good peripheral pulses. Medication; promethazine 50mg nocte since 1988. Case 2: Female, aged 67. Duration of tom sawyer finn, benzodiazepine usage: 12 years. First noticed severe burning pain in feet and legs in 1981 during reduction of medazepam 15mg to 5mg daily. Pain persisted during diazepam substitution and climate change essays slow withdrawal in 1985. Thesis? 1986: still severe burning pain in legs not relieved by climate change conclusion chlordiazepoxide. 1989: pain still present.

Neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, serum foliate and B 12 levels normal; peripheral pulses present and normal. Formication is also common during benzodiazepine withdrawal, and many patients temporarily complain of a feeling of insects crawling on the skin or of lice or nits in the hair. Thesis? Occasionally, more bizarre sensations are reported, such as a feeling of slime or water running over the body, a sense of inner vibration, or a feeling of trembling inside, and these symptoms may be protracted. Such symptoms may be variants of the burning sensations described above or may possibly be psychotic, but have a temporal relationship to benzodiazepine withdrawal. Motor Symptoms: Increased muscle tension, hyperreflexia, tremor, fasciculation, and muscle jerking are common features of benzodiazepine withdrawal but usually resolve within weeks. Occasionally muscle jerking persists for climate a year or more after withdrawal, and the clinical picture may suggest myoclonus, tics, or exaggerated startle reactions. Shoulder girdle and limb muscles are usually affected, but blepharospasm can occur. Some patients complain of violent jerking of the whole body at the onset of sleep, which may occur 20 or more times a night. Restless legs syndrome may also be protracted.

Some of phdcomics thesis, these symptoms may result from increased peripheral sympathetic tone since they are often improved by propranolol. Others may be centrally generated and at least partially respond to carbamazepine. Blepharospasm can be controlled by climate change local injection of botulinum toxin at 3 monthly intervals. Protracted motor symptoms such as these raise the possibility that benzodiazepines are capable of causing long-term hyperexcitability of motoneurons or central motor pathways. Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms are extremely common during chronic benzodiazepine use and in withdrawal. Many chronic benzodiazepine users have been investigated by gastroenterologists and found to have irritable bowel syndrome (Ashton, 1987).

Gastrointestinal symptoms may be aggravated by hyperventilation (Lum, 1987) and research papers may disappear completely after benzodiazepine withdrawal, even in patients who have had irritable bowel syndrome for years. Nevertheless, there remains a sizeable core of patients who complain of food intolerance and gaseous abdominal distension which first appears during withdrawal and essays is protracted for many months. Tests for elizabethan theatre essay specific food allergies almost always prove negative, and the condition is unresponsive to conventional treatment. Patients often turn to climate conclusion, alternative or fringe medicine, undergo various forms of diet, and become convinced that they have intestinal candidiasis or damage to the immune system. None of change, these claims have scientific support, although Lum (1987) reports that hyperventilation provokes histamine release and that the incidence of food intolerance and pseudo-allergic reactions is high in chronic hyperventilators. The effect of related research papers, benzodiazepine withdrawal on gastrointestinal function and on coriocosteroid and immune responses (known to be affected by stress) perhaps merits further attention.

Brain Mechanisms of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms. The primary effect of benzodiazepines is enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity on climate change essays conclusion postsynaptic GABA-A receptors in the brain. The effect results from an interaction with specific benzodiazepine binding sites on the GABA-receptor complex (Möhler Okada, 1977; Squires Braestrup, 1977), which increases the affinity of the receptors for GABA (Costa, 1981). GABA neurons consist of small interneurons forming local circuits which exert a powerful influence on the excitability of other neurons passing through their spatial domain (Bloom, 1985). Such local GABA circuits are widely distributed throughout the brain, including the reticular formation, limbic system structures, cerebral and cerebellar cortex (Young Kuhar, 1980). GABA is a universal inhibitor of nervous activity and also inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters (Benton Rick, 1976).

Thus the actions of benzodiazepines include not only enhancement of GABA activity at many brain sites but also decreased release of acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin (Faefely, Pieri, Pole, Schaffer, 1981). Phdcomics Thesis? The clinical effects of benzodiazepines probably result from a combination of these primary and climate change secondary effects at critical sites. For example, the anxiolytic effects may be due to decreased serotonergic and noradrenergic activity in septo-hippocampal pathways (Gray, 1981). Thus benzodiazepine actions are by no means confined to a particular neurotransmitter or brain pathway. Any chronically used drug gradually engenders a series of homeostatic responses which tend to elizabethan essay, restore normal function despite the presence of the drug.

With chronic benzodiazepine use, compensatory changes occur in GABA receptors. Such changes consist of decreased sensitivity of these receptors to GABA, probably as a result of alterations in affinity state and decreased density (Cowan Nutt, 1982; Nutt, 1986). In addition, there are changes in the secondary systems controlled by GABA, so that the output of excitatory neurotransmitters tends to be restored, and/or the sensitivity of their receptors increases. The whole complex of primary and secondary changes eventually results in benzodiazepine tolerance. This pharmacodynamic tolerance develops unevenly to different benzodiazepine effects. For example, tolerance appears more rapidly to hypnotic and anticonvulsant than to anxiolytic effects (Sepinwall Cook, 1979). Climate Change Conclusion? Tolerance to different effects may also vary between individuals, possibly due to variations in intrinsic GABA activity in different parts of the brain, which are in thesis, turn reflected in conclusion, personality characteristics and on islamic art susceptibility to stress. Tolerance is never complete and probably never reaches a perfect equilibrium in all brain systems, which may be one reason for the high morbidity amongst chronic benzodiazepine users (Ashton, 1987). Acute tolerance, especially to hypnotic effects, can be manifested rapidly, but chronic tolerance develops over a time-course of several weeks. Once established, chronic tolerance can last for months or even years after cessation of some central nervous system depressants such as alcohol (Cicero, 1979) and probably also benzodiazepines. The development of pharmacodynamic tolerance sets the scene for the withdrawal syndrome.

Cessation of the drug exposes all the adaptations which have accrued to counteract its presence, releasing a rebound of unopposed activity involving many neurotransmitters and their receptors and many brain systems. Clinically this state is climate change conclusion manifested as the withdrawal syndrome, consisting of , effects that are largely the opposite of those originally induced by the drug. The distribution, duration, and severity of symptoms depend on the particular systems that have undergone adaptive modulations and the degree of the adaptive changes induced, as well as on the rate of drug withdrawal. Some authors distinguish between rebound and withdrawal effects, but the mechanism is the same for both (Lader, 1988) Acute withdrawal effects are reversed by an appropriate dose of the drug, which restores the climate essays conclusion, status quo . As the homeostatic changes slowly reverse, withdrawal symptoms decline. The process of reversal, like that of tolerance acquisition, does not necessarily proceed evenly in all systems. The variable time of emergence and duration of individual symptoms during benzodiazepine withdrawal noted by Tyrer (1989) and Ashton et al . (1990) (Table 1) may reflect this uneven course.

The perturbations of brain function induced by benzodiazepines are exceedingly complex, and 12 angry men leadership it is not surprising that withdrawal symptoms are many and variable. Different symptoms may reflect disturbance of the balance between different neurotransmitter systems as suggested by climate change Ashton (1984) and are likely to show large interindividual differences depending on personal characteristics and susceptibilities. As discussed above, it is essays on islamic difficult to set a definite time limit on the reversal of tolerance and, therefore, the essays, end of the withdrawal syndrome. Elizabethan Theatre? In general, tolerance declines over a matter of weeks, but in some cases it may endure for a year or more (Cicero, 1979). Delayed or slow reversal of tolerance may account for some protracted withdrawal symptoms. However, some changes induced by climate essays conclusion benzodiazepines may be permanent or only very slowly reversible. Papers? Since benzodiazepines apparently inhibit learning, especially for coping with stress strategies (Gray, 1987), cessation after many years of use may expose a learning deficit, especially in the ability to cope with stress. Change Essays? This may persist as protracted anxiety, and may possibly be related to science research, protracted depression.

Anxiety symptoms are likely to endure until new learning has induced the climate change essays, appropriate synaptic changes, which probably involve modification of endogenous GABA activity. Finally, there remains the question of whether benzodiazepines can cause structural neurological damage. Like alcohol, benzodiazepines are lipid soluble, are highly concentrated in the brain, and impair cerebral cortical, cerebellar, and limbic system function. It is possible that use over many years could cause physical changes such as cortical shrinkage, which may be only phdcomics, partially reversible. Such changes have been demonstrated by CAT-scan studies in young alcoholics (Lee, Möller, Hardt, Haubek, Jenson, 1979; staff, British Medical Journal, 1981) although not conclusively in chronic benzodiazepine users (Lader Petursson, 1984; Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987). However, such techniques may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle changes. Nor are standard tests of intellectual function sensitive enough to change essays, detect minor degrees of elizabethan theatre essay, cognitive impairment that may persist after withdrawal in some long-term users. It remains possible that some protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms (including tinnitus and climate change other neurological and essays on islamic art psychological symptoms) could result from physicochemical neuronal damage. These symptoms would not be fully relieved by restarting benzodiazepines.

There are still many puzzling features of climate essays conclusion, benzodiazepine withdrawal, and essay the benzodiazepine story remains unfinished (Ashton, 1984). Ashton, H. (1989). Risks of dependence on benzodiazepine drugs: A major problem of long-term treatment. Conclusion? British Medical Journal , 298, 103-104. Ashton, H., Golding. J.F. (1989). Art? Tranquillisers: Prevalence, predictors and possible consequences.

Data from a large United Kingdom Survey. British Journal of Addiction , 84,541-546. Ashton, H., Rawlins, M.D. Tyrer, S.P. (1990). A double blind placebo controlled study of buspirone in diazepam withdrawal in chronic benzodiazepine users. British Journal of Addiction, 157, 232-238. Ashton, H., Stepney, R. (1982) Smoking: Psychology and pharmacology , London: Tavistock Publications. Benton, D., Rick, J.T. (1976). The effect of increased brain GABA produced by amino-oxyacetic acid on conclusion arousal in rats.

Psychopharmacology , 49, 85-89. Bloom, F.E. (1985). Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system. In A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, T.W. Rall, F. Muland (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (pp. 236-259). New York: Macmillan. Busto, U., Fornazzari, L., Naranjo, C.A. (1988).

Protracted tinnitus after discontinuation of long-term therapeutic use of 12 angry men leadership essay, benzodiazepines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 8, 359-362. Busto, U., Sellers, E.M., Naranjo, C.A. Climate Change Conclusion? Cappell, H.P., Sanchez, C.M., Sykora, K. Research? (1986). Climate Change Essays Conclusion? Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. New England Journal of Medicine , 315, 654-659. Cicero, T.J. (1979). Elizabethan Theatre Essay? Tolerance to and physical dependence on alcohol: Behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms. in climate change essays conclusion, Brain and pituitary peptides (pp.1603-1617).

Munich: Ferring Symposium 1979. Costa, E. Compare Contrast Essay Tom Sawyer? (1981). The role of climate conclusion, gamma-aminobutyric acid in the action of 1,4 benzodiazepines. In J.W. Lamble (Ed), Towards understanding receptors (pp. 176-183). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland.

Cowen, P.J., Nutt, D.J. (1982). On Islamic? Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal from tranquillising drugs: Is there a common neurochemical mechanism? Lancet ,2,360-362. Gilmartin, J.J., Corris, P.A., Stone, T.N., Veale, D., Gibson, G.J. (1988). Effects of diazepam and climate essays chlormethiazole on ventilatory control in normal subject.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 25, 766-770. Golding, J.F., Cornish, A.M. (1987). Personality and life-style in medical students: Psychopharmacological aspects. Psychology and Health , 1, 287-301. Golding, J.F., Harper, T., Brent-Smith, H. (1983). Phdcomics? Personality, drinking and drug-taking correlates of change, cigarette smoking. Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 703-706. Gray, J.A. (1981).

Anxiety as a paradigm case of emotion. British Medical Bulletin , 37, 193-197. Gray, J. 12 Angry Essay? A. Change Essays? (1987). The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In S.M. Stahl, S.D. Iverson, E.C. Elizabethan Essay? Goodman (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp.171-190).

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Haefley, W., Pieri, L., Pole, P., Schaffer, R. Climate Change Essays? (1981). General pharmacology and neuropharmacology of phdcomics thesis, benzodiazepine derivatives. In H. Hoffmeister, and G. Stille (Eds.), Handbook of change conclusion, experimental pharmacology (Vol. 55, 11, pp. 13-262). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Hallström, C., Lader, M. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal phenomena. International Pharmacopsychiatry , 16, 235-244. Hermann, J.B., Brotman, A.W., Rosenbaum, J.F. (1987).

Rebound anxiety in panic disorder patients treated with shorter-acting benzodiazepines. Journal of , Clinical Psychiatry , 48 (suppl. 10), 22-28. Kales, A., Scharf, M.B., Kales, J.D. (1978). Rebound insomnia: A new clinical syndrome. Science , 201, 1039-1041. Lader, M. (1988). The psychopharmacology of addiction - Benzodiazepine tolerance and climate conclusion dependence. In M. Five On Islamic? Lader (Ed.), T he psychopharmacology of addiction (pp. Conclusion? 1-14). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lader, M.H., Olajide, D. Statement? (1987). A comparison of buspirone and placebo in relieving benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Climate Change? Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 7, 11-15. Lader, M.H., Petursson, H. (1981). Benzodiazepine derivatives - Side effects and compare contrast huck finn dangers.

Biological Psychiatry , 16, 1195-1212. Lader, M.H., Ron, M., Petursson, R.H. (1984). Computed axial brain tomography in long-term benzodiazepine users. Psychological Medicine , 14, 203-206. Lee, K., Moller, L., Hardt, F., Haubek, A., Jenson, E. (1979).

Alcohol-injured brain damage and change conclusion liver damage in young males. Lancet 2, 759-761. Lum, L.C., (1987). Hyperventilation syndromes in phdcomics, medicine and psychiatry: A review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine , 80, 229-231. Möhler, H., Okada, T. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors: Demonstration in the central nervous system.

Science 198, 849-851. Murphy, S.M., Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P.J., (1984). Change Conclusion? Withdrawal symptoms after six week’s treatment with diazepam. Lancet , 1389. Murphy, S.M., Tyrer, P. (1988). The essence of benzodiazepine dependence. (pp. 157-167).

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nutt, D. (1986). Benzodiazepine dependence in the clinic: Reason for anxiety? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 7, 457-460. Olijade, D., Lader, M. (1984). Depression following withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use: A report of four cases.

Psychological Medicine , 14, 937-940. Oswald, I. (1989) Triazolam syndrome 10 years on. Lancet 1, 451-452. Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P. (1983) Benzodiazepine dependence: A review of the evidence. Drugs , 25, 385-398. Perera, K.M.H., Powell, T., Jenner, F.A. Men Leadership Essay? (1987). Computerised axial tomographic studies following long-term use of benzodiazepines. Psychological Medicine , 17, 775-777. Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. Climate Change Essays Conclusion? (1981a) Withdrawal from , long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

British Medical Journal , 283, 634-635. Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. (1981b). Benzodiazepine dependence. British Journal of climate change conclusion, Addiction , 76, 133-145. Rementeria, J.L., Bhatt, K. (1977). Withdrawal symptoms in thesis statement, neonates from intrauterine exposure to conclusion, diazepam. Journal of Paediatrics , 90, 123-125.

Sepinwall, J., Cook, L. (1979). Mechanisms of action of the benzodiazepines: Behavioural aspects. Elizabethan Theatre Essay? Federation Proceedings 39, 3024-3031. Smith, D.E., Wesson, D.R. (1983). Benzodiazepine dependency syndromes. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , 15, 85-95. Squires, R.F., Braestrup, C. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain.

Nature , 266,732-734. Staff. (1981). Minor brain damage and alcoholism. British Medical Journal , 2, 455-456. Tyrer, P. (1990) Diagnosis of benzodiazepine dependence . Unpublished manuscript.

Tyrer, P., Murphy, S., Riley, P. (1989). The benzodiazepine withdrawal symptom questionnaire. Climate Essays Conclusion? Journal of phdcomics thesis, Affective Disorders , 19, 53-61. Tyrer, P., Owen, R., Dawling, S. Climate Conclusion? (1983). Gradual withdrawal of diazepam after long-term therapy. Contrast Tom Sawyer Huck? Lancet 1, 1402-1406.

Tyrer, P., Rutherford, D., Higgett, T. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms and propranolol. Lancet , 1, 520-522. Winokur, A., Rickels, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Schatz, N.J. Change? (1980). Withdrawal reaction from long-term low dosage administration of diazepam. Archives of thesis, General Psychiatry , 37, 101-105.

Young, W.S., Kuhar, M.J. (1980). Climate Conclusion? Radiohistochemical localisation of essay, benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacology and climate Experimental Therapeutics , 212, 337-346. Zigmond, A.S., Snaith, R.P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 67, 361-370.

FIGURE 1. Thesis Statement? WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS RATING SCALE. Ratings: 0=none 1=mild 2=moderate 3=severe. FIGURE 1. Withdrawal Symptoms Rating Scale. FIGURE 2. Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale scores for anxiety over 20 weeks in 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5 SD 4.6 daily). Patients and students took placebo tablets until week 20. Patients withdrew from diazepam during weeks 8-12. One patient dropped out after 12 weeks for domestic reasons. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students.

FIGURE 3. Withdrawal symptoms scores over 20 weeks in 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5mg SD 4.6 daily). Patients and procedures as in Figure 2. Symptom rating shown in Figure 1. Climate Essays Conclusion? Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. TABLE 1. Scores for selected symptoms before, during, and elizabethan theatre essay after diazepam withdrawal. ( n = 11; mean total scores on withdrawal symptoms scale shown in essays conclusion, Figure 1. (postwithdrawal score equal. to or less than prewithdrawal. greater than prewithdrawal. Sensory hypersensitivity: to light, sound, taste, smell.

Anxiety: Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale (anxiety) scores. Paraesthesiae: tingling, numbness, altered sensitivity in limbs, face, trunk. Motor symptoms: total score for stiffness, weakness, tremor, muscle twitches, ataxia.

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RN Resume #038; Job Application Advice. Once nursing school is climate conclusion complete and related, the graduate has passed the NCLEX-RN exam he or she will receive a nursing license issued by the State. This makes the graduate eligible for employment in that state. So, now the fun really begins by building an amazing resume and a focused and purposeful job search. The graduate can work on dazzling the interviewer in-person, during the RN interview, but first, he or she needs to get noticed by submitting an exceptional resume. First and foremost an outstanding nursing resume is related research papers professional and concise . These are required and absolutely mandatory to apply for any nursing position, even though filling out an online application is also required. The key to a successful resume is to keep it simple yet persuasive while always remembering to create the best possible image of oneself on paper. Many graduates choose to essays, browse at images of resumes online before committing to theatre, a resume style. The style will affect which sections and words are bolded, centered, underlined, and change, other formatting variations.

Choosing a format that makes a strong impression is a good place to start. Here are a few guidelines to 12 angry men leadership essay, follow, whichever format is chosen: Make your name stand out The top of the resume states name and contact information, this should be either bold, have a big font size, be underlined, or all three and if your middle name is unique it may be wise to climate essays conclusion, add it as this may catch the attention of the HR Representative Be sure to list an email address as well as phone number, address, and name Avoid listing any social media links for five essays art, a nursing position It must be free of climate, grammatical and essay finn, spelling errors Have a friend proofread the resume and read it out loud more than once to change essays, yourself Hire a professional to proofread, usually for a nominal fee Keep it simple and concise Unless there are a lot of extras to list a new graduate nurse should not need more than one page Stick to basic fonts The preferred font is compare contrast essay finn Times New Roman because it is easy to read and essays, fits well on a page. The resume should be short and concise and portray the graduate's attributes in a positive and professional manner. The new graduate registered nurse without healthcare experience should not be overly concerned about 12 angry men leadership essay, his or her lack of experience as a nurse.

Employers are expecting this and look forward to teaching the new graduate nurse the policies and climate change essays, procedures of the organization. Many employers embrace new graduates and appreciate the opportunity to mentor. The image portrayed should be that of an eager and related, humble new nurse who wants to learn from experienced nurses who are smarter and better at essays conclusion, nursing he or she is. Statement On Abortion. The arrogant new graduate does not get very far in nursing neither during the resume and science related papers, interview process nor on climate change, the job. The nursing resume usually consists of these sections. Objective Education Experience Licensure and Certifications Technical Skills Optional sections may include: Honors and phdcomics thesis, Awards Achievements Languages Professional Memberships Volunteer Experiences.

This is a general statement about the directive of the graduate. These have evolved over climate change conclusion the years from a brief phrase stating the graduate's intent to something similar to elizabethan theatre, an abbreviated cover letter. Some objective statements may be as long as a short paragraph. It needs to be a clear and concise statement about the goals of the graduate and a quick sales pitch addressing accomplishments and education. Labeling this section with Objective is acceptable but using an attention-provoking section title is more desirable. Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse (section label) Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from change Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse holding ACLS and BLS certifications and over finn 600 hours clinical experience. Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care Units. Excels in multitasking and communication and phdcomics thesis, technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and Cerner.

Proven ability to climate change conclusion, quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Consistently demonstrates attention to detail, compassion, and perseverance. The education section should list high schools and colleges, including nursing school. These are best organized chronologically with most recently graduated school at the top of the list. Please include name of contrast tom sawyer huck finn, school, degree earned, and year of graduation. Adding geographic location and climate change essays conclusion, areas of elizabethan theatre essay, study is also acceptable.

For any other nursing programs, such as Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), please add to this section as well, and be sure to highlight these accomplishments as they may prove to make the graduate stand out above others. Bolding, italics, or underlining may be a good method of doing so. Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2015 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. The new graduate without healthcare experience may list clinical experiences and any work experience during or prior to graduation. Employers who hire new graduates understand this section will be smaller than that of an experienced nurse. The new graduate with healthcare experience may use this section as an opportunity to list these and any details about the position which may help relate them to the desired job. Any experience listed should contain the company name, geographic location, job title, area of experience within the essay tom sawyer huck company, dates, and a description. The description should be short and concise, however if the graduate needs to fill space on the page, creating multiple lines of experience descriptors may be wise. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-­Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and climate change conclusion, drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and change essays, received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and staff.

Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and elizabethan, alcohol and conclusion, drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for science research papers, workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. In this section, the graduate should list the climate change state in which he or she is art newly licensed as a registered nurse as well as CPR certifications earned during the nursing program, or otherwise. While listing the expirations dates is acceptable it is not required, so if space is limited it's fine to leave those out. All nursing programs require Basic Life Support (BLS) certification to participate in clinical hours and provide the class during school. Some programs may offer or require Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) certification towards the end of the nursing program when clinicals may be in critical care areas, such as the intensive care unit, labor and delivery, or operating rooms.

If hired into a critical care position, the ACLS certification is a job requirement and many employers will provide the climate class during the compare tom sawyer finn internship. Climate Conclusion. However, to appear as a more desirable candidate, the graduate may become certified in ACLS prior to being hired. Other certifications are also available to change, an RN without experience, see Certifications in Nursing for more on this. Licensure and Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017. This section is intended for electronic medical records (EMR) programs used during clinical hours, other computer software experience, and any medical equipment with which the graduate has had exposure.

Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and Outlook, and Alaris IV pumps. Some optional sections include Honors and Awards, Achievements, Languages, Professional Memberships, and Volunteer Experiences, if applicable. Example of related, Nursing Graduate Resume. Now that we've discussed each piece of the nursing graduate resume, let's put it all together in this example resume using a simple format, 555 Main Street Seattle, WA 98052 • (555) 555-5555 • [emailprotected] Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse. Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse with ACLS and conclusion, BLS certifications and over 600 hours clinical experience.

Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on thesis statement, the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care units. Excels in multitasking and communication and change conclusion, technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and Cerner. Phdcomics Thesis. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Consistently demonstrates attention to detail, compassion, and change conclusion, perseverance. Brown University, Bachelor's of theatre essay, Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2015 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-­Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and alcohol and drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. Licensure and Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017.

Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and Outlook, and Alaris IV pumps. While this is just an example the basic sections should be included on the resume but some may be added or changed to fit the stylistic approach the new graduate wishes to present. Cover letters, if the graduate chooses to change conclusion, submit one, are meant to be a one page summary of the graduate's intentions in seeking the science related research papers position. Essays. Each cover letter should be customized to the individual facility and not use generic terms. For example, instead of writing, seeking a job in healthcare, the graduate should write, seeking a job at a fast-paced teaching hospital, or even, seeking a job at change essays conclusion, Brown University Hospital. A well-written Objective statement may take the thesis on abortion place of climate essays, a cover letter for many facilities. Once the resume is perfected and has been proofread, either by a professional resume assistant or a grammatically-gifted friend, it is ready for submission. The best method to find an RN job is to search online for research, a suitable position. Change Essays Conclusion. The days of pounding the pavement by going door-to-door from one human resources office to another, are over.

Now the graduate can streamline the process by simply applying online. The only exception to this rule may be small non-hospital facilities. It's best for the graduate to find local facilities which he or she would love to thesis on abortion, work in and go down the list from there. Most graduates have an idea of what area of nursing they prefer from climate change attending clinicals. For example, if you loved your clinical rotation in the busy intensive care unit at thesis, the large teaching hospital, apply there first then go down the desirables list until you've found a job. When searching hospital websites keywords to climate conclusion, search for a new graduate registered nurse position include: Nurse Intern New Nurse Graduate Registered Nurse Intern Registered Nurse Graduate Critical Care Intern Medical-Surgical Intern Graduate Nurse RN Intern. Remember that when using hospital search engines less is more.

Simply searching, intern may list non-nursing positions along with nursing positions but having this broad scope to read through is better than a scope which is too narrow and missing a potential position. Science. Starting with a narrow search term, such as Medical-Surgical Intern, then moving to broader terms, such as, intern, may produce good results. Large hospital chains, meaning one large company with many hospitals, will often allow for a user profile to be created and a resume and climate change essays conclusion, job application on file. This profile can be used for multiple positions. The most sought after new nurse graduate positions in hospitals include: medical-surgical orthopaedics oncology mom/baby emergency room intensive care unit operating room labor and delivery. The best ways to find non-hospital jobs is to search online, however, small facilities may not have up-to-date websites. Essays Art. Begin by searching for facilities in the area and checking out their websites. Apply online, if able, but if nothing is posted, call the facility to find out if any openings are available or drop by with a resume. With hospitals this usually won't work because the busy human resources departments rarely return phone calls of this sort and seldom accept resumes for positions which are not posted online. For the new graduate not seeking employment in a hospital highly desired positions include:

skilled nursing facilities home health outpatient surgical centers physician's office aesthetics offices, such as laser hair removal or botox injections adult family homes. Like hospital positions for climate, new graduate nurses non-hospital jobs will also require and provide training programs. Most nursing graduates have some experience in skilled nursing facilities and home health from clinical rotations. Five On Islamic. So if the new graduate is hired into these positions he or she will likely not need as much training as something totally new and different. Facilities should always be sure the graduate is properly trained and climate essays, safe before he or she is men leadership able to work alone. And if, after orientation and climate change, training is phdcomics over, the climate essays graduate does not feel ready, do not be shy about saying so. While it's normal to feel nervous about starting as a new nurse the graduate should understand whom to go to with questions and have a basic understanding of how to work as a safe nurse in the chosen specialty. LinkedIn and Facebook are some popular sites to find nursing recruiters or job postings. Compare. Be sure to delete any questionable pictures or comments from your social media accounts. Facilities have been known to browse candidates before asking them to climate change essays, interview. Bring a Resume and Show up in Person.

This can work for big facilities with Human Resources departments but also for small facilities where the hiring manager may be available to meet. Essays. If the facility isn't hiring, don't be discouraged, simply leave a resume and fill out an application. A position may open up the following day! Keep in touch with fellow nursing students. Change Essays Conclusion. All nursing graduates are going to looking for a new job and thesis, keeping in touch with them will let you know which facilities are hiring.

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Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper. Autor: reviewessays • October 26, 2010 • Research Paper • 3,404 Words (14 Pages) • 1,548 Views. Mrs. Lane Honors English 3. Mrs. Lane Honors English 3. Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper.

In the last few decades, abortion has become a much-discussed subject. It has been a central point in many political affairs as in; selecting justices for the Supreme Court, it has also become an essays conclusion, issue for candidates for state and local offices as well as for the U.S. Presidency. Thesis On Abortion! What exactly is abortion anyway? Depending on who you ask one will always get different answers, but the dictionary defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus. The moral question has always been whether or not it should be a woman's decision to climate get an abortion.

The other side of that question is whether the government should have control over a woman's body and forbid her to 12 angry men leadership get an climate, abortion. Related! Pro-Choice, though it does take the side of legalizing abortion, it does not mean Pro-abortion. Pro-choice is the essays right in choosing whether to reproduce, adopt, or abort. I believe a woman should have the right to choose whether to keep the baby if she knows that she is willing to take up such a huge responsibility. The fundamental issue that Pro-choice focuses on is whether anyone-including the government, the church, and pro-life protesters- can tell a woman what to do with their bodies. Pregnancy carries many obligations, and one will lose many privileges. One of those privileges is the right to pursue happiness. A baby can sometimes disrupt a woman's pursuit of climate conclusion happiness.

Having the option to perform an abortion can solve that obstacle. Most of the time the contrast huck mother of the unwanted child is very young and inexperienced or too poor to take care of the child. The child is usually malnourished, has no medical care, and gets very little attention or love. When talking about abortion, there are many different ethical questions involved. Ethics is what one uses to distinguish what is right from wrong, good from bad, etc. Since people come from essays conclusion, different backgrounds, they have a different code of ethics, therefore answering the question of right and wrong can not be easily answered, and who knows if it can ever be answered? There is no correct ethical or moral code for one specific time period, or group of people, so one must decide what they believe on the issue of abortion, by examining there own code of ethics. Without a woman's right to do what she chooses with her body, her freedom and liberty are taken away. If for personal reasons, a woman wants an abortion, as is, currently, her constitutional right, she has the freedom to do so.

A child needs to 12 angry essay be loved and wanted. A baby, whose mother resents his birth, will not receive the proper care and nurturing he deserves. Perhaps, he would be better off not to have been born. For these reasons, I support the Pro-Choice movement. A fetus is tissue growing inside the body of a woman. Since a fetus has no right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, it has no right to be inside the body of another human being that does not want it. However, the fetus needs to be inside a woman's body to exist.

To give the fetus the right to exist in change, a woman's body would make the woman a slave. Slavery is not a right. It is not morally or legally a right. In fact slavery is a horrible act that was outlawed due to the Civil War. Abortion is on abortion, a moral right--which should be left to change conclusion the sole discretion of the statement woman involved; morally, nothing other than her wish in change essays, the matter is to be considered. Pro-choice is the sole belief in five on islamic, the right to chose an climate change essays conclusion, alternative, whether is be adoption or abortion. It is not the belief in murder, since abortion does not take the life of a human being. Asking a woman to give up her life for something that is not even a human being, is asking her to make herself a slave. Abortion is an issue of women, and statement on abortion so it should be the climate essays conclusion woman's right to choose. She has the elizabethan essay free will to climate essays conclusion consider others views and elizabethan essay morals such but it is change, her ultimate decision. In 1973 the American Supreme Court ruled that Americans' right to privacy included: the essay huck finn right of a woman to decide whether to have children, and the right of a woman and her doctor to make that decision without state interference (abortion).

The Constitution says we have a right to privacy; so taking away a woman's chance to make decisions about her own body violates that right. The closure of change essays abortion clinics will be done with the purpose to reduce the number of abortions. This raises the question whether this will be an contrast tom sawyer, effective method or not. Before 1973 abortions were illegal yet the climate conclusion number of women who sought abortions did not decrease. There have been many studies done on smaller groups that expressed the exact same reasons for having an abortion. Older women were more likely to contrast huck finn say that their families were complete while younger women said that a baby would interfere with education, career, and personal freedom. At any age women say they have too many responsibilities and not enough money to take care of a baby. The reason for climate change conclusion, which the public is thesis, approving of abortions is change essays, not always the reason of the person who wants to have an abortion. Women do not have abortions because of rape, incest, deformed fetuses, or because they're physical life is in danger.

But these are the best reasons accepted by the public. Being poor, too young, unmarried, and not wanting a baby are the most unpopular reasons for 12 angry men leadership essay, having an abortion and are looked down upon by the public. Pro-choice feels the main reason for abortions are because contraception failed and they didn't want to have a baby at the time. Abortion clinics are not a butcher's place where young babies are murdered. They provide a choice for women whether or not to bring a child into this world. What is worse: taking away the life of an unborn child that is not even aware of life itself yet, or a mother bringing an unwanted child into this world, knowing that she will not be able to take care of change essays conclusion it, and men leadership essay that her child will have to suffer from the poor circumstances in which she lives.

As of now the woman has the ability to climate essays conclusion make that choice and save the child from poor, possibly abusive or hate filled environment. Personally I feel that living in thesis, a circumstance such as abuse is climate, worse than the abortion of the fetus. Rape victims should also be able to have an abortion because they know.

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essay on modernity Essay 46. Postmodernity: Postmortem for Modernity. What is postmodern i ty ? This Essay presents my personal intuitive view and cannot be a source of information about postmodern i sm ( pomo , to distinguish it from the live postmodernity). Postmodernity is the period of Western history from about 1950-1970 until today, as viewed by postmodernist thought concentrated mostly in European academia. The main source of knowledge about postmodernity is just the life around us. There is no consensus regarding when exactly postmodernity started, what it actually is, and whether it even exists. It is essay certainly real in the sense that our perception of climate essays conclusion it in terms of pomo is real.

But as we follow the postmodernist perception of the world, we lose the firmer grounds of pre-postmodern philosophy and sociology, very much divided into climate essays private plots, as well as the commons of science. Contrast Huck Finn! I am not sure we have to leave the paved with stone grounds of logic, but this is quite possible because postmodernism, in my view, is art. Change Essays! It proves the point by self-exhibiting, acting on a stage, gathering a crowd, demolishing a piano, waving from the window, but not by reasoning. Art is a man-made interruption of the life routine. Art is as divine as the lightning and earthquake had been before we knew their physical mechanisms. The very term postmodern is irrational because modern means present, current, and up-to-date. Postmodern means nothing but future—something that has not yet learned to nexist. Nevertheless, I believe that postmodernity is real and phdcomics, postmodernism is one of its derivatives.

There is an indisputable change in the world after the WW2, especially accelerated by the advent of computers and change conclusion, information technology. History, like biological evolution, moves ahead step by five on islamic step by partial deletions and additions to the roster of the social organization. Only with time we notice a loss after an addition and an elephant in the room after a loss. A complete radical overhaul of an evolving complex system (ECS, X-system, exystem : life, mind, society, science, language, economy) is impossible. These systems move ahead by preserving most of its body while replacing a limb. Conclusion! The change is always local and I regard this as a basic definition of science research structural complexity.

The concepts of local and global , however, should be thought in not geographic, but abstract terms: as topological relations. For more about change this, see History as Points and Lines. We may speak about the cause of change as global in geographic sense, but in terms of X-systems this means external . Thus, global climate change or global exhaustion of oil resources are external to an evolving complex system, unless we speak about a system of cosmic rank, like planet Earth. Although postmodernism sounds like a postmortem of essay modernity, recited over climate change, the autopsy of the rational world view of the Enlightenment and research, Industrial Revolution, postmodernity ( what an ugly word ) is a continuation of the previous human history resulting in some additions and some losses. There are always a few of them (the consequences could be many) and they can be described in terms of abstract concepts of function and climate essays conclusion, structure, which I call ideograms . Thus, fluid circulation is a very abstract concept, blood circulation is less so, but still abstract, heart is more concrete, but only a particular observable heart of a patient is what can be called fact. Essays Art! Computerization is an climate change essays, abstraction.

See APPENDIX 1 . Suppose, postmodernity is five art a new turn of history. Can anything really new happen? The answer is: when a new combination of old elements emerges, the history takes a different turn, but when a new basic element of an existing category emerges, history enters a new stage. See manuscripts in complexity . Climate Change! At a very high level of abstraction, however, far from the terminal facts, novelty becomes a rarity. 12 Angry Men Leadership! Thus, the Industrial Revolution was a huge novelty, but from a distance it looks like the climate change conclusion same kind of papers event ( pattern ) as taming the fire and making first tools. In a sense, there is conclusion nothing new under the sun, but in what sense is a matter of personal choice: it depends on how high you can perch and look down on the world of facts. Here are my three points regarding postmodernity. They fall into one category — the consequence of growth — but of course do not exhaust the subject. 1 Techno-human symbiosis. We are a symbiotic life form. In this sense we are similar to lichens consisting of fungi and algae or some crabs living on a mollusk shell.

We remember ourselves as homo sapience since we started using tools and thesis, fire. We are the talking and manufacturing primates ( Homo faber ) in symbiosis with technology. For about a century, but especially in recent decades, this symbiosis has been increasingly turning into a fusion, at least in the West . We are as inseparable from essays, technology as the crab from its shell. In America, we cannot exist without a car, except in the cities, and change essays, we cannot even give natural birth in 30% of the theatre pregnancies. Medicine develops into climate change maintenance and repair engineering. In most of the world we procreate less and less, given the choice between children and thesis on abortion, less demanding and ostensibly subservient products of technology. Things multiply incomparably faster than humans. They use a digital code, which is a counterpart of organic DNA, and do it in more efficient ways than we who are unable to function without daily food, water, and night sleep.

The Things obliquely vote in elections, without going to the polls, and citizens can forgive the government anything but the collapse of production of Things that sustains humans. Compare Contrast Essay Finn! This is what we consider the twentieth century civilization and the postmodernity is in no way different. Initially an extension of animal limbs, technology has been moving closer toward the classical biological kingdom. Domain could be a good term for the four levels above kingdom — life, society, Technos, and ideas — f or which the reproducible and convertible into digital form codes exist. The species of Technos — from a toothbrush to the giant EMS Queen Mary 2 — have acquired a digital code, similar to RNA and DNA of biological forms. Climate! Not only the clones can be expressed (brought to existence) from the coded message at appropriate conditions, but also mutants and recombinants. Moreover, many aspects of human behavior can be codified in a digital form, as in the infamous US Tax Code , the Queen Mary 2 of American bureaucracy.

The natural hereditary codification of behavior is an ancient biological feature, which in humans took a new form as the laws of Hammurabi, Bible, Talmud, Confucius, and Koran. Separated from human bodies and put on stone tablets and paper, some of the codes engaged in an independent and vigorous evolution, while others have been dragging their feet. The digitized technology, previously completely controlled by human minds, moves toward more independence and even competition with humans. Change Essays Conclusion! We depend much less on the weather than on the stock market indexes. Men Leadership! Our life runs under the despotic ticking of the clock and climate change essays, the menace of the neo-Hammurabi codex of schedules and contracts with severe punishment for a breach. The literary production becomes standardized, industrialized, and combinatorial. I find the list of titles by Nora Roberts, author of over 160 novels in 25 years (100 in the first 15 years), very illustrative of this process: Naked in Death , Glory in Death , Immortal in Death , etc., total of eighteen species of In Death family. Then go the species Born In ( Fire, Ice, and Shame ), Key of ( Light, Knowledge, and Valor ), Red Lily, Black Rose, Blue Dahlia , etc.

The titles look like mathematical function: y = f ( x ), where f is: Death, Born, Key … etc, part of a code for climate change, 3D-printer. It may seem that, unlike Isaac Asimov, the author of 500 books, who used scientific sources for many, Nora Roberts taps only her imagination, but some of her books are well equipped with technical stuff, for essays art, example, gardening in Blue Dahlia , my first and last encounter with the essays author who inspired me to write this Essay. We evolve by gain and loss. It is good to be in equilibrium with your time. It is bad to live in times of stress and turmoil, although, as Rhett Butler says in Gone with the Wind , I told you once before that there were two times for compare contrast, making big money, one in the upbuilding of a country and the other in its destruction.

This is by no means good or bad, but just how it is. Five On Islamic! We evolve by gain and loss. It is good to be in equilibrium with your time. It is bad to live in times of stress and turmoil, although, as Rhett Butler says in Gone with the Wind , I told you once before that there were two times for making big money, one in the upbuilding of elizabethan a country and the other in its destruction. SUMMARY OF POINT 1: TECHNO-HUMAN SYMBIOSIS. 1A.

Humans and their technology are parts of a larger evolving complex system (ECS, or X-system) over which humans can exert only a limited control. Conclusion! Moreover, they may not want any strong control at all. This idea was first expressed by Heisenberg: Werner Heisenberg, Technology: Intereffect of Technology and Science . In: The Physicist's Conception of Nature. New York: Harcourt, Brace Co., 1958., p 16. Also published in 1970 by elizabethan theatre Greenwood (Westport, CT). 1B. Climate Essays Conclusion! As result of acquisition of digital code in postmodernity, technology, i.e., non-human component of human condition, is gradually diverging from the human component. Things do not work for us anymore.

We work for Things. We acquire the habits of Things and their highly ordered ways of life, following ultra-orthodox religions. They acquire our reasoning, but not yet our creativity and anarchy. The radical increase of productivity of information processing is exclusively postmodern. Trivia from Nora Roberts' Official Web site: · There are enough Nora Roberts books in print to fill the seats of Giants Stadium nearly 4,000 times.

If you place all Roberts’ books top to bottom, they would stretch across the climate change essays conclusion United States from Los Angeles to New York City nearly 11 times. The increasing productivity and output have been the obsession of Western capitalism since the essay huck times of Karl Marx. The main goal of Soviet Communism was also production. Asia has joined the club of Mad Hatters in postmodernity. There is a jump of production and productivity everywhere: in education, medicine, science, law, industry, trade, transportation, politics, and arts.

Computers play the role of powerful catalysts in this process because they speed up codification, mutation, search, recombination, packaging, and climate essays, transfer of information, and they do it by instantaneous manipulation of big blocks . This kind of work, for which the phdcomics humans are notoriously unqualified, requires practically negligible supply of energy for each act, but already a significant amount overall, interestingly, for cooling the computers, too. This intensification of dematerialized procreation creates flows of information so enormous that they cannot be processed by humans. Congressional documents that cannot be actually read word by word because of their size are a good example. If the US Constitution were written today anew, it would be, probably, the size of Britannica. Midgets and monsters materialize from the secret dreams of computers in such overwhelming numbers that they cannot be consumed, even if they are bought. The corridors of academia swarm with bright and ambitious people most of whom cannot even count on taking the prestigious tenured offices with good view from the window. Yet they do dream, and the corridors are full of tension. The growth of productivity alone and the phenomenon of overproduction are by no means new. The new aspect is the radical acceleration of information processing. The postmodernity is a natural result of enormous jump in information productivity, which distinguishes the second stage of Industrial Revolution. Climate Essays Conclusion! The productivity explosion multiplies everything: educated and articulate leaders, art, movies, books, scientific discoveries, technical inventions, things for , sale, culinary experience, ignorance, and spectacular disasters and change essays conclusion, crimes.

This productivity leads to huge loss of human effort, see Essay 34. On Loss . The tree of civilization looks like a mature oak dropping thousands of five on islamic art acorns every year, of which maybe dozens germinate, but only a few grow into tree. Climate Change Essays Conclusion! Moreover, if the oak grows in a park or your backyard, the chance of new growth is nil. At the same time, in some backyards of civilization, death and misery reign and people chew the bark and chaff. As result, humans, things, and ideas—each of them only a part of this system—fiercely compete for contrast huck finn, an advancement to the top. The advance in postmodern times has a clear, unambiguous, continuous, and universal numerical measure: money. This is essays something neither modernity nor pre-modernity knew. Socrates, Shakespeare, Kant, Mozart, and scores of the greatest creative personalities of the contrast tom sawyer past would fail under the postmodern yardstick of success. Climate Change Conclusion! They were revered in the liberal pre-postmodern society outside the eternal cult of climate change money. The tyranny of number is today universal. Elizabethan Theatre Essay! Thus, Isaac Asimov consciously pursued the change conclusion magic number 500.

The publishing output in academia is the numerical measure of scientific level. For comparison, the ethics of Confucius (see Essay 43. On Numbers ) would not provide a numerical measure for virtue and vice. It would teach you, however, how to compare two deeds. I believe that the trend toward numerical measures is one of the most significant postmodern developments.

Since everything grows, it should be counted. On the surface it just simplifies and speeds up the process of selection of individuals or response to an input. Climate Conclusion! If we take a complex mechanism like an airliner or a complex system in an approximate equilibrium (economy, army, government, or company over a short term) it is five essays on islamic able to function only because its components communicate with each other and environment in the language of numbers, sometimes only one and zero. We still encounter measures like large, extra-large and jumbo, but not surprisingly they can be disappointing. The numerization, which opens an easy way to digitalization, is change a sign of a society freezing into a hybrid of an organism and a mechanism. The preferred range of theatre essay numerical properties assigns to an individual a social or professional status with the same ruthless tyranny as the climate change essays feudal class system. Statement! Democracy is founded on numbers. too. One of a few areas where we are blind to numbers is casting a vote for a presidential candidate or a pop idol. But then our numbers create presidents and idols.

A rich, non-elected and powerful person is what links us to the entire previous human history. There is climate change essays conclusion a curious social result of the numerization. Since the scale of wealth is continuous, it creates an impression that the democratic capitalist society is classless. Anybody can move up or down, one dollar at a time. Nevertheless, by conclusion adding a digit to the summary income we make a significant step in quality of life, but not yet in power. After a certain threshold, we make a step toward power. At the next level, we acquire real global power, as George Soros once did. On the logarithmic scale, taking $10 000 as the essays lowest income and $100,000,000,000 (one hundred billion) as the highest, we can calculate the number of social classes in America as exactly seven.

There were three classes (estates) in France before the Revolution. There were four or five classes in the czarist Russia and three (or two: commoners and nomenklatura ) in the Communist one. Probably, after 1,000,000 we should take two digits as the class boundary. Dozens of billions means real power and Bill Gates and George Soros have already left the 12 angry essay idealistic but not yet completed cases of its use. One conclusion we can already draw is that in order to apply financial power for change essays conclusion, a useful result, you need a certain social technology, a kind of a machine, usually absent in the objects of application. When you apply money for a domestic change, as George Soros tried against President Bush, you get a battle of machines, see Essay 43. The Cold Civil War in America and the size decides. Phdcomics! The true picture is climate essays more complex than that, but still nobody has compounded a price list for revolutions, reforms, and coups d’tat.

The reason lies in the idealism, chaos, and anarchy of individual human mind, the very essence of humanity. What the Nobel Peace Prize of 2006 winners Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank did, apparently, with a success, was to provide a poor individual with a little social machine working for this individual alone, free from the heavy hand of the government. Interestingly, the men leadership Republican revolutionaries have widely used the same pattern of local action by working with individuals, detecting sympathizers, and nudging them to vote by climate change essays conclusion knocking on their doors. This is pure technology. The domination of the quantitative measures for human qualities in postmodern life oddly contradicts the postmodern skepticism and mistrust of truth — another pomo foible meaning that everything is just a matter of interpretation. One cannot argue with the result of measuring with a wooden yardstick. What would you do to make a move along the science related research papers scale of success in the only possible direction: up? You would fight, yell, grimace, elbow your way, run naked, wear peacock feathers, lie, steal, destroy, exploit, and advertise yourself. If you do not do anything, others would. By the end of the day, you could have a clear, unambiguous measure of your success or failure: a number. This great linear asymmetry of postmodern times is symbolized by the brushmobile from climate change essays conclusion, The Rusty Bolts of Complexity: Ideograms for Evolving Complex Systems on this site.

Although chaotically shaken, the brushmobile moves in one direction only. 2A. Postmodernity means the life under the tyranny of the naked number: money, a universal measure of all things. What has no monetary value is outside the system and the sensors of society are anesthetized to it. 2B. The clear continuous numerical measure is standard for physical and chemical systems. Competition is typical for biological systems. Climate Change Essays! Our civilization becomes more and more embedded in mechanical and statistical systems that we, with our mind, spirit, and essays on islamic art, inimitable humanity, have been so proud to stay apart from for essays conclusion, centuries.

Our chaotic impulses are a source of shakeup and mutation in these systems, and our hands and rational minds are just enzymes for assembly lines. 2C. Numerical measures for human condition, combined with the universal digital code, create a typically postmodern system which is less and less is regulated by human reason, will, and on islamic, whim and more and more by the overall trend toward stability. 3 Meso, or Artification, Commodization, and Interposition. There is a particular ancient economic mechanism that has come to prominence during the essays postmodernity, as result of growing productivity and increasing flows of related papers money and information. I call it mesoderm effect or meso , for short. On mesoderm, see Essay 43. The Cold Civil War in America . The oldest example is the merchant, a middleman between a buyer and a seller. Essays Conclusion! Meso, or interposition , for a more academic sound, means that a third party (organ, tissue, organization, agent, gate keeper, interpreter, check point sentry, broker, etc.) emerges and compare, grows between any two communicating parties.

Examples: literary agent, credit bureau, employment agency, political consultant, financial consultant, advertising firm, inventor's assistance, lawyer, salesman, activist cleric, mutual fund, TV news networks. Nothing in this list is specifically postmodern. But we can add to the same list a cable TV box, power drill, power steering, gas mask, rubber gloves, computer, TV itself, medical imaging devices, packaging, remote control, all kinds of automatic devices, and all the other products of technology that interpose themselves between two people, two machines, two things, a machine and a human, a thing and a human, and all the other binary combinations. In short, all that is technology. Even Isaac Asimov, practically forgotten as a popularizer of science, was a meso between science and the man from the street. Mesoderm effect, or interposition, is a cessation of a direct contact between individuals, things, institutions, and other components of a system and the growth of an intermediate component that provides communication and change, interaction. Interposition (also known as specialization) is the general trend of biological and social evolution. The formation of a specialized organ or trade is usually regarded as gain for both initial parties. There is no reason to lament about the contrast finn voluntary and desirable loss of human independence. New generations always adapt to a change and do not see it in terms of gain or loss.

The growth of productivity is all-encompassing. Everything multiplies and diverges in developed societies except the humans themselves. The import of humans by Western Europe and America could be the most consequential historical event, with the bloody American Civil War and the quiet collapse of the Soviet Union as historical precedents. Concentration of wealth in private and climate essays conclusion, corporate hands creates powerful flows of money, which economists compare with ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the universal currency of energy in living organisms, see APPENDIX 2 ). The money is created in cycles of investment, production, and trade. Change Essays! The cycles are ultimately run by food, oil, and coal. The faster the turnover of on abortion money, the larger the figure on the bottom line, the more goes to the next cycle. This cycle, typical for the phenomenon of life, more and more defines the human condition, the forms of politics, entertainment, education, art, and family life. The meso diverts a part of the change essays flow in exchange for speeding up the flow. Both the merchant and the remote control perform the essay same abstract function of catalysis . They speed up the movement from our desire to its fulfillment, or, more generally, from instability to stability. This is conclusion all trivial. Is there anything new after antiquity and Karl Marx, then?

The numerization is, see Point 2. The judgments tend to be done on contrast tom sawyer huck finn, the basis of hard formalized data and climate conclusion, not immediate perception. There is certainly a gain side to it. ! If we voted for a presidential candidate basing on a kind of climate change essays political credit report, it would only on islamic art, benefit democracy. Conclusion! But most voters trust the image of the candidate — or an issue —which is prepared by a meso, similarly to a preparation of the essay huck body by the undertaker. In other words, the postmodern novelty is the shift from the climate conclusion knowledge and functionality to art: an artification (the term makes only a few appearances on the Web) of the systemic function. Artification of a function as the function of the meso in general is a big subject, with still unsettled terminology. Essay! I give here only essays, a few examples of the postmodern meso effect apart from political campaigning. . 1. The modern (i.e., pre-postmodern) advertisement used to be a demo and an explanation of properties and advantages, not necessarily real, of a product.

The traveling salesman demonstrated his vacuum cleaner in action. The postmodern advertisement is a piece of art, often of related papers admirable quality, which may not have any relation whatsoever to the product but attracts attention to it in purely artistic way. Change Essays! This is the art made by humans for the consumption of things. 2. The postmodern art — postmodernity for art started earlier than for the rest of the culture — is an object of art that is inseparable of the climate presenter and interpreter of the art. Without the art meso, a man from the street may not recognize it as art at all. There are extreme examples, but Andy Warhol is most typical. Art is a fine seismograph that registers the 12 angry heavy steps of conclusion distant dinosaurs.

NOTE : Art, one of the most fascinating topics for tom sawyer finn, me, has been one of the main focal points of pomo (see Michel Foucault and, especially, Jean Baudrillard), with the discourse on art turning into conclusion a pomo art itself. I try to stay away from this subject and present only my own observations. Nevertheless I am obliged to mention some parallels visible through the fog of the pomo obfuscation of which I am in no way critical. One cannot be critical of art, but only of performance. 3. Compare Essay Tom Sawyer Huck! The previous examples were rather trivial, but I have recently noticed something more subtle. I am deeply impressed by everything the climate change essays historian Niall Ferguson has written and expect more from phdcomics thesis, him. Climate Change! All of his books (I have passed over only the one about the Rotchilds, but I will get to it, too) are highly readable, eloquent, provocative, and stimulating, with the just right dash of irony. One of his latest books, The Colossus ( Niall Ferguson, Colossus: The Price Of America's Empire , Penguin Press, 2004 ) , by the way, well quantitatively illustrated, reads like good fiction and men leadership, is hard to drop. The double entendre around fiction was not initially intended, but on some deliberation I begin to think that if it reads like fiction, it probably is, at least in a sense. Essay! The author's signature device is not so much counterfactuality as allofactuality (or isofactuality?): let us imagine that A is not B but C . We will probably learn something about A , B , and C , which we would not be able to see from the hard facts alone.

This is a method that I can greatly appreciate as a chemist. Chemistry is based on art, choosing between alternatives and requires a lot of imagination even with a computer on change essays, hand. I am in no way critical about Niall Ferguson, a writer of undeniable brilliance. For some reason, another prolific writer, stern, humorless, and theatre, pain to read, comes to mind: Noam Chomsky. Climate Change Essays Conclusion! Chomsky's method is somewhat different, but allofactual pattern is the same. Let us take the definition : A is B . Then C is B . Thus, Chomsky in his Middle East Illusions (Roman Littlefield, 2003) takes a definition of terrorism from some old military manual, declares is good enough, and then shows that USA is a terrorist state (p.236). Of course, in the process we may re-learn a lot of well-known facts about the USA. Climate Change Essays Conclusion! But there are scores of other definitions of terrorism and theatre essay, no consensus in sight. Both Ferguson and Chomsky, by the way, legitimize references to the Web, the source of unbridled and climate change, unchecked imagination, as well as hard facts and disciplined analysis. So, let us imagine that America is an empire.

It is impossible to know whether it is or not because it depends on how we define empire. But if we admit that, we can compare it with other empires. In the process we learn a lot about America, as well as about the modern world. Otherwise we would spend a lot of time and effort from the cornucopia of facts and parallels that the historian selects and orders for us, maybe sometimes tongue-in-cheek. Is it possible to know anything for sure? Yes, of course. Oxygen is a chemical element and water is a chemical compound. This follows from the definition of what those terms mean — consensual definitions that agree with the facts.

Definition is not a truth: it is a convention. Niall Ferguson, in essence, does the same as Noam Chomsky. He takes an five on islamic art, exemplary empire of the past — British — and compares it with the present American empire, although the two are separated by a period of radical global change, not to mention a lot of other features. The British Empire was a colonial overseas empire. The Soviet Empire was a walk-over empire. So was the Chinese Empire. The American Empire does not have a single political satellite, as far as I remember.

And yet the method of Ferguson is justified in my chemical eyes, while the method of Chomsky is not. The reason is that Ferguson takes a fact and compares it with another fact, while Chomsky takes an arbitrary definition and applies it to a fact. Ferguson, a half-serious advocate of globally proactive America, and Chomsky, a dead serious advocate of globally inactive one, seem to be two opposites. I mention Niall Ferguson and Noam Chomsky because some of their books illustrate in my eyes the fine note in the bouquet of postmodernity. A historian, chemist, businessman, politician, scientist, artist, musician, and phdcomics, actor do not just do their professional job according to modern tradition but they do something else: they advertise themselves in the deafening pandemonium of postmodern world. They perform . To performance, unlike science, the notion of truth does not apply. Noam Chomsky is perfect in picking up and contrast essay finn, cataloging internal contradictions (i.e., lies) in American policy. That politics, starting from the election campaign, is climate change art of five art legal deceit and essays conclusion, fraud, is both a definition of politics and a political statement. Postmodern reality and truth are so complex that a man from the compare contrast essay street cannot distinguish performance from the truth. Brian Greene, a theoretical physicist (and actor), is an author of popular books and a TV show on some problems of modern physics, such as string theory. The performance is brilliant, but you cannot understand what string theory is, unless you are an elite physicist.

I take it as an illustration of the cardinal feature of postmodernity: there are things so complex and confusing that they cannot be understood by outsiders. Climate Change Conclusion! There are no Isaac Asimovs for phdcomics thesis, them. But they can be performed. The third distinguished author of postmodernity — George Soros — is very modern in my eyes because of his noble insistence on the doubt (fallibility), which created modernity itself, together with science and even business. His world view, however, is not so simple and deserves a separate take. He is also modern in the sense that he dares to say inconvenient truth and do dubious functional things. NOTE (November 2006). Having finished The War of the World by Niall Ferguson, I must say that the book is an example of brilliant artistic performance and climate conclusion, another evidence of the related research papers great creative talent of the author. I simply admire it. There is absolutely nothing belittling in the word performance. As any great performance, it has left a deep impression on me.

Ferguson has written the score, directed an orchestra and the choir of dead voices, and resurrected the sound of the epoch most of change essays conclusion which coincided with my own life. 3A. Postmodernity includes the substitution of artistic performance for function and knowledge. 3B. Postmodernity makes the interposition of a middleman, who manages the relation between the truth and its appearance, a universal phenomenon of culture. 3C . A postmodern creative personality takes up the compare tom sawyer finn function of his or her salesman or hires one. See APPENDIX 3. Is a postmortem for modernity premature? History is a continuous process.

Historians divide evolution into episodes, chapters, periods, and eras, quite like paleontologists, but with the advantage of essays conclusion tracking the relatively recent episodes in real time. As far as the episodes are concerned, they have a beginning and end. They are, so to speak, terminal entries of historical hierarchy, the physical matter of 12 angry history. Events are factual, sensory, tangible, and recordable. The WW2 had a beginning and an end, which could be disputed only within narrow margins. The war was documented day by day. The pre-war and essays, post-war periods, however, have only one clear-cut edge each because the connections between the war and theatre essay, other events outside the war range are abstractions . Moreover, WW2 itself as a whole is a generalization. This detailed vision of history goes back, probably, for two centuries. When time is counted by millennia, only rare flickering lights are seen in the dark.

Remarkably, the current story of humanity, in spite of the flood of contrast essay tom sawyer finn information, seems murky and climate change essays conclusion, confusing. History obviously needs a sufficient distance between the observer and phdcomics thesis, the events. Impatient, we bite on the sour apples of history because our spiritual parents taught us that history was good for our health. The fruits of history need to mature to appropriate bitterness. The borders between pre-modernity, modernity, and post-modernity are much more diffused and debated than those of WW2 because the two last periods, as any large historical period, are highly abstract. The richness of detail gives a lot of fodder for change conclusion, arguments. For comparison, a rule of a king or a presidency is compare contrast finn as clear-cut as any universally recognized fact.

Of course, the pomo in the Petri dishes of climate conclusion academia, where the cultures of thought grow, can mutate in all directions and elizabethan theatre essay, dispute anything. Postmodernity, however, is in the air, and we can measure it like the change concentration of the carbon dioxide, its companion. I believe that the extremely diffuse, controversial, and compare contrast essay, disputed distinction between modernity and postmodernity emerges from the changing human condition, which includes the changing world view. It is hardly possible to separate the result of observation from the scale of measurement. We also have here an analogy (noted by George Soros) with the uncertainty of conclusion measurement in quantum physics: our observation changes the object. Thus, the entry on Postmodernity in Wikipedia lists the following features of the period: These features include globalization, consumerism, the fragmentation of authority, and men leadership essay, the commodization of climate essays conclusion knowledge. High class is 1 followed by elizabethan essay a pageant of zeros: 0 00 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 . To take a well-defined example, Industrial Revolution was a process going back to discovery of fire. Looking back, a historian can see a borderline between crafts and mass production, use of wood and use of oil, making small steel things commensurable with human size (sword) and climate, large ones (bridge, steamship).

After the mid-19th century, the pace of history accelerates, maybe simply because we record and remember the recent events better. The assembly line was a bridge into postmodernity and remains a fundamental ideogram for both biology and technology, as well as for mass culture. In order to achieve at least a semblance of a base for consensus, we need to develop numerical non-monetary measures for the features we discuss. For example, w e can measure the climate change process of consumerization by the fraction of an hour a TV network allocates to commercials. We can measure the dynamics of climate change conclusion optimism/pessimism by 12 angry men leadership essay the number of The End of . books per decade. A search on Google for [ the end of book amazon ] gave me about 152,000,000 for climate, the end of book amazon , including the compare essay tom sawyer huck end of climate essays books, history, art, democracy, irony, globalization, oil, and, of course, the world itself. The number itself has no relation to the actual number of book titles. It tells me about the enormous redundancy of our postmodern civilization, which is one of its few fundamental features. I suggest a term for it: fecundity + futility = fecundility . [2009: Results 1 - 20 of about 1,650,000,000 for the end of book amazon ] The fecundity of the oil drenched, ambition tilled, and greed fertilized postmodern soil produces a field of grass in which only a few give seeds and the rest wither by 12 angry the nightfall, barren.

Suppose you are standing at the edge of the field and need to find those few. Or suppose you are the change essays intelligent shot of grass and want to leave progeny in this field. Of course, you roll up your sleeves or hire a handyman. We can really study history as a natural process by using quantitative measures (the idea of Pitirim Sorokin, see Essay 27. The Existential Sisyphus ) and although I am surprised that, as far as I know, nobody has systematically explored the modernity-to-postmodernity transition with modern methods, I have a provisional explanation that postmodernism in humanities by theatre essay its very essence does not look for change essays conclusion, the so-called old-fashioned truth. As a historical fatalist, I regard it senseless to grumble about new times and celebrate the statement past.

Our loss could be not somebody's, but our own gain. All the more, the past never goes too far away. Climate! History, contrary to James Joyce, is elizabethan theatre essay not . a nightmare from which I am trying to awake , but the essays only firm ground among the swamp of time. Postmodern times, like the science research Middle Ages, are the times of dark oracles, eloquent prophets, snake oil peddlers, bards, and traveling acrobats. Climate Change Essays Conclusion! Remembering history, however, we need not to despair if our times look like the Middle Ages. History today is as fast as the electronic payment, not as a horseback messenger . So, is a postmortem for modernity premature? It is premature to tell. APPENDIX 1 . Theatre Essay! Facts and abstraction. The distinction between terminal inputs and change conclusion, next combinatorial levels is fundamental in various areas of knowledge from science related research papers, neurophysiology to computer science, mathematics (terms and climate, expressions of five essays on islamic a mathematical system), and philosophy.

The abstract divisions of historical periods, if they are not based on events, emerge when a researcher looking at two adjacent episodes notices that something has changed and, tracing the climate conclusion chain of events back and forward, concludes that this something becomes even more pronounced along the timeline and much less pronounced backwards from the breaking point. This something is an abstraction and 12 angry men leadership, is open to interpretation. Large blocks of historical framework — capitalism, socialism, democracy, tyranny, terrorism — seem elementary, but everybody understands them differently. There are many smaller blocks, like increase, expansion, production, conquest, defeat, collapse, conflict, alliance, dependence, debt, etc., which constitute less disputable and more consensual items of historical equipment. I would call them — and not events — the atoms of history. They are atomic stages of the evolutionary mechanism. My view of the world is chemical.

It means that I see the climate world as a set of elementary atomic units (points) connected in a particular order. The act of change is a transition to a different or the same set connected in a different order. There are only four elementary particles of structural change: formation of a bond between two atoms, breakup of a bond, appearance of a new atom, and disappearance of an atom. APPENDIX 2. ATP, adenosine triphosphate. ATP is elizabethan theatre a carrier of climate chemical energy in the form of high energy phosphate bonds. (The anhydride links between the phosphate groups in the figure above.) NAD + is a carrier of hydrogen and electrons and is involved in many oxidation-reduction reactions in the cell. It can pick up and transport 2e - and 2H + when loaded. You can think of NAD + and ATP as little trucks that transport energy around the cell.

Another common metaphor for thesis, them is money . NAD + and ATP are the change essays conclusion energy currency for the cell. Money is a medium of exchange. People assign work for us to do, we receive money for doing it, and we convert that money into elizabethan theatre essay things we want or need. The cell takes its energy source, converts it into NADH and ATP, and climate change, then uses them to perform needed tasks in the cell. S ource: http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C11/C11Links/www.bact.wisc.edu/microtextbook/metabolism/BasicEnerConcepts.html. Nearly all bodily processes do not run on the fuels mentioned earlier. They run on the conversion of ATP to ADP, which makes ATP the energy currency of choice. Elizabethan! You can see the change conclusion fuels mentioned as things you could barter with and ATP as actual money . Source: http://ds9a.nl/metabolism/conversion.html. So, quick quiz: What is one thing that all living things have in common? ATP? Right!

That, says Professor Yount, is because ATP is the universal energy currency. Essays On Islamic Art! If sugar is your savings account, ATP is the cash you get when you withdraw money from the account. Life requires a lot of change conclusion that currency. Every one of essay your cells contains a billion molecules of ATP! Source : http://www.wsu.edu/DrUniverse/food3.html. APPENDIX 3. Life in a pandemonium. The paradox of postmodernity is that individualism — the greatest invention of Renaissance and Enlightenment — turns into the entrepreneurship.

The individual acquires split personality and climate essays, has to manage his or her individualism by creating a private company of one with secretary, shipping, receiving, public relations, finance planning, library assistants, image advisor, and makeup artist. The equipment consists of a powerful computer with lots of peripherals, which is able to extract, process, combine, remix, and print out information, so that book, article, or proposal writing becomes a kind of automated collage pasting. A successful postmodern individual is an enterprise, a piece of art, and compare contrast tom sawyer finn, an ingenious device, a sun surrounded by planets, comets, asteroids, and just trash. With a little of surplus of success, the climate change essays person turns into a real corporation with human staff, which sells the image. Oprah Winfrey, Howard Stern, Martha Stuart, and the rising star of lively Rachael Ray are typical examples.

The individual cannot succeed without developing a web of contacts. Niall Ferguson, Noam Chomsky, and George Soros are already postmodern intellectual institutions. So are Charlie Rose and Bill Moyers, whose function is quite different: they are mediators. They guard the gate besieged by related research an enormous crowd of climate change conclusion individualities and they establish some kind of ranking for them in the same pattern sense as Oprah Winfrey ranks human misfortune and essay, Martha Stuart ranks cake recipes. They are the operatic voices in the pandemonium of growth.