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Book Reports/ 1984 book report 19947. Books related to essays pathology Summary of Orwell's 1984- Summary of direct tabor, Orwell's 1984- Summary Chapter 1 and 2. We are introduced to Winston Smith the main character of the story. Works at Ministry of truth. Ministry of truth is one of four. government buildings in destroyed London, the main city of essays for speech, Airstrip. One, a province of Oceania. Year is 1984 and altitude plateform thesis, three contries are at. war, Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia. Oceania is run by graduate school essays for speech the party whose. leader is Big Brother. Winston is sick of his life in direct republic the ruined city. and decides to for speech pathology keep a diary.
This is against the law in high plateform Oceania. School Essays For Speech! He. felt his feelings begin to hate Emmanuel Goldstein, leader of high thesis, the. enemy party. Graduate Essays For Speech Pathology! He also spots O'Brien, a party leader whose eyes he. Direct Republic! see's a bit of political sympthy. See's young girl who he dislikes. He feels it is graduate school essays for speech only a matter of time before his though crimes are. High Altitude Thesis! detected. Graduate School Essays For Speech! A knock at a level design, the door he thinks is police. Graduate Essays! Mrs.
Parsons, his. neighbor is at the door and asked him to unclog a sink. He does it. but smells sweat all over the apartment. A Level Coursework! Mrs. Parsons is school for speech pathology a follower. of party doctrine and a fellow employee at the ministry. The children. are members of sparks, Spies, a youth that encourages spying and telling. on graduate school for speech pathology traitors, including parents. Essays! Winston is revolted. He returns home. and writes a couple more minutes before going back to work.
He. remenbers a dream where O'Brien tole him he would meet him in a place. wher there is school essays pathology no darkness. Thesis Vita! He washes his hands and hides the graduate school essays diary. Major ideas, conflicts and themes are introduced. We are shown how. the end essay earth has changed, into 3 main contenients. we are also. introduced to the main character and how he fits into the new world. Graduate School Essays For Speech! Also we are shown how the essay sparks computer age has taken over peoples minds. The language is school for speech easy to understand, it has not really changed much. over essay tuition bad, time. Seems like nothing left after nuclear war, just ruins. remaining. We are introduced to Tom Parsons which Winston is. contrasted with.
The city is very drab. Big brother is graduate school essays for speech watching you, the caption beneath it said Thoughtcrime was not a thing that could be concealed for ever. Summary Chapter 3,4 and direct end essay republic, 5. Graduate School! Waking from dreams, he remembers his mother and good, sister, and can. Graduate School Essays For Speech! barely remember their disappearence and essay of, feels responsible for there. School Essays! deaths. He has another dream where he is in the perfect countryside. with the girl he had noticed eariler. He dreamed she stripped for. him. This time he is woken up by plateform the telescreen, telling him to do. his exercises. He thinks about how much power the Party has over all. information. Begins work at pathology, the ministry of truth. His job is to. correct printed articles in line with the Party's orders. Thesis Themen! The.
Ministry and records department jobs are to rewrite history to make. the party look good. Graduate For Speech! They get a break because of the direct end essay 2 minute hate. When he gets back he replaces a speech by graduate pathology Big Brother with invented. Essay Of! history. Graduate For Speech Pathology! Makes up story about a man named Ogilvy. Themen! The article had. become contrary to the present party policy. Graduate For Speech! It is sparks campus uproar replaced as. though is never existed.
Winston meets Syme, a philologist, for lunch. School Essays For Speech! Syme explains parts about Newspeak. They are joined by Parsons. Winston thinks of the fate that each co-worker will recieve. Syme. will be vapourized because he is to vita latex smart, where Parsons is dull. enough to graduate school pathology escape vapourization. He is the essay good only one who has not been. taken over by the propaganda that is school always being brodcast. Finance! He. notices the for speech same girl from the a level graphic design other day starring at him and thinks it. School Essays For Speech! is the essay tuition good bad thought police. Essays! The Golden country that he dreams about is essay of definatly a release or a. freedom from the the drabness of London. Also from the party.
We are. Graduate School Pathology! introduced to the fact that he has no mother or father or sisters or. brothers anymore because they were taken by the party. Introductions For Leadership Essays! He is realizing. that he is graduate school essays pathology rebelling against the party and he understands that he is. at risk. Winston is in sparks campus uproar search of the graduate school essays for speech pathology truth and good essays, is concerned because of. the party's ability to change history. We find that he likes his work. even though it is for the party and against morals. School! He is sparks campus uproar introduced. to the girl that will play a big part in the book most likely. People in graduate school the Records Department did not talk readily about altitude plateform there. School Essays For Speech! Winstons greatest pleasure in life was his work Summary Chapter 6,7 and 8. He records in his diary and themen, encounter a couple of years ago with a. Graduate Essays Pathology! prostiture mad up to graphic coursework look young, but was really and essays for speech pathology, old woman.
This. menory of the encounter causes him to essay of think of the graduate pathology policy regarding. sex and marriage which the party has enforced. Thsi causes him to. theink of his miserable life with his wife Katherine, that he has not. seen in for leadership essays eleven years. School Pathology! Winston resents the intrusinon of the design Party. into the sex lives of its members. Also realizes the discouragement. of sexual enjoyment, that makes any love affair with a party member. impossible. Writing down the graduate school essays incident does not help him.
He makes. another entry in his diary, this one concerning the proles. He feels. they are the essay uproar only group that might overthrough the party, but they are. unaware of it. Essays For Speech! There is no way of direct end essay, finding the truth about the graduate for speech past but. he does think that present life is worse than the past. Essay! He remembers a. photo that came into his possession trying to change the pastbut he. destroyed it.
He plans to school essays stay free. After work one evening, he. wonders into the prole end of high altitude, London, and school essays for speech, ends up near the store where. Thesis! he bought the diary. Essays For Speech Pathology! Follows man into pub and plans to a level graphic design coursework ask him about. Essays! revolution but man is essay of incoherent. Graduate Essays! He leaves the essay of pub and wanders. School Pathology! He ends up outside the a level design little antique shop and graduate school pathology, decides to buy a glass. paperweight. Mr.
Charrington shows him a room upstairs and Winston. dreams of vita latex, renting it. He notices a dark haired girl following himand. Pathology! he is sure it is the thought police and he will be arrested. We discover that people have a bond when it comes to sexuallity. that the party connot control. Even thought the party rejects sexual. relationships between its members. Sexual experience is no longer. allowed in the society and Winston longs for one. Good Essays! He confesses in his.
Diary about his last expereince but it does not help. School Essays For Speech! We find he has. faith in end essay republic tabor the proles and there ability to pathology revolt. It is hard to set up. a revolt with the thought police detecting every thought. Winston. reaches a crises with the thought police. Winston reached down and high altitude plateform, cautiously scratched his varicose ulcer Not a word could ever be proved or disproved Summary Part 2, Chapter 1,2 and 3. At work he runs into graduate essays pathology, the dark haired girl again, in thesis vita latex the hallway. School Essays Pathology! She falls and while he is lifting her up she slips him a note. He. reads it at his desk and is amazed to latex find that it simple states, I. Graduate School For Speech! love you. Eager and excited to meat with her, he has to wait 7 days. until they eat together in the cafeteria. They decide to sparks campus meet in. Graduate Essays For Speech! Victory square.
When meeting there, they arrange another meeting next. sunday afternoon. At the tuition good bad designated meeting place, in the countryside. outside London, he finally learns her name. Julia explains that she. considers herself rebelious to the party. Graduate Essays! She has had sex with many. other non-members. Suddenly he walks into the scene exactly like his. dreem. She removes her clothes and themen finance, they have sex. He belives that. sexual desire may be the school essays for speech force that destroys the party. Following. there secret meeting they meet each othe occasionally.
Julie arranges. the latex meetings. They go a month without seeing each other but. whenever they can before and after. She belives that she must pretend. to cooperate with the party and in secret break the rules whenever. possible. Graduate Essays! Winston thinks that rebellion is the best answer. They. discuss past girl and boyfriends and how the party controls them.
He is ready for thesis themen, the Julia but is graduate school essays for speech pathology worried about essay uproar a possible trap. His. negative approach to life and his sexual fustration make him ready. anyhow. Once he commits to graduate pathology her he connot go back and he is good essays committing. though crimes. This may be the beginning of the end. He was happy to. find that she was not a virgin and school pathology, had previous affairs. Thesis Vita Latex! His idea of. revolt is changed and he now is enjoying being corrupted. Julia takes. charge of the relationship, showing her aggressivness. She does not. believe in Winstons ideas on rebellion and thinks that differently. Graduate Essays! A sense of helplessness took hold of Winston Between you and me, the tuition bad antique trade's just about graduate for speech finished Summary Chapter 4,5,6 and 7. Themen Finance! Winston does rent the essays room above the antique show and essay of, realizes the. foolishness of what he and Julia are doing.
She brings him coffee and. real sugar and real old-fashioned make-up. Julie tries to remember an. School For Speech! old nursry rhyme, while Winston immagines that he and good introductions for leadership essays, Julia and the. Graduate Essays! room itself were all closed in like the paperweight. Many preperations. for the upcoming hate week keep Winston, Julia and the others very. busy. Republic! Winston discovers that his friend Syme has dissappeared and school pathology, all. records of him have been altered. Meanwhile, Parsons is for leadership essays still busy and. Graduate For Speech! happy in the preperations for hate week.
He was right about design coursework them. Because of the increased work load he and essays for speech pathology, Julia do not meet as much. Essay Of! but in the room above the antique shop they look at graduate school for speech pathology, things from the. past and other forbidden things. They discuss the hopelessness of. there private rebellion and a level design coursework, that it cannot go on forever. He is. Graduate For Speech! dissappointed that Julie does not reject propaganda from the partyand. her theroy that the essay sparks uproar party sends bombs on itself. School! One day at graphic design coursework, work. Essays! O'Brien gives Winston his address and asked him to stop by so tha he. Thesis! can lend him an advance copy of the Newspeak dictionary. Winston. thinks this is a conspiracy against the party and is excited but, thinks it will end in touture and essays pathology, death.
Winston dreams of essay tuition bad, his mother. again and the hunger and awful conditions there were before the. disappearence. He feals bad for essays for speech, asking for rationed food and stealing. his sisters chocolate. Essay Of! When he came back they were gone. Winston. tries to tell her but she is graduate school tired. He is altitude thesis glad him and her have there. own feeling toward each other. He rents room above the antique shop showing his independence and. his plunge into the end. He wishes the room could be closed in graduate for speech like. the introductions for leadership paperweight. We find out graduate school essays pathology how different the two main characters. High Altitude Thesis! are. The state does not care what kind of person you you are.
Julia. Graduate Essays For Speech Pathology! understanding of the thesis party is much better that Winston although she is. nieve to many things that the party does. Winston defines his. Graduate School Pathology! rebellion in essay three steps, first the graduate school pathology thought then the word(Diary) then. the act(Julia). High Thesis! O'Brien seems to school essays for speech be a good man, also in introductions essays rebellion. His mother was like him. School Essays Pathology! The timy interior of the shop ws in fact uncomfortably full, but. Thesis Vita! there was almost nothing in it of the slightest value A sharp cry of pain was wrung out of her
Summary chapter 8,9 and essays for speech pathology, 10. Winston takes Julia to the O'Briens apartment. Essay Of! He wonderes is. O'Brien is also a rebel because he finds him in essays pathology front of good for leadership essays, the. telescreen, hard at work. Graduate School! Over toast he explains to Winston what is. Tabor! required of the graduate secret rebel brotherhood. They except the vita terms of. the menbership except that they will never see each other ever again.
O'Brien promises to be given a copy of graduate school, Emmanuel Goldstein's book, secretly in the future. After a long week, of sorting through. millions of documents, changing them to essay good prove that the Party's. decision that Easstasia, and not Eurasia, was the enemy that. they have been fighting all along. He rushes home to read the copy of. the book. He reads while lying back and graduate school essays pathology, relaxing. Altitude Thesis! Julia falls asleep. when he tries to graduate read her sections of it. When they awake from there. sleep they start talking, but a voice issues from behind the picture. on the wall. It is vita latex a hidden telescreen which instructs them not to. Graduate Essays Pathology! move. High Plateform! They are rushed by graduate essays pathology armed guards. The Thought Police had been. observing them all along. Winston and Julia are violently seperated.
Mr. Charrington enters the room without his disquise, looking much. younger. He is a menber of the thought police. Winston thinks of thesis vita latex, O'Brein as a strong, unexcitable man. Graduate! He is. Essay Good Bad! dedicated and graduate school essays for speech, wholeheartyu to the brotherhood. Winston joins the. Themen! brotherhood and tells about his dreams. School For Speech! We understand about a level graphic hate week. a little more. Graduate School Essays For Speech! Winston reads the book that is given to him by essay of O'Brien. Winston and Julia get arrested. Graduate Essays For Speech! They find out that O'Brien was the. enemy. There was a sorta feeling that O'Brien was the bad guy, and. they would get cought sonner or later.
He was a bit early The lane widened, and in a minute he came to the footpath she had. Summary Part 3 Chapter 1 and 2. Essay Of! Winston is being held prisoner in a large, crowded cell at essays for speech, the. Ministry of Love. Ampleforth and Parsons are both prisoners also. Essay Campus Uproar! Parsons was tured in by his own daughter for graduate, thoughtcrime. He feels. Essay Tuition! increased discomfort and room 101 is continually mentioned by several. prisoners. O'Brien enters the cell with a guard and school for speech pathology, Winston now. realized he has been betrayed by him.
O'Brein is thesis latex a member of the essays for speech Inner. Party. O'Brien orders the graphic design coursework guard to graduate strike Winston who feels a great. deal of pain on his elbow. Winston is tortured both physically and. mentally for an unknown length of time. Essay Campus Uproar! He keeps getting interrogated. with beations and questions until he confesses to many crimes. O'Brien reveals that he has been watching Winston for seven years.
O'Brein wants total rehab. from Winston. Graduate! O'Brien explains why the. party can never be defeated. He has been informed that Julia quite. Thesis Themen! easily betrayed him and school essays, has now been released totally rehabilitated. Winstons questions about thesis room 101 is graduate for speech pathology not answered. Finally he is caught by the thought police, which was inevidable. since the beginning. He realizes that he has been betrayed by sparks uproar Julia. and O'Brien. But he says he would never betray her.
All time is lost. Essays Pathology! while he is in graphic design coursework jail. Essays For Speech! We is going to be rehabilitated and is taken to. the sparks uproar dreded 101 for more mind games. Winston does not crack, except. School Essays Pathology! that O'Brien gets him to believe is a little crasy. Listen the more men you have had the high altitude plateform more I love you We can come here once again Summary Chapter 3 and 4. O'Brien tells Winston th esecond stage of his rehab. is graduate school essays for speech pathology about to. begin-understanding the why in party. High Altitude Plateform! He also tells winston that he. wrote sections of Goldstiens book. He says the pathology Party rules for the. sake of power, and power alone. The proles will never revolt. O'Brein. questions him further and punishes him when he does not answer. correctly. Winston says he is morally superior to introductions for leadership the Party, but.
O'Brien has a tape of the conversation about graduate school essays for speech what Winston was willing. to do to join the brotherhood. Winston thinks that the thesis themen finance party will be. defeated by essays a noble man, but O'Brien shows Winston himself in the. mirror. Winston weeps looking at his own aged and ghastly body. Introductions For Leadership! He. conforts himself by thinking about how he never betrayed Julia. Winstons health is improving, and graduate for speech pathology, he is thesis finance trying to accept the rightness. of the party.
He examines the past events and realilizes the graduate for speech party. was in democracy control the graduate essays for speech pathology whole time. He realizes also that he party can. make anything right if is wants to. He has to practice doublethinking. He wakes up from a troubled sleep, calling Julia's name.
O'Brien. enters his room and democracy tabor, Winston confesses that he still hates Big Brother. He is sent to room 101. He had also looked to O'Brien for sanity and stength and kindness. but now he sees what he really is graduate school essays a power-hungry guy who likes. infliction of pain. Introductions For Leadership Essays! He finds out he has been watched for 7 years. For Speech Pathology! After being broken or cracked he still has the fact that he has not. turned against Julia.
They completely destroyed Winston and he has. now entered the party. Have you heard the plateform thesis rumours of the existance of the brotherhood. The brotherhood cannot be wiped out essays because it is not an. in the a level graphic ordinary sense He was tired, but not sleepy any longer Summary Chapter 5 and 6. The torture room is brightly lit, room 101. O'Brien says that the. room contains the for speech worst thing in the world. It turns out to essay of be rats. in school essays a cage which can be strapped over his face. Winston yells and. screems and is overcome by the horror and the terror.
He screams that. this punishment should be given to Julia and not him. Latex! O'Brien spares. Graduate School For Speech Pathology! his life. Good Introductions Essays! Winston is graduate school pathology then released. He is sitting under a tree at. the Chestnut Tree Cafe. He drinks very heavily now. He remembers. meeting Julia and how they talked about how they betrayed each other. The party would not allow them to see each other, but neither felt. Essay Good Bad! anything anymore.
He remembers a game of his childhood but then it is. pushed out by the broadcast that comes on for speech the telescreen. Thesis Vita! Eurasia is. once again the enemy. His heart fills with love for graduate for speech, Big Brother. For Leadership Essays! The party knows the worse nightmare of each person and graduate school for speech pathology, is ble to. High! use that against them. It worked on Winston. Finnally he gives in. and for speech, the party has won. He did not attempt to coursework kiss her, nor did they speek He loved Big Brother Books related to Summary of Orwell's 1984- The 1984 Election in Historical Perspective. Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology (Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984, Vol 2) Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology: Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984, Volume II. Pathology! All for sparks uproar, the Better : A Story of El Barrio (Stories of America) All for the Better : A Story of El Barrio (Stories of America)
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Border Boss : Manuel B. Bravo and Zapata County (The Canseco-Keck History Series , No 1) Brainchildren : Essays on graduate school Designing Minds, 1984-1996 (Representation and Mind Series) Breakfast at Tiffany's : A Short Novel and Three Stories. Breakfast at high plateform thesis, Tiffany's : And Three Stories (First Vintage International) Broken Lines - Emmy Van Leersum, 1930-1984. Essays Pathology! The Burden of good, Memory, the school essays pathology Muse of Forgiveness (W.E.B. Du Bois Institute (Series).) The Canadian Way : Shaping Canada's Foreign Policy 1968-1984.
Chevrolet Corvette Automotive Repair Manual : Models Covered : Chevrolet Corvette 1984 Through 1996 (Haynes Repair Manual) Chilton's Chrysler : Caravan/Voyager/Town Country 1984-95 (Chilton's Total Car Care Manual) Chilton's Ford Tempo/Topaz : 1984-94 Repair Manual (Chilton's Total Car Care Repair Manual) Chilton's General Motors Corvette 1984-96 Repair Manual (Chilton's Total Car Care Repair Manual) Chilton's Gm Fiero 1984-88 Repair Manual. Chilton's Guide to Automatic Transmission Repair: 1984-89 Import Cars Light Trucks. A Level Graphic! Chilton's Honda : Civic, Crx and graduate essays for speech pathology, Del Sol 1984-95 Repair Manual (Chilton's Total Car Care) Chilton's Honda Accord and direct republic tabor, Prelude 1984-95 Repair Manual (Chilton's Total Car Care) Chilton's Jeep Wagoneer/Comanche/Cherokee : 1984-98 Repair Manual (Chilton's Total Car Care Repair Manual) Chilton's Repair Manual : Jeep Wagoneer/Comanche/Cherokee, 1984-1991 (Chilton Book Company Repair Manual) Chilton's Toyota Tercel 1984-94 Repair Manual (Chilton's Total Car Care) Chinese Political Negotiating Behavior, 1967-1984. A Christmas Memory, One Christmas, the Thanksgiving Visitor (Modern Library) Chrysler Outboard Shop Manual : 3.5-140 Hp, 1966-1984 (Catalog No. B750) Word Count: 3554.
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The Red and The Real: An Essay on Color Ontology. Jonathan Cohen, The Red and The Real: An Essay on Color Ontology , Oxford UP, 2009, 260pp., $75.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199556168. Reviewed by Adam Pautz, University of Texas at Austin. In his admirable and engaging book, Jonathan Cohen defends relationalism about school essays, color. Roughly, relationalism is the traditional view that colors are constituted in terms of relations between objects and subjects. On Cohen's version, necessarily, something is red, for instance, just in case it (non-deviantly) causes reddish experiences in latex, the relevant individuals in graduate essays for speech, the relevant circumstances. This theory contrasts with non-relationalism . One well-known version has it that colors are necessarily identical with (or supervenient on) response-independent reflectance properties of objects.
Cohen has defended relationalism in numerous articles but his book contains much new material, develops a coherent package, and essay of, provides important and graduate essays for speech pathology, thorough discussions of nearly every theory of color. The book is also fun to read. Cohen is design coursework a real color enthusiast, and this comes through on the printed page. Cohen offers a 'master argument' for graduate essays for speech pathology, relationalism based on perceptual variation. The argument is an essay of, old one but Cohen provides the most thorough and sophisticated defense to date. Let us focus throughout on one of Cohen's examples (p.30). Due to innate individual differences between John and Jane's visual systems, the graduate school essays, same color chip looks unitary green (a green not tinged with any other hue) to John and green-blue to Jane. John judges it to be unitary green and Jane judges it to be green-blue. There is no apparent reason to say John is right and Jane is wrong and there is high altitude plateform thesis no apparent reason to graduate essays for speech, say the opposite. Following Cohen, let us use 'variants' for the different color representations in essay, cases of graduate essays for speech pathology apparently normal variation.
There are three options: the eliminativist view that all variants are strictly speaking wrong, the inegalitarian view that one variant is right and all others are wrong, and essay of, the pluralist view that all are right. Briefly, Cohen's master argument for his relationalism, applied to this case, has two steps. First step: We should be pluralists, not inegalitarians. Cohen relies on the principle 'avoid ad hoc stipulation where possible' together with the claim that inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation (25, 52). He also says it is hard to imagine what could make inegalitarianism true (22, 25, 46 n.2).
Here he implicitly relies on an innocuous truth-maker principle requiring that if inegalitarianism is true something must make it true. Second step: Cohen's relationalism is the graduate, best form of pluralism. Cohen advocates a contextualist-relationalist account of color attributions: an utterance of ' a is C ' is true in essay of, context K iff a causes C -experiences in the K -relevant individuals in the K -relevant circumstances. In the John-Jane case, the contextually-relevant individuals and circumstances shrink and concern those very individuals and their present circumstances (120). Graduate Essays Pathology? So John's utterance counts as true just in thesis, case the chip causes a unitary green experience in an individual with an instance of John's precise perceptual system type in an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance that John is in. Jane's utterance counts as true just in case the chip causes a green-blue experience in an individual with an instance of Jane's precise perceptual system type in an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance that Jane is in . Frank Jackson, Robert Pargetter and Brian McLaughlin have defended similar accounts on the basis of similar considerations.  I will now describe in greater detail Cohen's argument and his relationalism, raising some potential problems along the way. Cohen's argument. Cohen's first step is to argue for graduate school essays for speech pathology, pluralism over inegalitarianism and eliminativism. I begin with worries about Cohen's principle-based arguments against inegalitarianism, and then turn to eliminativism. Cohen invokes the principle 'avoid ad hoc stipulation' together with the claim that inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation.
Stipulation is a human activity. So, taken literally, he means that under inegalitarianism human activity would be required to make John or Jane right. But of course the inegalitarian will cite (perhaps unknowable) chromatic facts independent of human activity. So Cohen's meaning is unclear. Maybe 'inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation' is shorthand for Cohen's point that there is tuition bad 'no independent and well-motivated' way of identifying the uniquely veridical variant (24). School? But inegalitarians can admit this. Inegalitarianism is the existential claim that in actual variation cases some variant or other is right and the others wrong. Inegalitarians might say that we have a reason to believe this existential claim (to be discussed presently), without having reason to believe, of any variant, that it is the uniquely veridical variant. They can explain our irremediable ignorance.
Color experience is our ultimate source of evidence about the (in their view) response-independent colors of things. There is no independent test for color. Essay? This is partly because colors, in contrast to primary qualities like shapes, are relatively acausal. School Essays For Speech Pathology? For instance, whether the chip is unitary green or not does not have any effect on how it interacts with other objects. So in cases of normal variation there is no way to break the impasse.
We know that the color chip is roughly green but we cannot determine its exact shade. Cohen eventually addresses this quietist inegalitarianism. Again he repeats that it requires ad hoc stipulation (52). Here we definitely cannot interpret Cohen to mean 'there is no independent and well-motivated way of identifying the uniquely veridical variant', for quietists admit that. Maybe Cohen means that, not only is there no reason to accept any particular witness to a level coursework, the existential claim that defines inegalitarianism, there is also no reason to accept the graduate essays, existential claim itself (50). But Cohen neglects the argument motivating inegalitarians. The first premise is realism: in cases of actual variation, at least one variant is correct. The second premise is the conflict intuition: variants conflict, so that at most one variant is correct. Graphic Coursework? For instance, intuitively, when John says 'the chip is unitary green' and Jane says 'the chip is green-blue', they cannot both be right, contrary to Cohen's pluralism. The conclusion is that some variant or other is veridical and all the school essays, others are not, even if we cannot identify it. Themen Finance? 
Cohen's second principle-based argument against inegalitarianism relies on a truth-maker principle. Graduate School? But the inegalitarian has a simple reply. Let us first consider the reply in connection with the reductive inegalitarianism of Byrne, Hilbert, and Tye, among others. Reductive inegalitarianism is inegalitarianism combined with the a level graphic coursework, claim that colors are identical with some physical properties or other, such as reflectance-types . According to school pathology, the simple reply, what makes it the case that John is right and Jane is wrong (as it might be) is simply that John represents the chip as having a color (on this view, a reflectance-type) that it does have while Jane represents it as having a color (reflectance-type) that it does not have. This representational difference is not mysterious: it supervenes on a difference in thesis vita latex, John and Jane's color processing. Call this the supervenience answer to graduate essays, Cohen's truth-maker question 'What makes it the case that one variant is veridical and the other is not?'  Cohen objects that this does not answer the truth-maker question (46-7 n2), even though it specifies a truth-maker. Themen Finance? Apparently, Cohen is not merely insisting on a truth-maker, but on a truth-maker specifiable in interestingly different terms : a reductive answer to the truth-maker question. Assuming the school for speech pathology, reductionist requirement , inegalitarianism does look implausible. Say that someone stands in the sensory representation relation to thesis themen finance, a property just in case he has an experience that represents something as having that property. For reductive inegalitarians, who identify colors with reflectance-types, a reductive theory of the sensory representation relation (a psychosemantics) in terms of for speech pathology tracking under optimal conditions is very natural, since our visual systems obviously track reflectance-types.
But such a theory is inconsistent with inegalitarianism. The brain states realizing John and Jane's color experiences each track a range of reflectances (a reflectance-type) under a range of essay good optimal conditions. Since the present conditions are within the optimal range, these ranges of graduate essays for speech reflectances include the actual reflectance of the chip, and for leadership, so overlap. School Essays For Speech? But, if John and Jane represent different colors, as Cohen argues (90-94), then, on a tracking theory, the a level coursework, relevant ranges must be slightly distinct. So, under a tracking theory, we get the result that the fine-grained colors that John and Jane represent are identical with highly overlapping but distinct ranges of reflectances, both of graduate school pathology which the chip instantiates.
In short, the tracking theory goes with (non-relational) pluralism, not inegalitarianism. The point is robust with respect to theories of sensory representation: indicator theories, output-oriented consumer theories, and so on. There is reason to believe that in principle there can be no true reductive account of sensory representation supporting the reductive inegalitarian's claim that John represents a reflectance-type that the chip has while Jane does not, rather than vice versa .  This is not an argument Cohen develops. On the thesis latex, contrary, when he discusses reductionism about sensory representation, he says that it cannot be used to support a view on the inegalitarianism-pluralism debate (61-62). This is strange, because, as we have seen, in his response to for speech pathology, the supervenience answer to his truth-maker objection to inegalitarianism, Cohen seems to be implicitly suggesting this very argument: a reductive answer (framed in interestingly different terms) to the truth-maker question is required, but such an answer cannot be provided even in principle. In any case, any argument against inegalitarianism from the essay tuition, reductionist requirement is difficult to defend. The main problem is simply that, since reductive theories have a history of failure, our credence in reductionism should be low.
For instance, suppose John says some action is wrong and Jane says it is not wrong. Maybe moral realism is right, and one of the two is correct about the moral status of the action and the other is school essays incorrect, but there is no reductive theory of moral properties and their representation which specifies what makes this the bad, case in non-moral and non-intentional terms. Maybe the best answer is the supervenience answer. Many (for instance, Barry Stroud and John Campbell) advocate a similar view of color -- they are called 'primitivists'. And many (e. g. Mark Johnston, Saul Kripke, John McDowell, Hilary Putnam, Timothy Williamson) advocate a general anti-reductionist approach to intentionality. However, in the case of reductive inegalitarianism, Cohen might recast the essays pathology, argument in such a way that it does not require reductionism.
He can simply point out that reductive inegalitarians like Byrne, Hilbert and Tye arguably have an inconsistent position . They accept reductionism about a level design coursework, color, identifying colors with reflectance-types. Whatever reasons they have to be reductionists about color (causal considerations, avoiding danglers), they are presumably general, so that they are equally reasons to be reductionists about the sensory representation relation that we bear to reflectance-types. But then they accept an approach to variation cases, namely inegalitarianism, that we have reason to believe to be inconsistent with their commitment to reductionism about graduate school essays pathology, sensory representation! In short, reductive inegalitarians are committed to what seems not to exist: an essay tuition, interesting reductive (not a mere supervenience) answer to school, the truth-maker question of the kind Cohen seems to require. But, to fully dispose of inegalitarianism, Cohen must rule out primitivist inegalitarianism as well as reductive inegalitarianism. Primitivist inegalitarians share with reductive inegalitarians a commitment to thesis vita, inegalitarianism but reject their reductive aspirations.
According to primitivist inegalitarians, colors are properties of physical objects that are not identical with, although they might supervene on, the physical properties of those objects. They will provide the simple supervenience answer to Cohen's truth-maker question, as follows. The color chip is unitary green, not green-blue. John's experience represents the chip as unitary green, and graduate school essays for speech pathology, Jane represents it as green-blue. So John is good bad right and graduate for speech pathology, Jane is wrong. No interesting reductive account of the sensory representation relation churns out this verdict. As we have seen, tracking accounts do not. But the essay of, verdict is not mysterious, because it is fixed by the physical facts (e. g. John's undergoing 'unitary' processing). Likewise, a primitivist inegalitarian who is school essays pathology a 'disjunctivist' might say that John but not Jane is conscious of the chip's being unitary green (this state of the world is 'laid bare' to him) because his internal processing both tracks and suitably 'matches' this state of the world while Jane's processing is altitude thesis 'off'. Although he briefly discusses primitivism in general, Cohen neglects primitivist inegalitarianism and its bearing on his master argument. How might he rule it out?
Reductive inegalitarianism might fail simply because reductionism and graduate essays pathology, inegalitarianism are inconsistent, but evidently the same charge cannot be brought against primitivist inegalitarianism, which has no commitment to reductionism. Since primitivist inegalitarianism provides a supervenience answer to the truth-maker question, Cohen will presumably say it does not go deep enough -- a response which implicitly relies on some form of reductionism, as noted above. Design? I have two points. First, as already noted, since at the present stage of inquiry our credence in graduate essays for speech pathology, reductionism should be low, many will say that this argument is not particularly strong. It requires far more than an innocuous truth-maker principle.
Second, although Cohen styles his master argument as based on the uncontestable empirical fact of thesis actual variation, this argument against for speech, primitivist inegalitarianism has nothing to good, do with actual variation -- it relies on general metaphysical commitments. Let us now turn to graduate for speech pathology, a quite different rival to Cohen's pluralism: the eliminativist view that in cases of high plateform actual variation all the variants are (strictly speaking) mistaken. Cohen offers a Moorean argument against eliminativism. He says that, since realism is school common sense (as Cohen puts it 'part of the manifest image'), we should accept realism and reject eliminativism, unless a sufficiently strong argument can be presented for rejecting realism and accepting eliminativism. And he says that there is no such argument (65ff). I think there are potential problems with Cohen's Moorean argument. First, Mooreanism is often uncritically assumed but requires explanation and defense. Do philosophers really think that the mere fact that a belief is part of essay tuition good common sense in itself provide a reason to accept it?  (Strangely, Cohen later (107) himself says he is open to error theories -- namely his second and third 'strategies' at pp.
104-5.) Second, one version of eliminativism, conciliatory eliminativism , accommodates common sense. Pathology? It holds that physical objects strictly speaking do not instantiate color properties, but when we say 'lemons are yellow' when speak truly because all we mean is that lemons present a certain color property not instantiated by physical objects to vita, normal percipients under normal conditions. This version of eliminativism is graduate essays for speech very much like Cohen's relationalism in its semantics.  Third, Cohen's Moorean argument requires that there is no sufficiently strong argument for eliminativism. But the altitude plateform, following two-step argument may escape his criticisms. The first step is the primitivist view that colors (if they exist) are irreducible. The justification for this step is a piecemeal argument from elimination, or better, an school essays, inference to the best explanation: primitivism provides a better overall explanation of the facts about color and color experience than the various forms of reductionism, including Cohen's reductive relationalism.
The second step says that, once we accept primitivism, we ought to essay of, accept eliminative primitivism rather than realist primitivism: revising common sense is better than inflating our ontology. Cohen raises two criticisms of the essays for speech, first step. Essay Of? First, he says that piecemeal argumentation is problematic, since 'refutations [of rival views -- in graduate essays for speech pathology, this case reductionist views] in high thesis, philosophy are almost never decisive' (65). Second, he says his own reductive relationalism has not be eliminated: it avoids the problems primitivists bring against it (73). Cohen's first criticism is strange because, as should be clear by now, Cohen himself is effectively providing a piecemeal argument from elimination (or more charitably, inference to the best explanation) for his own relationalism (more on this below). The criticism also seems too strong. To be justified in graduate essays for speech pathology, accepting a theory (even a revisionary one), one need not have decisive refutations of rivals: one must show only that it is overall better than rivals. And Cohen's second criticism requires much more defense.
Granted, Cohen describes solutions to vita latex, some problems facing his reductive relationalism, but the primitivist might say that they are not plausible. And, as we shall see below, Cohen neglects some problems, which are avoided by eliminative primitivism. Showing that Cohen's reductive relationalism is overall superior to eliminative primitivism would require extensive discussion. So, it is graduate school pathology possible to thesis latex, question the first step of Cohen's master argument, which says that pluralism beats inegalitarianism and eliminativism. Essays For Speech? But let us now turn to the second step, which says that Cohen's relationalism is the best version of pluralism. Why is it necessary to show that relationalism is the best version of pluralism? Isn't relationalism the only version? This is not the case: non-relational pluralism is a possibility. On this view, unitary green and green-blue are both response-independent, non-relational properties of thesis themen finance objects. John and Jane are both right, because the graduate, chip has both properties. In general, every object has a cluster of closing resembling determinate colors.
But not every color: if one said the chip is orange, one would be wrong. The non-relational pluralist might identify the colors in the cluster with overlapping but distinct reflectance-types. Or he might say that they are overlapping primitive properties supervenient on reflectance-types. Although it is not obligatory (an important point that will arise again below), non-relational pluralists about color often accept a selectionist account of the perception (that is, on an intentional view, the representation ) of colors. Selection is a metaphor that is high altitude thesis never adequately explained. But a familiar tracking psychosemantics for color representation of the kind mentioned above might provide an example. As we saw above, John and graduate pathology, Jane's visual systems might optimally track (and hence select) overlapping but distinct reflectance-types (or perhaps primitive properties supervenient on such reflectance-types) belonging to bad, the chip. So, on a tracking theory, the colors they sensorily represent are identical with these distinct but overlapping non-relational properties of the chip. In general, standard psychosemantics for sensory representation not only help to explain selection, but also provide a potential argument for this type of non-relational pluralism (for more on this see the third problem for relationalism discussed below). On a natural account of graduate school for speech interspecies variation (e. Thesis Latex? g. between a human and graduate school for speech, a UV-sensitive pigeon), different species track and thereby perceive overlapping but distinct chromatic properties of the same objects.
On the present account, something similar applies to intraspecies cases like that of John and Jane, only it is high more subtle.  Cohen did not address non-relational pluralism in previous work, apparently assuming that a non-relational view is automatically an inegalitarian view. Cohen cannot use actual cases of graduate for speech pathology normal variation to support his relational pluralism over non-relational pluralism, because both seem to be able to provide the kind of pluralist account of such cases that Cohen favors. Thesis Vita Latex? To show his relational pluralism to be superior, he turns to graduate essays pathology, a hypothetical case (81-8). Maxwell is an actual person and Twin Maxwell is a hypothetical individual who occupies a possible world in which the evolution of color vision proceeded somewhat differently than in the actual world. Alternatively, Maxwell and Twin Maxwell might be supposed to belong to essay tuition good, distinct but similar species in the same world.
They are exactly alike at graduate school for speech pathology, the receptoral level. Indeed, by stipulation, when they view the introductions for leadership, same object, x , they stand in the optimal tracking relation to school essays, the very same non-relational chromatic property of x : there is not just overlap but complete identity in what they optimally track. But, the case continues, they differ radically in postreceptoral opponent processing and color-related sorting and essay of, discriminatory behavior. In fact, we might suppose they differ in these respects more radically than John and essays for speech, Jane do. This is a theory-neutral description of the case. Cohen argues that Maxwell and Twin Maxwell would represent x as having different colors, for instance unitary blue and orange . Altitude Plateform Thesis? One argument for this verdict is that they would have phenomenally different color experiences.
And, as Cohen argues (91), if two individuals have different color experiences, and school for speech, the difference is not due to a difference in good, illumination, then nothing could be more natural than to say things look different in color to them. (Indeed, although Cohen himself remains neutral on whether there would be an experiential difference in the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, it seems to me that there would be a representational difference only if there would be an experiential difference.) This verdict is bolstered by consideration of essays pathology other cases. In general, if two individuals track the same external properties (chemical properties, bodily disturbances, shapes), but undergo radically different internal processing (across-fiber patterns, somatosensory firing rates, shape processing), and good introductions for leadership, exhibit radically different affective and graduate school, sorting behavior, then arguably things experientially seem different to them. This is not total internalism about experiential content, but only the weak claim that internal factors play some role. But in the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, in contrast to the John-Jane case, selectionism cannot accommodate the verdict of different color contents, at tuition bad, least if selection is explained in terms of tracking. In the John-Jane case, the selectionist can speculate that, since John and Jane represent different colors, and since (on a natural version of his view) representing is tracking, they must optimally track subtly distinct (albeit overlapping) reflectance-types. The selectionist might similarly handle every actual case of normal variation. By contrast, in the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, it is stipulated that on viewing x they bear the optimal tracking relation to graduate for speech pathology, the very same non-relational reflectance-type possessed by x . Generally, for any naturalistic relation that might ground selection, they bear that relation to the same non-relational chromatic property of x . So even if x has multiple non-relational chromatic properties, a selectionist account of a level design how Maxwell and Twin Maxwell ostensibly perceive different such properties seems impossible. By contrast, Cohen says that one can easily say that Maxwell and Twin Maxwell represent x as having the different color properties, if we adopt his relational pluralism and construe them as relational properties along the lines of causing a unitary blue experience in Maxwell and causing an graduate school, orange experience in Twin Maxwell (88). But there is an escape route available to the non-relational pluralist that Cohen does not address.
As noted above, although non-relational pluralists typically accept selectionist accounts of variation, this is not obligatory. So, in response to the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, non-relationalist pluralists about color might simply reject selectionism about altitude plateform thesis, color perception - at least if selection is explained in for speech pathology, terms of tracking as Cohen suggests. For instance, if he is a standard intentionalist , he might say the design, following. The object x has a number of non-relational colors clustering around unitary blue. Contrary to tracking theories, color representation is not fully determined by tracking; it is partially determined by internal-cum-behavioral factors.
Since Maxwell and Twin Maxwell differ in such factors, they represent different colors. Maxwell accurately represents x as unitary blue. But Twin Maxwell's opponent processing is off, so he inaccurately represents x as orange. On this view, colors themselves are not constituted by relations to subjects, but which of graduate school essays for speech them we represent partially depends on facts about subjects. Analogy: arguably, what shapes we are conscious of depends on shape-processing, but shapes are not constituted by relations to subjects. Alternatively, if he is altitude thesis a disjunctivist , the non-relationalist pluralist might say that Maxwell is conscious of x 's being unitary blue (this state of the essays for speech, world is thesis vita latex 'laid bare' to him) because his internal processing both tracks and suitably matches this state of the world. By contrast, Twin Maxwell's processing is 'off', so he does not perceive any of the multiple bluish colors of x . Instead, he has an illusory experience of x as orange. In short, the pathology, suggestion is bad that, although the non-relational pluralist provides a pluralist account of moderate cases of variation like that of John and Jane, he might provide a inegalitarian account of the more extreme cases typified by school essays for speech, Maxwell and Twin Maxwell. Call this the internal-dependence gambit . Of course, since for the non-relational pluralist the internal-dependence gambit requires an design, inegalitarian account of the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, Cohen will raise his usual objection to inegalitarianism: the graduate school essays, non-relational pluralist can only good introductions, provide a (by his lights, inadequate) non-reductive, supervenience answer to the question 'what makes it the case that Maxwell is right and Twin Maxwell is graduate essays for speech pathology wrong?'. By contrast, Cohen's account of the case might be fully reductive. For instance, he might say Maxwell and Twin Maxwell's different color experiences just are their different internal neural states, and then provide some reductive account of how they (accurately) represent different relational color properties of x (but see below).
But, as already noted, the reductionist requirement is controversial. Perhaps, however, Cohen could raise an epistemic objection to latex, the internal-dependence gambit. Pathology? On this gambit, apparently, nothing makes it likely that what enhances adaptive fitness also enhances the veridicality of color experience. (Contrast shape experience.) In fact, given the internal-dependence gambit, one can easily imagine cases in which veridicality is improbable: if the non-relational colors possessed by fruits and foliage prior to the evolution of latex color vision were in fact similar shades of dull brown, creatures would still likely have evolved to for speech, see them as having bright, contrasting colors. So, on essay tuition, this view, if (like Maxwell and school pathology, unlike Twin Maxwell) we evolved internal wiring that occasionally makes us conscious of colors that fall within the design coursework, narrow color clusters objects had prior to the evolution of color vision, then this is complete luck. So, intuitively, on the internal-dependence gambit, even if sometimes we get it right, we can never be credited with chromatic knowledge . Cohen's relationalism escapes the school pathology, worry: since the colors of things are fixed by the colors they appear to have under normal conditions, veridicality under normal conditions is virtually guaranteed however we evolved. This concludes my discussion of thesis vita latex Cohen's master argument. Cohen briefly mentions an interesting distinct argument for relationalism (196-7). Graduate School Essays Pathology? It is based on color structure claims like 'purple is design a perceptual mixture of blue and red', and 'blue is more like purple than green'.
I think Cohen might have made an additional point in favor of school his relationalism and against non-relationalism. Bad? Since he provides a non-relational account of 'lemons are yellow' and the like, the non-relationalist ought to provide a parallel non-relational account of these statements that does not mention observers. Graduate Pathology? But, at least if he is a reductive non-relationalist who identifies colors with reflectance-types, the only way to do this is to maintain that the truth-conditions of such statements somehow involve grossly complicated, recherche non-linear functions of various kinds, because the structure of reflectance-types does not match the ostensible structure of high plateform thesis colors. Graduate For Speech?  It would seem very difficult to devise a theory of representation that explains how this might be so. Plateform? By contrast, Cohen's relationalism might avoid this complexity. He identifies colors with relations to school essays for speech pathology, color experiences. He might identify color experiences with neural states, so that colors have the essay tuition good bad, relevant structural features just in the case the relevant neural states do. And, if something like the opponent process theory (discussed by Cohen at p. School Essays? 83. n.40) is right, then at some level of abstraction they do have right structural features. Let me conclude with a general point. Although Cohen's book and a level design coursework, philosophical tradition treat actual variation in color appearance as of prime importance in the philosophy of color, in the end it is graduate school essays pathology unclear how much of a role it might play in an argument for relationalism or any other theory of color. Granted, it might rule out one view: reductive inegalitarianism.
But it does not rule out primitivist inegalitarianism, eliminativism, or non-relational pluralism. Cohen can only eliminate these rivals in a piecemeal fashion, appealing to considerations far-removed from actual variation: the a level graphic coursework, reductionist requirement, Mooreanism, hypothetical cases like that involving Maxwell, epistemic considerations, considerations about color structure, and so on. In the end actual variation is just one consideration among many and plays a relatively minor role. This is not a criticism but it suggests Cohen's argument should perhaps not be described as a master argument based on actual variation. Problems with Relationalism. Cohen's discussion of graduate school essays for speech problems is thorough and interesting.
Yet it would have been helpful if Cohen had addressed the following three problems. (1) Suppose John says (i) 'The chip is unitary green'. Essay Of? Later, when John is absent, Jane says (ii) 'the chip is green-blue' and graduate school essays for speech pathology, then adds (iii) 'the chip is not unitary green'. As noted at the outset, Cohen achieves his pluralistic aim of making utterances (i) and (ii) true by graphic, adopting a contextualist theory and holding that in these cases the graduate essays, relevant individuals and circumstances shrink and concern those very individuals and their present circumstances (120). But this story also has the side-effect of making (iii) as well as (i) and (ii) true. For it is essay of not the case that the chip causes a unitary green experience in a perceiver with an instance of Jane's precise perceptual system type in an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance under which she views the chip; rather, it causes a green-blue experience in this context. But we not only have the conflict intuition that (i) and school essays for speech, (ii) are incompatible, discussed previously as a motivation for inegalitarianism; we have an even more robust disagreement intuition that (i) and (iii) contradict. Themen? (Perhaps if a brown leaf is painted green, then in one context 'the leaf is graduate school essays pathology green' counts as true and in another 'the leaf is finance not green' counts as true; but when the contextually-relevant part of an object o is fixed, as in for speech, the John-Jane case, we strongly intuit that ' o is C' and ' o is not C ' contradict.) Even if he is right that his contextualism can sometimes accommodate the thesis themen finance, disagreement intuition (127-8), it cannot do so in this case. Indeed there are many (though perhaps less serious) problems with contextualism that Cohen does not address: for instance, we report color beliefs disquotationally, which would seem to be an for speech pathology, error on contextualism. Many regard disagreement intuitions as a general problem for contextualist theories. But, if a ten year-old says knock-knock jokes are funny, and a comedian says that they are not funny, the disagreement intuition is not particularly robust, contrary to many anti-contextualists.
By contrast, in the color case, the thesis finance, disagreement intuition seems to me more robust, and for speech, so more problematic for contextualism. High Plateform Thesis? Further, while in many cases there are contextualist-friendly ways of explaining away disagreement intuitions (for instance, saying that there is only disagreement in the sense of an school essays pathology, activity among conversational partners), they do not apply in the John-Jane example above.  Cohen might reply that nevertheless a contextualist theory of the kind he favors which forsakes the disagreement intuition is overall best, because accepting the disagreement intuition leads to an intolerable inegalitarianism. But this is not obvious. For instance, an essay tuition good bad, eliminativist invariantist (non-contextualist/relationalist) theory honors the essays for speech, disagreement intuition but avoids inegalitarianism by making all positive color utterances strictly speaking false. And non-relational pluralism honors the disagreement intuition while avoiding inegalitarianism: on this view, while (i) and (ii) are not incompatible, at least (i) and (iii) are. A Level Design Coursework? Finally, contemporary relativism honors the graduate school essays for speech pathology, disagreement intuition but avoids inegalitarianism (and so, contrary to high altitude plateform thesis, Cohen (106, n7), seems germane to his concerns).
It is even more radical than the graduate school essays, previous options: in one version, it entails that John can truly say that what he said is accurate and what Jane said is inaccurate, and essay of, Jane can truly say that what she said is accurate and what John said is inaccurate. (2) Suppose you look at a tomato and have phenomenal property R . On standard intentionalism, R is identical with sensorily representing red 17 , where red 17 is the fine-grained ostensible color of the tomato. On his relationalism, red 17 is graduate school essays for speech identical with the property of causing the occurrence of phenomenal property R in individual I and thesis themen, circumstance C . The combination of graduate essays for speech his relationalism and standard intentionalism yields, via substitution, the absurd result that red 17 is identical with the property of causing the occurrence of the property of sensorily representing red 17 in individual I and circumstance C . Essay Of? (Cohen (170) resists arguments of this kind by graduate essays, saying that substitution fails because the relevant contexts are intensional, but my version avoids this worry because here the relevant context is an themen finance, extensional causal context.) So Cohen cannot combine his relationalism about color with standard intentionalism or any other theory that explains color experience in terms of essays pathology a relation to color properties. He needs an thesis finance, account of R that does not itself appeal to ordinary color properties. Cohen mentions some examples: the sense datum theory, Chalmers' perfect colors intentionalism, and biological type-type identity (170). While Cohen does not take a stand on color experience (even though he said the for speech, aim of the book was to develop a coherent package of views), his physicalism means that among these options Cohen must choose the biological theory. But the claim of the biological theory that R is necessarily identical with some internal neural property N goes against much recent work on perceptual experience. It goes against the 'transparency observation'.
Further, R is essentially intentional: it is thesis themen essentially as of a red and round thing at graduate school essays for speech pathology, a certain viewer-relative place. Thesis Vita Latex? But any neural property N , like a sentence of English, has its intentional properties only contingently owing to essays, its relations to the environment and action: it is not essentially 'as of' a red and high altitude thesis, round and round thing at a certain place. So how could R be necessarily identical with a mere neural property N ? (3) Cohen's relationalism consists of two major claims (116 and graduate school essays, elsewhere). First, the sensory representation claim: if individual I has a visual experience E in fine-grained circumstance C , then E represents the fine-grained relational property causing E in I under C . (This has the thesis themen, mildly strange consequence that no two people ever sensorily represent the same color property. It also entails that, when a white wall under red light causes one to graduate pathology, have a pink experience, the pink experience is fully veridical: it veridically represents the wall as causing a pink experience in one.) Second, the linguistic representation claim: color utterances either also represent such fine-grained relational properties (as in the John-Jane case) or (more typically) coarse-grained relational properties of the form causing E in vita, normal individuals under normal circumstances, depending on graduate school pathology, the linguistic context. There is latex a psychosemantic argument against both claims. To illustrate, consider John and Jane.
On Cohen's view, John's unitary green experience G (realized by internal state S1 ) represents causing G in graduate pathology, John under circumstance C1 , and Jane's blue-green experience B (realized by internal state S2 ) represents causing B in Jane under circumstance C2 . Good Introductions Essays? Cohen and many others claim that experiences represent such relational properties involving those very experiences (often called 'appearance properties'), but they have not provided a theory of sensory representation (a psychosemantics) to explain how this might be so.  The worry is that Cohen's version of the idea is graduate school essays for speech incompatible with any reasonable psychosemantics, for two reasons. First, on any psychosemantics for sensory representation, an high plateform, inner state-type like S1 (John's present state) has the same content when it occurs in graduate essays, different individuals . (That is because S1 's content is determined by its functional-causal role among the general population: as it might be, what it tracks under optimal conditions, or what it has the introductions for leadership essays, function of graduate school indicating.) It seems very unlikely indeed that S1 's population-wide content is something is causing G in John under C1. Second, on good introductions, standard psychosemantics for sensory representation, S1 represents what it caused by under optimal conditions, or what it has the function of graduate school essays indicating . Intuitively, however, S1 is not caused by , nor does it have the function of thesis themen finance indicating , the property causing G (realized by S1) in John under circumstance C1. If anything, it is caused by, and has the school essays for speech pathology, function of indicating, something like the latex, enduring, biologically important reflectance property of the school essays for speech, chip. (If it could be made plausible that S1 is caused by, and has the function of good indicating, the property of causing G (realized by S1) in John under circumstance C1, then a promiscuity problem would arise: by parity, S1 is caused by, and has the school essays pathology, function of indicating, a number of such relational properties (e. g. causing B in tuition good, Jane under circumstance C2 ). So this reply implausibly entails that S1 represents a huge number of relational properties.) For these two reasons, it seems to me that any psychosemantic theory will entail that John and Jane's sensory states S1 and for speech pathology, S2 represent properties O and O* other than Cohen's fine-grained relational properties. Essay Of? As we saw previously, on a tracking or teleological theory, in graduate essays for speech pathology, accordance with non-relational pluralism, O and O* will be overlapping, non-relational reflectance-types. Thus, such theories provide a strong case for non-relational pluralism over essay of, Cohen's relational pluralism. Others will say the right theory of sensory representation has it that O and essays pathology, O* are primitive properties of some kind. Now let us turn to Cohen's linguistic claim.
Whereas I have argued that standard theories of sensory representation rule out thesis, his sensory representation claim, I do not think that theories of linguistic representation rule out his linguistic claim. For Speech Pathology? After all, some linguistic items (e. g. 'is funny') presumably do express relational properties (e. g. being funny to ten-year-olds ). But the essay of, failure of school essays Cohen's linguistic representation claim might follow directly from the failure of graphic design coursework his sensory representation claim, given a plausible harmony principle: the properties represented by our color utterances and beliefs are of roughly the same kind as the properties represented by our color experiences. What does 'roughly the graduate school essays pathology, same kind' mean? Presumably, the properties represented by color predicates are generally determinables of the highly determinate properties represented by altitude plateform, our color experiences. Further, it might be that 'is red' means having a contextually-relevant part that is pathology red , which no color experience represents. But, while color experience may not represent this very property, it does represent (determinates) of redness. Now we have just seen that, given any reasonable psychosemantics for essay of, sensory representation, our color experiences arguably do not represent Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, but some other properties O and O* . Given the harmony principle, it would follow that John and Jane's utterances also do not attribute to the chip Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, but rather properties of graduate essays roughly the same kind as O and O* (as it might be, overlapping reflectance-types, or primitive non-relational properties). Cohen might reply as follows. Essay Tuition Good? John and Jane's color experiences are necessarily identical with neural states S1 and S2 . (As we saw, Cohen is under some pressure to graduate essays for speech, adopt this view.) These neural states are apt to cause John and a level graphic, Jane to form certain color beliefs and make certain utterances.
On the best theory of their content, the reply continues, they represent Cohen's relational properties, in accordance with his linguistic representation claim. (Above I allowed that no theory of school pathology linguistic representation rules out this claim.) Finally, the reply continues, relationalists might reject the kind of tracking-teleological theory of sensory representation mentioned above. Instead, he might accept a doxastic theory of sensory representation, on which (very roughly) a sensory state S represents property P in an individual I if S is apt to a level, cause in I the belief that something before him has P . In this derivative sense, John and Jane's color experiences might be said to represent Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, roughly in accordance with his sensory representation claim. The problem with this response, it seems to me, is that it forsakes the extremely plausible and widely-accepted claim that experiences have color contents that are constitutively independent of the contents of the beliefs we form on the basis of those experiences. But, of course, every theory of color and color experience has serious costs. Cohen's book provides the most complete and sophisticated case to date that the considerable benefits of relationalism outweigh its costs. In addition, it contains important and thorough discussions of graduate essays pathology nearly every rival theory of color.
Cohen presents his ideas admirably. This is the most important book on color in some time. Bradley, Peter and Tye, Michael. (2001). Thesis Vita? Of color, kestrels, caterpillars, and essays for speech, leaves. Thesis Latex? The Journal of school essays for speech pathology Philosophy , 98, 469-487. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (1997). Graphic Design Coursework? Colors and reflectances. In Readings on Color, Volume 1: The Philosophy of Color (ed. A. Byrne and D. R. Hilbert), pp.
263-288. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (2004). Hardin, Tye, and color physicalism. The Journal of Philosophy , CI(1), 37-43. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (2007 b ). Graduate? Truest blue.
Analysis , 67(293), 87-92. Cappelen, Herman and introductions for leadership essays, Hawthorne, John. (2009). Relativism and graduate for speech pathology, Monadic Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chalmers, David. (2006). Perception and the fall from altitude thesis Eden. In Perceptual Experience (ed. School Essays For Speech Pathology? T. S. Tuition Good? Gendler and J. Hawthorne), pp. 49-125.
Oxford University Press, New York. Jackson, Frank. (1977). Perception: A Representative Theory . Graduate School? Cambridge University Press, New York. Jackson, Frank and Pargetter, Robert. (1987). A Level? An objectivist's guide to subjectivism about for speech, color. Revue Internationale de Philosophie , 160, 127-141. Kalderon, Mark. Introductions Essays? (2007). Color pluralism. The Philosophical Review , 116(4), 563-601. Lewis, David. (1994). Reduction of mind.
In A Companion to graduate essays pathology, the Philosophy of Mind (ed. S. Finance? Guttenplan), pp. 412-431. Blackwell, Oxford. MacFarlane, John. School For Speech? (2007). Relativism and disagreement. Philosophical Studies 132, 17-31.
McLaughlin, Brian. Thesis? (2003). Color, consciousness, and color consciousness. In Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives (ed. Q. Graduate School Essays Pathology? Smith and A. Jokic), pp. Vita Latex? 97-154. Oxford University Press, New York.
Sider, Ted. (forthcoming). Essays? Against parthood. Available at http://tedsider.org/. Tye, Michael. (2006). The puzzle of true blue. Analysis , 66, 173-178.  See Jackson and Pargetter (1987) and McLaughlin (2003). There is a difference between these authors and Cohen. They are realizer functionalists about a level design coursework, color. By contrast, Cohen's view is essays pathology unique in essay of, that it is graduate school role functionalist (184) -- something that was not so clear in some of his earlier work.
However, realizer and role functionalists agree on the truth-conditions of whole color predications; they only disagree about the referents of high plateform thesis color nouns. The dispute might appear trivial. (Indeed, Lewis (1994, 420) says the analogous realizer-role dispute in the mental case is 'superficial'.) But it is related to graduate school essays for speech pathology, interesting modal issues, as Cohen discusses (195, 198).  Tye 2006 and high plateform thesis, Byrne and Hilbert 2007 begin with this argument. Cohen might reply that the essays pathology, conflict intuition is essay of dubious on the grounds that a survey conducted by Cohen and Nichols (reported by Cohen at p. 148) shows that many do not share this intuition. Cohen and Nichols presented undergraduate students with a case of variation and gave them three options: (i) variant 1 is right and variant 2 is wrong, (ii) variant 2 is right and variant 1 is wrong, (iii) there is no (absolute) fact of the school for speech pathology, matter. Cohen and Nichols found that some students chose (iii). But, even if students have conflict intuition, they are unlikely to choose (i) or (ii), given the symmetry of the evidence and the absence of an 'independent test' for color. In addition, (iii) is extremely vague: while it can be taken to express relationalism, it can also be taken to good bad, express an eliminativist or non-factualist attitude quite consistent with the conflict intuition. Essays Pathology? Given these two points, the fact that some chose (iii) is poor evidence that they lack the conflict intuition.  For the supervenience answer, see Byrne and Hilbert 2007, 88-89 (though they do not use this name).
 As Cohen notes (47), Byrne and Hilbert try to defend inegalitarianism by saying that cases like the tuition, John-Jane case are similar to a case involving miscalibrated thermometers in which inegalitarianism seems like the right verdict. Cohen replies (52) that it is not obvious that the cases are similar. Cohen might have added that there is the following important difference. In the thermometer case, inegalitarianism is school only plausible if some thermometers are miscalibrated or operating in non-optimal conditions. By contrast, neither John nor Jane is thesis finance miscalibrated or operating in non-optimal conditions. So, whereas a plausible reductive psychosemantic theory might be consistent with inegalitarianism in the thermometer case, no reductive psychosemantic theory is pathology consistent with inegalitarianism in thesis finance, the John-Jane case.
The reductive inegalitarian might object against Cohen that the problem merely concerns providing a reductive theory of the school pathology, representation of high altitude thesis fine-grained colors (Byrne and Hilbert 2007, 90). In fact, this is graduate essays pathology not the problem Cohen stresses. Indeed, a simple tracking theory provides such a theory: as we saw, it entails that the fine-grained colors which John and Jane represent are identical with highly overlapping but distinct reflectance-types, in favor of (non-relational) pluralism and against inegalitarianism. The problem for reductive inegalitarians like Byrne and Hilbert is how to devise a (different) reductive account of the situation compatible with their inegalitarianism .  For a strong statement of anti-Mooreanism, see Sider (forthcoming).  For different versions of essay of conciliatory eliminativism, see Jackson 1977, 128 and Chalmers 2006, 92.  Byrne and Hilbert (1997, 223) and graduate school essays for speech pathology, Kalderon (2007, 583) describe non-relational pluralism as a possibility. Kalderon also is essay of responsible for the metaphor of 'selection'.
But they admit that they do not have an argument for graduate school pathology, non-relational pluralism. (More recently, Byrne and Hilbert (2004, 2007) side with inegalitarianism.) However, as noted in latex, the text (and as discussed at graduate school essays for speech, the end of this review), it might be that tracking theories and a level coursework, other naturalistic theories of representation provide a kind of psychosemantic argument for non-relational pluralism, so that Cohen must consider it a particularly serious rival to his relational pluralism. Graduate School? By contrast, as we have seen, inegalitarianism actually seems to conflict with reductive psychosemantics, making the essay of, reductive inegalitarianism of Tye and Byrne and Hilbert an school for speech, inconsistent position. So, non-relational pluralism would be a natural retreat for reductive inegalitarians, even if it violates the conflict intuition motivating their inegalitarianism.  Tye and thesis vita, Bradley 2001, 482. Copyright 2004 Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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essay on theodicy Essay on school for speech Theodicy. pothen to kakon. Where does evil come from ? was convincing the modern world. that he does not exist ! I will not drink urine for you, I will not go upside down for thesis themen finance, you . Coffin Texts, Spell 173 (III.47-48) The suffering of Job. and the Judaic concept of graduate school, evil. Theodicy : definitions logical core. Theodicy (from Greek theos, god; dike, justice) is the reasonable justification of the essay of nature, structure goal of evil in an order of things considered to be created by God, considered as the transcendent author of essays for speech, righteousness and all good things (an eternal, absolute object or Being before all things).
Russell, J.B. : The Devil , Cornell University Press - London, 1977, pp.259-260. Walking this difficult path of religious theodicy, t he question may be rephrased : how to understand the Devil (the personification of the principle of evil) in latex, God's creation ? Of course, we need to accept creation and God to work theodicy. Buddhist would ask : how to essays, understand suffering ? How to irreversibly stop it ? So, for a level graphic, the sake of argument, this theodicy accepts God and His Creation. Graduate School Pathology! Is, given these, a reasonable theodicy possible ? (2) the psychological experience of good evil is inherent in young children unless society eradicates it ; (3) massive collective destructiveness is quantitatively qualitatively radically different from introductions essays, limited individual destructiveness ; (4) depth-psychology teaches the school for speech pathology distinction between the personal Shadow and essay of the collective Shadow (the latter comes close to a principle of evil) ; (5) chaos-theory describes the strange attractors existing in turbulent phase-spaces ; (b) the intelligence with which evil sometimes operates suggest the presence of evil entities in creation (possessing memory, intelligence will) ; (c) if the cosmos is created, is then the creator not responsible for the evil which happens in for speech pathology, it ? The arcanum of alchemy is themen one of these archetypal ideas that fills a gap in the Christian view of the world, namely, the unbridged gulf between the opposites, in particular between good and evil. Only logic knows a tertium non datur ; nature consists entirely of such 'thirds', since she is represented by graduate school for speech effects which resolve an opposition - just as a waterfall mediates between 'above' and 'below'.
Jung, C.G. : Mysterium Coniunctionis, 1955, § 674. If evil exists in God, the desire to struggle against high plateform that evil also exists and is manifest in the life and work of many people. Graduate School For Speech Pathology! This desire too, God has made ; this, too, is part of plateform, God. Thus the totality of graduate school, God includes not only evil but resitance to evil. God creates the cosmos with evil in it, and finance with the struggle against evil also in it. Deeper than the ambivalence of God is the love of God, which generated the cosmos in love and summons it to return in love. Russell, J.B. Graduate For Speech! : Lucifer , Cornell University Press - London, 1984, p.310. The fundamental logic of a coherent theodicy comes down.
to a moral choice between : I. EXCLUSIVE goodness : Pothen to kakon ? Radical Dualists : the good God and the Devil are two opposed principles : * teleological : either the thesis themen good God or the Devil is triumphant (the principles are reducible) ; * nihilist : the school essays for speech battle between Light Darkness is in itself eternal pointless (the principles are irreducible) ; Semidualists : the good God makes use of His creatures, also the Devil, and has His Divine Reasons for doing so, with three variations : * divisionist : the redemption of the Devil is essay of impossible ; * unitarist : the Devil can be saved ; * liberal : evil is caused by the wrong free choices of superior forms of life (like angels humans) and the chaotic, higher-order movements present in nature. II. INCLUSIVE wickedness : but also somehow evil. Pothen to kakon ? Radical Monists : everything, all evil included, is an expression of the Will of God, who's goodness outweighs His wrath : * (neo)determinist : all evil is known willed by graduate school God before it happens or God knows all that happens when it happens ; * liberal : evil is caused by vita the wrong free choices of superior forms of life (angels humans) and school essays for speech pathology the chaotic, higher-order movements present in nature ; * apophatic : God's Goodness is unlike anything good we know, hence everything except God is evil (the evil God creates is part of high plateform thesis, His existence, not of His essence). God Wills good and evil, but He only Wishes the good for humanity to which He reveals the path ; Radical Satanists : the evil in God is greater than His goodness, hence God is Satan . The theology of the Problem of school, Evil. entity to be transformed. I invite You to consider Satan as a reflection of how we perceive ourselves and those we call 'others'.
Satan has, after all, made a kind of profession out of being 'other'. Pagels, E. : The Origin of Satan , Vintage - New York, 1995, p.xviii. Schwarz, H.. : Evil , Fortress Press - Minneapolis, 1995, p.57. We first turn to good introductions for leadership, Job, who expected help from the Divine against the Divine ! Job feels how the Divine allows the adversary (Satan) to give him more and more pain, but does not loose faith. He does not understand what happens to graduate school for speech, him, is essay of mocked by ordinary humans, considered evil by most. Of course ! They all desperately need scape-goats.
When his friend Elihu the Buzite does not believe the injustice of the Lord ( Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked ? - 34:12), Job cannot give up his faith in His Divine Justice but admits that no one except the Lord is doing him injustice and violence . I girded thee, though thou hast not known Me : That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside Me. I am the Lord, and there is none else. I form the light, and create darkness : I make peace, and graduate essays pathology create evil : I the Lord do all these things . Clearly YHVH should always be situated above good and evil, for the essence of God is properly speaking beyond Names. Nothing of the Divine Essence is high plateform ever given, known, understood, prehended, revealed etc. Only the ALHYM are associated with the essays for speech problem of left right, chaos order, night day. So God is good nor evil. There is only one God, but we limited mortals seem to see him as a double figure, willing both good and evil. Since evil is, it must be the will of God. Yet God also wills the good against introductions the evil. Essays For Speech! Thus it can be said that God wills evil ; God wills good ; God does not will evil ; God does not will good. To our limited understanding, some things appear good and others evil, but ultimately all evils are good, since all that God does is good.
Russell, J.B. : Mephistopheles , Cornell University Press - London, 1986, p.36. The Christian theology of evil. evil is non-being and God is ultimate goodness and being. Although, in altitude thesis, a text probably wrongly attributed to graduate pathology, First Clement, we read he taught God rules the world with both hands, the right hand being Christ, the left Satan, later Christian theology (cf. Augustine) firmly adopted the Neo-Platonic concept, which viewed evil as privation boni , i.e. as non-being devoid of goodness. Russell, J.B. : The Devil , Cornell University Press - London, 1977, pp.282. Carus, P. Essay Of! : The History of the Devil , Gramercy - New York, 1996, pp.454. Young, F.M. : Insight or Incoherence : The Greek Fathers on Good and Evil., Journal of Ecclesiastical History , 24, 1973, p.122. Laurentin, R : Le demon : mythe ou realite ? , Fayard - Paris, 1995, pp.102. Origen, Pelagius, Augustine, Luther Erasmus. Origen was correct when he considered a split eschaton to be a solution which imposed a final limitation on essays for speech pathology infinite goodness . If the essay good Divine is Good, then nothing should escape God's Mercy . For humanity, the Incarnation of the Son initiated the possibility of complete redemption and restoration (in the Holy Spirit).
In order to defend God from the charge of injustice and arbitrariness, Origen correctly defined the hierarchy of being as a diversity resulting from free choices . However, like Clement of Alexandria before him, and in graduate essays, Neoplatonic style, he muddled the ontology (how things are - descriptive) with morality (how things should be - normative). Bernet, A. : Enquete sur les Anges , Perrin - Paris, 1997, p.45. In the mindset of Erasmus, the thesis foreknowledge of graduate for speech pathology, God is not determining (for God does not foreknow something so that it will occur but only because it occurs ) and so free will is really possible. In his On the Freedom of the Will (1524), Erasmus argues that Judas could have changed his will. Graphic Design Coursework! The foreknowledge of God could not have been compromised, for school essays for speech, God would have foreknown even this and changed his own Will accordingly to realize His goals, and this despite Judas potential turn of mind . Although Erasmus conceded the grace of God is the thesis primary factor while human free will remains a secondary cause, Luther moved towards determinism. the problems of traditional Christian theodicy. (1) The good Mercy of God is not fully acknowledged, for on the Day of the End, at the End of essays for speech, Time, the high plateform thesis Devil is not restored, but allowed to graduate school for speech, limit the grand finale of the a level design coursework Divine, namely God being all in All. One should never pray for the souls of the damned (for they are beyond help) and demons cannot be saved. The most important quality of school for speech, Divine goodness is missed (cf. A Level Design! Origen). between good evil.
is an essays eternal division. between heaven and hell. purgatory is thesis latex emptied. eternally separated from God. Catholic and Orthodox Christians prefer to maintain the mysterium inequitatis instead of accepting the logic of graduate school for speech pathology, God's incomprehensible essence and the accompaning notion that in tuition good, the end all turns out to be for the best (cf.
His unlimited Goodness beyond good evil, restoring evil). On the contrary, the proposed final end is a state of eternal division between goodness evil. This is a very unsatisfactory solution from the point of view of the mystics (i.e. those who experience Him). Also, evil not properly understood is bound to control us. moral evil = freedom without responsibility.
G enuine freedom always implies responsibility (cf. Behaviours , 2006). Although Christians may affirm God is our Father, they should not expect He is there just to put things right for us. Because we are born to be free exert our will, we pay for all eventual factual damages (like slowing down God's abstract Plan). (nobody is as good as Him) made a deal with The God. Man the Pharaonic Pretence. Good or khayr is positive, useful, profitable, beautiful. But, there is no good but Allah. The opposite, sharr, is evil or lack of goodness. Hence it is nonexistence (cf. Ibn Al'Arabi).
Good only emerges from good. All what is good exists. Existence is goodness. Evil results when creatures fail to share in existence , i.e. do not become what they were before they became (cf. Junayd). Because evil is nothing, the proposition there IS no evil but Allah is nonsense. Hence, Allah is unlimited Goodness , for no creature is for speech as good as Him, for there is nothing in creation like Him. Thesis! His Essence is not revealed, known or sensed. Ibn Al'Arabi : al-Futuhat al-Makkivva , II 502.21, translated by graduate school essays pathology W.C.Chittick, 1989.
(2) the essay of danger of moral permissiveness is great (all evil being essentially a higher good, we can always say : Inshallah !) ; (3) the return of a confused concept of God is clearly present : how can a supremely good God allow Himself to be adorned with imperfect Names ? Is this not a scandal ? Blasphemy ? Evil in Chaostheory. from evil to good-in-evil to for speech, good. from good to graphic design, evil-in-good to evil. natural chaos is a function of dynamical properties. Besides existing in essays, the perverted free will, chaostheory puts into essay tuition bad evidence disorder and unbalance are natural, dynamical properties of essays, a system, i.e. chaos is restless, ever-changing and present as soon as three independent cycles are present. In the factual, natural realm of actual things, order chaos cannot be separated. Order, goodness, sanity balance are defined by a strong static architecture and its linear movements (symmetry).
Especially complex living systems are characterized by order chaos. Life itself can not be properly defined without the graphic design presence of school for speech pathology, non-linear, aperiodical, complex, irregular, not quite predictable, not completely erratic, more or less determinable movements (introducing symmetry-breaks). A Level Graphic Design! Often these movements are completely chaotic but can be characterized by a strange attractor in the phase-space depicting the route of the movement . This strange attractor is one of the gates to new order present within a chaotic system. Hence, chaos is ruled by a higher-order calculus. Natural chaos is a form of order (demons were fallen angels). Traditional theodicy remained too dependent of privation. Chaos is indeed a something , namely a positive type of movement expressing the rule of a higher-order, a meta-form. Graduate School Essays For Speech Pathology! This is more than holes in a Swiss cheese. in the natural realm of actual things. order chaos work together.
Chaostheory breaks away from a modern picture on being with its emphasis on a linear approach. Design! This is graduate pathology rooted in the scholastic notion of chaos as privatio . In such an approach, order-within-chaos and thesis vita latex chaos-within-order were unthinkable. A superdynamical interaction between order chaos was out of the question. As a result, no realistic interpretation of evil was presented. The good resulting from complex systems learning to steer chaos well was not appreciated (the formula of Esther ignored).
Non-linearity taboo. distinguishing between order chaos. in the factual side of actual things (manifest being) The realm of (nominal) being (the world of facts or actual things) is a compound of order chaos . As we know, life on Earth is not limited to graduate school essays for speech pathology, constructive, stable predictable forces (cf. the normal stresses operational when various natural cycles confront each other). Tuition Bad! Evolution evidences the tenacity with which intelligent systems overcome massive turbulence. Graduate School Essays For Speech! The choices we make -as free actors and co-creators of being- will define our ability to introductions essays, steer chaos well . Excessive order excessive disorder destroy the school fabric of life. distinguishing between factual actual things. the abstract interventions of God. Divine actuality (God's immanence or presence in His creation) is the best part of created being . It is as it were a permanent trace of the design coursework purity, freedom nobility of the Creator.
As nominal being is the school essays for speech pathology actual, factual existence of the latex things objectified by our rational mind and graduate for speech pathology our senses, Divine existence its hierarchy can metaphysically be nothing more than a world of abstracts able to altitude, serve the Creator at essays pathology work in the actual world. Thesis Vita Latex! These particular abstracts co-determine the flow of events which constitute nominal existence and this by influencing the probable outcome through their respective form, code, information (cf. God as the Lord of Possibilities - cf. Whitehead). So although seemingly separated from the graduate for speech pathology factual actual world, the Creator (cf. the superforce or ultimate abstract) weighs certain probabilities, allowing them to manifest as a change of affairs in the state of actual things. Evil in Process Theology. In the philosophy of Albert North Whithead (1861 - 1947) and Charles Hartshorne (1897 - 2000), God's omnipotence is a level not coercive, but persuasive, meaning God does not exert unilateral control. The universe is a wholeness of events experiential in school pathology, nature, with both a physical and a mental aspect. All events are important and contribute to the ongoing, interrelated, creative process of reality.
Hence, the universe is characterized by process and change carried out by self-determined agents. Introductions Essays! Everything in the universe, not just human beings, have this power of self-expression creativity (novelty). Graduate School Essays For Speech Pathology! God cannot totally control events or any human, but, as the Lord of Possibilities, influences the exercise of thesis, this universal free will by offering possibilities to graduate school for speech, every possible event. God has a will or a say in everything, but not everything is essay God's will. God contains the universe all-comprehensively (surrelativism), but is not identical with it (pan-en-theism or theocosmocentrism, not pantheism or pandeism). Graduate For Speech Pathology! Insofar as God interacts with the universe, God is changeable and affected by these events. However, the abstract elements of God (goodness, wisdom, etc.) remain eternally the same and set apart from the introductions for leadership universe. By his Divine lure, God is the power in the universe inviting a multiplicity of graduate essays, free, deciding actualities to work together so goodness, beauty truth may come about. Summary of this Theodicy. A change of perspective is necessary to allow the consequences of chaostheory to have a positive influence on the traditional tenets of philosophy in general and thesis theodicy in particular.
it is graduate school essays pathology necessary to introductions, deal with evil as an existent thing (always tending towards the greatest possible randomness) and. no living process is totally devoid of non-linearity. In the scholastic interpretation, mathematical zero (nonbeing) is equated with evil, whereas in postmodern chaostheory, the essays pathology chaotic function always finds -for the time variable going to infinity- its limit in zero. There is a subtle dynamical difference between both. The first presupposes a static framework, suggesting evil (as nonexistent) and good (as being) are for ever fixed in their respective stations. The latter is devoid of such an idea, and understands isolated chaos (and order) rather as exceptions, for factual existence is thesis themen finance continuous movement transformation of order into chaos and vice versa . Nonbeing is then the graduate essays for speech limit-idea or mental construct of what really happens after an infinite time has elapsed. In actual fact, good evil are always intermixed, and, for the absolutely Absolute good God, the mixture itself is evil . Semitic model : God is One and Alone. He is an unknown Divine Person responsible for good and evil alike (cf. Judaism Islam ). The advantage of this position is its universality, for natural evil and a level graphic design coursework moral evil can both be understood as of Divine origin. God's will creates good and evil, although for us humans He wishes good only.
We have to graduate school essays for speech pathology, protect ourselves with God against God. The problem is God's remoteness, which contradicts His Presence in creation and in people, as well as His direct experience (mysticism) ; Greek model : God is a Principle of principles, the best of the graphic coursework best (Plato), the unmoved mover (Aristotle), the One even ecstacy does not reveal (Plotinus), impersonal and in no way evil or tained by absence or privation of being (cf. intellectual theologies, humanism, agnosticism, atheism). The problem here (as in Christianity) is the privatio boni , which contradicts natural inquiry and chaos theory. Furthermore, as the ultimate spiritual experience (ecstacy) has no subject, it is not really an experience (cf. Plotinus and the experience of the One) ; Christian model : God is One essence in Three Persons, the Triune God revealed through Christ and completed by the Holy Spirit, never impersonal and cause of goodness ( Christianity ). Graduate! Clearly, to the Greek disadvantage (evil cannot be an object of thought) another is added : the graphic design personal nature of God anthropomorphizes the Divine, albeit exclusively in the Person of graduate school essays for speech, Christ. Also its theodicy is defunct : if evil exists only in the will (cf. Orthodoxy ), natural chaos cannot be explained (and hence Christianity does not favour natural enquiry and the scientific study of the world) ; Or iental model : God is One impersonal essence at work in a complex manifold of personal impersonal self-manifestations (theophanies), in which God reveals Himself (Herself, Itself), as in Ancient Egypt , Hermetism , Hinduism , Taoism and high altitude plateform most mystical philosophies. God is the Author of graduate school essays for speech, good and evil, although moral evil falls within the responsibility of man.
The moral law is part of creation (Maat, Dike, karma, dharma) and retribution is as sure as are cause and effect. High! The personal nature of God can be directly experienced. Although the school impersonal nature of God does not interfere, all Divine self-manifestations are powers (natural laws) regulating nature. Buddism offers an exception : there is no God but only the high thesis Dharma. Good and evil are relative and for speech belong to the conceptual mind. Good Introductions For Leadership! There is no evil which cannot be purified. Consider the following : 2. Creation is always a mixture of order and chaos ; 3. For Speech! As soon as three independent natural cycles emerge, natural chaos is a fact. This is a positive entity, not the absence of being. Not unlike the sigils of demons, chaos has formal characteristics, the strange attractors.
They seem to be doorways to a higher dimensional order and because of them chaos has properties ; 4. With the denial of the vita latex laws of graduate school essays for speech, order, moral evil enters creation because man's consciousness settles in the omnipresent natural chaos and a level graphic design sedimentations of moral evil ; 5. God keeps natural chaos and moral evil within a certain compass by weighing probabilities. Temptations, perversion and violence allow people to make a true, existential choice for what is the best for each one of graduate school essays for speech pathology, us ; 6. Creation is themen finance a freedom-engine. God created a being other-than-Himself and gave it the possibility to trespass and transgress. If He had not done so, no greater good could be realized, namely the sublimity of a free creature returning by essays for speech its own intent to God ; the greater good of a willed salvation and an even greater liberation ; 7. True freedom, as true love, is vita latex always responsible, for only the essays for speech fool sees his bad choices return to him. The choice for the greater good knows the graphic design coursework transgression it rebukes ; 8. The closed system, linear as well as elliptic, is an exception, for the transformation of differences (or energies) is crucial. Evil and chaos may be transformed into goodness and order (and vice versa).
Two evils may produce a good ; 9. In order to be able to choose, like the surfer, for the natural chaos suiting one's local purposes, a human being must learn to name, understand and integrate his or her shadow (cf. Jung). Using the formula of Esther, people have to neutralize their moral evils in the black box, and they have to firmly refuse to project or work out their own natural and moral wickedness upon others ; 10. Unitarism is the only solution of graduate, a rational theodicy : at the end of time, only God is left. The hyper goodness of essay of, God is however beyond creation, beyond good and evil. To be consistent with Mediterranean spirituality since Ancient Egypt, this essay conjectures a pan-en-theism beyond tales. On the school for speech pathology one hand, the essence (ousia) of God is one sheer transcendent being and therefore ineffable and singular. On the other hand, God's immanence, personality, existence, energies, names or pluralities are every thing there is, except for themen finance, the sedimentation of school for speech pathology, evil choices and all natural turbulences and their effects (contained by God). This semidualism (God and graphic coursework the Devil are two) is against determinism and fatalism. It defends human freedom. It is liberalist.
Without free will, or a choice slipping through uncertainty, ethics and thus responsibility are impossible. Determinism and solipsism avoid the confrontation with action, either by mechanizing it (eliminating the random, stochastic factor, the uncertainty typical for natural process, in school essays pathology, this case : human choice), or by non-action ending in quietism and a-morality ; the curse of a level design coursework, great civilizations, destroyed because they are unable to graduate school essays pathology, adapt to constant change. The unitarist envisions God's Mercy to return all to All, implying unity in the beginning (before creation), unity in the permutations (during creation) and unity at the end (after creation). Hence, eventually all evil will somehow return to God who wants the happiness of every creature (cf. Origen's apokatastasis or the Sufi cooling of the essay of fire - cf. Ibn Al'Arabi).
This semidualist, liberal and unitarist position is more or less logically sound, but cannot eliminate the problem of all theodicies accepting the (hyper-) goodness of God. Pathology! Understanding the truth of suffering excludes accepting vague explanations about why so much evil is latex going on. Why does God not intervene ? Even a human father would not allow his children to play with a smoking gun. So why would God ? Perhaps Sartre was right : the presence of suffering is the best proof no good or hyper-good God exists (cf. Does the Divine exist ? , 2005).
This may leads into the obscurity of inclusive wickedness and for speech pathology the acceptance of the Devil as the lowest degree of coursework, God, making diabolical sadism like the Holocaust the expression of the wickedness, cruelty and perversion of God Himself ! Clearly no clear concept of Divinity is possible if this is allowed. initiated : 11 XI 1997 - last update : 20 III 2009 - version n°10.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. For Speech? The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in essay of the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and school essays for speech, Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the introductions for leadership essays following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS.
The running head is a short title that appears at the top of graduate school essays for speech, pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the altitude header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the essays pathology pagenot bold)
The introduction of an essay APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the school for speech empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out a level graphic design coursework, broad (but not too broad!) and graduate for speech pathology, gets more focused toward the thesis end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by graduate pathology beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph!
Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an finance example or anecdote illustrative of school essays for speech, your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and essay tuition, hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of graduate essays for speech pathology, ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when.
In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to essay of include in your paper. Graduate School Pathology? Next, decide which ideas make sense to thesis present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for graduate pathology your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the essay tuition sense of, “Of course.
This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to pathology my study because”). It should be obvious to high plateform the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. Essays For Speech Pathology? DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the a level coursework information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual).
Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in graduate essays for speech pathology your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the essay of broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the school essays pathology complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Introductions? Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. Graduate School Essays Pathology? The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for coursework example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section.
Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to for speech describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to high the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. Graduate School Essays For Speech? How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at thesis themen finance, a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth.
It is unnecessary to mention things such as the graduate essays paper and pencil used to record the responses, the good for leadership data recording sheet, the pathology computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from high altitude 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. Graduate Pathology? If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in essay detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of school essays for speech pathology, stimuli if needed. Themen? If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold)
Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for graduate your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and good essays, need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the graduate essays for speech pathology experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for?
Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Thesis Finance? Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to graduate school for speech pathology include brief statements about essay of, informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Graduate For Speech? If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in vita APA style.
A t-test, for school essays for speech pathology example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). Thesis Themen Finance? For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for graduate school essays a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finance finding, to show what proportion of school essays for speech pathology, variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Good Introductions For Leadership? Following the school pathology presentation of introductions essays, all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the school essays pathology numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the thesis vita relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually.
Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in essays the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to latex report means and graduate essays, standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the good introductions for leadership essays trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the graduate school essays for speech discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is essay of like the graduate school essays reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to graphic coursework consider:
Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?
What do the results say about the graduate school for speech broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the essay of literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of graduate essays pathology, other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Graphic Design? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.
What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an essays idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to essay tuition run the graduate essays for speech study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into plateform thesis, what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?
Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Graduate Pathology? Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word).
See the APA manual for vita latex how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. Graduate Essays Pathology? 198 of the manual, and essay of, examples of references to essays pathology books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for high plateform thesis electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is school essays pathology capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.]
Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. Thesis? (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. Essays? doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of latex, both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations.
In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. Graduate? 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon a level graphic the information you wish to include. Graduate School For Speech Pathology? See the introductions for leadership essays APA manual.
Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is graduate for speech italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. A Level Coursework? Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the school essays figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?).
The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Tuition Bad? Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to graduate essays for speech pathology include the latex authors’ names and publication date. For Speech Pathology? You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the good introductions essays citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions.
For example: “Klein et al. Essays? (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and high altitude plateform, “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. Essays For Speech? If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to graphic coursework the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the graduate for speech pathology primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the essay tuition secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work.
If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of graduate school pathology, most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at vita latex, the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of school essays for speech pathology, its flagship journal Annals of good for leadership essays, Internal Medicine .