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Dec 19, 2017 Ap us history essay grading rubrics,
How to history grading, Write a Descriptive Essay about differance a Person. There is grading rubrics something about the personal essays - sometimes they are referred to as €ścharacter sketches.€ť But it is difficult to spm english, learn how to history, write a descriptive essay about a person, because we really do not read them often. Narrowing Topic? We get €śpictures€ť in essay grading our heads about et cinas essay characters in ap us a piece of format fiction over many pages of writing; and most non-fiction does not entail character sketches. So, when you are assigned this type of history essay, you may be at essay, a loss as to history rubrics, how to construct it or even what to say. Format? We have explored a lot of ap us history rubrics information about this kind of paper and have made a whole article about it in order to help you out. Here are some pretty basic tips and strategies to families, use as you develop your piece.
You cannot write a character sketch about history essay grading rubrics anyone you do not know intimately. Pyrrhus Et Cinas Essay? This person can be a member of ap us history essay grading your family, a close friend, or even a main character in a novel or movie if you loved it so much you read or saw it many times. Copper? You can select a totally fictitious person, of course, but it is history essay probably wise to essay, make the person at history essay rubrics, least a combination of people you know, so that your description €śsounds€ť authentic to a reader. Most fiction writers admit that their major characters are a bit autobiographical or combinations of people they know, because they are just more believable. Essay? Also it will help you to history grading, get more ideas about what to write and you won€™t get lost. Chemist? If you want you may even have some sort of an interview with the ap us history essay grading, person you are writing about in order to know more about derrida differance essay them. History Grading? Thus you will present them in on non-traditional families a way more realistic and rubrics, truthful way.
A descriptive essay about a person is a failure, if all you do is describe that individual physically and then tell the reader that s/he has three or four personality traits. Physical descriptions should be revealed indirectly, and those three or four personality traits must be shown be specific words, actions, and behaviors. Essay Made? Go back and read your favorite short story or novel. Ap Us History Rubrics? How does the author reveal everything about that main character? Chances are s/he does not spend paragraphs of narrowing down a research topic prose describing what that character looks like.
Bits and ap us essay grading, pieces are revealed along the way, and format, often the history grading rubrics, details are left up to the reader to fil in. Fairy Tales Thesis? How do you know what the character€™s personality is ap us like? You get that over record listening time, as that character speaks and ap us essay, takes action throughout the work. Consider these two methods of providing a physical description: Carol has long curly brown hair, brown eyes, and dissertation tutorial record, stands about 5€™ 4€ť tall. Essay Grading? She is slender, and narrowing topic, her long legs give a graceful appearance as she walks. (Very boring.) Carol has a completely contagious laugh. When she laughs her entire body is history grading involved. Differance Essay? Those long brown curls fly about essay her face and shoulders, and derrida essay, all 5€™ 4€ť of her is somehow involved. And when she is angry, watch out. Those piercing brown eyes are throwing daggers of light, and ap us history, those long legs are poised in tales thesis a true fighting stance, like she is ready to history grading rubrics, go 16 rounds. Same person €“ two different writers.
See the difference? When you don€™t have an pyrrhus essay entire novel to history grading, gradually provide a physical description, you have to essay e.p. copper, get creative with the ap us essay rubrics, way in made which you do it. Grading? There are a lot of tips and tutorial listening, pieces of advice from professional writers on history rubrics the web that can help you to improve your skills in pyrrhus writing character€™s description. Also a lot of ap us essay grading rubrics writers like Chuck Palahniuk, Ray Bradbury, Stephen King and essays on non-traditional, others have written whole books about the art of writing so consider reading them too. Ap Us Grading Rubrics? Describing Personality Traits. Part of e.p. lead mounts learning how to write a descriptive essay about a person mastering this art of showing not telling as you reveal his/her personality traits.
Words and ap us essay, behaviors must be used. Essays On Non-traditional? Let€™s take a look at Carol again. Essay? Suppose you have decided that she really has extremes in fairy emotions when she is essay grading happy or sad €“ there doesn€™t seem to be much €śin between€ť with her. So, that is on non-traditional families one of the history, traits that you want to tutorial record, address in your description. You can take what was written above and ap us essay rubrics, expand it a bit, still keeping the physical descriptors but now giving specific examples of essays these extremes. Ap Us Grading Rubrics? You should reveal them in real-life situations. Derrida Differance? Incorporate them in a realistic way. History Essay Rubrics? Consider this: Carol has extreme emotional responses, both when happy or angry. When she found out she was accepted to her first choice for college, she threw her head back, long brown curls flying, raised those slender arms toward the sky and pyrrhus et cinas essay, immediately broke into dance moves that I had never seen before, as she sang €śDon€™t Stop Believin€™€ť and threw those long legs all over the room. Essay Grading Rubrics? And one day, when someone stole a parking space she had been waiting for, I watched her follow that man all the pyrrhus essay, way into the store, shaking her finger and calling him a rude guy and several other terms I won€™t mention here.
You have now €śproved€ť to history grading rubrics, the reader that Carol has extreme emotional responses and done so in essay spm english an engaging way. Grading? It€™s important to give such descriptions if you want to keep your writing interesting and not to made, be boring. It also helps you to rubrics, carve your own style and to improve writing skills at dissertation tutorial record, all. As you search for ap us history essay grading descriptive essay ideas that will make your character €ślive€ť on dissertation record your paper, you can look online for ap us grading examples of pyrrhus et cinas character sketch or personal description essays €“ you will find plenty to history rubrics, review that will help you see how to formulate your own €śpicture€ť of your character. Pyrrhus Essay? It€™s very useful to ap us essay grading, read other essays if you want to format spm english, learn how to history grading rubrics, write good papers.
It may also give you plenty of new ideas or to pyrrhus, inspire you to write a descriptive essay. Generally, in history rubrics a character sketch essay, you should identify three personality traits that you will present, each in families a different paragraph. It€™s not advised to describe whole personality as it will become a novel. Instead consider using this scheme. Your introduction will obviously introduce your person, and history grading, the traits that you will be covering. Your conclusion can either wrap those together to explain how complex, or fun, or interesting this individual is. Derrida Essay? A conclusion for Carol might be something like this: Living with my sister Carol has been an adventure, to ap us, be sure.
And I hope that adventure continues for years to come, even after we are grown and essay e.p. copper, have our own separate lives.
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Dec 19, 2017 Ap us history essay grading rubrics,
nature essay thoreau By Elizabeth Witherell, with Elizabeth Dubrulle. Henry Thoreau was born in 1817 in Concord , where his father, John, was a shopkeeper. John moved his family to Chelmsford and Boston, following business opportunities. In 1823 the family moved back to Concord where John established a pencil-making concern that eventually brought financial stability to the family. Thoreau's mother, Cynthia Dunbar, took in boarders for many years to help make ends meet. Thoreau's older siblings, Helen and John, Jr., were both schoolteachers; when it was decided that their brother should go to history, Harvard College, as had his grandfather before him, they contributed from their teaching salaries to help pay his expenses, at that time about $179 a year.
Harvard put heavy emphasis on the classics--Thoreau studied Latin and Greek grammar or composition for three of his four years. He also took courses in mathematics, English, history, and essay copper mental, natural, and intellectual philosophy. Modern languages were voluntary, and Thoreau chose to take Italian, French, German, and Spanish. He was never happy about the teaching methods used at Harvard--Ralph Waldo Emerson is ap us history essay grading rubrics, supposed to have remarked that most of the branches of learning were taught at Harvard, and Thoreau to have replied, Yes, indeed, all the dissertation tutorial branches and none of the roots (Walter Harding, The Days of Henry Thoreau [New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970], 51)--but he did appreciate the lifelong borrowing privileges at Harvard College Library for which his degree qualified him. He returned to essay, Concord after his graduation in 1837 and took up the profession of teaching, first at essays families, the district school and then in a school he opened with his brother John. He had already begun to think of himself as a writer, however, and when he and John had to ap us essay, close their school in 1841 Thoreau accepted an offer to tales thesis, stay with neighboring Emerson's family and earn his keep as a handyman while he concentrated on his writing.
Thoreau knew himself to be a writer from the time he graduated from Harvard. He had begun keeping a journal in 1837 and had probably started writing poetry earlier than that; he also wrote and ap us history published essays and essays on non-traditional reviews. He soon found, however, that he would have to grading, earn his living in some other way. For a steady income, he relied on two sources: the family pencil business and essay e.p. copper lead his own practice as a surveyor. Grading? The Thoreau family became involved in manufacturing pencils in the 1820s, and Thoreau used his talent as an engineer to narrowing down paper, improve the ap us product. He invented a machine that ground the essays on non-traditional families plumbago for the leads into a very fine powder and ap us history essay developed a combination of the finely ground plumbago and clay that resulted in a pencil that produced a smooth, regular line. Down Paper Topic? He also improved the method of assembling the casing and the lead. Thoreau pencils were the ap us first produced in families, America that equaled those made by the German company, Faber, whose pencils set the standard for quality. In the 1850s, when the electrotyping process of printing began to be used widely, the history grading Thoreaus shifted from fairy tales thesis, pencil-making to supplying large quantities of their finely ground plumbago to printing companies. Thoreau continued to run the company after his father's death in 1859.
Characteristically, Thoreau put the business letters and ap us essay grading invoices associated with the company to essays families, a second use as scrap paper for lists and notes, and drafts of his late unfinished natural history essays. Thoreau taught himself to grading, survey; he had, as Emerson noted in his eulogy, a natural skill for mensuration, and he was very good at the work. In addition to fairy tales thesis, working for the town of Concord, he surveyed house and wood lots around Concord for landowners who were having property assessed and those wanting to ap us rubrics, settle boundary disputes with their neighbors. Tales? In 1859, he was hired by a group of farmers who filed suit against the owners of the Billerica Dam, claiming that the dam raised the water level in the river and destroyed the farmers' meadow lands. To help support the claim, Thoreau collected evidence from many sources. He interviewed people with long experience of the river, took extensive measurements of the water level at ap us history essay grading rubrics, various points along its course, and spm english inspected all of the river's bridges. He recorded his findings in a large chart and transferred appropriate information to an existing survey of the river that he had traced. The dispute was a bitter one, arousing ill-feeling in the town: Thoreau reported in his February 17, 1860, journal entry that one of those he interviewed testified in court that the river was dammed at both ends and cursed in the middle.
He also collected specimens for ap us history essay, Louis Agassiz, who had brought the study of natural history to Harvard after Thoreau graduated, but he was not compensated for essays, this work. He lectured several times a year at lyceums and private homes from Maine to New Jersey. These lectures were important in his process of ap us history grading, composition--most of the ideas and themes in essay lead mounts, his essays and books were first presented to the public in lectures--but they were not lucrative. In 1847, responding to a request from the secretary of his Harvard class, he described his various employments: I am a Schoolmaster--a Private Tutor, a Surveyor--a Gardener, a Farmer--a Painter, I mean a House Painter, a Carpenter, a Mason, a Day-Laborer, a Pencil-Maker, a Glass-paper Maker, a Writer, and sometimes a Poetaster ( The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau , ed. Walter Harding and essay grading rubrics Carl Bode [New York: New York University Press, 1958], 186). He generalized about the advantage of making just enough money to supply his limited needs in the essay Life without Principle: Those slight labors which afford me a livelihood, and by which it is allowed that I am to narrowing down a research paper, some extent serviceable to ap us history rubrics, my contemporaries, are as yet commonly a pleasure to me, and I am not often reminded that they are a necessity ( Reform Papers , 160). Thoreau and the Transcendentalist movement in New England grew up together. Thoreau was nineteen years old when Emerson published Nature , an essay that articulates the philosophical underpinnings of the movement. Transcendentalism began as a radical religious movement, opposed to the rationalist, conservative institution that Unitarianism had become. Many of the movement's early proponents were or had been Unitarian ministers, Emerson among them. They had found Unitarianism wanting both spiritually and emotionally, and, beginning in the late 1820s, had expressed the need for fairy tales, and conviction of a more personal and intuitive experience of the ap us history essay grading divine, one available to every person.
The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; wrote Emerson in Nature , we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by format, revelation to us, and ap us history grading not the essay chemist history of grading, theirs? The Transcendentalists assumed a universe divided into two essential parts, the soul and nature. Emerson defined the soul by defining nature: all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the narrowing a research topic NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men and my own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE.
A belief in the reliability of the ap us history essay grading rubrics human conscience was a fundamental Transcendentalist principle, and narrowing a research this belief was based upon a conviction of the immanence, or indwelling, of God in the soul of the individual. We see God around us, because he dwells within us, wrote William Ellery Channing in 1828; the beauty and glory of God's works are revealed to the mind by a light beaming from grading rubrics, itself. This conviction of immanence enabled Thoreau to write, in Civil Disobedience, The only obligation which I have a right to assume, is to do at any time what I think right ( Reform Papers , 65), and it supported his intense and particular interest in nature, in which the divine force is listening, also revealed. As a reflection of God, nature expressed symbolically the spiritual world that worked beyond the physical one. Transcendentalism can be seen as the religious and intellectual expression of American democracy: all men had an equal chance of experiencing and expressing divinity directly, regardless of wealth, social status, or politics. Initially because of Emerson's presence, Concord was a significant intellectual and cultural center in Thoreau's time. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Bronson Alcott lived there, as did William Ellery Channing the Younger. Margaret Fuller visited Emerson often, and Franklin Sanborn boarded with the Thoreau family in the 1850s. Theodore Parker, George Ripley, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, and Horace Greeley were also members of the circle of ap us grading rubrics, friends.
Thoreau was respected within this circle, but he was always a prickly individualist. He cared little for group activities, whether political or religious, and even avoided organized reform movements until the moral imperative of abolition commanded his attention. In eulogizing Thoreau, Emerson said, There was somewhat military in his nature, not to be subdued, always manly and listening able, but rarely tender, as if he did not feel himself except in history essay grading, opposition. In Civil Disobedience, Thoreau expressed his belief in the power and, indeed, the obligation of the individual to dissertation listening, determine right from wrong, independent of the dictates of society: any man more right than his neighbors, constitutes a majority of one ( Reform Papers , 74). Ap Us Essay? While many of his contemporaries espoused this view, few practiced it in their own lives as consistently as Thoreau. Thoreau exercised his right to dissent from the prevailing views in record listening, many ways, large and small. He worked for pay intermittently; he cultivated relationships with several of the town's outcasts; he lived alone in the woods for two years; he never married; he signed off from the First Parish Church rather than be taxed automatically to support it every year.
Thoreau encouraged others to assert their individuality, each in his or her own way. When neighbors talked of emulating his lifestyle at the pond, he was dismayed rather than flattered. I would not have any one adopt my mode of history essay rubrics, living on inventions made, any account; for, beside that before he has fairly learned it I may have found out another for myself, I desire that there may be as many different persons in essay rubrics, the world as possible; but I would have each one be very careful to find out and pursue his own way, and not his father's or his mother's or his neighbor's instead. The youth may build or plant or sail, only let him not be hindered from listening, doing that which he tells me he would like to do. Grading Rubrics? It is by e.p. mounts, a mathematical point only that we are wise, as the history essay grading sailor or the fugitive slave keeps the polestar in his eye; but that is sufficient guidance for all our life. We may not arrive at our port within a calculable period, but we would preserve the true course. ( Walden , 71) If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Essay Made? Let him step to grading, the music which he hears, however measured or far away. ( Walden , 326) Thoreau also believed that independent, well-considered action arose naturally from a questing attitude of mind.
He was first and foremost an explorer, of both the world around him and the world within him. be a Columbus to whole new continents and worlds within you, opening new channels, not of trade, but of thought. ( Walden , 321) Thoreau's celebration of solitude was a natural outgrowth of his commitment to the idea of individual action. His neighbors frequently saw him heading out for his regular afternoon walk which took him to every stream and meadow in narrowing, Concord and the surrounding towns. Ap Us Essay Rubrics? Contemporaries attest that Thoreau was gregarious, and he left an extensive correspondence which demonstrates the depth and perseverance of his friendships. And although he had many visitors at Walden, much of the time he was alone, a condition he savored.
I never found the companion that was so companionable as solitude. Essays? ( Walden , 135) the man who goes alone can start today; but he who travels with another must wait till that other is ready ( Walden , 72) Allying himself with an ancient tradition of asceticism, Thoreau considered the ownership of material possessions beyond the basic necessities of life to be an obstacle, rather than an ap us history, advantage. He saw that most people measured their worth in terms of what they owned, and stood this common assumption on on non-traditional families, its head. I see young men, my townsmen, whose misfortune it is to have inherited farms, houses, barns, cattle, and ap us history rubrics farming tools; for these are more easily acquired than got rid of. Better if they had been born in the open pasture and suckled by a wolf, that they might have seen with clearer eyes what field they were called to labor in. ( Walden , 5) a man is rich in proportion to the number of things which he can afford to let alone. ( Walden , 82) Thoreau proposed to determine what was basic to human survival, and then to live as simply as possible. By the words, necessary of life , I mean whatever, of all that man obtains by his own exertions, has been from the first, or from essay, long use has become, so important to ap us history essay rubrics, human life that few, if any, whether from savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it. ( Walden , 12) Most of the luxuries, and many of the so called comforts of life, are not only not indispensable, but positive hinderances to the elevation of mankind ( Walden , 14) my greatest skill has been to want but little. ( Walden , 69) He grew some of his own food, including beans, potatoes, peas, and turnips. Dissertation Listening? He ate wild berries and apples, and occasionally a fish that he had caught, and once killed and cooked a woodchuck that had ravaged his bean-field. History Essay Grading? He so arranged his affairs that he had to work only fairy tales thesis, a little at a time for history essay grading, his upkeep, and he kept a broad margin to his life for reading, thinking, walking, observing, and writing.
For more than five years I maintained myself thus solely by the labor of my hands, and I found, that by working about six weeks in a year, I could meet all the expenses of living. The whole of my winters, as well as most of my summers, I had free and lead clear for ap us history essay grading, study. ( Walden , 69) It is not necessary that a man should earn his living by fairy tales, the sweat of his brow, unless he sweats easier than I do. ( Walden , 71) Thoreau, himself an inventor and ap us grading an engineer of sorts, was fascinated by technology, and the mid-nineteenth century saw a series of inventions that would radically change the narrowing down a research world, such as power looms, railroads, and the telegraph. But these inventions were products of a larger movement, the industrial revolution, in which Thoreau saw the history grading rubrics potential for the destruction of essay e.p. lead, nature for ap us history grading, the ends of commerce. In Thoreau's view, technology also provoked an excitement that was counterproductive because it served as a distraction from the important questions of e.p. mounts, life. perhaps we are led oftener by the love of novelty, and a regard for the opinions of history essay, men, in procuring it, than by a true utility. ( Walden , 21) Our inventions are wont to be pretty toys, which distract our attention from serious things. They are but improved means to an unimproved end, an end which it was already but too easy to arrive at; as railroads lead to Boston or New York.
We are in record, great haste to ap us history essay rubrics, construct a magnetic telegraph from essay format, Maine to Texas; but Maine and essay grading rubrics Texas, it may be, have nothing important to communicate. ( Walden , 52) The railroad was made the narrowing down a research symbol of essay, technology, and the language Thoreau uses to essay e.p. mounts, describe it expressed his ambivalence. I watch the passage of the morning cars with the grading same feeling that I do the rising of the sun, which is hardly more regular. Their train of clouds stretching far behind and rising higher and essay chemist higher, going to grading, heaven while the cars are going to Boston, conceals the fairy tales thesis sun for a minute and casts my distant field into the shade, a celestial train beside which the petty train of cars which hugs the earth is but the barb of the spear. The stabler of the iron horse was up early this winter morning by the light of the stars amid the mountains, to fodder and harness his steed. Ap Us History Essay Rubrics? Fire, too, was awakened thus early to put the vital heat in essay mounts, him and get him off. If the enterprise were as innocent as it is early! If the snow lies deep, they strap on ap us history, his snow-shoes, and with the essay spm english giant plow, plow a furrow from the mountains to the seaboard, in which the cars, like a following drill-barrow, sprinkle all the ap us history essay rubrics restless men and floating merchandise in the country for seed. Essay Format? All day the history essay fire-steed flies over the country, stopping only that his master may rest, and I am awakened by his tramp and defiant snort at midnight, when in some remote glen in the woods he fronts the dissertation record listening elements incased in ice and snow; and history essay grading he will reach his stall only with the morning star, to start once more on on non-traditional families, his travels without rest or slumber. Or perchance, at evening, I hear him in ap us essay grading rubrics, his stable blowing off the superfluous energy of the day, that he may calm his nerves and cool his liver and brain for a few hours of iron slumber.
If the enterprise were as heroic and fairy tales commanding as it is history essay rubrics, protracted and unwearied! ( Walden , 116-117) Thoreau was a dedicated, self-taught naturalist, who disciplined himself to observe the natural phenomena around Concord systematically and to record his observations almost daily in his Journal. The Journal contains initial formulations of ideas and descriptions that appear in Thoreau's lectures, essays, and books; early versions of passages that reached final form in Walden can be found in the Journal as early as 1846. Families? Thoreau's observations of nature enrich all of his work, even his essays on political topics. Images and comparisons based on his studies of animal behavior, of the life cycles of ap us, plants, and of the features of the essay e.p. copper lead mounts changing seasons illustrate and enliven the ideas he puts forth in Walden . All day long the red squirrels came and ap us grading rubrics went, and afforded me much entertainment by their manoeuvres. One would approach at first warily through the essay inventions chemist shrub-oaks, running over the snow crust by fits and starts like a leaf blown by the wind, now a few paces this way, with wonderful speed and waste of energy, making inconceivable haste with his trotters, as if it were for essay grading rubrics, a wager, and now as many paces that way, but never getting on more than half a rod at a time; and then suddenly pausing with a ludicrous expression and a gratuitous somerset, as if all the eyes in the universe were fixed on him,--for all the motions of a squirrel, even in the most solitary recesses of the forest, imply spectators as much as those of a dancing girl,--wasting more time in delay and circumspection than would have sufficed to walk the whole distance,--I never saw one walk,--and then suddenly, before you could say Jack Robinson, he would be in the top of a young pitch-pine, winding up his clock and chiding all imaginary spectators, soliloquizing and talking to all the universe at the same time,--for no reason that I could ever detect, or he himself was aware of, I suspect. ( Walden , 273-274) The grass flames up on the hillsides like a spring fire,--et primitus oritur herba imbribus primoribus evocata,--as if the tales thesis earth sent forth an inward heat to greet the ap us history grading rubrics returning sun; not yellow but green is the color of its flame;--the symbol of perpetual youth, the grass-blade, like a long green ribbon, streams from the sod into the summer, checked indeed by the frost, but anon pushing on narrowing paper topic, again, lifting its spear of last year's hay with the fresh life below. . . . So our human life but dies down to its root, and ap us history grading still puts forth its green blade to eternity. ( Walden , 310-311) Once it chanced that I stood in the very abutment of format, a rainbow's arch, which filled the lower stratum of the grading rubrics atmosphere, tinging the grass and leaves around, and dazzling me as if I looked through colored crystal. Fairy Tales Thesis? It was a lake of rainbow light, in ap us rubrics, which, for a short while, I lived like a dolphin. If it had lasted longer it might have tinged my employments and life. ( Walden , 202) The love of nature that is evident in Thoreau's descriptions in Walden is one of the most powerful aspects of the book.
The environmental movement of the past thirty years has embraced Thoreau as a guiding spirit, and he is on non-traditional, valued for his early understanding of the idea that nature is ap us, made up of interrelated parts. He is considered by many to essay, be the father of the environmental movement. Walden is Thoreau's best-known book, but other works of his written both before and after Walden have met with favorable responses. History Grading? All of his writing except his poetry is expository--he wrote no fiction--and much of it is built on the framework of the record journey, short or long, external or interior. A Week , The Maine Woods , Cape Cod , and the essays A Winter Walk, A Walk to ap us rubrics, Wachusett, and A Yankee in Canada, for example, are all structured as traditional travel narratives. The speaker--and it is essay e.p. copper lead mounts, useful to ap us history rubrics, remember that almost all of Thoreau's published essays and books were first presented as lectures--sets out from home in each case, and the reader experiences the wonders of each new place with him, sharing the record meditations it inspires, and finally returning with him to essay grading rubrics, Concord with a deeper understanding of both native and on non-traditional foreign places and of the journeying self. Other essays take the reader on ap us grading, different kinds of essay e.p., journeys--through the foliage of autumn (Autumnal Tints), through the cultivated and grading rubrics wild orchards of history (Wild Apples), through the life-cycle of a plot of land as one species of tree gives way to another (The Succession of Forest Trees).
Nature is format, Thoreau's first great subject; the ap us essay question of how we should live is his second. One series of his essays deals with issues of personal exploration and renewal. In the 1830s and 1840s a wave of reform movements of all kinds swept New England. The issues involved ranged from essay format spm english, women's rights to temperance, from education to religion, from diet to sex. In general, Thoreau did not support reform movements; after he was invited to join the model community at Brook Farm, he wrote in his Journal, As for these communities--I think I had rather keep batchelor's hall in hell than go to board in heaven.-- The one movement with which he finally could not resist an alliance was abolitionism. Although he wrote in Walden , I sometimes wonder that we can be so frivolous, I may almost say, as to attend to the gross but somewhat foreign form of servitude called Negro Slavery, there are so many keen and subtle masters that enslave both north and ap us history grading rubrics south. It is hard to have a southern overseer; it is inventions made chemist, worse to have a northern one; but worst of all when you are the slave-driver of yourself. (7) and was at first reluctant to speak at abolitionist rallies because he felt he was expected to follow certain formulas, he later gave several impassioned lectures in response to the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law and in support of the activities of history essay, John Brown. Considering his neighbors' dismissive responses to Brown at the news of inventions, his death, Thoreau wrote, I hear another ask, Yankee-like, What will he gain by it? as if he expected to fill his pockets by this enterprise.
Such a one has no idea of gain but in this worldly sense. Essay? If it does not lead to a surprise party, if he does not get a new pair of boots, or a vote of thanks, it must be a failure. But he won't gain any thing by it. Well, no, I don't suppose he could get four-and-sixpence a day for being hung, take the year round; but then he stands a chance to save a considerable part of his soul--and such a soul!--when you do not. No doubt you can get more in your market for a quart of milk than for a quart of blood, but that is not the market that heroes carry their blood to. (A Plea for Captain John Brown, Reform Papers , 119) Thoreau's most famous essay is Civil Disobedience, published in 1849 as Resistance to Civil Government. The incident that provoked him to thesis, write it took place in July 1846, while he was living at Walden. Coming into town to have a pair of shoes repaired, he was arrested for history grading, non-payment of the poll tax assessed against every voter, and spent a night in listening, jail.
He was released the history essay grading next day, after one of his relatives, probably an essay inventions chemist, aunt, paid what was owed, but the event gave him the impetus to attack the government in a classic antiwar, antislavery piece that gave support to the passive resistance of Mohandas Gandhi, Dr. Essay Rubrics? Martin Luther King, Jr., and format other twentieth-century conscientious objectors. Some critics now consider Thoreau's Journal his most innovative and exciting work. In it he was able to show his thoughts in their natural relation to one another, not forced into a thematic arrangement, or stretched or lopped to fit the ap us history essay grading constraints of essay inventions, formal exposition. The natural alternation of essay, observation and reflection provided a rhythm that suited his temperament and style. He usually walked in the mornings and, using field notes that were almost a shorthand to remind him of what he had observed, wrote in the afternoons, although he sometimes postponed the essays on non-traditional families composition and wrote several days' entries at once. Thoreau's careful observations of the cycles of growing plants, of water levels in the local rivers and ponds, of fluctuating temperatures, and of many other natural phenomena are recorded in his Journal. They became the basis for a series of lists and charts that provided precise information for several essays in Transcendental natural history that remained unfinished at his death, and that show him developing another kind of writing--more scientific than his excursions but no less poetic.
This essay was written in 1995 for an exhibit commemorating the 150th anniversary of Thoreau's move to Walden Pond and his writing of the American classic, Walden ; it has been updated for inclusion here. References are to Walden , ed. Ap Us Essay Rubrics? J. Lyndon Shanley (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971) and to Reform Papers , ed. Wendell Glick (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973). For a version of this essay in Estonian, translated by Karolin Lohmus in narrowing a research topic, 2017, go to ELU LPUKS KORDA HENRY DAVID THOREAU.
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is history grading information about essay inventions, APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and ap us history grading, other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. Record Listening! A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in ap us essay rubrics, a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is tales thesis derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap.
The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the history essay grading rubrics original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is families illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in ap us history grading, your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of format information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations.
The first type of citation, which is ap us history called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for essay chemist word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. Ap Us History Rubrics! In-text citations include three items: the narrowing a research paper last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the history essay rubrics year the source was published, the title of the fairy tales thesis source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to ap us history essay grading, Include APA Citations?
Including APA citations into essay e.p., your research projects is a very important component of the research process. Essay Grading Rubrics! When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into tutorial record, your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in ap us grading, the psychology field. With close to on non-traditional, 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and ap us grading, books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is dissertation tutorial record a popular way to create citations.
This citation format is grading used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Narrowing A Research! Click here for ap us history essay grading more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for dissertation tutorial listening researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of grading information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the on non-traditional types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA.
APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in ap us history rubrics, an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the essay chemist city and history essay grading, country if it’s an international publisher, is dissertation record listening included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase.
See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for ap us history essay grading all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for essays APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Grading Rubrics! Retrieved from made, URL. Researchers and ap us history essay, scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the tales thesis proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to grading rubrics, cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you.
In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to dissertation record, a piece of ap us grading information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an essay inventions chemist, understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from ap us essay rubrics, another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is tutorial record when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.
When simply referring to another piece of information from essay grading rubrics, another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the spm english exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source.
Here’s are some examples of history grading rubrics in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the dissertation tutorial record listening free and ap us history grading, the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to fairy thesis, help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine.
Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.
Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. History Essay Grading! M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. Fairy! J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the ap us history first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Fairy Tales Thesis! Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an history grading rubrics, APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. On Non-traditional! Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. Grading! If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to down paper, honor Flyers founder.
The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the history title and essays families, the first word of the subtitle. Names of ap us history rubrics people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Chemist! Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and ap us grading rubrics, chapters in copper lead mounts, APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. History Essay Rubrics! The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in copper mounts, italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in history, quotation marks.
They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the dissertation tutorial listening source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the grading title in essay e.p. copper, your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. Ap Us Rubrics! If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in a research, brackets immediately following the title.
Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. Essay! (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is essays on non-traditional automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location.
Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the essay rubrics name of the publisher. It is essay inventions made chemist not necessary to ap us history, include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Tales! Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and essay rubrics, other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized.
Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the e.p. copper mounts publisher is ap us history grading rubrics a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more.
For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at e.p. mounts, the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in ap us essay grading, response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations.
When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only on non-traditional, include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about grading, electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of format databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. Ap Us History Essay Grading Rubrics! APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. Made Chemist! (Year Published). Title of work . Ap Us Essay! Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.
Print Books with Two or More Authors. On Non-traditional Families! Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. History Grading Rubrics! (2008). The race between education and thesis, technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009).
Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Ap Us! Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Essay! Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of ap us history rubrics Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001).
The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in dissertation record listening, Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title.
In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for grading Chapters in narrowing down a research, Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. Ap Us History Essay Rubrics! F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of essay zeolites. Ap Us Essay Grading Rubrics! In S. Down A Research Paper Topic! Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Essay Grading Rubrics! Retrieved from https://books.google.com.
If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the essay copper lead mounts generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation.
A DOI (digital object identifier) is history essay basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and lead mounts, click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. History Rubrics! Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Narrowing A Research Topic! Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. Rubrics! A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Essay Spm English! R. (2013). The forum: The decline of essay rubrics war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to record, its location on the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. History Grading Rubrics! A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Essay Copper! Author Last name, F. I. Ap Us Essay Grading Rubrics! (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Essay! Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).
Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources.
Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of essay grading rubrics Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of tutorial listening Newspaper. Retrieved from history essay, newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). Essay Inventions! College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published).
Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published).
Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an grading rubrics, APA format website: Austerlitz, S. Narrowing Down A Research! (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from grading, http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). E.p. Lead! EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the history essay third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). Tutorial Record! (Year aired). Ap Us History Essay Grading Rubrics! Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of essay format original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. Ap Us Grading Rubrics! D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode].
In Bays, C. Essay Made Chemist! (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. Ap Us Grading! I. Fairy! (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. Ap Us History Essay Grading! (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax.
There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. Copper Lead Mounts! It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. History Grading Rubrics! Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. Copper! If you are planning on history essay grading rubrics using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in essay copper lead mounts, text.
Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Ap Us Rubrics! Middle initial. Last name of the essay inventions made performer’s name or the name of the band]. History Essay Rubrics! On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL.
Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the thesis form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).
The influences of community college library characteristics on ap us history essay institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Thesis! Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting).
Title of YouTube video [Video file]. History! Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. Essay! [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Ap Us Essay Grading Rubrics! Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Dissertation Listening! Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the ap us essay grading form titled, “Film” to narrowing down topic, automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is essay rubrics not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is tutorial listening a bibliography that includes the history full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.
When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction.
A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on essay e.p. lead a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of grading rubrics pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos.
Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the record listening 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of ap us essay Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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conclusion chapter The Origin of Species. Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion. by Charles Darwin. Recapitulation of the difficulties on the theory of Natural Selection - Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour - Causes of the history essay grading rubrics general belief in the immutability of species - How far the theory of natural selection may be extended - Effects of tales thesis, its adoption on the study of Natural history - Concluding remarks. s this whole volume is ap us history one long argument, it may be convenient to the reader to have the leading facts and inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. I have endeavoured to give to them their full force. Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by essay inventions made, the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the individual possessor. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to our imagination insuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the ap us essay rubrics following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct, which we may consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of its kind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in thesis ever so slight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is a struggle for existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure or instinct.
The truth of these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed. It is, no doubt, extremely difficult even to history rubrics, conjecture by families, what gradations many structures have been perfected, more especially amongst broken and failing groups of ap us history essay grading rubrics, organic beings; but we see so many strange gradations in nature, as is proclaimed by fairy tales thesis, the canon, `Natura non facit saltum,' that we ought to be extremely cautious in saying that any organ or instinct, or any whole being, could not have arrived at its present state by many graduated steps. There are, it must be admitted, cases of special difficulty on the theory of natural selection; and one of the most curious of these is the existence of two or three defined castes of ap us history rubrics, workers or sterile females in the same community of ants but I have attempted to show how this difficulty can be mastered. With respect to the almost universal sterility of species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the almost universal fertility of varieties when crossed, I must refer the reader to the recapitulation of the on non-traditional facts given at the end of the essay grading eighth chapter, which seem to me conclusively to show that this sterility is no more a special endowment than is the incapacity of two trees to be grafted together, but that it is narrowing a research paper incidental on constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the intercrossed species. We see the truth of this conclusion in the vast difference in the result, when the same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the father and then as the mother. The fertility of varieties when intercrossed and history grading rubrics of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified. Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and as domestication apparently tends to eliminate sterility, we ought not to copper lead, expect it also to produce sterility. The sterility of hybrids is a very different case from that of first crosses, for their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in first crosses the organs on both sides are in ap us a perfect condition. As we continually see that organisms of all kinds are rendered in some degree sterile from their constitutions having been disturbed by slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at families, hybrids being in some degree sterile, for their constitutions can hardly fail to have been disturbed from being compounded of two distinct organisations.
This parallelism is supported by another parallel, but directly opposite, class of facts; namely, that the history grading vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by slight changes in essay copper lead mounts their conditions of life, and that the offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from being crossed increased vigour and fertility. So that, on the one hand, considerable changes in the conditions of life and crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to geographical distribution, the difficulties encountered on the theory of descent with modification are grave enough. All the individuals of the same species, and all the species of the same genus, or even higher group, must have descended from common parents; and therefore, in however distant and isolated parts of the history rubrics world they are now found, they must in the course of successive generations have passed from some one part to the others. We are often wholly unable even to conjecture how this could have been effected. Mounts! Yet, as we have reason to believe that some species have retained the same specific form for very long periods, enormously long as measured by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the occasional wide diffusion of the same species; for during very long periods of time there will always be a good chance for history essay grading rubrics wide migration by many means. A broken or interrupted range may often be accounted for by the on non-traditional extinction of the species in the intermediate regions. It cannot be denied that we are as yet very ignorant of the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the ap us essay grading influence of the Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and of representative species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. Fairy! With respect to distinct species of the same genus inhabiting very distant and isolated regions, as the ap us essay rubrics process of modification has necessarily been slow, all the means of migration will have been possible during a very long period; and format spm english consequently the ap us history grading difficulty of the wide diffusion of species of the fairy tales thesis same genus is in some degree lessened.
As on the theory of natural selection an interminable number of intermediate forms must have existed, linking together all the species in each group by gradations as fine as our present varieties, it may be asked, Why do we not see these linking forms all around us? Why are not all organic beings blended together in an inextricable chaos? With respect to existing forms, we should remember that we have no right to expect (excepting in rare cases) to discover directly connecting links between them, but only between each and some extinct and supplanted form. Ap Us Essay Grading! Even on chemist a wide area, which has during a long period remained continuous, and of which the essay grading climate and other conditions of life change insensibly in going from a district occupied by paper, one species into history grading rubrics, another district occupied by a closely allied species, we have no just right to expect often to find intermediate varieties in the intermediate zone. For we have reason to believe that only thesis, a few species are undergoing change at any one period; and all changes are slowly effected.
I have also shown that the intermediate varieties which will at first probably exist in the intermediate zones, will be liable to be supplanted by ap us grading rubrics, the allied forms on either hand; and the latter, from existing in greater numbers, will generally be modified and essay copper lead mounts improved at a quicker rate than the intermediate varieties, which exist in lesser numbers; so that the intermediate varieties will, in the long run, be supplanted and ap us history essay rubrics exterminated. On this doctrine of the extermination of an infinitude of connecting links, between the living and extinct inhabitants of the dissertation world, and at each successive period between the extinct and ap us essay still older species, why is not every geological formation charged with such links? Why does not every collection of fossil remains afford plain evidence of the families gradation and essay rubrics mutation of the forms of life? We meet with no such evidence, and this is the most obvious and forcible of the many objections which may be urged against my theory. Why, again, do whole groups of allied species appear, though certainly they often falsely appear, to have come in suddenly on the several geological stages? Why do we not find great piles of fairy tales thesis, strata beneath the Silurian system, stored with the remains of the ap us history essay grading rubrics progenitors of the Silurian groups of fossils? For certainly on my theory such strata must somewhere have been deposited at these ancient and utterly unknown epochs in the world's history.
I can answer these questions and grave objections only on made the supposition that the geological record is far more imperfect than most geologists believe. It cannot be objected that there has not been time sufficient for any amount of organic change; for the lapse of time has been so great as to ap us essay grading rubrics, be utterly inappreciable by the human intellect. The number of specimens in all our museums is absolutely as nothing compared with the countless generations of countless species which certainly have existed. We should not be able to recognise a species as the parent of any one or more species if we were to examine them ever so closely, unless we likewise possessed many of the intermediate links between their past or parent and present states; and these many links we could hardly ever expect to discover, owing to the imperfection of the geological record. Numerous existing doubtful forms could be named which are probably varieties; but who will pretend that in future ages so many fossil links will be discovered, that naturalists will be able to decide, on the common view, whether or not these doubtful forms are varieties? As long as most of the links between any two species are unknown, if any one link or intermediate variety be discovered, it will simply be classed as another and distinct species. Only a small portion of the essay world has been geologically explored. Only organic beings of history grading rubrics, certain classes can be preserved in a fossil condition, at least in any great number. Widely ranging species vary most, and varieties are often at first local, -- both causes rendering the discovery of intermediate links less likely. Local varieties will not spread into other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and fairy improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and will be simply classed as new species.
Most formations have been intermittent in their accumulation; and their duration, I am inclined to believe, has been shorter than the average duration of specific forms. Successive formations are separated from essay, each other by enormous blank intervals of time; for on non-traditional families fossiliferous formations, thick enough to resist future degradation, can be accumulated only where much sediment is deposited on the subsiding bed of the sea. History! During the tutorial listening alternate periods of elevation and of stationary level the record will be blank. During these latter periods there will probably be more variability in the forms of life; during periods of subsidence, more extinction. With respect to the absence of fossiliferous formations beneath the lowest Silurian strata, I can only ap us history grading, recur to the hypothesis given in the ninth chapter. That the geological record is imperfect all will admit; but that it is imperfect to the degree which I require, few will be inclined to admit. If we look to long enough intervals of time, geology plainly declares that all species have changed; and they have changed in the manner which my theory requires, for they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner. Format! We clearly see this in the fossil remains from essay grading rubrics, consecutive formations invariably being much more closely related to each other, than are the fossils from formations distant from each other in time.
Such is the sum of the narrowing down paper topic several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against history essay grading, my theory; and I have now briefly recapitulated the answers and inventions explanations which can be given to them. I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. But it deserves especial notice that the more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the long lapse of years, or that we know how imperfect the Geological Record is. Grading! Grave as these several difficulties are, in my judgement they do not overthrow the theory of descent with modification. Now let us turn to families, the other side of the argument.
Under domestication we see much variability. This seems to be mainly due to the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in the conditions of history essay rubrics, life so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to reproduce offspring exactly like the parent-form. Variability is governed by many complex laws, -- by narrowing a research topic, correlation of growth, by use and disuse, and by the direct action of the physical conditions of life. There is much difficulty in ascertaining how much modification our domestic productions have undergone; but we may safely infer that the ap us essay grading rubrics amount has been large, and that modifications can be inherited for long periods. As long as the conditions of life remain the same, we have reason to believe that a modification, which has already been inherited for many generations, may continue to essay inventions, be inherited for an almost infinite number of generations. On the other hand we have evidence that variability, when it has once come into play, does not wholly cease; for new varieties are still occasionally produced by history grading, our most anciently domesticated productions. Man does not actually produce variability; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to down a research paper, new conditions of life, and then nature acts on ap us essay rubrics the organisation, and on non-traditional causes variability. Essay! But man can and does select the variations given to dissertation record, him by ap us, nature, and thus accumulate them in any desired manner. He thus adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
He may do this methodically, or he may do it unconsciously by preserving the individuals most useful to him at the time, without any thought of altering the breed. It is essays certain that he can largely influence the character of essay rubrics, a breed by selecting, in each successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be quite inappreciable by an uneducated eye. This process of selection has been the great agency in the production of the most distinct and useful domestic breeds. That many of the breeds produced by man have to a large extent the character of essays on non-traditional, natural species, is history shown by the inextricable doubts whether very many of them are varieties or aboriginal species. There is no obvious reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the constantly-recurrent Struggle for Existence, we see the most powerful and ever-acting means of selection.
The struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high geometrical ratio of increase which is common to essay copper lead, all organic beings. This high rate of increase is proved by calculation, by the effects of a succession of peculiar seasons, and by the results of naturalisation, as explained in the third chapter. More individuals are born than can possibly survive. A grain in history essay the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die, -- which variety or species shall increase in fairy thesis number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct. As the individuals of the same species come in all respects into the closest competition with each other, the struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost equally severe between the varieties of the same species, and next in severity between the species of the same genus. Ap Us Essay Grading! But the struggle will often be very severe between beings most remote in essay spm english the scale of nature. History Essay Grading Rubrics! The slightest advantage in one being, at any age or during any season, over those with which it comes into competition, or better adaptation in however slight a degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will turn the essays on non-traditional families balance. With animals having separated sexes there will in most cases be a struggle between the males for possession of the females. The most vigorous individuals, or those which have most successfully struggled with their conditions of life, will generally leave most progeny. But success will often depend on ap us essay having special weapons or means of defence, or on the charms of the males; and the slightest advantage will lead to victory. As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.
And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play. It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity. Man, though acting on external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in species under nature. But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works. No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and species.
Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to the many representative forms in Europe and North America. If then we have under nature variability and a powerful agent always ready to record, act and select, why should we doubt that variations in any way useful to beings, under their excessively complex relations of life, would be preserved, accumulated, and inherited? Why, if man can by patience select variations most useful to himself, should nature fail in selecting variations useful, under changing conditions of life, to her living products? What limit can be put to this power, acting during long ages and rigidly scrutinising the history whole constitution, structure, and habits of essay format spm english, each creature, -- favouring the good and ap us history rejecting the bad? I can see no limit to this power, in slowly and fairy tales beautifully adapting each form to the most complex relations of life. The theory of essay, natural selection, even if we looked no further than this, seems to me to be in fairy thesis itself probable. I have already recapitulated, as fairly as I could, the opposed difficulties and objections: now let us turn to history rubrics, the special facts and arguments in favour of the theory. On the view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of dissertation record listening, demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to have been produced by special acts of ap us grading, creation, and varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by secondary laws.
On this same view we can understand how it is that in each region where many species of a genus have been produced, and where they now flourish, these same species should present many varieties; for essay where the manufactory of species has been active, we might expect, as a general rule, to ap us grading, find it still in action; and this is the case if varieties be incipient species. Moreover, the species of the made large genera, which afford the grading rubrics greater number of essay inventions, varieties or incipient species, retain to a certain degree the essay grading rubrics character of dissertation, varieties; for they differ from each other by a less amount of ap us history grading, difference than do the essay e.p. copper lead mounts species of history grading rubrics, smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and they are clustered in essay format spm english little groups round other species -- in which respects they resemble varieties. History Grading! These are strange relations on the view of each species having been independently created, but are intelligible if all species first existed as varieties. As each species tends by format spm english, its geometrical ratio of reproduction to increase inordinately in number; and as the modified descendants of each species will be enabled to history essay grading, increase by so much the more as they become more diversified in habits and structure, so as to be enabled to seize on many and widely different places in the economy of nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to dissertation record, preserve the most divergent offspring of any one species.
Hence during a long-continued course of essay rubrics, modification, the narrowing down slight differences, characteristic of varieties of the same species, tend to be augmented into the greater differences characteristic of species of the same genus. New and improved varieties will inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved and ap us essay intermediate varieties; and thus species are rendered to a large extent defined and distinct objects. Dominant species belonging to the larger groups tend to give birth to new and dominant forms; so that each large group tends to become still larger, and at essays on non-traditional families, the same time more divergent in character. But as all groups cannot thus succeed in history essay rubrics increasing in inventions made chemist size, for ap us essay the world would not hold them, the more dominant groups beat the less dominant. This tendency in the large groups to go on families increasing in size and diverging in character, together with the almost inevitable contingency of much extinction, explains the arrangement of all the forms of life, in groups subordinate to groups, all within a few great classes, which we now see everywhere around us, and history essay grading rubrics which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings seems to me utterly inexplicable on essay inventions made chemist the theory of creation. As natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and slow steps. Hence the canon of `Natura non facit saltum,' which every fresh addition to history grading rubrics, our knowledge tends to make more strictly correct, is on essay inventions chemist this theory simply intelligible. We can plainly see why nature is essay rubrics prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. But why this should be a law of thesis, nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain.
Many other facts are, as it seems to history essay grading rubrics, me, explicable on narrowing a research this theory. How strange it is that a bird, under the form of woodpecker, should have been created to prey on history essay grading rubrics insects on the ground; that upland geese, which never or rarely swim, should have been created with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been created to dive and feed on sub-aquatic insects; and dissertation listening that a petrel should have been created with habits and structure fitting it for the life of an auk or grebe! and so on in endless other cases. Ap Us Rubrics! But on narrowing down paper topic the view of each species constantly trying to increase in number, with natural selection always ready to adapt the ap us history grading slowly varying descendants of each to any unoccupied or ill-occupied place in nature, these facts cease to be strange, or perhaps might even have been anticipated. As natural selection acts by competition, it adapts the inhabitants of narrowing down topic, each country only in relation to ap us essay grading rubrics, the degree of perfection of their associates; so that we need feel no surprise at the inhabitants of any one country, although on the ordinary view supposed to have been specially created and adapted for that country, being beaten and supplanted by the naturalised productions from another land. Nor ought we to marvel if all the contrivances in nature be not, as far as we can judge, absolutely perfect; and if some of them be abhorrent to our ideas of fitness. We need not marvel at the sting of the bee causing the fairy bee's own death; at drones being produced in ap us history grading such vast numbers for one single act, and being then slaughtered by copper mounts, their sterile sisters; at the astonishing waste of pollen by our fir-trees; at the instinctive hatred of the queen bee for her own fertile daughters; at ichneumonidae feeding within the live bodies of essay, caterpillars; and at other such cases. Spm English! The wonder indeed is, on the theory of natural selection, that more cases of the want of absolute perfection have not been observed. The complex and little known laws governing variation are the ap us rubrics same, as far as we can see, with the dissertation laws which have governed the production of ap us history essay, so-called specific forms. In both cases physical conditions seem to have produced but little direct effect; yet when varieties enter any zone, they occasionally assume some of the essay inventions characters of the ap us grading rubrics species proper to that zone. In both varieties and species, use and essay e.p. copper mounts disuse seem to have produced some effect; for it is difficult to resist this conclusion when we look, for essay rubrics instance, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings incapable of flight, in nearly the lead mounts same condition as in the domestic duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is ap us rubrics occasionally blind, and then at certain moles, which are habitually blind and have their eyes covered with skin; or when we look at the blind animals inhabiting the dark caves of fairy thesis, America and grading Europe.
In both varieties and dissertation listening species correction of ap us essay, growth seems to have played a most important part, so that when one part has been modified other parts are necessarily modified. In both varieties and species reversions to long-lost characters occur. Essay Format! How inexplicable on the theory of creation is the ap us occasional appearance of essay, stripes on the shoulder and legs of the several species of the horse-genus and in their hybrids! How simply is this fact explained if we believe that these species have descended from ap us history grading, a striped progenitor, in the same manner as the several domestic breeds of pigeon have descended from the blue and barred rock-pigeon! On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should the specific characters, or those by which the species of the same genus differ from fairy tales, each other, be more variable than the generic characters in which they all agree? Why, for instance, should the colour of a flower be more likely to history essay rubrics, vary in any one species of a genus, if the other species, supposed to have been created independently, have differently coloured flowers, than if all the dissertation tutorial record species of the genus have the ap us history essay grading rubrics same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the dissertation characters have become in a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for they have already varied since they branched off from essay grading rubrics, a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from each other; and dissertation tutorial record therefore these same characters would be more likely still to be variable than the generic characters which have been inherited without change for an enormous period. It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in ap us a very unusual manner in any one species of a genus, and tutorial record listening therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to the species, should be eminently liable to variation; but, on my view, this part has undergone, since the several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of variability and modification, and therefore we might expect this part generally to be still variable. But a part may be developed in the most unusual manner, like the wing of a bat, and yet not be more variable than any other structure, if the part be common to many subordinate forms, that is, if it has been inherited for a very long period; for ap us history essay rubrics in this case it will have been rendered constant by long-continued natural selection.
Glancing at instincts, marvellous as some are, they offer no greater difficulty than does corporeal structure on the theory of the natural selection of successive, slight, but profitable modifications. We can thus understand why nature moves by inventions chemist, graduated steps in endowing different animals of the same class with their several instincts. I have attempted to show how much light the principle of history grading rubrics, gradation throws on the admirable architectural powers of the essays hive-bee. Habit no doubt sometimes comes into play in modifying instincts; but it certainly is not indispensable, as we see, in the case of neuter insects, which leave no progeny to inherit the effects of long-continued habit. On the view of all the essay rubrics species of the same genus having descended from a common parent, and having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the same instincts; why the thrush of South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.
On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to mistakes, and at many instincts causing other animals to suffer. If species be only well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at families, once see why their crossed offspring should follow the same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of resemblance to their parents, -- in history rubrics being absorbed into format spm english, each other by successive crosses, and in history grading other such points, -- as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and inventions varieties have been produced by secondary laws. If we admit that the geological record is imperfect in an extreme degree, then such facts as the record gives, support the theory of descent with modification. New species have come on ap us history grading rubrics the stage slowly and at successive intervals; and the amount of change, after equal intervals of time, is widely different in different groups.
The extinction of species and essays families of whole groups of species, which has played so conspicuous a part in the history of the organic world, almost inevitably follows on history essay grading rubrics the principle of natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by new and tutorial improved forms. Neither single species nor groups of species reappear when the chain of ordinary generation has once been broken. The gradual diffusion of dominant forms, with the slow modification of history grading, their descendants, causes the essay inventions made forms of life, after long intervals of time, to appear as if they had changed simultaneously throughout the world. The fact of the fossil remains of each formation being in some degree intermediate in character between the essay grading rubrics fossils in essays the formations above and below, is simply explained by their intermediate position in the chain of ap us history grading, descent. The grand fact that all extinct organic beings belong to the same system with recent beings, falling either into the same or into intermediate groups, follows from the living and the extinct being the offspring of common parents. Tutorial Record! As the groups which have descended from an ancient progenitor have generally diverged in character, the history grading progenitor with its early descendants will often be intermediate in character in comparison with its later descendants; and on non-traditional families thus we can see why the more ancient a fossil is, the oftener it stands in some degree intermediate between existing and allied groups. Recent forms are generally looked at as being, in some vague sense, higher than ancient and ap us essay rubrics extinct forms; and they are in so far higher as the later and more improved forms have conquered the older and less improved organic beings in the struggle for life.
Lastly, the law of the n='448' long endurance of allied forms on the same continent, -- of marsupials in Australia, of edentata in America, and other such cases, -- is essay lead intelligible, for within a confined country, the ap us essay grading rubrics recent and listening the extinct will naturally be allied by descent. Looking to geographical distribution, if we admit that there has been during the long course of ages much migration from one part of the world to another, owing to former climatal and grading rubrics geographical changes and to the many occasional and made unknown means of dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of history essay grading rubrics, descent with modification, most of the thesis great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in ap us history essay grading the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for in both cases the beings have been connected by the bond of ordinary generation, and the means of modification have been the same. We see the essay format spm english full meaning of the wonderful fact, which must have struck every traveller, namely, that on ap us rubrics the same continent, under the most diverse conditions, under heat and cold, on essays on non-traditional mountain and lowland, on deserts and marshes, most of the inhabitants within each great class are plainly related; for they will generally be descendants of the same progenitors and early colonists. On this same principle of former migration, combined in most cases with modification, we can understand, by ap us history grading rubrics, the aid of the Glacial period, the identity of some few plants, and the close alliance of many others, on the most distant mountains, under the most different climates; and likewise the close alliance of some of the inhabitants of the tales thesis sea in the northern and southern temperate zones, though separated by the whole intertropical ocean. Although two areas may present the same physical conditions of ap us history, life, we need feel no surprise at their inhabitants being widely different, if they have been for a long period completely separated from each other; for as the relation of organism to organism is the most important of all relations, and as the two areas will have received colonists from some third source or from each other, at various periods and in essay format different proportions, the course of modification in the two areas will inevitably be different.
On this view of migration, with subsequent modification, we can see why oceanic islands should be inhabited by essay grading, few species, but of these, that many should be peculiar. We can clearly see why those animals which cannot cross wide spaces of essays, ocean, as frogs and terrestrial mammals, should not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, which can traverse the ocean, should so often be found on islands far distant from any continent. Such facts as the presence of peculiar species of bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on grading the theory of independent acts of creation. The existence of closely allied or representative species in dissertation tutorial record any two areas, implies, on the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and grading we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist. Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and varieties of the inventions chemist same species likewise occur. Essay Grading Rubrics! It is a rule of high generality that the lead inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the grading rubrics nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. We see this in dissertation tutorial record listening nearly all the plants and animals of the Galapagos archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and of the other American islands being related in the most striking manner to the plants and animals of the neighbouring American mainland; and those of the Cape de Verde archipelago and other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation. The fact, as we have seen, that all past and present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to history grading, group, and with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is narrowing down a research paper topic intelligible on the theory of natural selection with its contingencies of extinction and ap us history rubrics divergence of character.
On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the species and genera within each class are so complex and dissertation tutorial record circuitous. We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of paramount importance to the being, are of hardly any importance in rubrics classification; why characters derived from rudimentary parts, though of no service to the being, are often of high classificatory value; and why embryological characters are the most valuable of all. Inventions Made Chemist! The real affinities of all organic beings are due to inheritance or community of descent. The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in which we have to discover the lines of descent by essay grading rubrics, the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be. The framework of bones being the same in on non-traditional the hand of grading rubrics, a man, wing of a bat, fin of the porpoise, and leg of the horse, -- the same number of vertebrae forming the neck of the giraffe and of the elephant, -- and essays families innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of ap us essay grading rubrics, descent with slow and slight successive modifications.
The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for narrowing paper such different purposes, -- in the jaws and legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the history essay grading gradual modification of parts or organs, which were alike in the early progenitor of each class. On the principle of successive variations not always supervening at an early age, and being inherited at a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the embryos of mammals, birds, reptiles, and listening fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms. We may cease marvelling at history essay rubrics, the embryo of an on non-traditional, air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and arteries running in loops, like those in a fish which has to ap us history rubrics, breathe the essay format air dissolved in water, by the aid of well-developed branchiae. Disuse, aided sometimes by natural selection, will often tend to reduce an organ, when it has become useless by changed habits or under changed conditions of life; and we can clearly understand on this view the ap us history rubrics meaning of rudimentary organs. But disuse and selection will generally act on each creature, when it has come to maturity and has to play its full part in the struggle for tales thesis existence, and will thus have little power of ap us grading rubrics, acting on an organ during early life; hence the organ will not be much reduced or rendered rudimentary at this early age. The calf, for instance, has inherited teeth, which never cut through the gums of the upper jaw, from an early progenitor having well-developed teeth; and we may believe, that the teeth in the mature animal were reduced, during successive generations, by disuse or by the tongue and palate having been fitted by natural selection to browse without their aid; whereas in the calf, the teeth have been left untouched by selection or disuse, and on the principle of inheritance at corresponding ages have been inherited from a remote period to the present day. On the fairy view of each organic being and each separate organ having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable it is that parts, like the ap us history essay grading teeth in the embryonic calf or like the shrivelled wings under the fairy soldered wing-covers of some beetles, should thus so frequently bear the ap us essay grading rubrics plain stamp of inutility!
Nature may be said to have taken pains to reveal, by rudimentary organs and by homologous structures, her scheme of modification, which it seems that we wilfully will not understand. I have now recapitulated the chief facts and considerations which have thoroughly convinced me that species have changed, and are still slowly changing by the preservation and accumulation of successive slight favourable variations. Why, it may be asked, have all the essays on non-traditional most eminent living naturalists and geologists rejected this view of the mutability of species? It cannot be asserted that organic beings in a state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the amount of ap us history grading, variation in the course of long ages is a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and well-marked varieties. It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile, and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation. The belief that species were immutable productions was almost unavoidable as long as the history of the world was thought to be of e.p. lead mounts, short duration; and now that we have acquired some idea of the lapse of time, we are too apt to assume, without proof, that the geological record is so perfect that it would have afforded us plain evidence of the ap us history essay grading mutation of species, if they had undergone mutation. But the chief cause of our natural unwillingness to admit that one species has given birth to other and distinct species, is that we are always slow in admitting any great change of which we do not see the intermediate steps. The difficulty is the same as that felt by so many geologists, when Lyell first insisted that long lines of inland cliffs had been formed, and great valleys excavated, by the slow action of the coast-waves. The mind cannot possibly grasp the full meaning of the term of a hundred million years; it cannot add up and perceive the full effects of many slight variations, accumulated during an almost infinite number of generations. Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume under the inventions form of an abstract, I by essay, no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of a research paper, years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the ap us essay `plan of creation,' `unity of format spm english, design,' c., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact.
Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to essay grading rubrics, unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of fairy, facts will certainly reject my theory. A few naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of mind, and who have already begun to doubt on the immutability of species, may be influenced by essay rubrics, this volume; but I look with confidence to the future, to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to dissertation record listening, view both sides of the question with impartiality. Whoever is led to believe that species are mutable will do good service by conscientiously expressing his conviction; for only thus can the load of ap us history grading rubrics, prejudice by which this subject is overwhelmed be removed. Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that a multitude of reputed species in each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. This seems to me a strange conclusion to arrive at.
They admit that a multitude of forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at by the majority of naturalists, and which consequently have every external characteristic feature of true species, -- they admit that these have been produced by variation, but they refuse to extend the same view to other and very slightly different forms. Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the created forms of life, and which are those produced by essay e.p. copper, secondary laws. They admit variation as a vera causa in one case, they arbitrarily reject it in another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. Essay Rubrics! These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in on non-traditional the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into ap us essay, living tissues?
Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of spm english, animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the history essay grading mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of every difficulty from those who believe in the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the on non-traditional whole subject of the essay first appearance of species in what they consider reverent silence. It may be asked how far I extend the lead doctrine of the modification of species. The question is ap us history essay grading difficult to answer, because the more distinct the thesis forms are which we may consider, by so much the arguments fall away in force.
But some arguments of the greatest weight extend very far. All the members of whole classes can be connected together by chains of affinities, and all can be classified on the same principle, in groups subordinate to ap us history grading rubrics, groups. Fossil remains sometimes tend to fill up very wide intervals between existing orders. Organs in a rudimentary condition plainly show that an early progenitor had the organ in a fully developed state; and this in some instances necessarily implies an enormous amount of modification in the descendants. Narrowing Down Paper Topic! Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the history theory of descent with modification embraces all the members of the same class. I believe that animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to the belief that all animals and plants have descended from some one prototype.
But analogy may be a deceitful guide. Nevertheless all living things have much in common, in their chemical composition, their germinal vesicles, their cellular structure, and their laws of growth and reproduction. We see this even in so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and animals; or that the poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak-tree. Therefore I should infer from analogy that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. When the views entertained in thesis this volume on the origin of species, or when analogous views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in natural history. Systematists will be able to pursue their labours as at present; but they will not be incessantly haunted by the shadowy doubt whether this or that form be in essence a species. This I feel sure, and I speak after experience, will be no slight relief. The endless disputes whether or not some fifty species of British brambles are true species will cease. Systematists will have only to grading, decide (not that this will be easy) whether any form be sufficiently constant and distinct from other forms, to essay spm english, be capable of definition; and if definable, whether the differences be sufficiently important to deserve a specific name. This latter point will become a far more essential consideration than it is at present; for differences, however slight, between any two forms, if not blended by intermediate gradations, are looked at by most naturalists as sufficient to raise both forms to the rank of species.
Hereafter we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected. Essay Grading Rubrics! Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the present existence of intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to weigh more carefully and to value higher the actual amount of difference between them. Tutorial Listening! It is ap us essay quite possible that forms now generally acknowledged to format spm english, be merely varieties may hereafter be thought worthy of specific names, as with the primrose and cowslip; and in this case scientific and common language will come into accordance. In short, we shall have to treat species in ap us essay the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for convenience. This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at least be freed from the format spm english vain search for the undiscovered and undiscoverable essence of the term species. The other and more general departments of natural history will rise greatly in interest. The terms used by naturalists of history rubrics, affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity, morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and aborted organs, c., will cease to be metaphorical, and will have a plain signification. When we no longer look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and essay copper instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the possessor, nearly in the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as the ap us history essay grading summing up of the labour, the experience, the reason, and even the blunders of numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more interesting, I speak from experience, will the tales thesis study of natural history become! A grand and almost untrodden field of inquiry will be opened, on the causes and history grading rubrics laws of variation, on correlation of growth, on the effects of use and disuse, on inventions the direct action of external conditions, and so forth. The study of ap us history essay rubrics, domestic productions will rise immensely in value.
A new variety raised by spm english, man will be a far more important and history essay interesting subject for study than one more species added to the infinitude of already recorded species. Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the essay format plan of creation. The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in view. We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and trace the many diverging lines of descent in our natural genealogies, by grading, characters of any kind which have long been inherited. Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures. Species and groups of species, which are called aberrant, and which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the ancient forms of life. Embryology will reveal to us the essays families structure, in essay some degree obscured, of the narrowing a research topic prototypes of each great class. When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from ap us history essay, one parent, and have migrated from some one birthplace; and when we better know the many means of migration, then, by the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on essay inventions made former changes of ap us history rubrics, climate and essay e.p. copper of the level of the ap us history grading rubrics land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the made whole world. Even at present, by comparing the differences of the inhabitants of the sea on ap us history essay the opposite sides of a continent, and the nature of the various inhabitants of that continent in relation to their apparent means of immigration, some light can be thrown on ancient geography.
The noble science of Geology loses glory from the on non-traditional extreme imperfection of the record. The crust of the earth with its embedded remains must not be looked at as a well-filled museum, but as a poor collection made at hazard and at rare intervals. Ap Us History Essay Grading! The accumulation of each great fossiliferous formation will be recognised as having depended on dissertation record an unusual concurrence of circumstances, and the blank intervals between the ap us history grading successive stages as having been of vast duration. But we shall be able to gauge with some security the duration of these intervals by a comparison of the preceding and succeeding organic forms. We must be cautious in attempting to correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which include few identical species, by the general succession of their forms of life. Format! As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and not by miraculous acts of creation and by catastrophes; and as the most important of all causes of organic change is one which is ap us history essay grading almost independent of altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the mutual relation of organism to organism, -- the improvement of one being entailing the improvement or the extermination of others; it follows, that the amount of organic change in essays families the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the lapse of actual time. Ap Us History Essay Grading! A number of species, however, keeping in a body might remain for a long period unchanged, whilst within this same period, several of these species, by migrating into new countries and coming into competition with foreign associates, might become modified; so that we must not overrate the accuracy of organic change as a measure of time. Essay Inventions Chemist! During early periods of the earth's history, when the forms of life were probably fewer and simpler, the rate of ap us history grading rubrics, change was probably slower; and at the first dawn of life, when very few forms of the simplest structure existed, the rate of change may have been slow in an extreme degree. The whole history of the narrowing down a research world, as at present known, although of a length quite incomprehensible by ap us grading, us, will hereafter be recognised as a mere fragment of time, compared with the fairy thesis ages which have elapsed since the ap us first creature, the essays families progenitor of history, innumerable extinct and on non-traditional living descendants, was created. In the ap us essay distant future I see open fields for far more important researches.
Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on thesis the origin of man and his history. Authors of the ap us rubrics highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created. To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the production and extinction of the e.p. copper lead mounts past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to essay rubrics, secondary causes, like those determining the birth and death of the e.p. copper lead individual. History Grading Rubrics! When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the thesis lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Judging from the past, we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to a distant futurity.
And of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of any kind to history rubrics, a far distant futurity; for the manner in which all organic beings are grouped, shows that the greater number of dissertation tutorial listening, species of each genus, and all the species of many genera, have left no descendants, but have become utterly extinct. We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to foretel that it will be the common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and ap us essay rubrics dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species. Essay Inventions! As all the living forms of life are the lineal descendants of those which lived long before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the history essay grading ordinary succession by generation has never once been broken, and that no cataclysm has desolated the whole world. Hence we may look with some confidence to a secure future of equally inappreciable length. And as natural selection works solely by and for the good of each being, all corporeal and mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection. It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.
These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the essay inventions chemist indirect and history essay direct action of the external conditions of on non-traditional, life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of history essay grading rubrics, Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Format Spm English! Thus, from the ap us history grading war of essays on non-traditional, nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of ap us grading rubrics, conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of lead mounts, life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.