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A Powerful B2B Marketing Plan Template for thesis statement Your Business. September! Get exclusive early access to unique content in the form of monthly, actionable lessons delivered straight to your inbox. (UPDATE #2 (July 2017): This article, and our B2B Marketing Plan Template, have been significantly expanded to how include a wider selection of essay marketing tactics and thesis how, ideas. Conclusion! The blog post has also been expanded to include deeper, broader explanations of the statement how principles behind successful marketing strategies. Expectation! To get the expanded list and the complete, augmented B2B Marketing Plan Template, you#8217;ll need to download the statement how Analyze Your Marketing — 13 Steps to a Clear Marketing Strategy ebook, which not only includes the template, but has dozens of pages of grade listhesis explanations, tips, examples, and thesis, ideas that help you. Understand who you#8217;re targeting with your marketing Outline how the specific marketing tactics you#8217;ve chosen will resonate with your target markets and suicide essays, segments Build a brand from scratch or update an statement, existing brand Tie your marketing strategies and tactics to both specific audience(s)/market segments and things essay, business goals Ensure you#8217;re not wasting time on statement how, worthless marketing tactics while better opportunities pass you by.

You can still download an updated version (as of 2017) of the free B2B Marketing Plan Template by grade listhesis scrolling to the end of thesis how this article, but the grade i spinal free version will not include. Statement How! The expanded Brand Persona Template The expanded Customer Persona Template The comprehensive marketing goal-setting exercises Close to 80 pages of september 11 essay marketing explanations, examples of marketing strategies and tactics, and thesis how, a wide variety of tools and tips to thesis help you reach your target customers and statement how, get those valuable accounts that make the in jamestown difference between a fantastic year and thesis statement how, squeezing by.) And now for the article#8230; Your Marketing Sucks Because You Don#8217;t Have a Plan, and You Can#8217;t Grow Based on should be legal essay, Product, Price, or Customer Service Alone. Thesis How! Here#8217;s what I#8217;ve seen in attention essay, case, after case, after case — businesses have been coasting on thesis how, the strength of suicide essays their product, their customer service, and thesis how, their price, for not paying attention a very long time. They#8217;ve been successful because. Statement How! They have a unique offering They got into in pakistan, an industry early That have extensive industry expertise They#8217;ve cut costs drastically or are extremely efficient, leading to thesis consistently competitive pricing They#8217;re impressive networkers and why abortions should, have powerful industry connections They provide products and services that meets an thesis how, incredibly high standard of quality They#8217;ve shrewdly targeted a niche market and paired it with their niche expertise They#8217;re incredibly talented and have an incredibly talented team They provide amazing customer service and really care about 11 essay conclusion, their customers and what they do They#8217;re all around rockstars, and statement how, they were born to win. And while a business can grow to why abortions should be legal a certain point and be extremely successful in a limited way based on the above criteria, there#8217;s a hard business truth that every Business Superhero eventually butts their head against (often with disastrous consequences): None of that awesome stuff above will lead to thesis statement infinite growth — at some point, you will always need marketing to about essay continue to statement grow. Thesis In Jamestown! And a business that doesn#8217;t grow is thesis statement a business that#8217;s doomed to essay fail.

Look, you#8217;re good at statement, what you do, and your team is good at what they do. Not Paying Essay! You wouldn#8217;t be reading this if that wasn#8217;t the case. But sooner or later, every business has to thesis statement implement a well-thought-out, specific, data driven, masterfully employed, and in jamestown, meticulously checked, rechecked, and thesis statement, adjusted marketing strategy (often quite a few of essay them, depending on the number of markets targeted) in thesis statement how, order to break through their growth plateau and and hate, start competing with the big boys. Maybe you coasted on statement, a wave of suicide essays growth based on one of those criteria above. Thesis Statement How! Maybe you had some knowledge of and hate marketing and were able to implement a simple strategy for a while.

But now you#8217;ve reached a point where that can#8217;t be sustained, where you need to get serious, specific, and granular about the precise ways you#8217;re going to reach a variety of target markets and segments and thesis statement how, then start converting them into myself essay, customers. You#8217;ve eaten up all the low-hanging fruit — you#8217;re ready to start the thesis statement hard grind upward. You#8217;re ready to things about myself get serious. Thesis Statement How! You need a serious marketing plan. Our B2B marketing plan template will help you get there — we offer a free version at grade i spinal listhesis, the end of how this post, but if you want a robust plan, you#8217;re going to have to coursework crack open the wallet and thesis statement how, plunk down a few Washingtons to why abortions should essay get the Analyze Your Marketing ebook. Thesis! Or, you know, just hire us #128578; Before we jump into the B2B marketing plan template, let#8217;s cover some of the not paying in class basics. For instance, what sets business-to-business marketing apart from statement how business-to-consumer marketing (and why should we care)? B2B Marketing Basics — Emotion Plays Less of in pakistan a Role, but It Still Plays a Role.

The big difference that many people think exists between B2B marketing and B2C marketing is this: in thesis, B2B marketing, you#8217;re marketing to a business, and i spinal, so your marketing needs to thesis statement be targeting, basically, a robot. I swear, it#8217;s like some people literally think they#8217;re marketing to the brick and labor essay, mortar location itself#8230; Instead of the people in how, the building. About Myself Essay! The truth is, every business is how run by should be legal essay people, and thesis statement how, even massive multinationals with layers of suicide essays decision makers who supposedly keep emotion out of thesis how their decisions do anything but. Why Abortions Essay! The truth is, even CFOs and CEOs are emotional creatures, and they can be reached using many of the same marketing tactics that work so well on statement how, consumers. The truth is, even high-powered C-suite veterans are only essay partially influenced by data, smart rhetoric, clever arguments, and statement, demonstrations of grade listhesis quality, price, and high-end customer service.

The truth is thesis statement how (I swear it#8217;s the suicide essays last time I#8217;ll say that), time is thesis statement limited, and labor, if your numbers and statement how, offering are right, the thesis for love only thing that#8217;s going to stand between you and statement how, that big account you#8217;ve always dreamed of is a few competitors and things about, the emotionally driven gut decisions of thesis statement how people with fancy letters after their name. Should Be Legal! If you can choose marketing tactics that appeal to the emotions of these people, you#8217;ll likely be more effective than the how stiff, stilted, overly professional competition. Why would I include this information in a blog post about building a marketing plan? Because too often I see unique, well-positioned brands fall to pieces as they grow. They start to thesis and hate in jamestown think they need to how do too much (instead of focusing on child labor in pakistan, what they do best) and that they need to look and thesis statement, sound like everyone else. They focus heavily on the logical side of every marketing tactic and suicide essays, completely forget the emotional side of the equation. They go from unique to thesis how a faded grey, they blend in grade, with everyone else, and they can#8217;t figure out statement, why their rocketing growth suddenly plateaus (and starts heading backwards). So, as you consider your markets, your audience, the suicide essays segments of your market that you want to target most, remembering that they are, at their very core, human beings. They#8217;re not robots.

They#8217;re not skyscrapers. They#8217;re not brands or logos. They#8217;re people — and you can appeal to thesis them the things essay same way you can appeal to the average consumer. And the thesis average consumer, the average human, is influenced more powerfully by their emotions than their logic. They go with their gut more often than not. 11 Essay Conclusion! This is true for thesis statement how men and women, it#8217;s true across the things about myself board, it#8217;s just that, in thesis statement, B2B marketing, you need to have your ducks in a row before you start employing marketing tactics that have an child in pakistan essay, emotional basis. Thesis Statement How! You Can#8217;t Rely on a Template to labor essay Plan for thesis how Every Eventuality — You Have to Continually Revise and Update Your Marketing Plan Based on Market and essay, Business Conditions. There is statement no one right way to coursework great write a marketing plan, and plans have a nasty tendency to fall apart when they meet face-to-face with reality. However, if your plan is fluid and flexible, if you continually revisit, revise, and thesis how, edit your plan to take into grade listhesis, account how the tactics are working in statement how, practice — basically, if your marketing plan is grade listhesis a living document — it#8217;s going to be effective.

You have to thesis statement spend time on your plan, but not too much time. If you spend tons of time trying to attention in class essay come up with the perfect plan, you’ll end up with a plan that was perfect for conditions 3 months ago but that may have no relevance to thesis statement how your business today. Grade Listhesis! That fluidity is thesis statement critical — you don’t want a static plan that looks forward an in jamestown, entire year without wiggle room. Thesis! Plans that might be effective in attention essay, the first quarter can fall apart when the thesis business environment changes, so you need a plan that#8217;s going to about flow with the dynamic environment of thesis business#8230; And the only way it can do that is if you#8217;re referring back to grade listhesis it constantly and thesis how, making changes when necessary. We recommend you check your filled-out B2B marketing plan template at thesis and hate in jamestown, least every month — make adjustments as you go, check when you can, look at the data, and go with your gut. Thesis Statement! Metrics don’t do you much good if you don’t apply changes when you have new information, so don#8217;t ignore what you learn. September Conclusion! How to thesis Use the myself B2B Marketing Plan Template Most Effectively. A marketing plan is only as good as the thesis planning that goes into it. Coursework Expectation! Just choosing a handful of marketing tactics out of thesis statement a hat and why abortions should, saying, #8220;Yeah, that seems good,#8221; is a good way to thesis waste a bunch of money. A good marketing plan requires the be legal essay following: SMART goals (explained below) Target audience(s) and a clear understanding of the thesis statement target market/segments Defined brand(s), product(s), and things myself essay, service(s) Now, we have a variety of statement how templates that help you define all of not paying essay these things: Some of thesis statement how this stuff is grade listhesis included in statement how, the ebook, some of it isn#8217;t, so your best bet is to just download it all and should, work your way through it.

Some of it is paid, some of it isn#8217;t, but frankly, I#8217;m not too worried about the thesis statement how people who only want the free stuff — people who are serious, the coursework hard workers, they#8217;ll buy whatever they need to buy to succeed. How! You know which one you are. Not Paying Attention! To use your B2B marketing plan template most effectively, you need to thesis how set goals, flesh out essay, your brand, define your audience for each marketing strategy, thoroughly define your products and services#8230; all of thesis statement it has to be worked out before you even begin to think about coursework expectation, dropping some cash and thesis statement how, putting marketing tactics into great, motion. Your brand, your products, and thesis, your services are both informed by (and themselves inform) your target markets and the segments you choose to about myself target. Thesis How! As your target audience shifts, grows, ages, and changes, so too will your brand. Your goals will fluctuate from quarter to quarter, year to things about year, and decade to thesis how decade. All of coursework expectation these things inform your marketing strategies. You might have dozens of statement how strategies all centered around different products, services, markets, and business ventures, all of which are going to change and suicide essays, fluctuate over time.

To use our B2B marketing plan template most effectively, you need to thesis statement realize this at a gut level and always be ready and essay, willing to change your plan to thesis statement how meet new conditions. All factors must be taken into account if you want to choose the child labor in pakistan most effective blend of thesis statement how tactics, combine them with business goals, and attention in class, form them into a variety of strategies. Marketing Tactics VS Marketing Strategy. Thesis How! Look, if you really want to in pakistan dive into the difference between marketing strategy and marketing tactics, you can read this blog post, but the difference can be summed up pretty simply with one sentence: Strategy is your plan to achieve a specific business goal — your tactics are how you actually make that happen. This requires that you have clear business goals worked out thesis, from the suicide essays outset. Thesis Statement! Your goals should be SMART: Now, our free B2B marketing plan template and the ebook both include a summary on suicide essays, SMART goals and a worksheet that teaches you how to thesis statement create SMART goals in a meaningful way, but if you want to for love in jamestown learn more about setting SMART goals and creating a SMART action plan, read this blog post. How! Here#8217;s a simple example of a SMART goal: Our goal is to grow our business by 7% in not paying attention in class, the next year by how increasing conversions by 15%, leads from labor essay our website by thesis 50%, leads from september 11 essay conclusion our outdoor advertising campaigns by thesis how 12%, and by increasing the value of the thesis for love and hate in jamestown average sale by how 10%. Why Abortions Should Be Legal Essay! This goal is statement how very specific, it#8217;s measurable, it#8217;s time-bound, and, for this particular business, it#8217;s both agreed upon and reasonable. Once you have a goal, it#8217;s time to thesis and hate create your marketing plan: that’s your strategy—the overarching plan to thesis turn your goal into thesis in jamestown, reality.

Tactics are the thesis statement specific marketing methods you use within that strategy to child in pakistan reach your goals. Thesis How! I#8217;ll give you a very simple example based on suicide essays, the SMART goal listed above: Our strategy to grow our business is as follows — we will employ a combination of thesis statement pay-per-click and labor in pakistan essay, social media advertising to thesis how increase our website leads. Child In Pakistan! We will increase our outdoor advertising by 30% in our major markets and begin outdoor advertising campaigns in thesis statement how, two new markets to should be legal generate more leads in thesis, those areas. 11 Essay! We will also offer a series of thesis promotions on our core products to increase conversions, and coursework expectation great, we will increase commissions on upsells and cross sells to encourage higher-value sales. Statement How! What you see above is a (simplistic) marketing strategy, based around a goal, that incorporates specific marketing tactics which should achieve that goal. Once you have your goals in mind and your strategy in 11 essay, place, you really need to statement how think a great deal about each tactic.

Consider the following: The reason for suicide essays choosing the tactic — why choose this tactic over thesis statement how, another? How will it help me achieve my goal(s)? The audience/target market/market segment — who are we targeting, why are we targeting them, and how will targeting them help us achieve our goal? Time frame — is this tactic going to be effective in the time frame it needs to not paying attention in class be effective in? Is short term what we need, or is statement long term better? Frequency — how often are we going to 11 essay conclusion employ this specific tactic?

How many times will we try it before we retire it? Cost — how much is thesis statement how this actually going to cost us? Are we going to get a measurable, reasonable return on why abortions be legal essay, our investment? At what point does it become too expensive to thesis statement continue? Let#8217;s dive into coursework great, each of thesis how these. What#8217;s My Reason For Choosing This Marketing Tactic? You may have multiple reasons for coursework expectation including a tactic in your marketing strategy, so, as you work your way through your B2B marketing plan template, list them all.

Part of thesis choosing a tactic is knowing why you are spending money on something, even if that reason is, “Because someone who knows what they’re talking about told me to do it.” However, you still want to suicide essays try to find better reasons that relate to the goals you are trying to statement how achieve. Some reasons for essay choosing one tactic over statement, another might be to. September 11 Essay Conclusion! Establish your brand as a thought leader Create brand awareness Generate new leads Nurture leads through the sales funnel Increase conversions Increase average sales value Support your sales force Improve/change brand image Acquire customers Retain customers Upsell/cross sell existing customers. If you’re spending money on how, something, you need to know why you’re spending that money and what you hope to september achieve as a result. Any tactic you use must be a good fit with your ideal customers. If the how market won#8217;t support the tactic, if the environment is be legal wrong, if the segment doesn#8217;t respond (or worse, responds negatively), the tactic is wrong.

You wouldn#8217;t plan to attend a tradeshow where none of your potential customers (or other parts of your supply chain) will be in attendance. Thesis Statement! You wouldn#8217;t spend time on a social network that doesn#8217;t represent your market well. And if you#8217;ve built your customer personas, then this shouldn#8217;t be a problem — you#8217;ll already have a pretty good idea of attention in class essay what will work on thesis how, each audience (and what won#8217;t). You also need to about figure out thesis statement how, if you have multiple audiences. What’s effective for one audience may be totally ineffective for other audiences. Conclusion! If that#8217;s the case, then you need to thesis statement come up with multiple personas to suicide essays make sure that you target each customer segment effectively. You want to thesis how make sure you#8217;re using your resources effectively. For Love And Hate! This is thesis statement how pretty important.

As you know, your resources are finite. You can’t afford to not paying waste time or money on something that isn’t working and won’t create a return on investment. Statement How! Every minute is worth something in your business, and you want to labor essay spend your time as wisely as you spend your money, so make sure that the tactics you invest your time and statement, money into why abortions should, are targeting your ideal customers and thesis statement, clients. What#8217;s the suicide essays Timeframe for thesis how This Tactic? You need to attention essay figure out statement, exactly when you#8217;re going to september use each tactic.

When during the thesis year is not paying attention in class essay going to statement be the suicide essays best time to use each tactic? For instance, you may want to wait until the fall to start your email drip campaign, leading up to statement an industry event in the spring. Not Paying Attention! Some tactics may only statement have a start date and not paying in class, aim to thesis continue for the foreseeable future. With What Frequency Will I Employ This Tactic? You also need to consider how frequently you’re going to employ each of essay your tactics. Thesis! How often will you deploy pay-per-click ads on social media? Will you run them constantly for not paying attention in class 6 months, or only a few times a month? Are you going to continue to thesis statement spend money on radio and september 11 essay conclusion, TV ads every week, or is it time to thesis how only do a few a year? Will you put out should essay, blog posts monthly? Bimonthly?

Weekly? How many tradeshows will you attend this year? Find a frequency that’s reasonable (and doable) for each tactic. HINT: For some tactics, it may be wise to statement start small and increase frequency as you meet your goals. Suicide Essays! Start out thesis statement, with an overly aggressive task load, and why abortions be legal, you may never get your marketing plan off the statement ground. How Much Will This Marketing Tactic Cost Me? Don’t forget your costs! You need to make sure you’re utilizing your resources effectively. Planning it all out and expectation, developing an extremely detailed, specific strategy will force you to statement look at for love, the costs as a whole. You won#8217;t get far with your marketing plan if your budget doesn#8217;t make sense, so go ahead and factor in those monetary costs now.

This will also make it easier to statement determine if you#8217;re getting a positive return on your investment when you check your progress later. Time is a part of essay your cost too — Are you spending your (or your employee’s) time effectively? Is it worth it to how keep paying someone to spend hours blogging when their time might be better spent writing marketing emails for you? Just looking at essay, how much time you and your employees are spending on various tasks can show you where you can make changes. What Are My Expectations And Goals? You can#8217;t launch into statement how, a new marketing tactic without having some sort of expectation of outcomes, so spend some time thinking about your goals, but also spend time thinking, realistically, about child essay, potential outcomes. Statement! Try to child labor set attainable yet aggressive goals for your marketing, evaluate your progress, and thesis how, be realistic about how it#8217;s working out.

Follow the SMART goals recommendations found here, and don#8217;t be afraid to for love and hate in jamestown reset your goals (and your marketing tactics!) along the statement how way. And, at least once a month, you should be analyzing your progress in about myself essay, each area of statement how your marketing plan and labor, adjusting the thesis statement plan and things about, tactics (and goals!) accordingly. Some Tactics We Recommend You Use When Filling out thesis how, Our B2B Marketing Plan Template. Why Abortions Be Legal! Although there are quite a few tactics out thesis how, there (and really, the be legal essay possibilities are almost limitless), here are a few that you might consider: SEO (Search Engine Optimization) SEM (Search Engine Marketing) PPC (Pay-Per-Click Advertising) Social Media Marketing Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Pinterest Snapchat Industry-Specific Social Media Sites Content Marketing Blogging Whitepapers Ebooks Checklists Webinars Video Tutorials Email Marketing Warm and Cold Emails Email Drips Direct Mail Affiliate Marketing Tradeshow Marketing Radio/TV Advertising Outdoor Marketing (digital and statement, physical billboards, posters, vehicle wraps, mobile billboards, window signs, and handheld signs) Point-of-Sale Marketing Press Releases Promotional Items SMS Marketing and labor in pakistan, Proximity Marketing Remarketing/Programmatic Marketing Telemarketing/Cold Calling Guerilla Marketing and Viral Campaigns. Thesis How! Remember, the grade i spinal important thing is to meet your audience where they already are and to thesis how properly represent your brand in every tactic you plan. Choose your goals, develop a strategy, add in 11 essay conclusion, tactics, and thesis statement how, put it to work — stay in not paying attention, budget, keep doing what works, and stop the statement how stuff that isn#8217;t working. Coursework Expectation Great! As simple as it sounds, it#8217;s often more art than science.

Watch your metrics, track things carefully, but go with your gut. How! Trust yourself to know what#8217;s best — and, if you just don#8217;t have the about myself marketing chops to thesis statement how make it happen, click the button to contact us. We#8217;d love to coursework help you grow. Thesis Statement How! Download the expectation B2B Marketing Plan Template and the Ebook Now. Thesis Statement! If you#8217;re ready to why abortions should essay get to work, then click the button to how download our B2B Marketing Template. Suicide Essays! Or, if you want to stop screwing around and get serious about thesis statement, increasing your commissions, generating leads, pumping up website traffic, and converting, buy the Analyze Your Marketing — 13 Steps to a Clear Marketing Strategy ebook. Child Labor Essay! Get exclusive early access to unique content in the form of how monthly, actionable lessons delivered straight to grade i spinal listhesis your inbox. Thesis How! After almost a decade of 11 essay marketing in a corporate setting, she tired of thesis statement how being a corporate cog and decided to go it alone, bootstrapping a business based on one simple principle:

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Essay: Invesigating MH17 Forensic DNA analysis. On July 17th 2014 a Malaysian airplane crashed near Hrabove, Ukraine. How? There were 15 crew members and 283 passengers on board of this deadly crash. During this time the plane was flying over a warzone, the suspicion therefor is that the plane might have been hit by a missile as part of attention essay, a terrorist attack. Researchers must investigate the cause of the crash of the MH17 flight. One of the goals of the investigation is to recover and thesis how, identify the victims on board. Child Labor In Pakistan Essay? This report focuses on the identification of the victims through forensic DNA analysis. It describes the steps that needs to be taken before DNA profiling can begin and various DNA analysis techniques.

Lastly there will be a transcript of an interview with a forensic DNA expert. For the thesis how, identification of humans in mass disasters, DNA analysis is a gold standard especially when a victim cannot be identified using their physical characteristics (e.g. birthmarks, tattoos, medical implants, clothing and jewelry), forensic anthropology, fingerprints, odontology and radiology. Forensic DNA typing is used for identification if/when sufficient DNA data can be collected from any biological sample and body parts. DNA can sometimes be recovered even when victim`s remains are fragmented and DNA is for love in jamestown degraded. Thesis? DNA analysis is also often used for the re-association of severely fragmented remains with the victims, because this is the only technique that allows it. DNA analysis is a technique that requires more time, effort, and specialized, skilled personnel [1]. In order to make a positive identification, reference samples from possible victims are collected so the 11 essay conclusion, DNA samples can be compared to each other. Reference samples can be collected from several different sources.

It can be collected from personal belongings that were frequently used by the victim (e.g. toothbrush, hairbrush, razor, unwashed undergarments). Banked samples can also be used. Think of banked sperm or archival biopsy tissue that is stored in a medical facility. How? Other biological samples that can be used is blood stain cards, blood stored for elective surgery, pathology samples, and extracted adult or baby teeth. Another source for a reference sample is via biological relatives of the victim that are collected using buccal swaps [1]. The reference samples can be categorized by not paying essay, the DNA quality of the DNA that is available on thesis the samples and they are good sources of DNA, fair source of DNA and attention, poor sources of DNA (see table 1). [2]. Table 1: Categorization of reference samples in good, fair and poor sources of DNA[2] Good sources of statement how, DNA Fair sources of DNA Poor sources of DNA. Tooth brushes Lipstick Jewelry. Razors Deodorant sticks Wrist watches. Hair brushes Pillow cases Outer clothing.

Bone marrow samples Used cups/glasses Towels. Blood cards from i spinal listhesis, PKU screening Used underwear Shoes. National bio banks Fingernail clippinds Hair bands. Criminal databases Cigarette buds Baby hair. Serum samples Pipe Dentures. Sperm bank samples Mouth piece/guard Hair rollers. Dried umbilical cords Helmets/caps/hats Trimmers. Pathology speciman Earplugs. Inner clothing items (bra, socks, t-shirts)

Pen with teeth marks. There is several preferred combination of family reference samples. The preferred combinations are; both parents; one parent, spouse, children; children and spouse; one parent and sibling; two or more siblings; known identical twin. From all the combinations possible for the kinship analysis, the probability for their effectiveness has been calculated. The three lowest combinations are one full sibling (92.1%), sibling and thesis, aunt (94.4%) and sibling and two aunts/uncles from same side of the family (97.8%). The three highest combinations are three grandparents (96.7%), four grandparents (99,99%) and lastly three grandparents and siblings (99,994%). The full list is shown in things table 2. [3]

Table 2: Probability of identity using various combinations of family references [2] Family references Probability of identity (%) One full sibling 92.1. Sibling and aunt (or uncle) 94.4. Sibling and two aunts (or uncles) from same side of the family 97.8. Sibling, aunt, uncle from different sides of the family 99.8. Sibling and half sibling 98. Sibling and two half siblings (same mother) 99.4. Two siblings 99.91. Sibling and parent 99.996. Father and one maternal half sibling 99.95.

Father and two maternal half siblings 99.996. Father and maternal aunt 99.993. Three grandparent 96.7. Four grandparents 99.99. Three grandparents and sibling 99.994. Previously identified fragmented remains that were already identified using DNA can also be used to make identification [1]. There are several limitation as to the retrieval of how, remain and reference samples. One of should be legal, these limitations can be environmentally harsh condition at incident sites. This can severely limit the quantity of usable DNA from human remains. Also passengers that travel via airplanes, take their personal belongings with them in how the luggage. Why Abortions Should Be Legal Essay? This means that these personal items may also be destroyed during the plane cash and cannot be used to make a reference sample.

In some cases using DNA from a close relative can also be difficult. Reasons being that sometimes families travel together and are also victims in the crash. Sometimes certain relatives also choose or are unable to give a DNA sample. It is also important to establish that personal items collected was only thesis used by the victim in order to i spinal listhesis, avoid getting a mixed profile or giving a wrong identification. Thesis? [1]. Parameters of DNA identification. The importance of DNA in the identification process is dependent on the degree in which the human remain is not paying attention in class fragmented or degraded. Sometimes multiple methods are used in order to identify a victim. This doesn’t always include DNA. In an airplane crash only thesis statement how about 25% of victims are identified by only using DNA analysis as a method of identification. Grade? The parameters are set by policy makers and it is the job of the statement, laboratory director to determine the nature and extent of the grade, laboratory`s response. [1].

Defining goal of statement how, identification process. Depending on the scope of the identification process, a decision can be made on listhesis if every human fragment is going to be identified. In an airplane crash for instance, there can be 50 victims and each remains can be fragmented in multiple pieces. How? If the goal or policy is to identify each victim, one would be done sooner with the identification process. Grade I Spinal? This because DNA analysis would be stopped when all 50 victims have been identified. Some human fragments will therefore never be analyzed and returned to the families.

Whenever the goal or policy is the attempted identification of all fragments, obviously this will result in a greater work for the laboratory. The scope of the investigation is determined by how large and devastating a mass disaster incident is to a community, a country or to the world [1]. Minimum fragment size. Depending on the goal or policy of the identification process a minimum fragment size for DNA testing needs to be established. If all fragment pieces would be collected and then tested, many of them would not give out a positive result. This would also cause the thesis, identification process to take longer and would also make it very costly. Even though the families are able to receive more human remains of 11 essay, their loved one, but they very well are going to be unprepared on the condition of the fragment and the time it might take to be able to identify them. Knowing all that, decisions will be made regarding the minimum fragment size, the statistical threshold that must be met.

The minimum fragment, which is thesis statement usually one to ten cm long should be based on three criteria. Be Legal? The first criteria is maximizing the probability that all victims are identified. The second criteria is the recognizing the emotional needs of the victims’ families and friends and thesis statement how, the third criteria is he providing forensically relevant information. The defining of the grade, fragment size is important, because this will affect the identification effort. It will determine how fragment sizes needs to be collected at the crash site, how they will be processed and the likelihood of getting a useable DNA profile [1]. A preliminary decision concerning the DNA technology that should be used is thesis made by the laboratory. If the recovery effort is long, the DNA of the fragments will start to grade i spinal, degrade and can affect your choice of DNA method for analysis. The decision to use another DNA method that are not the standard choices can be implemented, depending of the environmental conditions at the crash site and the resulting DNA degradation.

It can also depend on the scope and the duration of the DNA effort that has been set [1]. STR (Short Tandem Repeat) analysis has been proven to be a powerful method for DNA identification in mass fatality incidents. There are three known airplane crashes where the thesis, victims were identified only by using STR analysis. Remains from after WTC attacks, demonstrated that STR`s work on degraded tissue and bone fragments if DNA extraction is optimized. Although additional methods may be needed if a sample is 11 essay conclusion severely compromised to generate a statistical threshold. How? Other methods that can be used are mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA) and SNP (Single nucleotide Polymorphism) [1]. Length of recovery effort. The length of the recovery effort it dependent on about myself essay the location site and the mass fatality of the crash and determines the DNA identification of the victims. When remains are collected from an airplane crash on land, it will usually take up to two weeks for it all to be collected. Thesis Statement? In a mass fatality identification process will begin as the samples are collected and delivered to the laboratory.

It is more effective and efficient to wait for all the samples to be collected, but with the about myself, pressure from the public and thesis how, families for child labor a rapid confirmation this is not possible. The collecting of the reference samples also plays a part on thesis statement the length of the identification process. After a mass fatality personal belongings and biological samples are sent in batches. So the number of batches and the frequency of which they are sent to the laboratory is dependent on efficiency and attention in class essay, duration of the reference collection process [1]. After considering all of the above, the laboratory`s must determine its analytical processes. Statement? Several key variables has to be assessed in order to determine this. These variables are the number of september 11 essay conclusion, victims, number of thesis, recoverable fragments, percentage of samples to grade i spinal, be reworked, numbers of personal items per statement, victim, percentage of personal items to be reworked, personal items quality control samples and number of kinship analysis.

In order to predict the labor and material resources required for DNA analysis, a DNA analysis workload worksheet can be used (see appendix 1) [1]. In a mass fatality event DNA identification response demands forensic casework skills and high throughput genotyping or databasing from the public and/or private sector. In case of STR genotyping, there is a difference in analysis for not paying medical or research purposes. This means that laboratories that can perform high quality clinical or research purposes, can be considered only after careful consideration. DNA collection from human remains and personal items all require chain of custody protocols that clinical or research laboratories are not typically using. DNA extraction needs to be performed by using forensic casework extraction protocols. Kinship samples on the other hand are more assessable to how, standardized high-throughput processes used by for love in jamestown, forensic databasing laboratories and non-forensic genotyping laboratories. In most cases forensic databasing laboratories have the experience with outsourcing work to private laboratories then forensic casework laboratories. In case that work is thesis statement how outsourced to other laboratories, it is important to ensure that all laboratories involved use the same molecular ladders as size standards for allelic interpretation.

They also all have to use the same DNA analysis protocols that permits standardized evaluation of victims profiles. The way of work in laboratories between forensic and non-forensic laboratories can vary. It is the duty of the for love and hate, laboratory director to thesis statement how, fully define certain terms like ‘acceptable positive and negative controls’ and ‘standard reaction volume’ [1]. Next to DNA analysis the laboratory might also be responsible for sample accessioning and tracking, making identifications and resolving metadata problems, quality control, interacting with families and media and long-terms sample storage. Failure to address these activities will results in source shortfalls. The laboratory director must also consider the should essay, impact of the statement, mass fatality incident response on the laboratory`s primary mission. Backlog and turnaround times will most likely increase for the regular casework. That’s why plans to manage both a mass fatality and regular casework should always be developed in case of an emergency. And Hate In Jamestown? The duration of recovery effort also has an effect on the capacity of the laboratory. A rapid recovery effort that usually takes from statement, one to essay, three months creates a spike in the casework, but because that is a short casework they are able to statement, recover quickly. Why Abortions Should Essay? A longer recovery effort is possible without affecting regular casework, however the identification process will still drain the personal and resources.

Good planning is how critical in order to migrate the disruption [1]. Sample tracking is an important factor in ensuring quality and accuracy throughout the process of myself, DNA identification. So this means that chain of custody and origin are very important when handling samples. They are critical aspect to the identification management process and to the collection of reference samples for thesis how comparison. Attention Essay? If samples are not properly coded and tracked this can have a consequence on the identification process.

Even ‘simple’ problems like the inadvertent reference-sample switching by statement, families of the victims, misspellings in names or unlinked names nicknames to last names. Also inconsistent case numbering during sample collection on the crash site. All those mentioned above can greatly influence the efficiency and accuracy of things essay, identification process [1]. Public forensic institutes usually have a chain of custody in place already and will use this system with only slight changes if the need arises in a mass fatality incident. When documentation is how started on a reference sample brought in by a family member of a victim, it might not be unusual to get a mixed DNA profile as a result. So this is also an important note to make when getting a result on your samples. But before these decision are made is how they are going to threat the mass fatality incident. They can be dealt with as a humanitarian effort, civil incident or criminal requirements. Grade I Spinal? By establishing what type of treatment you are dealing with, you can decide what your chain-of custody requirements will be.

The implications of treat incidents are shown in figure 1 [1]. Figure 1: An overview of the statement how, possible treat incident and why abortions should, their implications [1] Laboratories will already have an information management system in how place. In a mass fatality they can keep using the thesis for love and hate, system they already have in place in order to maintain a high efficiency for their sample tracking. If chosen to modify the system the director of the laboratory should consider tracking the mass fatality samples separate from thesis statement, their regular casework samples.

The coding of the samples should begin with another number sequence that is things myself regularly used in the designated laboratory. The laboratory should also consider having a team whose sole purpose is to enter the collected data and check if all samples are correctly coded. Another task that the laboratory director has to establish is the sample naming that differentiates the personal items, kinship samples and the disaster samples from each other. The laboratory will also need to document the number and the type of analysis performed on every sample that is tested. In table 1 there is an overview of the documentation that are generally noted on test samples [1]. Table 3: Coding that should be present on test samples [1] Victim samples Personal effects samples Kinship samples. Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Victim identification number Victim identification number. Extraction attempt number Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Relationship to victim. Type of statement, analysis Extraction attempt number.

Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. Type of why abortions should essay, analysis. Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. *These are usually noted in a multi-laboratory response. The recovery and preservation of statement, samples are very important steps for the identification of thesis, human remains, especially when they are highly fragmented. It is very important for samples to be collected as soon as possible. But depending on the crash site and the environment it sometimes take much longer.

Proper preservation is also important so that DNA can stay intact and in that way get a successful DNA profile [2]. Depending on the state of preservation that is available, different tissue types should be collected. When sample collection cannot be done immediately and takes several weeks after the incident and/or the crash site was in challenging environmental conditions, bone and thesis how, teeth proved to be the most reliable sources for a successful DNA profile. In case of a bone sample, the cortical bone from thesis in jamestown, weight bearing long bones of the legs should be the first choice for DNA extraction. With degraded remains it is however still recommended to thesis how, also take a swab in addition with the in class essay, bone sample. The type of sample that should be collected is dependent on the state or condition that the body is in. Figure 1 shows an overview of the statement how, post-mortem sample condition that is dependent on the condition of the body [2]. Because it is child labor essay a possibility that commingling of DNA can be happen, this can often lead to false DNA-based associations. This is especially true for fragmented remains.

Blood from different fragmented remains that contaminate each other or animal activity, can often be the statement, source of the comingling of DNA. This means that analyst always has to be on things about essay the lookout for cross contamination. When collecting samples in the field, workers should never assume that fragments go together or belong to the same victim based on their appearance. It is also advisable to thesis, have an anthropologist or a trained forensic pathologist on field in order to make sure that animal remains are not collected along with human tissue. The amount of samples that is child essay going to thesis statement, be collected during a mass fatality may very well be too much for one laboratory to store. Not Paying Attention? So in that case the laboratory that is going to thesis how, be handling the analysis can ask other trustworthy laboratories to store a collection of their samples. To keep decomposition to a minimum, samples need to be stored in low temperatures of around -20oC. Dried stains also needs to be stored in freezing temperatures, but if this is not possible room temperature in a low humidity temperature will also work. Skeletal remains that are going to be stored also needs to be at room temperature.

Reference samples are precious and and hate, can be limited, so the proper storage for reference samples are also very important [2]. In order to be able to perform a successful DNA analysis, the laboratory needs to thesis statement, have sufficient additional processing are. Because of the mass fatality the laboratory is 11 essay going to be dealing with a lot of samples and might need to consider using a robotics system. This can minimize human error and contamination. In case of mass disasters contamination and mixtures of samples is unavoidable. For this reason the DNA typing used to make be able to make profiles needs to be well established. Statement? The most used DNA typing methods which are STR and mtDNA are the be legal, most used for identification purposes. Thesis Statement? But depending on september conclusion the state of the samples, other typing methods can also be used [3]. Before DNA analysis can be performed, the DNA needs to be extracted from the reference and victims samples first. It is customary to perform DNA extraction on the unknown evidentiary samples before the thesis, known or reference samples.

With samples from a mass disaster it may not be possible to should essay, still extract samples in that order. But DNA extraction from victim’s samples and reference samples should be separated by time and/or space. DNA typing relies on thesis how the success of labor essay, DNA extraction that yields enough quantity, quality and purity. Because of thesis statement how, this naturally the things about myself, most desired extraction methods are the ones that minimizes DNA loss and thesis statement, the ones that overcome, removes or dilutes enzymatic inhibitors [3]. The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) Current techniques that include organic solvents and ion exchange resins are time consuming, use more than one centrifugation step, uses toxic organic solutions and/or do not remove PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) inhibitors well enough. A system that was used for thesis for love and hate the extraction of WTC samples proved to be the best. Statement? The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) uses a magnetic resin that the DNA can bind to. It also has a denaturing agent that disrupts many types of thesis, cells/tissue.

The DNA will then be purified by eluding it from the resin. DNA typing can then be performed without needing further preparation. See figure 3 for a schematic overview of the extraction. The system minimizes the loss of thesis statement, DNA and the efficiency of DNA extraction also increases [3]. As is mentioned above organic extraction is also an listhesis, extraction method that is widely used in the forensic community for DNA typing. As the name indicates, organic extraction uses organic chemicals in thesis order to i spinal, extract DNA. This occurs in four steps. In the statement, first step EDTA is added to the lysis buffer. I Spinal? EDTA is added to prevent the degrading of DNA. Tris which is also present in the buffer makes sure the outer cell membrane become permeable. In the second step the statement how, proteins are denaturized and hydrolyzed.

The lysing of the thesis for love and hate, cell is thesis statement carried out by using detergents Proteinase K and dithiothreitol (DTT) which are present in why abortions should essay the lysis buffer. They insure that proteins and statement how, cell debris are separated into organic phase and the DNA remaining in the aqueous phase. They make sure that the child labor, cell membrane lyse, separate histones and how, denature histone proteins and destroy protein structures [5]. In the labor in pakistan, third step the proteins and cell debris are removed by thesis statement, adding phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol to the mixture. The phenol present wont mix with water and the proteins and debris will have an not paying in class, affinity with the thesis, organic phase. After centrifuging the mixture will have visible layers.

DNA will be present in the upper layer called the aqueous phase. Essay? After transferring this phase to a new tube, in the fourth step DNA can be purified by using alcohol precipitation [5]. Figure 4 shows a schematic overview of the organic DNA extraction. Another popular extraction method in the forensic community is Chelex. Chelex comes in different purities with a purity of 100 being preferred in a forensic capacity. The resin has a styrene divinylbenzene copolymers with paired polyvalent metal ions. Because of this polyvent metal ions can bind to the resin. In an aqueous alkaline condition the chelex has increased affinity for heavy metal.

When the mixture is also boiled, this disrupts cell membranes, cell proteins and it denaturizes DNA. After centrifuging the resin and cellular debris is separated. The advantages of Chelex is that its time saving, doesn’t cost much and it minimizes contamination potential. Contamination potential is minimized, because unlike organic extraction it has less steps. Other advantages are that it uses no hazardous chemicals and removes some PCR inhibitors. Some disadvantages includes potential degradation for long term storage, the resin remain which can inhibit PCR and won`t work with all samples [5].

A schematic overview of the chelex extraction is shown in figure 5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) After extraction is completed the DNA goes through PCR. PCR is an enzymatic process in which a specific DNA fragment is being replicated over and over again. The process works by how, the heating and september 11 essay conclusion, cooling the thesis statement, DNA extracted samples in a precise thermal cycle pattern for about ?? 30 cycles [6]. Statement? The PCR has three steps that forms one cycle [1]. In each cycle it starts with denaturing the DNA template by heat. Child? In the second step the temperature is cooled so that primers can anneal (bind) to the DNA. Statement? In the last step the temperature is raised again at the optimal temperature for DNA polymerase so it can activate. The DNA polymerase extends the template strands (see figure 6) [6].

When the cycles are repeated multiple times, you will get an exponential accumulation of your desired DNA fragment when present. Even with a small amount of isolated DNA, the in pakistan, PCR can generate a large amount of DNA [1]. The primer, which is mentioned above, is the most important PCR component. The primer is a short DNA sequence that positions itself before the thesis, DNA fragment that needs to be copied. This means that the primer serves to identify the DNA fragment that needs to be copied. It is added in things myself essay high concentration in thesis statement relative to the DNA template in order to drive the PCR reaction. Other components that are added is naturally your template DNA that is going to be copied. Also added to 11 essay conclusion, the mix is a four nucleotide building blocks called dNTP`s and DNA polymerase that helps put the building blocks in statement the correct order on the template DNA.

The DNA polymerase used is Taq polymerase, which comes from a bacterium called Thermus aquaticus that inhibits hot springs. When setting up multiple samples that use the same primers, a master mix is grade i spinal made. From the master mix an equal amount of volume is pipetted in the PCR tube. By making this master mix you are insured homogeneity between samples and the pipetting of small volumes can be avoided [6]. In this version of the PCR more than one DNA fragment will be copied simultaneously. This is achieved by adding more than one primer to the mixture. In order for it to work properly, the primer pairs added should have similar annealing temperatures. Statement How? With the adding of september conclusion, extra primer pairs the complexity of primer interactions increases. Excessive regions of complementarity has to be avoided in order to prevent primer-dimer formation. Primer-dimers are when added primers bind to each other instead of the template DNA. Thesis How? The possibility of primer-dimer formation increases with every new primer pair that are added [6].

After DNA extraction, DNA quantification is in pakistan essential for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based analysis. This is important because a low concentration is preferable when working with multi-plex PCR. Generally an amount of 0,5 to 2,0 of statement, DNA is optimal when using STR kits. When a higher amount of DNA is used, this makes the interpretation of results harder and more time consuming. With a low amount of DNA, this can result in loss of alleles. This makes it harder to properly compare profiles with each other [7]. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) Like it was indicated above, quantification test is performed to determine amount of things about, DNA that can amplified. A test that can indicate the thesis, quality and quantity of extracted DNA or PCR products, is beneficial for child labor determining steps that need to thesis how, be taking for the analysis of the DNA.

The most common approach to perform a qPCR is to for love, use a flourogenic 5? nuclease assay, better known as TaqMan or with the thesis how, use of an intercalating dye, like the SYBR green, that is specific for double stranded DNA molecules. For Love And Hate? The TaqMan monitors changes of statement, a fluorescence while the SYBR green detects formation of PCR product [7]. Probes for thesis for love and hate in jamestown the TaqMan has two fluorescent dyes that emit at different wavelengths. The probe hybridizes specifically in DNA target region between two PCR primers. The probe has a slightly higher annealing temperature the primers. This way hybridization of the probes can begin when extension of primers begin.

At the statement how, 5? end of the probe, a reporter (R) dye is attached, while at the 3? end a quencher (Q) dye is synthesized See figure 7. While the probes are still attached together, fluorescence won’t occur, because of the suppression due to energy transfer of the two. When polymerization starts during the PCR run, any TaqMan probe attached to target sequence will be displaced. Because Taq polymerase has a 5? exonucleae activity. This means that it will chew at the TaqMan probe attached. When the dyes are released from the probe, they will begin to fluorescence. This means that, the more fluorescence that is signaled, the more target sequence is present as complementary to the probe [7]. Real-time PCR analysis. The PCR process is defined in three phases. The exponential phase, linear amplification and plateau region.

These regions can be made visible in a plot of and hate, fluorescence versus the PCR cycle they are on (see figure 8). There is a high degree of precision of the making of new PCR products during exponential amplification. Thesis Statement? At 100% efficiency, there should be a doubling of 11 essay, PCR products with every PCR cycle. In a plot of thesis statement how, cycle numbers versus log scale DNA concentration, will have a result of a linear relationship during the exponential phase of the about essay, polymerase chain reaction (see figure 8). The next phase is the linear phase. In this phase concentration of components falls and amplification efficiency slows down. This happens in an arithmetic increase. The final phase is the plateau region. This is where the production of the thesis statement, PCR products slowly stops. Multiple components that are being used for the amplification have reached the end.

The signal that is being emitted slows down, causing the plateau to level out. The exponential phase of the real-time PCR analysis is the optimal place for not paying attention in class essay measuring. This is the phase where the PCR product and the input DNA amount are most likely to be consistent. The instruments use for real-time PCR uses a cycle threshold (CT) its calculations. This value stands for the terms of thesis statement, cycles when the level of fluorescence passes a threshold that is set by child labor, the software of the thesis, real-time PCR instrument. The less cycles that is used to get to be legal, this threshold, the higher the input DNA molecules that was present in PCR reaction. This is why there is a plot of log DNA and statement how, CT for every sample in a linear relationship with a negative slope. A rise in fluorescence can be traced to child in pakistan, initial DNA template amount, when it is compared to samples that has known concentration. In figure 8, there are five samples (a, b, c, d, e) that were used in order to develop a standard curve. If the samples used have a good consistency and precision, a sample that has an statement, unknown concentration can be calculated from the attention, standard curve [7]. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis.

STR analysis is the first method of analysis that is used [1]. 99,9% of the how, DNA in grade humans are the same. How? In the 0,1% region of DNA short tandem repeats are present as the region that exhibits a large variation between individual [7]. Why Abortions Should Be Legal Essay? STR`s are short DNA sequence that keep repeating. Thesis Statement How? For example in the DNA sequence ATTCGCATCATCATCATCATCATCATCGCCA, the sequence ATC is repeated 7 times. Short tandem repeats are present at the same position on chromosomes in the human genome, but the repeat unit varies per individual. With the help of PCR reaction a STR analysis can be performed.

Primers that can be labeled binds to the DNA at a specific STR loci and in class, multiplied. Because of the label that is attached at thesis statement how the primer, the amplified products can be detected at why abortions should be legal essay the end of the PCR reaction. Thesis Statement How? By analyzing more than multiple STR`s at once, a DNA profile that is unique enough to identify an individual can be made [7]. Sometimes a DNA sample is too degraded to 11 essay conclusion, get a DNA profile using the standard STR markers. In order to still be able to statement, use this degraded DNA to i spinal, get a profile, primers were repositioned. By repositioning the primers closer to the repeat region that needs to be amplified, the thesis, amplified product that is resulted is much smaller.

As a result it makes genetic characterization of the sample for more STR`s, other that is grade listhesis used traditionally. Statement How? This makes STR miniplex invaluable for degraded samples [1]. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis. By using the SNP`s genetic markers, the PCR amplified product can be much smaller than is possible in a STR miniplex [1]. SNP is a single nucleotide mutation that occurs in the DNA sequence and is also the most common polymorphism in the human genome. These mutations can be a result from DNA replication or chemical damage. A polymorphism is a variation/mutation in things about myself the DNA sequence that has a frequency of statement, more than 1% in the population. SNP occurs once every 1000 base pairs and tends to remain stable in the population [8]. For example in a known DNA sequence of CCTAA, a mutation of the second C to a T occurs (see figure 9). The amplified PCR product that can result from using SNP markers can be reduced by up to 60-80 bp.

This makes severely degraded DNA samples that could not be typed using STR`s still typable. Using a method that was validated during the WTC identification effort, typing on samples that were much compromised was still able to be identified. The method uses a florescent detection system. In Class Essay? By labeling the thesis, possible alleles with a fluorescent dye, the signal of the grade i spinal listhesis, dyes could be compared [1]. Mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mitochondria is an organelle that resides outside the cell nucleus.

They contain their own chromosomal DNA. mtDNA are smaller, circular in shape and are inherited maternally. They consist of approximately 16,569 base and have a high copy number in statement a cell. Because mtDNA is passed down maternally, it is a good method to perform when reference samples are taking from maternal relatives. Using mtDNA can be an advantage when dealing with very small or degraded extracted DNA. Essay? Because of the high copies number of mtDNA that is available, an identification can still be possible using mtDNA markers, instead of STR markers that are found in nuclear DNA [1]. There are several differences in the characteristic of the thesis statement how, mtDNA and the nuclear DNA. The first being the size of the genome. Nuclear DNA has about 3,2 billion bp and is 99.75% of total DNA. While mtDNA has 16,569bp and 0,25% content DNA per cell. While mutation rata for nuclear DNA is low, mtDNA has a 5-10 times higher mutation rate. The sequence of the mitochondrial DNA is a functional one and also highly conserved, it’s because of this that there isn’t a very big variation between individuals.

But there is non-coding D-loop (1000bp long), also known as control loop, that has two hypervariable regions called HV1 and i spinal listhesis, HV2 (see figure 8). The variations observed in this part of the DNA tend to be Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The length of the mtDNA doesn’t change with the statement, presence of the SNPs and that’s why this are the regions that are used for forensic analysis. Due to the lack of DNA reparation, mtDNA has a large mutation. This causes the variations between individuals. Grade? The variation is not a lot, with HV1 and HV2 having only a 1-3% difference between individuals who are not related [10]. When analysis is performed, mitochondrial DNA is extracted and then with the help of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the HV1 and statement how, HV2 regions are amplified. Next step is to determine the child in pakistan, sequence of the amplified product by using DNA sequencing.

After this samples can be compared to each other to get a possible identification [10]. The Y-chromosome is small and found in only male individuals. This chromosome is altered through infrequent happening of a mutation. The combination of alleles between father and son is theoretically the same, if mutation does not occur [9]. The advantages of Y-chromosome analysis are that in a mixture profile with female DNA for example in statement a sexual assault case, male specific amplification can take place to separate the two. Mixtures in fingernail scraping and not paying in class, saliva on skin can also be analyzed. Another advantage is that it facilitates tracing family lineages in the paternal transmission. Limitations that arises are that it’s hard to distinguish between male family members when Y-STR typing is performed. Duplications and deletions that are present in the DNA sequence, can make analysis more complicated. The Y-chromosome analysis is thesis performed with the analysis of the STRs or SNPs. Y-STRs changes more rapidly and thus has more variables.

This makes it useful for forensic applications [10]. Last step in conclusion analysis of DNA is the separation and detection of the amplified DNA. In order to separate and detect them a capillary electrophoresis is used. A basic capillary electrophoresis apparatus is thesis consists of a narrow glass capillary, two buffer vials, two electrodes connected to high voltage power supply, laser excitation source, fluorescent detector, autosampler for samples and a computer that controls the sample injection and detection. Essay? The capillaries are made out of glass, have an internal diameter of statement, 50 ??m and is 50 cm long. Grade? The capillary which is thesis statement how a glass tube is filled with a polymer that serves as a gel in essay which molecules can migrate. Samples are injected in the capillary when high voltage is applied, which helps to separate the DNA fragments. Fluorescent dye labels that are present in the DNA mixture are analyzed when they pass by a detector that uses a laser beam. The results are then analyzed and stored on a computer [10]. A schematic of the capillary electrophoresis is shown in figure 9. DNA separation occurs when DNA fragments separate through the capillary when voltage is thesis how applied.

Smaller fragments go through the capillary faster than the bigger fragments. Why Abortions Should Be Legal Essay? The time is thesis statement how converted to base pair size with the help of internal size standards. Several components can affect the DNA separation. Attention In Class Essay? The polymer used, the capillary, the buffer and the voltage used [10]. The two primary polymer are POP-4 and POP-6. The POP stands for performance optimized polymer and is made out of a linear, uncross-linked dimethyl polyacrylamide. The 4 and 6 in the POP, stands for the 4% and 6% concentration of this component. The POP-4 is used for the analysis of STR typing and POP-6 for DNA sequencing. Recently a Pop-7 has been introduced that can be used for both the STR typing and thesis how, DNA sequencing [10]. The buffer is used to stabilize and why abortions, solubilize the DNA. It also provide a charge for the electrophoresis current.

Buffer concentration is an important aspect, because when it’s too high this can result in overheating of the capillary and a loss of resolution. In order to avoid any problems with the running of the electrophoresis, the buffer should be replaced regularly with a fresh sample [10]. The capillary is central for the separation during the electrophoresis. The capillary is statement how made of glass or fused silica. The inner walls also have a hydroxyl groups that are negatively charged. Positive ions from the buffer, creates a double layer.

The movement of ions creates an electroosmotic flow, that can be reduced or eliminated when a coating is added to child labor in pakistan essay, the inside layer of the capillary (see figure 10). Uncoated walls create problems for statement how reproducible DNA separation. Suggested is to change the september, capillary after 100-150 runs or whenever a decline of thesis, resolution is noted [10]. Sanger method for DNA sequencing is a process where the use of polymerase incorporation is involved. The polymerase incorporation uses dideoxyribonucleatide triphosphates (ddNTPs) as chain terminators that is in for love in jamestown turn followed by thesis, a separation step that is labor essay capable of single nucleotide resolution. Because there is no hydroxyl group at the end of the 3? ‘end of the nucleotide with a ddNTP the growing chain cannot continue growing. In the mix there are both dNTPs and ddNTPS present, this way some DNA portions are still able to continue growing. Therefor at the end of the reaction there will be a series of thesis how, strands that only differs one molecule from each other.

See figure 11 for a schematic overview of the DNA sequence. Each DNA strand uses one forwards or reverse primer in a separate reaction. Attached to the ddNTPs are fluorescent dyes. ddTTP (thymine) has a red dye attached to it, ddCTP (cytosine) a blue label, ddATP (adenine) a green dye and lastly, ddGTP (guanine) a yellow dye. Conclusion? After the reaction is over, the sample goes through capillary electrophoresis, which separates the thesis statement, strands. In the results of the electrophoresis, the sequence of the attention in class essay, DNA strand is shown [7]. DNA Databases and CODIS. A DNA database is thesis how a database which stores DNA data and is used for analysis. There are different types of DNA databases.

The National DNA databases are maintained by the government for storing DNA profiles of its population. These DNA profiles are based on PCR and STR analysis. I Spinal Listhesis? DNA databases serve as valuable tools in thesis how aiding investigations. CODIS (COmbined DNA Index System) is why abortions a DNA database that consists of 13 STR loci’s. These are CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51 and D21S11. Also the Amelogenin is used for gender determination [6] [10] [11]. To make the job easier and avoid confusion with buffers it is better to use a complete STR kit. These kits come with their own buffer and control DNA. There are a lot of distributors of complete STR kits. It all depends on the research what kind of thesis, kit there is needed. Multiplex STR kits allows the amplification of the 13 CODIS loci [6].

The most widely known and used kits are from Promega. The product components normally consists of a buffer, primer pair mix (again, it depends on the research what kind of not paying attention, primer that will be used), control DNA. These are for the PCR product. After the PCR, the thesis how, kits come with an Allelic Ladder mix and an internal standard to grade i spinal listhesis, be used for the gel. Chemicals that sometimes should be supplied that do not come with the kit are Nuclease-free water and taq DNA polymerase. The kits come with their own protocol and should be used in that specific order [6]. Here is an example of the PowerPlex 16 HS System, which allows co-amplification of the 13 CODIS loci and thesis statement how, Amelogenin for gender determination. All loci are amplified in for love a single tube and analyzed in a single injection and is also compatible with ABI. This system consist of Powerplex HS 5X Master Mix, Powerplex 16 HS 10X Primer Pair Mix, 2800M Control DNA and water (Amplification Grade) in the Pre-amplification components box. In the Post-amplification components box there is a PowerPlex 16 HS Allelic Ladder Mix and Internal Lane Standard.

How the mixes for the PCR amplification should be made is displayed below in figure 10 [6] [12]. Statistical interpretation of DNA profile. When it comes to getting a match with a DNA profile, it’s important to determine if the DNA profile are from the same individual or if maybe there is another individual with the same profile. It’s practically impossible to get a DNA from every individual. In order to still determine a match probability, Allele frequencies from different ethnic groups, from validated databases are collected [13]. More than one data point will need to be collected in order to get a reliable estimation of thesis statement how, allele frequency.

There has to in class, be a minimum where the assurance is there that an allele has been sufficiently sampled for thesis statement how use in statistical test. An allele has to be observed for a minimum of five times in order to be qualified for use in a statistical calculations. Not Paying Attention In Class Essay? The frequency for the minimum allele is determined using the formula 5/ (2N). N stands for the number of individuals and 2N for chromosomes counted before they pair [13]. In order to calculate the thesis statement, frequency of a DNA profile, the frequency of every allele analyzed are multiplied. The frequency of the allele can differ dependent on things about myself the population database.

The database that is used needs to be sufficiently large and statement, representative of the in jamestown, population of the individual whose DNA is being examined [13]. In figure 12, DNA profile frequencies are given for the U.S. Caucasian. Take for example allele 11 of how, D13S317 shown in figure 12. Samples of i spinal, 604 alleles were taken where it was observed 205 times. Statement How? This translates to an allele frequency of i spinal listhesis, 0,33940. In other words, there is a 34% chance that a random individual will have the same allele. The same goes for thesis statement how allele 14 of not paying attention essay, D13S317. This allele was observed 19 times in a population of 604. Frequency is therefore q=0,04801. Thesis Statement How? So an individual with the alleles 11 and 14 for the D13S317, can be calculated using the formula 2pq (p standing for the first allele and q standing for the second allele).

Putting the frequency calculated in the formula creates 2 x 0,33940 x 0,0481= 0,0326. This frequency indicates that ??3% of the U.S. Caucasian population. Child? The frequency of all the statement how, genotypes will then be multiplied to get the frequency of the DNA profile. In case of the DNA profile in figure 12, this comes to labor essay, a combined frequency of 8,37 x 1014. So 1 in 837 trillion [13]. In order to ensure that DNA testing is being performed correctly there are standards that the laboratories has to adhere to. These standards has to assurance the quality of the work.

Every laboratory should have a quality assurance program in place. Organization and thesis statement how, management. First thing is to in class essay, have a management staff that the authority and means to carry out the thesis statement how, duty that is assigned to them and keep the quality assurance in the laboratory. There should also be a technical leader that is in charge of the technical operations. If the CODIS is in use at the laboratory, there should be a casework CODIS administrator who is not paying attention in class accountable for CODIS on site.

The laboratory should also have two full time employees who are qualified DNA analysts. The responsibility, authority and interrelation of every personal operational at thesis the laboratory has to be specified and documented. Lastly a contingency plan has to be in planned and approved in and hate the case that a technical leader position is vacated [14]. The employees of the laboratory has to have the proper education and experience. The job description of the personnel needs to have a written job description that can be expended with documentation of the responsibilities, duties and skills. The laboratory needs to be in possession of the training program for qualifying all analyst. Included are all the DNA analytical procedures that will be performed by the personnel. Also all the practical exercises needs to include the examination of a range of samples that are routinely analyzed at thesis statement the laboratory. The training program needs to teach and asses the skills and ability to perform a successful DNA analysis. The trainee needs to give an individual demonstration of capability, which shall be documented by things myself essay, the laboratory. When a new analyst is hired the technical leader is tasked with accessing the new hire`s previous training and be responsible for the proper documentation.

If modification of the training program is made, then this also has to be documented. Thesis? All the why abortions should be legal essay, analyst has to successfully complete the competencies test that covers the DNA techniques before working on actual casework. A documented program needs to be in place so that the technical qualifications are being kept. This can be done by attending seminars, course, professional meetings or any other documented classes that are relevant. Thesis How? This all needs to add to a minimum of eight hours annually. If training is given by the laboratory itself, all relevant information about the essay, training and the presenter needs to be documented. When training is done externally, certificates, program agenda or travel documentation can serve as the proper documentation of attendance. Multimedia and internet based programs needs to be approved by the technical leader.

Attendance needs to be formally documented and when the program is thesis finished the technical leader reviews and approves it. The laboratory also needs to have an approved program that is used for annual review of scientific literature. This way the analyst ongoing reading of scientific literature is documented. The laboratory needs to have access to collections of labor in pakistan, information’s containing DNA analysis [14]. The technical leader also has certain qualification that needs to be tended to. The minimum education requirements are a Master`s degree in thesis how biology, chemistry or forensic science.

In addition they also need to have a successfully completed 12 semester or equivalent credit hours in the subject’s biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and statistics or population genetics. In the 12 semester completed, there needs to be at least one graduate level course for the period of 3 semesters. The technical leader of also needs to have a minimum of three years of experience in a forensic DNA laboratory, in which the laboratory participated in the identification and about essay, evaluation of biological evidence in a criminal matter capacity. The duties of the technical leader includes overseeing the technical operation of the laboratory and being able to make decision of statement how, initiating, suspending od resuming DNA analytical operations. Other responsibilities include the evaluating and documenting of the validation of methods used and proposing new or modified analytical procedures.

Also reviewing academic documents, training records and approve qualifications of new analyst before they are allowed to perform analysis on casework independently. The technical leader has to september conclusion, approve specifications for outsourcing agreements and review internal and external DNA audit that might needs to statement, be corrected and grade i spinal listhesis, documented. How? Lastly the technical leader is responsible for annually reviewing and documenting of laboratory procedures and reviewing and approving of training, quality assurance and proficiency testing. The technical leader needs to child, be a full time employee and needs to be accessible for consultation onsite, via the thesis statement how, telephone or electronically [14]. As an employee of the laboratory, the analyst needs to have a minimum education of a bachelor`s degree or advanced degree in biology, chemistry or forensic science related area, The analyst is expected to have completed the course work successfully with subject areas of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, statistics and population genetics. The analyst needs to have at least six months of experience in forensic human DNA laboratory experience. The experience of the analyst needs to be documented and if needed, experience augmented by additional training of DNA identification handlings of the laboratory. Before participating in casework, the analyst needs to complete analysis of a range of samples that the laboratory regularly encounters and complete a competency test [14]. Laboratories needs to be designed in a manner where the integrity of analyses and evidence is ensured. Entry to the laboratory needs to not paying essay, be controlled in order to prevent unauthorized personnel.

When keys or combinations are handed out, these needs to statement how, be documented and limited to personnel that is why abortions should be legal designated by thesis, laboratory management [14]. Before PCR is performed, the about, DNA extraction and PCR set up, needs to be performed in either separate times or separate space. The amplified DNA, needs to be developed, processed and maintained on a room(s) that is separate from where the evidence examination, DNA extraction or PCR setup areas are performed. How? A robotic workstation can be used, only if the analytical process has been validated. In that case DNA extraction, PCR setup and amplification can be performed in a single room. Lastly procedures for the cleaning and decontaminating of the things myself essay, facilities and thesis, its equipment needs be in for love in jamestown place and followed [14]. In order to ensure the statement how, integrity of the physical evidence, the laboratory needs to have a documented evidence control system.

Evidence needs to be marked with a unique tag on package of the evidence. A definition of the evidence and work product needs to be clearly defined. When a tag is not used, a system for distinguish samples when they are being processed needs to be devised and put in place. Chain of custody needs to be documented and maintained, either on a hard copy or in an electronic format. A signature or something equivalent in case of an electronic format needs to be present for all who received and transferred the should be legal, evidence, with corresponding date. Documented procedures needs to thesis statement, be in place in order to minimize loss, contamination and deleterious change of evidence.

A proper placement for evidence storage and work product that is still in progress needs to be in place, which is labor in pakistan controlled and secure [14]. Analytical procedure that are to thesis statement, be had and followed, needs to be approved by in jamestown, the technical leader. The procedures needs to be reviewed annually. Every analytical method needs to have their own standard operating procedure that needs to specify items like the reagents, sample preparation, extraction methods, equipment and controls. A written procedure for how the documentation of commercial and formulated in-house reagents needs to be in place. Label commercial reagents with the name of the reagent and expiration date. Formulated in-house reagents are to be labeled with the name of reagent, either the date of preparation or expiration date and the analyst who formulated the reagent. Critical reagents in grade listhesis test kit or systems for quantitative PCR and statement how, genetic typing needs to be identified and evaluated before they are used on evidence samples. Thermostable DNA polymerase, primer sets and allelic ladders, also needs to why abortions should, be identified and evaluated [14].

Before DNA amplification, evidence samples needs to be quantified. Thesis Statement? Only when a validated method system is used that have shown to give reproducibly and reliably yield a successful DNA amplification, quantification is not needed. When quantifying, quantification standards are to be used. The positive and negative control needs to be amplified at the same time as the case samples at 11 essay the same loci with the same set of thesis statement, primers as the labor in pakistan, case samples. Blank reagent controls that are being used for extraction, are to be extracted simultaneously, amplified by using the same primers, instrument and conditions as the case samples and typed by using the same instrument and injection conditions. The DNA procedures used by the laboratory are to be checked annually or when a major change is made in the method [14]. Procedure for the taking and thesis how, maintaining casework notes needs to be in place. Not Paying Attention? These needs need to statement, support conclusion taken in the reports. The laboratory needs to maintain and retain, in hard or electronic form, all notes and documentation from analyst regarding their analysis. The casework reports needs to have the case identifier, a description of the evidence that was examined, description of the in pakistan, method used, the thesis statement how, amplification system, results and/or conclusion, an interpretive statement, date that report is issued, the 11 essay conclusion, disposition of the evidence and statement how, lastly a signature and title [14]. Twice a year, with the why abortions should be legal, first one occurring in the first six months and the second in the last 6 months f a year, a proficiency testing needs to be undergone by the analyst, technical reviewers, technicians and personnel appointed by statement how, the technical leader.

Workers who regularly use manual and automated methods, will need to go through a proficiency testing at least once a year. New workers needs to go through proficiency testing in the first six months. The proficiency testing needs to be defined, documented and in pakistan, use the correct dates. The exact items from the statement how, proficiency testing that needs to be recorded are the test set identifier, the analyst/participant, date of listhesis, analysis and thesis how, its completion, copies of data and notes that supports the conclusions taken, the proficiency test results, discrepancies and if needed the corrective actions that were taken [14]. 1. Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents 2. M.prinz, A. Carracacedo; DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the child essay, role of forensic genetics for disaster victim identification (DVI); Forensic Science International: Genetics; Pages 3-12; 2007. 3. Thesis Statement? B. Budowle, F.R. Bieber, A.J.

Eisenberg; Forensic aspects of mass disasters: Strategic considerations for DNA-based human identification; Legal Medicine; page 230-243;2005. 4. Mo Bi Tec molecular biotechnology. 5. NFSTC Science serving justice. 6. Forensic DNA typing STR: Page 62-64, 84-86,92,93. 7. Labor In Pakistan Essay? Butler John M.; Advanced topic in forensic DNA typing: methodology; 2012; Elsevier, Maryland USA, page 371, 372, 141-150,417,418. 8. Sequencing, forensic analysis and genetic analysis

9. Sirius genomics. 10. Forensic science central; DNA. 11. FBI biometric analysis. 12. Promega technical manual for the powerplex 16 system. 13.

Butler John M.; Fundamentals of forensic DNA typing; 2010; Elsevier; Maryland USA; page 111-121, 229, 238-241, 251, 252. 14. Quality Assurance standards for forensic DNA testing laboratories. DNA analysis workload estimated worksheet. Search our thousands of essays:

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Graeme Greene, author of child labor 'Brighton Rock', instantly draws the reader into the plot by his use of brief factual statements such as, 'Hale knew'; this straight away demands questioning such as 'who is Hale?' and 'what did he know?' This immediately intensifies the reader's eagerness to continue. Thesis Statement How. Greene goes on for love and hate in jamestown to mention, in the same sentence, the short timescale of 'three hours', in which the events that the novel is thesis how, building up to will occur. Greene hints, throughout the opening chapter, that Hale will not live beyond this timescale. An example of this is, 'yesterday Southend, to-day Brighton, to-morrow-'. Leaving tomorrow blank signifies, and hints, Hale will have no tomorrow. . read more.

It is also ironic that Hale's job is to be dressed up as someone he is grade i spinal listhesis, not, because it appears that Hale is statement, living more that one life and in one of those lives he is known as 'Fred'. It is clear, on many occasions with his lifestyles, not least this one as he goes to in pakistan, great lengths to deny and forget this past life. Hale appears to be, or has been a shady character once and statement appears to be very unhappy and lonely as a result. This is described as his, 'badge of loneliness'. There are multiple clues throughout the plot that suggest that he is envious and longs to be like the others around him. They also suggest that Hale feels confused and trapped, as if he feels, he can't be the person he longs to be.

Greene, however, decides to portray Hale's innocence and shows the audience his real name and feelings, so that the audience may associate with Hale and believe that they know him better than any other of the characters that appear in the novel. Greene also includes distinctive, recognition facts about Hale, such as, 'Inky fingers'; 'Bitten nails', with which he uses repetition to help the audience to associate with Hale. In addition to this Greene helps Hale's situation stand out a great deal more than that of the people around him by the deep description of the calm, pleasant, surreal settings and bliss experienced by the holiday makers contrasts Hale's personal situation. . read more. Grade. Once he has slipped an important fact or detail, he abruptly changes the subject of description, so to build up the thesis statement, level of anticipation and to control the i spinal listhesis, level of tension so that he can increase it when he is ready to include another detail or to slip in statement how a red herring, in the hope of falsely alarming the audience so that they will be caught unprepared when the real event occurs. When Greene is mentioning important details he sticks to about, a short, dramatic sentence structure. This helps to stun the audience and thesis statement how build up a great deal of tension, to which Greene controls with great effect by switching to a longer, calmer sentence structure that relaxes the audience until Greene is ready for attention in class essay, the tension to re-emerge at a slightly higher level. To conclude, I believe Grahame Greene controls the audience's emotions very well through his novel, 'Brighton Rock'. Statement. His cool use of brief, detailed, obscure facts and dramatic, metaphorical descriptions, along with his minimalist use of characters, help the audience to identify to the plot, with ease even though very little important information is given out at one time.

This has a very good combined effect as its gain is the why abortions be legal, audience eagerly anticipating the revealing of mysteries within the plot as the human mind, naturally cannot, easily, cope with an unsolved mystery. Word Count= 1,394 ?? ?? ?? ?? H/W Ben Spanos 09/05/2007 . read more. This student written piece of work is one of thesis how many that can be found in our AS and A Level Plays section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. I Spinal. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related AS and A Level Plays essays. Macheath delivers his final speech to the public, confessing his criminality but insists that he has stolen nothing more than a bank, his speech ends with him thanking everyone for attending and the scene begins to prepare for Macheath's seemingly imminent death. We can see that Elizabeth no longer has trust in her husband and believes that he still has feelings for thesis statement, Abigail. The argument is left at Mary Warren's return from Salem where she then tells the couple that Elizabeth's name has been mentioned amongst these accusations and Elizabeth guesses that it were Abigail who named her in court.

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The Customer will help the UK Study Help do this by statement how, making available to 11 essay conclusion the UK Study Help all relevant information at the beginning of the transaction and co-operating with the thesis statement, UK Study Help throughout the transaction should the Assignment Editing Expert require any further information or guidance The Customer acknowledges that failure to provide such information or guidance during the course of the transaction may delay the delivery of their Work, and that the UK Study Help will not be held responsible for any loss or damage caused as a result of such delay. Labor? In such cases the thesis, ‘Completion on Time Guarantee’ will not apply. Where the Assignment Editing Expert or the UK Study Help requires confirmation of things myself essay any detail they will contact the Customer using the email address or telephone number provided by thesis, the Customer The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help may accept instructions received using these modes of contact and may reasonably assume that those instructions are generated from the Customer. Delivery – “Completion on Time Guarantee” The UK Study Help agrees to facilitate delivery of all Work before midnight on the due date, unless the due date falls on a Sunday, Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, or New Year’s Day (“a Non-Working Day”), in which case the child in pakistan, Work will be delivered the following day before midnight The UK Study Help undertakes that all Work will be completed by the Assignment Editing Expert on thesis, time or they will refund the Customer’s money in full and deliver their Work for child labor in pakistan essay, free The relevant due date for the purposes of thesis statement this guarantee is the myself, due date that is set when the order is allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert . Thesis How? Where a variation to the relevant due date is agreed between the UK Study Help and the Customer, a refund is not due The UK Study Help will not be held liable under this guarantee for any lateness due to technical problems that may arise due to third parties or otherwise, including, but not limited to issues caused by Internet Service Providers, Mail Account Providers, Database Software, Incompatible Formats and Hosting Providers.

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Unless payment is in class taken at the time of placing an order, once the statement how, UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and experienced Assignment Editing Expert to undertake the Customer’s order, they will contact the Customer by email to take payment. If, at thesis and hate their discretion, the UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the full value of the thesis statement, Order, the Customer acknowledges that the full balance will remain outstanding at about myself essay all times and will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for the Work. Statement How? The Customer agrees that once an Order is for love in jamestown paid for then the Assignment Editing Expert allocated by the UK Study Help begins work on thesis, that Order, and that the Order may not be cancelled or refunded. Until payment or a deposit has been made and in class essay, the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the statement, Customer may choose to continue with the Order or to cancel the Order at any time The Customer agrees to be bound by the UK Study Help’s refund policies and acknowledges that due to the highly specialized and individual nature of the services that full refunds will only be given in 11 essay conclusion the circumstances outlined in thesis statement these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in which event any refund or discount is given at the discretion of the UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and Essay papers to the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to 11 essay conclusion assist the buyer by providing a guideline and the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the copyright to the Work supplied through the UK Study Help’s services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and statement how, the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the UK Study Help reserves the right to refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior.

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How To Create a Business Plan For Your Blog. Are you looking for how direction when it comes to your blog? Today we’re focusing on how to develop an effective business plan to take your website in the direction it needs to go. September Conclusion! By following these steps, putting together a business plan is easier than you might think! When I first made the leap into how, the blogging world, I did what all new bloggers do; I started researching all the grade listhesis, things bloggers are “supposed” to be doing. I was excited, proud, and passionate about thesis statement my little space on the Internet. Attention In Class Essay! I quickly realized that being successful in blogging requires a lot more than stellar writing; it requires time, commitment, an appealing design, high quality photos, marketing, social media savvy, and a strategic focus. Take a look around at your favorite successful bloggers. Thesis Statement How! You will see that most of them have been blogging for a year or more, and none of them became successful by accident. Great bloggers have a clear vision about who they are in the blogging world, where they want to take their blog, and who they are trying to reach. The good news is september, anyone can be successful in blogging with a plan and a lot of passion.

Today we are going to share with you how to create a business plan for thesis your blog. Step 1: Define Your Product and Your Purpose. Every business plan begins with an idea for a product. Child! It might be a tangible product like a fabulous line of cowboy boots or it might be a service, such as party and event planning. Bloggers also offer a product, we offer writing that entertains our readers, we offer advice and tutorials, we share our experience and expertise. Statement How! In order to take your blog forward, it is important to understand what it is child labor essay, you want to statement how offer your readers.

Are you hoping to provide them with inspirational writing, make them laugh, teach them how to for love and hate in jamestown make a centerpiece? Your brand stems from your purpose. Statement! Once you have an idea what it is you are going to offer your readers, your product, so to speak, you need to position it in grade i spinal listhesis, the blogging marketplace. Statement How! Honda markets itself as a reliable and affordable car, while BMW differentiates itself as a luxury vehicle. Who do you want to be in the blogging world? How do you want to things myself essay be perceived? Are you a busy working mom with talent for organizing, or are you a health conscious chef?

Be clear about how who you are as a blogger and 11 essay conclusion, this will guide your path as you grow your blog. Any blogger will tell you, in the beginning, readers do not magically appear. You have to go out and statement, find them. Before you can find them, you need to know who they are. What kind of readers would be attracted to your content? Is it women? College students and singles? Moms? Tech lovers? Crafters?

Most businesses involve some start up costs. Before a business is able to bring in any revenue, it often has to invest in equipment, offices, and why abortions be legal essay, marketing. This may not be possible for all new bloggers, and that’s okay. Many blogs are able gain traction using free platforms and statement, templates. However, you may be able to reach your business plan goals more quickly if you make some upfront investments. If you are able to, investing in a unique domain name, hosting service, and a premium theme or design will do wonders for your branding and child essay, attracting sponsors, brands, and readers. These are the things that project professionalism, commitment to your blog, and differentiate your blog as business rather than a hobby. Step 5: Define Your Long Term Goals.

At The SITS Girls, we like to talk about defining your end game. Thesis How! As bloggers, we need to know where we are going before we can decide how we are going to things get there. Take some time to thesis statement how contemplate where you want to why abortions should take your blog. Thesis Statement How! Be specific. Do you want to monetize your blog? What are your income goals? Do you want to use your blog to launch and market a product or service? Do you hope to turn your blog into a book? What is your timeline? Step 6: Create a Marketing Strategy.

Now that you know who your readers are, you need to find out how to reach them. Not Paying! Where do your readers hang out? What social media platforms are they most active on? Do you have topics that are frequently searched for how online? Do your research and investigate what other successful bloggers in grade listhesis, your niche are doing.

When you have a long term focus, it can help to set short term objectives to help you stay motivated and measure your progress. If your marketing strategy involves growing your social media platforms, you can set numerical goals to increase your following on a monthly or quarterly basis. Thesis! If your strategy involves search engine traffic, you may want to set goals to listhesis increase your page rank for certain flagship blog posts. Regardless of your strategy, it is important to set small milestones to keep yourself on track. Thesis How! It also keeps you from getting overwhelmed. Think “small manageable steps.”

Let’s keep the conclusion, discussion around how to develop a business plan going. Leave a comment on this post below or head over to our Facebook page to keep the conversation going. No matter what your blogs goals are, a little planning goes a long way. Have you created a business plan for your blog? What has worked and thesis statement, what hasn’t? If you enjoyed this post on things about creating a business plan for your blog, then keep reading!

5 Questions To Ask Your Blog Designer That Will Save You Time and Money - Apr 23, 2014 10 Secrets to thesis Happiness You Keep Forgetting - Feb 10, 2014 Turn Your Blog Into a Business in 2014 - Jan 13, 2014 How To Create a Business Plan For Your Blog - Nov 21, 2013 How to grade i spinal listhesis Survive Your First 3 Months of Blogging - Oct 14, 2013 Video Tutorial: How to Integrate Twitter, Pinterest and More Into Your Facebook Page - Aug 1, 2013. Stevie, short for thesis Stephanie, is a self-proclaimed coffee addict, wife, and mother to three fur babies that have taken over things myself her heart and home. Thesis! A lover of words and yoga, she blogs at Joy in the Midst of about her quest for labor in pakistan joy, learning to love a little deeper, laugh a little more often, and live with more gratitude for all the blessings life has given her. She serves as a Community Lead for the SITS Girls and can also be found hanging out on Facebook or tweeting away at @joyinthemidstof. Alex Roberson says. Most people don’t understand the countless hours that go into creating a business plan. My motto is “Let the thesis how, experts handle that!” I found a really good company that creates Custom Business Plans for all industries

This is worth giving them a look into. They have created thousands of business plans and myself essay, funded startups with over how 500 million dollars. The primary thing to things about remember when you are out thesis statement, there preparing to make your. friend’s big day as perfect as possible is that the big day is hers. Nas has been really open with the media as of late, and in an interview with theguardian, he opens up about recording his 10th studio. album, Life Is Good, and 11 essay conclusion, why he has Kelis’ wedding gown on his album. cover. Anarkali Salwar Kameez is on rage these days if we are talking about thesis statement how Salwar Kameez as wedding.

Awesome set of tips! Definitely pinning! These are awesome tips! Lately I have been struggling with what my goals are for my blog because my ideas are great, just all over the place. About Myself! I took a small break, now I am dusting myself off and trying again.

Thank you for sharing! Very helpful! Very Useful ! I love this #128578; Lots of good stuff to think about. I started my blog on a whim and never dreamed that anyone other than my mom would read it. Eight months in, things look a whole lot different. I need a plan for sure. Statement How! I am old school, so I am printing this out and highlighting it to motivate me to make one! #128578; Thanks much. Ah yes,I was just having the business plan conversation last night. Does it count if it’s all floating around in my head? #128539;

Thank you for the great tips Stevie! When I began it was basically for the love of writing. As my research increased and after studying other bloggers I realized how blogging can be a business. I love having the choice to have balance. I totally agree that learning from other bloggers increases our chance for success. I like this: small manageable steps.

Makes diving head-first into blogging seem a lot less daunting. These are some incredibly useful tips–I really want to think about some of my blogging goals in not paying attention, the New Year so perfect timing #128578; Hope you have a great weekend! Great advice Stevie, I like your reply to Jeannete, saying that the person is the brand not the blog. How! It’s hard to should stay focussed and figure out what the statement, goal is when you start, I have only been going for two months now and I really have to try so hard to keep it all together somehow/1.

Those are great instructions for new blogers. I think deciding what you want-your goal is almost making a half way to reach it. Um, blogging can be a business? Where have I been? It’s so tough isn’t it? But on 11 essay conclusion the flip side, sometimes I have been so caught up planning that I’m taking time away from how generating content. Labor In Pakistan Essay! It has to be a balance! Great tips, Stevie! I get caught up in the grind of thesis posting content itself. It’s always good to take a step back and look at the long-term goals for my blog. Why Abortions! I so needed this!

Thank you so much for this post! I started my blog as a creative outlet and have recently decided that I want to turn it into a small business. Figuring out exactly how to statement how proceed forward has been overwhelming. Listhesis! This gives me lots to think about and statement, a guideline for basic planning. Thanks again ladies! Hang in there Jessica! It is so easy to why abortions should be legal get overwhelmed. You don’t have to have it all figured out all at thesis statement, once!

I have yet to about myself essay create a plan, but with this, I expect it to be a lot less intimidating. I got a piece of thesis advice once about social media. Focus on one or two at first and grow them, once you get the hang of it, then you have the choice to branch out to other platforms. Otherwise it can be too overwhelming. Thanks ladies! I think that is great advice Chelsea, there are so many platforms it can easily get overwhelming! Best of luck with your planning! I’m working on not paying essay getting more specific with mine. Thanks so much for statement how these great reminders.

You’re so welcome Sarah! I hope it was helpful! I feel like I am the slowest person ever to get this all together, so thank you for these tips. Not Paying Attention! I have been at overwhelm for some time but do understand much better after reading this article, taking notes and will start again. Thank all the others that posted too. It takes time! We don’t figure it all out at once. Good luck and happy planning! I have been blogging since 2010 and it’s first now that I realize what my goal are and thesis, I want to turn it in to things myself essay a small business.

But my only problem is that I have a hard time to figure out the brand. I write about different things that I like. It is how, fashion, home decor, my daily life and sharing product reviews. In the same time that I want to make a brand I don’t know my niche:-/ It feels like I really need to let my blog get a niche! I think it is totally okay to have lots of topics and why abortions be legal, cover several niches. I believe that you are the brand, not just the thesis, blog. Should! So maybe think about you, and how you want people to see you, use your personality to statement how guide your brand. Yes, Yes, Yes!

Thank you. Thank you Pamela, so glad you enjoyed it #128578; Some of the in jamestown, great points every new blogger should consider. Thanks for the great tips Stevie #128578; Thanks Kam! I hope it is helpful! Thank you for the advice!

I started my blog with a dual purpose, to share and to turn it into statement, a business. With having a tot my biggest obstacle is finding the time to not paying attention get more into it! I have recently set up a blog planner to help me with setting long term to short term goals with an action plan for each. Thesis! I am still busy with my planning, but it has definitely helped me so far to get a bit more focused! Oh, by the way. Should Be Legal! I am also using my time a bit more productively to thesis get things going. Having a mobile device, such as an iPad, really helps to make the most of the little gaps of thesis for love and hate time I have available!! A blog planner sounds amazing. Is that something you created yourself? I agree, mobile devices are so helpful. Statement! I use my phone for most of my social media interaction.

Yes, I have created my blog planner myself, though I looked at those of attention in class others and thesis how, customized it to my own needs. Still testing it:) I don’t know where I would have been with my blog if it wasn’t for my phone or iPad! What a blessing! Thanx for replying! It is child in pakistan, awesome to get feedback from thesis seasoned bloggers!

It is really appreciated! The only for love thing I’d add to this list is: be flexible. Technology is changing at lightning speed, which affects everyone who has an thesis statement, online presence and web properties. You can’t do it all, but you can define what’s worked in the past and where you want to go. However…while you keep your eyes on the prize, don’t become so steadfast that you miss other opportunities as they arise. Because they will! #128578; Stay open to other possibilities developing and things changing, because they always do.

Where I started in late 2010 and where Big Grey Horse Media is child labor in pakistan essay, today, at how, the end of 2013, are two totally different places. And it’s been very exciting to watch my blog morph into areas I’d never dreamed of! Thanks for a super article! You’ve given me things to think about, and several ideas to write about. ;-). Wonderful advice Laura! Just look at how rapidly Facebook marketing has changed! I think as bloggers we can be long term focused, and still be open to changing that strategy if and child labor, when opportunities arise or our inspiration takes us a different route. oh…really this article help me to move on. Thanks for share. I know it really is tough.

As I was writing this I realized I need to get more specific and thesis statement, map out some of conclusion my goals too. I think for thesis me, I need to labor break them down a little smaller. Sometimes I make them big and how, broad and it is hard to keep up with them. Great tips, Stevie! My biggest stumbling block in my plan is setting realistic goals and having a plan for how to achieve them. I know that setting goals is important for any plan, but I’m never quite sure what are appropriate goals. I know it really is tough. As I was writing this I realized I need to get more specific and map out some of my goals too. I think for me, I need to in class essay break them down a little smaller. Statement How! Sometimes I make them big and essay, broad and it is hard to keep up with them. These are great instructions for new bloggers, truly.

A lot of times people will begin blogging for fun and then realize they could turn it into something more but may not realize they actually need a plan. Great work! Thank you Sandra! You make a great point, I think so many bloggers start out statement how, blogging for fun before deciding to try and turn it into in pakistan essay, a business. Thesis! Of course you can start planning at any point in your blogging career, but if you start planning in the beginning it just helps you move forward that much faster. Great tips, Stevie! I’d add this, which applies to deciding on september goals, long or short term, and budgets – define a timeline of how you want things to go, so you commit yourself to a schedule to keep accountable. It’s easy to say, I want to write a book “someday”, but giving yourself a deadline will keep you motivated and on track. Ah, great point Alison.

I know I need to get a little more specific with for thesis statement how a few of my goals. Even if we have to adjust the timeline, I think it helps to things essay have something to how shoot for.