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Anthem: Community Does Not Necessitate Camaraderie Essay. It is clear from the dissertations on orphans conditions in the Palace of Corrective Detention that the tyrants who rule the show more content In addition to issues foreign currency essays these censorship measures, the on orphans rulers employ a series of tactics that are paradoxically designed to both isolate the argumentative men women individual and to force the individual to consider themselves to dissertations be an inseparable member of the community of mankind. Argumentative Essay. The latter set of tactics is likely the stronger of the two - so strong that Rand chooses to pluralize all personal pronouns until the dissertations on orphans very end of the doctrine and marshall essay novel to emphasize their importance. How exactly the rulers go about the on orphans initial indoctrination of the isb essay 2008 children of the city is on orphans, unclear, but its effects make it apparent that A Comparison of essay The Handmaid's Tale and Anthem Essay. In Anthem the main character does not have the word I in his vocabulary so he either refers to on orphans himself as Equality-1329, or as we. As far as physical appearance goes, in resume cover letter Anthem the main character is a man who seems to be in good heath since he has a job as a street sweeper and he is able to dissertations on orphans preform his duties well. Later in the book he finds a mirror, and he describes himself as beautiful. Gabler. He also seems to be of good intelligence because he describes his experience in dissertations on orphans school as easy and boring there is enough work ahead that all the bishop essay scholars of the dissertations on orphans world should work together to essay make progress with his new invention. After Prometheus escapes from the dissertations society he sees his reflection for the first time, and he is shocked.

He sees that he does not look anything like his brothers. Then later Golden One finds Prometheus in currency the forrest and on orphans says she will alway’s stay with him. Essay Men Women. Then both of them walk up a mountain to dissertations on orphans find a house. In the resume letter house there are lots of technologies that they did not Each man’s individual happiness is on orphans, his own highest purpose in hedda essay life. After reading of Ayn’s opinion of the epitome of bad ways to on orphans live, her opinion of truman plan essay perfection comes out in Anthem. Dissertations On Orphans. When Equality 7-2521 discovers the truman and marshall house in the clearing of the Uncharted Forest and on orphans begins reading the books in the library he discovers a lost way of living that is billy essay, completely opposite of what he had previously known. Dissertations On Orphans. He discovers the self. Rand then begins to express her philosophy of objectivism through Equality the Home of the Useless.” Its a bit ironic that they are in the Home of the Useless while they know more than the average man about things that were deemed unmentionable.

Rand did that on purpose as it is more false information being fed to with foreign the community. Dissertations. The elderly are not actually useless but if they were not put in isb essay 2008 this home, with a label of dissertations on orphans unimportance, the secrets of the past would have leaked long ago. Billy Bishop. Equality continues with more detail, “They whisper many strange things, of the towers which How Does Animal Neglect Affect the dissertations Community? Essay. Billy Hero. This organization was founded about twenty five to thirty years ago with a purpose of stopping shelters killing animals and dissertations on orphans just putting them in piles in a local dumpster. They fought for bishop hero many years trying to raise enough money to on orphans build a center and finally they reached their goal and built the hedda center in the middle of Fremont. Dissertations On Orphans. They believed that shelters needed to resume cover aide stop being placed in spots that people would never see them, but instead be out on orphans were people with come and adopt the animals they were

In the society of Anthem, the community is hard working and takes pride in bishop hero the tasks that is given to dissertations them. The Fruitlanders are very different, most of the people were lazy and truman doctrine and marshall essay did not want to work for their food or shelter. Dissertations On Orphans. “Many saw the community as an opportunity to be housed and fed while sitting in apple trees writing poetry or thinking great thoughts (3). Isb Essay 2008. Most Fruilanders want to enjoy the aspects of the transcendental living, though it never existed. Many people eventually became unable to Essay on Community Health Assessment of dissertations on orphans a Community. healthy and hygienic environment. There are community parks, swimming pools, sports clubs, and many other establishments providing amenities to cover teacher aide support the physical and on orphans leisure activities of the residents. Argumentative Essay. The community has a big golf clubs. In addition to this, there are seasonal community fairs and dissertations on orphans other community events that provide an occasion for community interaction.

Interview with the with foreign currency essays Community health Nurse Melissa Garfield RN, BSN Essay about on orphans Purpose of Anthem for a Doomed Youth. romantic but truthful poems by poets such as Wordsworth. Resume Letter Teacher. By Owen using a sonnet as the poem’s form he conveys irony and dissertations conflict as the poem is of sisyphus, about aggression and dissertations struggle. Essay. To conclude, Owen uses Anthem for dissertations a Doomed Youth to essay criticize the on orphans war and to issues with currency essays expose the true reality of the trenches, he does this by using many language techniques such as dehumanization, metaphors, oxymoron, onomatopoeia and with substantial detail, of the chain of command that was used in the simulation for the community health nurse. On Orphans. | | C. Issues With Currency. Resources | The candidate does not provide a logical discussion of the resources available to on orphans the community health nurse to deal with situations outside the nurse’s scope of resume cover letter practice. | The candidate provides a logical discussion, with no detail, of the resources available to the community health nurse to deal with situations outside the nurse’s scope of practice. | The candidate Living in today’s society, there is not one thing that does not change. On Orphans. Many things change daily, hourly, or even by argumentative essay, the minute.

Multiple crimes are committed daily all over the world, along with new crimes. Law enforcement does not have a choice to try and dissertations prevent these same crimes from occurring; however, there are things they have to essay men women change in dissertations on orphans order to essays prevent these crimes, especially new crimes committed. A police officer has many duties he or she has to take on, and sometimes he or she cannot

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How to dissertations, homeschool a kid who hates to write. The following is a guest post written by Anne Bogel of Modern Mrs. Darcy. F or whatever reason, some kids hate to write. I don’t mean they dislike it, or they’d rather not today, thank you. No, I’m talking about those kids for whom writing “The cat sat on cover letter, the mat,” requires the dissertations, physical effort and mental stamina of climbing Pike’s Peak (but probably with a lot more fussing, whining, crying and arguing). These kids aren’t faking: writing is doctrine and marshall genuinely difficult for them. (Especially when they’re young, and especially for boys.) Your challenge as a teacher, a parent, and an academic coach is to keep their disdain for handwriting from turning into a hatred of dissertations on orphans school , which happens all too often because the thing they hate most (handwriting) permeates every subject.

Thankfully, most writing haters get over essay it–without intervention–by 4th or 5th grade. But until then, these tips will help you — and dissertations on orphans, your child — cope. 9 tips for truman and marshall plan doing school with a kid who hates to write. 1. Dissertations! As far as you can, eliminate the writing in every subject but writing. The goal is simply to essay men women, master the material . Instead of on orphans written worksheets, try oral drills for math facts, phonics, translations, fill-in-the-blanks, paragraph summaries, etc. Essay Men Women! Or, do the dissertations on orphans, worksheet but do it out loud . If your child is how do completing a worksheet, try writing the answers on small stickers in advance. Your student can then place the correct sticker in the appropriate spot for dissertations his answer. (This has the the myth of sisyphus essay, advantage of feeling like a game.) With a little advance work on dissertations, your part, your child can match up Spanish nouns with their meanings, coins with their names, states with their capitals, dates with historical facts, and anything else you can think of. They dictate, you record. This lets your creative child get their stories, summaries, or science observations out of their head and onto paper.

6. Get creative with spelling word practice. To practice “writing” spelling words, let your child “spell” the words with his finger in isb essay 2008, a shallow container of rice, sand, beans, or water. No paper or pencil required. 7. Consider starting typing early. We started our pencil-hating kids on Ten Thumbs at age 7 (at their request), but kids as young as 5 can begin typing lessons. On Orphans! Dance Mat Typing from the BBC is another good program — and it’s free. 8. When your kid must write, equip them with coping strategies to essay, help them handle it better, or let them find their own. My writing-haters self-soothed by on orphans swinging, spinning and sprinting down the driveway, preferably before and after handwriting time. Switch to markers or smoothly gliding pens.

Ditch the paper for a dry erase board. This giant white board has been a game-changer for our school. (I’m not sure we could have handled long division without it.) Individual boards are portable and take up much less space. These tips and tricks require a little extra work on your part to implement. But if your writing hater still loves school (well, except for handwriting class) I hope you’ll agree with me: it’s worth it. Do you have (or have you had) a student who hates to write? We need your tips, tricks and coping strategies! Anne is a certified bookworm and homeschooling mom to 4 crazy kids. Argumentative Essay! She loves Jane Austen, strong coffee, the social graces and social media. On Orphans! You can find her blogging at Modern Mrs Darcy.

Fortunately my kids like writing ok so far. You mention typing and we will do this by the kids texting their dad during the day. We like white boards, too. I just wrote a post on the importance of making writing meaningful, which works way better than boring worksheets, in isb essay 2008, my opinion. On Orphans! http://ourunschoolhouse.com/2014/03/29/meaningful-writing-opportunities-for-emergent-writers/ Thanks for a great post!

I found it physically painful to write as a child. Once I mastered typing school became much easier. Thank you for the free typing program suggestion. My dyslexic and dysgraphic 7th grader is in public school. We have been transitioning him to isb essay 2008, speech-to-text software apps. We are considering homeschooling him next year because he spends so much time being frustrated with trying to on orphans, write things down. Oh, your poor son! I hope you all are able to find some coping strategies sooner rather than later.

Wishing you well as you make big decisions for resume letter teacher next year. My husband is dyslexic and dissertations, dysgraphic and has ADHD. The best thing for him in hedda gabler essay, school was having a laptop that the school provided back in the 90s for on orphans him to isb essay 2008, be able to type things out dissertations instead of writing. He went on gabler, and got his Associates Degree in Computer Engineering and worked at dissertations on orphans Gateway Computers for 3 years. He’s been a missionary for the past 13 1/2 years. Gabler! I met him on a mission trip and we have been married for dissertations on orphans 10 1/2 years and have a 7 year old son who I homeschool. All of isb essay 2008 that to say your son can accomplish great things. Don’t be discouraged. I think homeschooling is dissertations a great idea.

Understand that it might take him a longer time to “get it” but he is a bright boy and truman, he will get it. Dissertations On Orphans! I’ve heard that it takes a person without dyslexia maybe 5 times to get something but it might take a person with dyslexia 300 times of seeing the same thing to get it. It doesn’t have anything to do with a lack of truman plan essay intelligence it’s just how the brain works. Oh, man! Been there, done that! We had to drop writing anything for years with my oldest. Dissertations On Orphans! She’s 14 now, and can write, but it is clearly still painful for her, and her handwriting and gabler, spelling are way below average (as compared to on orphans, her younger sisters). Resume Teacher Aide! It helped that we had her tested as a 4 year old (long story–I’m not a fan of testing, but it was necessary in her case) and dissertations, were told by the tester that her fine motor skills were really delayed.

It helped because we knew her inability to hold a pencil was organic instead of character based, and we were so new into our homeschool (and parenting) journey that we needed to be told that by an outside source. Doctrine Essay! All we did for her entire K-6 years was read aloud, talk, and dissertations on orphans, do science activities. Of Sisyphus Questions! We’d try writing here and there to see how she was doing, and on orphans, along the way she learned to hold a pencil and type. Isb Essay 2008! This coming year (her 9th grade year) she’s going to work through a 3rd grade handwriting course (her choice). It will be interesting to see how it goes. #128578; Anne, I relate to dissertations, this. Cover Letter Aide! Once I found out my child wasn’t just being stubborn but was truly doing the dissertations, best he could, my whole outlook changed. Things got a LOT easier once I understand the true circumstances.

So glad you’re finding ways to tailor school to your daughter’s individual needs. It’s been a year and I’m wondering how the handwriting course went for your daughter? My daughter loved writing practice as a preschooler. I started making sure she was practicing writing much more frequently in our homeschool through Kindergarten and 1st grade, and by then she hated writing. Of Sisyphus Essay Questions! My schooling methods had made her hate writing!! (I wrote more about dissertations, this here: http://nourishedandnurtured.blogspot.com/2014/04/why-i-stopped-pushing-in-our-homeschool.html) Once I embraced the TJEd philosophy, I stopped forcing my daughter to write, and questions, she literally would not even write a word for several months afterwards. Now it has been a year since I stopped forcing her to write, and she no longer hates writing. On Orphans! It still isn’t her favorite thing to do, but she will write now without any complaints. The key to getting her back into writing has been to NEVER force her to a website style, write anything. Instead, I look for opportunities when writing would naturally compliment what she is dissertations doing.

For instance, my daughter loves to create and truman doctrine and marshall essay, make her own recipes. On Orphans! We don’t do this very often because it is rather time-intensive. But when I can carve out and marshall several hours, my daughter will make her own recipe (with just some pointers from me). I’ve encouraged her to write the recipes down so she would be able to duplicate the end result. Dissertations! I will write down a list of all the ingredients she has chosen to use and leave blank space for how do a website in an essay her to fill-in the amounts. (She would just give up on dissertations on orphans, it if she had to write it all down herself.) Some other ways I encourage her to write are: -We play a game where we pretend that we can’t hear, and our only form of communication is to write to the myth of sisyphus essay, each other. She still needs lots of help with spelling, so I have printed a list of common words for dissertations her that she can reference if she wants to. -We each have our own nature notebook where we can journal and the myth essay questions, draw what we’ve seen outside, animals at the zoo, things from the garden, etc. If I make sure to on orphans, regularly write in my journal, my daughter will want to cover teacher aide, naturally write in her’s too.

Sometimes she wants to write something long, but doesn’t want to write it all, so I will help by writing it for her. But sometimes I am still working on my own journal entry so she will get started with it on her own. #128578; -When my daughter wants to have something written down but doesn’t want to dissertations, write it herself, I will offer to essay, write it so she can trace over my letters. On Orphans! She does this fairly frequently, and it helps her not worry so much about not quite remembering how to make some of the letters. -I encourage my daughter to make cards or pictures for argumentative essay people. She will naturally want to write on many of these creations. -We play Hang-Man. My daughter has so much fun with this game. We take turns creating the puzzle to solve.

When she makes a puzzle to solve, she usually makes it an arithmetic problem for me to solve (such as 1+100=101 or something involving a not-equal sign which is much more challenging for on orphans me to truman doctrine and marshall plan, solve). With all of these games/activities, I’ve never told my daughter they were for school. I just introduced them at some random time and she has enjoyed them, so they have never had the connotation of being a forced activity. If you decide to stop forcing your child to on orphans, write, don’t worry if they don’t do any writing on their own for a time. So long as you make sure to essay, keep writing things yourself in their presence, they will eventually want to write some things down too. Now my daughter’s handwriting is not quite as nice as it was a year ago when I was forcing her to on orphans, do writing practice, but she actually wants to write now and I think that is much more important. Oh my goodness, these are SUCH great ideas! I especially love the recipe one. And I played hangman all the time as a kid (in the classroom, at public school) but I haven’t taught my own kids that game yet. Thanks for the reminder!

Did you have to purchase Ten Thumbs for each individual child? We’re looking for a fun typing program for the summer but I have 3 kiddos who would want to use it. We just had to buy it once for three kids. #128578; I have one of these writing-haters! And you’re right–he’s actually brilliant and can work wonders in his mind, his 7-y-old fingers just can’t seem to make the letters clearly and it makes him (and me!) crazy. Thank you so much for these thoughts, Anne. Resume Letter Teacher Aide! This is really helpful. I’m so glad they’re helpful–and that we’re in good company. Dissertations! #128578; One of my children was very resistant to putting pencil to paper and essay, I tried to dissertations, separate writing (as in composition/composing words) and writing (as in handwriting).

Dictation worked very well for him. How Do You Reference A Website In An Essay! He would narrate a story or a summary and dissertations on orphans, I would be the scribe – exactly like your secretary suggestion! I think this is a great post because I think everyone thinks it is only their kid who hates to write. Hedda Gabler! Thanks Anne. I started to read your post with interest and then got to the part where you said it should be over by 4th or 5th grade……and I said “Oh no!!” I have an on orphans 11 yr.old son who really hates to even pick up a pencil to write. He loves to draw pictures however:). Gabler! He has a great imagination but cannot pick up the pencil to on orphans, write it down! He loves to read and does tons of it, but his spelling is really bad. I do as much as I think is appropriate verbally, but by essay age 11 he really should be writing himself.

I took him out of school and have been homeschooling for 3.5 months. We started at dissertations on orphans the beginning of All About Spelling, (he still spells great “graet”), and we are trying the Getty Dubay Italic handwriting course. He does well academically in cover letter aide, everything else except for creative writing and dissertations on orphans, while he does write out answers to science and history, it’s hardly legible. I encourage him to dictate to me for creative writing and he still really balks at essay it. I would appreciate any suggestions or recommendations.

What are the possibilities of dissertations on orphans him having dysgraphia? I can’t do all his writing for him (as I’ve seen suggested) because I am homeschooling 3 more children and I’m brand new to this. Thanks for any help! How about, “around fourth or fifth grade it starts to fade”? That’s 9-11 years old. I’m just tossing this out resume teacher aide there: when we were concerned about one of our kids last year (were we dealing with a quirk, or a bona fide organic problem that would require professional intervention?) we saw a specialist about it. I quit worrying about my kid once we got a professional opinion. (The specialist said our kid was fine, gave us some coping strategies, but even if we had discovered an issue that needed intensive treatment, I would have been glad to have known what exactly we were dealing with.)

And I just want to add that he took typing at his school and was really bad at it and dissertations on orphans, has no interest in doing it here at home, so until he changes his attitude towards that, it doesn’t seem to be an option. I’ve tried “fun” typing programs but they don’t work for resume cover letter him. Dissertations On Orphans! I seen the resume teacher, cover only dissertations on orphans of a book called “dysgraphia, and the sure way to get over it” or something like that. Is it that really that easy? I’ve been struggling with how to get my 8 year old son to write more. Anytime I ask him to questions, write something it turns into a chore for both of us. I know he would be forced to dissertations, write way more if he were in school (not sure if that would be a good thing though). Argumentative Essay! The funny thing is, like Sarah said above, he loves to draw. I’ll be trying some of these tips today!

Thank you so much for sharing. My 7 y/o boy HATES to write and we’ve been using some alternative ways to dissertations, give the of sisyphus, class. Now we can use some of dissertations on orphans your ideas too. #128578; Thank you for this post. Isb Essay 2008! It’s encouraging to know we aren’t the only ones who are working through this challenge. Your suggestions are great. A recent visit to the optometrist has led us to dissertations, a possible solution – vision therapy. Though my daughter has 20/20 vision, she was diagnosed with eye tracking and resume letter aide, teaming issues that make handwriting (and reading/spelling) very fatiguing for her. Dissertations On Orphans! The optometrist is totally confident that we see vast improvement after she completes the prescribed therapy. Just thought I would mention it in case it might be helpful to of sisyphus, anyone.

Thanks so much for sharing that, Andrea! In some situations, the act of on orphans holding a pencil properly and writing with it can actually be painful because the child hasn’t yet exercised those fine motor skills. I’ve heard things like crocheting and finger knitting recommended to develop the muscles necessary for writing in a fun way. I’ve studied a few alternative education styles and their way into writing is through through art and tracing and play that leads to beautiful forms and shapes which then lead to cursive (eventually). The Myth Questions! My daughter hates writing, but has a million ideas in her head. What she does love is dissertations art and making beautiful things. It’s been a process, but now that we’ve done a few years of isb essay 2008 line drawing for fun, she enjoys making borders on things, signing her name in dissertations on orphans, cursive with a flourish, and can (as a bonus) read some of the weirder fonts out there. The link I put here: http://www.hsclassroom.net/form-drawing-for-better-handwriting/ is about the overall process and some fun ideas, the next goes into more academic description of how this (and montessori shape tracing) go into writing, Thanks for sharing those resources! My son also just hated to write. Hedda Gabler! Every time he had homework, needed to send a thank-you note, or whatever, there was whining, complaining, and even crying involved.

He often begged me to be his scribe! It was a major source of stress in our relationship. Finally, at his 9 yr checkup with our pediatrician, I asked for an OT referral. On Orphans! The OT tested him and found that he had retained a reflex called the Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex. Hedda Gabler Essay! We did some exercises (which looked like physical therapy: no pencils involved) for about 20 minutes a day, and 7-8 weeks later the reflex was gone. You could see in his daily planner from school that toward the end of his therapy, his writing suddenly got 50% smaller, and best of all, he has NOT ONCE complained about writing since. (!!) He also mentioned that he can see the paper differently when he writes. It feels like a miracle! So this route might be something you might consider investigating. On Orphans! (There are also online resources, if you want to read up on it.) It was truly worthwhile for aide us! Stephanie, thanks so much for sharing that. Thanks for this article. My first grader detest writing.

And it truly does make her hate school. She goes on on orphans, huge rants about how boring I make school. I have felt that it would be failure to not do writing in every subject, as if I was letting her win. This article has helped take some guilt away. It has helped us a lot because it makes all the younger-year writing practical. It’s the resume cover letter teacher aide, only writing we’ve done for awhile. If my kid wants a specific thing at the grocery store (or many!) he has to write up a list for on orphans me. When he gets a gift, he has to write a thank you. These are obvious ones but her book has sooo many great and men women, practical writing lessons (and tips to know when they’re ready) for all ages from dissertations, Scribblers” to the myth of sisyphus questions, “Scholars”. I don’t buy many books but I’m glad I invested in dissertations, this one.

I go back to it a lot. Hi, thanks so much for isb essay 2008 this article. I have an 8 year old son who HATES to write anything. I have been limiting what he writes, but I am concerned that by doing that it keeps him from learning how to write. I feel like he is getting further and further behind in his writing. You are saying he will grow out of it? Will he eventually be willing. He is such a perfectionist that part of the reason he hates it is that he can’t do it perfectly. Dissertations! Wouldn’t more practice help that? I don’t mind at all using the harvard, suggestions, in fact we do many of them. I am just concerned by limiting the writing is doing him a disservice.

On, Anne, thank you so much for dissertations on orphans writing this!! I have a child for and marshall plan essay whom writing is very painful and difficult. I realized this when I switched up his spelling lessons and dissertations on orphans, stopped requiring that he write the words. For the hedda gabler, longest time I thought he was struggling with spelling, but it was actually just the on orphans, writing. Now he uses letter tiles (kind of like scrabble tiles) to practice spelling his words, and it turns out he’s pretty good at how do in an it!! He has been struggling with his Math workbook lately, and it hadn’t occurred to me to reduce the dissertations, writing component in math or any other subject. THANK YOU for the ideas you offered here. I can’t wait to try them to argumentative men women, see if he can be encouraged in areas other than spelling! I love your ideas so much, I hope I get to link to them at dissertations on orphans some point in a future post! Thanks again! -Theresa. After a Playful Learning course about writing…My daughters loved to write.

I learn a lot too. I highly recommend this course. My 7 year old boy just can’t stand writing. He says all of it is too hard. Gabler Essay! We do online schooling and his teacher is pushing the writing hard. She may even have him repeat first grade because he has not mastered writing. I’m frustrated because this is the only thing lacking in his first grade mastery. Thank you for the tips. I’m sure they will make our school day go much smoother! I’m not sure what it is about whiteboards, but they seem to take a lot of panic out of the panic subjects:) I have used them often for dissertations math and writing.

We even have a few $2 personal whiteboards from Walmart, which is resume cover letter aide so easy to take into dissertations different rooms or outside if a change of gabler essay scenery is needed. Dissertations On Orphans! This article has good advice, and hedda gabler, I have found many of dissertations those suggestions have worked for us. I know, right? My kids think they’re magical. #128578; My oldest child has poor fine motor skills due to a disability. Cover Letter! Prior to Kindergarten, I picked the on orphans, brains of every homeschooler I knew for recommendations on how to the myth of sisyphus essay questions, teach reading without teaching writing at dissertations on orphans the same time. One book kept coming up: Teach Your Child to Read in essay men women, 100 Easy Lessons. I taught her how to read first, and dissertations, then writing came later. We also had a deal that any math that she could do in her head, she could tell me the answer and how do a website in an harvard, would not have to write it down.

She was amazingly good at mental math! She did eventually learn to write legibly, although she prefers her computer. Great ideas! I especially love #3!! I plan on dissertations on orphans, trying that next week for my struggling writer (who ironically has the best handwriting of cover teacher all my kiddos)! My oldest son also would “resist” when asked to write when he was younger.

I remember how freeing it was for both of us when one day I finally broke down and just told him that we would talk through the math worksheet together. He flew through the problems in a tenth of the time, and we realized that fighting about writing was not worth it. On Orphans! He is 10 now, and the myth of sisyphus questions, it is not as much of an issue anymore. At least now my 7 year old has a more understanding mother! Thanks for the post. Ugh. Dissertations! My 14ds(Adhd) cannot write. It’s like there’s a disconnect between his brain and his fingers. And the thought of argumentative essay men women having to write something leaves him so overwhelmed he can’t even get the words in his head to dissertations on orphans, begin with. When he’s not stressed about knowing he has to write it down (or even that he has to tell me abd I’ll write it down) he’s fine.

Top scores on national tests. Style! Straight As And in 8th grade is taking high school algebra, science, and sadly ELA… Which I wish we were just taking regular 8th grade English language arts. He’s struggling so bad right now. (We use K12 through an online public charter school. Dissertations! We were doing traditional homeschool but he wanted to go back to public school at some point for essay HS; I needed him prepared to dissertations on orphans, be successful by understanding definitive due dates, teachers who don’t think their footie pajamas are acceptable, etc lol) But I’m at a loss. I don’t know how to help him. I have no problem writing. Words fall from my fingers like water. I’ve never struggled. I have no idea what it’s like for doctrine and marshall plan essay him to not be able to catch those swirling dervish words in his mind, so fast he can’t comprehend them as they pass again and again…

And without that understanding…. How can I help? I have gone to our K12 teachers and ended up being sent to the remedial special ed reading teacher. :-/ He reads on a college level. He literally taught himself to read by dissertations reading my college anatomy and chemistry books… he doesn’t need title whatever. He needs someone to help him pull the words and thoughts out of the jumble of his head. I don’t know why your obviously intelligent child can’t write, but have you seen a specialist?

They may be able to how do you reference a website essay, identify the “why,” which in turn could help your child move forward. Several of the above comments also include stories of parents who discovered an dissertations on orphans unexpected underlying reason for their child’s hatred of writing or inability to do it, and with that understanding were able to do something about it. Wishing you and your family well. Your child sounds like an amazing student! Something we have been doing for math: I bought a set of number stamps and a stamp pad so that my young son can focus on solving the the myth, problems rather than number formation. Thanks for dissertations on orphans all of the great tips for limiting handwriting as we continue forward. My 2 sons were homeschooled from kindergarten through graduation. My second son enjoyed putting his thoughts and ideas on paper through drawing and some writing, but when it came to writing for school, he struggled with putting answers on paper. We discovered that he had some learning challenges through a series of you reference a website in an essay harvard style tests. Traditional education offers few strategies beyond coping mechanisms for students who are quite bright, but have these types of on orphans struggles. However, I would like to recommend the website nild.net to truman essay, parents who are unsure if their child/student truly has a challenge or is on orphans defiant.

The national institute for learning disabilities has some truly wonderful therapists who have the how do you reference essay harvard style, tools to help students reach their potential while relieving some learning angst. Their programs made an on orphans enormous difference for argumentative essay my son and gave him applicable skills which he still uses as a college student. I can’t recommend this resource enough and I hope it will be helpful to someone else reading this post! These are all great! My only suggestion is that when you have to dissertations, creative write, try a quick write of 10 min. Do it with your child…don’t worry about isb essay 2008, spelling or handwriting or anything, but getting words on dissertations on orphans, a page.

10 min of whatever you brain comes up with…might start it with “The door opened and then…..” My oldest has a hard time with letter sounds, my youngest has a pyhsical problem with his hands, I hate writing…we all manage with all the same suggestions you have given and the quick write. Thanks for argumentative men women the article. Dissertations! Would love to get your thoughts on this: my son is in the myth of sisyphus essay questions, his second year of high school and still hates writing. Dissertations On Orphans! His English teacher says in class he is attentive and gabler essay, can verbally articulate well thought out dissertations ideas however, when it comes to hedda, putting it in on orphans, writing it doesn’t reflect his ability. Resume Cover! She has suggested, as the article does, that typing could be of benefit to on orphans, him, but she does caution that when he has to do exams and MUST handwrite his responses it could put him at a disadvantage. This is all 4 if my kids. Unfortunately schools really stress writing from an early age now–not just handwriting but sentences, paragraphs, essays, reports, all too early.

Schools have drilled the love of learning out of my kids, and now as a homeschooler I’m trying to reteach them to love it again. Just like reading, I feel a child will mature and grow to like it ‘when they are ready.’ I’ve taken most writing out of school (except a little handwriting-which is solely copying/tracing) and am very slowly reintroducing it. I use some occupational therapy tricks too to strengthen their hand muscles and isb essay 2008, dexterity. Mechanical pencils force a child to not push so hard, a little plastic grip to promote better hand-hold, homemade putty to play with for flexibility and strength… Dictation and dissertations, typing have been a HUGE lifesaver! Often the hate of writing is a result of another issue like dysgraphia or dyslexia, motor or sensory issues, etc… Thanks for sharing this!! I got my son to write things down for me on my grocery list as I go through the resume letter teacher aide, kitchen and see what we need.

He inserts little extras, and if I can read them, he gets them. He feels like he is helping me, and his handwriting has improved tremendously. He still does not like writing for schoolwork, but realizes it is dissertations something he will need to hedda, know how to do and he is much less resistant now than when I first began homeschooling him. There are some great tips in on orphans, this article. I would encourage any parent who has a child who is still struggling with writing past 2nd grade and who isn’t just a reluctant writer to consider the need for an evaluation for essay dysgraphia. By the end of 2nd grade and into on orphans 3rd grade if you are still seeing problems with the mechanics of writing (letter reversals and pencil grips) then there maybe a bigger issue than just reluctance that will resolve with maturity. Tanks for this article! My kids (and me) hate handwriting.

Unfortunately here in France we have controls and the authorities don’t like that they almost don’t write… We’re trying to of sisyphus questions, move abroad though. I would add another tip in your list: using technologies. My kids work on the ipad and on the computer (on Khan Academy for example) and we all fond it a lot easier and dissertations, more fun. Thank You for the tips. How Do In An Essay Harvard Style! My son has Sensory Processing Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Anxiety, and OCD. He is almost 9 and writes like a preschooler.

We are going to try some of these tips! Thanks a mill 4 all these. On Orphans! I need help for my 10 years son. copying notes from the board at school has become an unsolvable problem. His writing is a mess too.he hardly finishes his note. I used to argumentative essay men women, help him but I have decided to stop helping him copy. by September he will be in 5th grade. I need help urgently. New homeschooling mom here.. with a second grade son who HATES writing. I think he gets more frustrated about writing because he is a perfectionist who also hates not knowing how to spell all the words he wants to say correctly. Being new to this world, my only concern with not “forcing” him to write something each day, is that I will have a fourth grader who is really far behind in on orphans, writing skills. The Myth Essay Questions! I grew up in public schools so my mind always goes to “well, if he were in school, he would be doing MUCH more writing.” I know that may not be the dissertations on orphans, best attitude towards the situation, and again, I’m sure I am just speaking out of fear we will have a huge gap as he gets older, but can you give me any pointers on either how to relax and trust it will all work out?

It’s so tough! Thanks for your blog…makes this momma not feel so alone #128578; Funny, my worries for my public schooled third grade son sound identical to yours #128578; My only tip is don’t assume they are doing more writing in public school because they are probably doing less! Almost everything my son does is on a worksheet, multiple choice or fill in you reference a website in an, the blank. When I asked at his goal setting conference (2 months into school) what had been written all that could be produced was a six line collaborative acrostic one free written paragraph. Dissertations! I’m panicked because he freaks out anytime he has to write something he isn’t getting any practice. Also a perfectionist afraid of spelling mistakes I’m starting to think this all comes from a lack of exposure but trying to help him at home after he’s already been at school 6.5 hours is only going to make him hate it more.

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essay horror fiction Supernatural Horror in Literature. By H. P. Lovecraft. The oldest and strongest emotion of on orphans, mankind is fear, and essay questions, the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown. These facts few psychologists will dispute, and their admitted truth must establish for all time the genuineness and dignity of the dissertations, weirdly horrible tale as a literary form. Against it are discharged all the gabler essay, shafts of a materialistic sophistication which clings to frequently felt emotions and external events, and of a naively insipid idealism which deprecates the dissertations, aesthetic motive and calls for a didactic literature to uplift the reader toward a suitable degree of smirking optimism. How Do You Reference A Website In An Essay Harvard! But in dissertations on orphans, spite of all this opposition the weird tale has survived, developed, and attained remarkable heights of perfection; founded as it is on a profound and elementary principle whose appeal, if not always universal, must necessarily be poignant and permanent to minds of the requisite sensitiveness. The appeal of the spectrally macabre is generally narrow because it demands from the reader a certain degree of imagination and a capacity for detachment from every-day life. Relatively few are free enough from the spell of the daily routine to respond to rappings from outside, and tales of ordinary feelings and events, or of common sentimental distortions of such feelings and events, will always take first place in the taste of the essay men women, majority; rightly, perhaps, since of dissertations on orphans, course these ordinary matters make up the greater part of resume cover letter teacher aide, human experience.

But the sensitive are always with us, and sometimes a curious streak of dissertations on orphans, fancy invades an obscure corner of the very hardest head; so that no amount of rationalisation, reform, or Freudian analysis can quite annul the thrill of the chimney-corner whisper or the lonely wood. There is here involved a psychological pattern or tradition as real and as deeply grounded in argumentative essay men women, mental experience as any other pattern or tradition of mankind; coeval with the dissertations, religious feeling and closely related to many aspects of argumentative essay, it, and too much a part of our inmost biological heritage to dissertations lose keen potency over a very important, though not numerically great, minority of our species. Man’s first instincts and emotions formed his response to the environment in which he found himself. Resume! Definite feelings based on pleasure and dissertations, pain grew up around the cover teacher aide, phenomena whose causes and effects he understood, whilst around those which he did not understandand the universe teemed with them in the early dayswere naturally woven such personifications, marvellous interpretations, and sensations of awe and fear as would be hit upon by a race having few and simple ideas and limited experience. The unknown, being likewise the unpredictable, became for our primitive forefathers a terrible and omnipotent source of boons and calamities visited upon mankind for cryptic and wholly extra-terrestrial reasons, and thus clearly belonging to spheres of existence whereof we know nothing and wherein we have no part. The phenomenon of dreaming likewise helped to build up the notion of an unreal or spiritual world; and in general, all the conditions of savage dawn-life so strongly conduced toward a feeling of the supernatural, that we need not wonder at dissertations the thoroughness with which man’s very hereditary essence has become saturated with religion and superstition. That saturation must, as a matter of plain scientific fact, be regarded as virtually permanent so far as the subconscious mind and inner instincts are concerned; for though the area of the unknown has been steadily contracting for thousands of years, an infinite reservoir of mystery still engulfs most of the outer cosmos, whilst a vast residuum of powerful inherited associations clings around all the objects and processes that were once mysterious, however well they may now be explained.

And more than this, there is an actual physiological fixation of the old instincts in our nervous tissue, which would make them obscurely operative even were the conscious mind to be purged of all sources of wonder. Because we remember pain and the menace of death more vividly than pleasure, and because our feelings toward the beneficent aspects of the doctrine and marshall plan essay, unknown have from the first been captured and formalised by conventional religious rituals, it has fallen to the lot of the darker and more maleficent side of cosmic mystery to figure chiefly in our popular supernatural folklore. Dissertations! This tendency, too, is naturally enhanced by the fact that uncertainty and danger are always closely allied; thus making any kind of an unknown world a world of peril and gabler essay, evil possibilities. When to this sense of fear and evil the inevitable fascination of wonder and curiosity is superadded, there is born a composite body of keen emotion and imaginative provocation whose vitality must of necessity endure as long as the human race itself. Children will always be afraid of the dark, and men with minds sensitive to hereditary impulse will always tremble at the thought of the dissertations on orphans, hidden and fathomless worlds of strange life which may pulsate in the gulfs beyond the how do you reference a website essay harvard style, stars, or press hideously upon our own globe in unholy dimensions which only the dead and the moonstruck can glimpse. With this foundation, no one need wonder at dissertations the existence of a literature of argumentative men women, cosmic fear. It has always existed, and on orphans, always will exist; and no better evidence of its tenacious vigour can be cited than the impulse which now and then drives writers of totally opposite leanings to try their hands at isb essay 2008 it in isolated tales, as if to discharge from their minds certain phantasmal shapes which would otherwise haunt them. Thus Dickens wrote several eerie narratives; Browning, the hideous poem “Childe Roland”; Henry James, The Turn of the Screw; Dr. Holmes, the subtle novel Elsie Venner; F. Marion Crawford, “The Upper Berth” and a number of other examples; Mrs.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, social worker, “The Yellow Wall Paper”; whilst the humourist W. W. Jacobs produced that able melodramatic bit called “The Monkey’s Paw”. This type of fear-literature must not be confounded with a type externally similar but psychologically widely different; the dissertations on orphans, literature of mere physical fear and the mundanely gruesome. Such writing, to be sure, has its place, as has the hedda, conventional or even whimsical or humorous ghost story where formalism or the author’s knowing wink removes the dissertations, true sense of the morbidly unnatural; but these things are not the and marshall essay, literature of cosmic fear in its purest sense. The true weird tale has something more than secret murder, bloody bones, or a sheeted form clanking chains according to rule. A certain atmosphere of breathless and unexplainable dread of dissertations, outer, unknown forces must be present; and there must be a hint, expressed with a seriousness and portentousness becoming its subject, of that most terrible conception of the human braina malign and particular suspension or defeat of the myth of sisyphus, those fixed laws of Nature which are our only safeguard against the assaults of chaos and the daemons of on orphans, unplumbed space. Naturally we cannot expect all weird tales to conform absolutely to any theoretical model. Creative minds are uneven, and the best of fabrics have their dull spots. Moreover, much of the choicest weird work is unconscious; appearing in memorable fragments scattered through material whose massed effect may be of a very different cast. Atmosphere is the all-important thing, for hedda gabler the final criterion of authenticity is not the dissertations on orphans, dovetailing of a plot but the argumentative essay, creation of a given sensation. We may say, as a general thing, that a weird story whose intent is to dissertations teach or produce a social effect, or one in isb essay 2008, which the horrors are finally explained away by natural means, is not a genuine tale of cosmic fear; but it remains a fact that such narratives often possess, in isolated sections, atmospheric touches which fulfil every condition of true supernatural horror-literature. Therefore we must judge a weird tale not by on orphans, the author’s intent, or by the mere mechanics of the plot; but by the emotional level which it attains at its least mundane point.

If the hedda essay, proper sensations are excited, such a “high spot” must be admitted on its own merits as weird literature, no matter how prosaically it is dissertations on orphans, later dragged down. The one test of the really weird is simply thiswhether or not there be excited in the reader a profound sense of dread, and of contact with unknown spheres and powers; a subtle attitude of awed listening, as if for essay the beating of black wings or the scratching of outside shapes and entities on the known universe’s utmost rim. And of course, the more completely and dissertations on orphans, unifiedly a story conveys this atmosphere, the better it is as a work of art in the given medium. As may naturally be expected of a form so closely connected with primal emotion, the horror-tale is as old as human thought and speech themselves. Cosmic terror appears as an ingredient of the earliest folklore of all races, and is crystallised in the most archaic ballads, chronicles, and sacred writings. It was, indeed, a prominent feature of the elaborate ceremonial magic, with its rituals for the evocation of daemons and spectres, which flourished from prehistoric times, and which reached its highest development in Egypt and the Semitic nations. Fragments like the Book of Enoch and the Claviculae of Solomon well illustrate the power of the weird over the ancient Eastern mind, and upon such things were based enduring systems and traditions whose echoes extend obscurely even to the present time. Touches of this transcendental fear are seen in classic literature, and there is evidence of its still greater emphasis in a ballad literature which paralleled the classic stream but vanished for lack of a written medium. The Middle Ages, steeped in fanciful darkness, gave it an enormous impulse toward expression; and argumentative men women, East and West alike were busy preserving and amplifying the dark heritage, both of dissertations, random folklore and of academically formulated magic and cabbalism, which had descended to them. Witch, werewolf, vampire, and ghoul brooded ominously on the lips of cover letter teacher aide, bard and grandam, and needed but little encouragement to take the final step across the boundary that divides the chanted tale or song from the formal literary composition. In the Orient, the weird tale tended to assume a gorgeous colouring and sprightliness which almost transmuted it into sheer phantasy.

In the West, where the mystical Teuton had come down from his black Boreal forests and the Celt remembered strange sacrifices in on orphans, Druidic groves, it assumed a terrible intensity and convincing seriousness of atmosphere which doubled the force of its half-told, half-hinted horrors. Much of the power of Western horror-lore was undoubtedly due to the hidden but often suspected presence of a hideous cult of nocturnal worshippers whose strange customsdescended from pre-Aryan and pre-agricultural times when a squat race of Mongoloids roved over essay men women Europe with their flocks and herdswere rooted in the most revolting fertility-rites of immemorial antiquity. This secret religion, stealthily handed down amongst peasants for thousands of years despite the outward reign of the Druidic, Graeco-Roman, and Christian faiths in the regions involved, was marked by wild “Witches’ Sabbaths” in lonely woods and atop distant hills on Walpurgis-Night and Hallowe’en, the traditional breeding-seasons of the on orphans, goats and sheep and hedda gabler essay, cattle; and became the source of vast riches of dissertations, sorcery-legend, besides provoking extensive witchcraft- prosecutions of the myth of sisyphus essay questions, which the Salem affair forms the chief American example. Akin to it in essence, and perhaps connected with it in dissertations, fact, was the frightful secret system of inverted theology or Satan-worship which produced such horrors as the famous “Black Mass”; whilst operating toward the same end we may note the activities of those whose aims were somewhat more scientific or philosophicalthe astrologers, cabbalists, and alchemists of the the myth of sisyphus, Albertus Magnus or Raymond Lully type, with whom such rude ages invariably abound. The prevalence and depth of the mediaeval horror-spirit in Europe, intensified by the dark despair which waves of pestilence brought, may be fairly gauged by the grotesque carvings slyly introduced into much of the finest later Gothic ecclesiastical work of the time; the daemoniac gargoyles of Notre Dame and Mont St. Michel being among the most famous specimens. And throughout the period, it must be remembered, there existed amongst educated and uneducated alike a most unquestioning faith in every form of the supernatural; from the gentlest of Christian doctrines to the most monstrous morbidities of witchcraft and black magic. It was from on orphans no empty background that the the myth essay, Renaissance magicians and alchemistsNostradamus, Trithemius, Dr. John Dee, Robert Fludd, and the likewere born. In this fertile soil were nourished types and characters of sombre myth and legend which persist in weird literature to this day, more or less disguised or altered by modern technique.

Many of them were taken from the earliest oral sources, and form part of mankind’s permanent heritage. The shade which appears and demands the burial of on orphans, its bones, the daemon lover who comes to of sisyphus essay questions bear away his still living bride, the death-fiend or psychopomp riding the night-wind, the man-wolf, the sealed chamber, the deathless sorcererall these may be found in that curious body of on orphans, mediaeval lore which the late Mr. Baring-Gould so effectively assembled in book form. Wherever the isb essay 2008, mystic Northern blood was strongest, the dissertations, atmosphere of the popular tales became most intense; for in the Latin races there is a touch of truman doctrine and marshall essay, basic rationality which denies to even their strangest superstitions many of the overtones of glamour so characteristic of our own forest-born and ice-fostered whisperings. Just as all fiction first found extensive embodiment in on orphans, poetry, so is it in poetry that we first encounter the permanent entry of the weird into cover letter teacher, standard literature. Most of the ancient instances, curiously enough, are in prose; as the werewolf incident in Petronius, the dissertations, gruesome passages in gabler essay, Apuleius, the brief but celebrated letter of Pliny the Younger to Sura, and the odd compilation On Wonderful Events by on orphans, the Emperor Hadrian’s Greek freedman, Phlegon. It is in Phlegon that we first find that hideous tale of the corpse-bride, “Philinnion and Machates”, later related by Proclus and in modern times forming the inspiration of cover aide, Goethe’s “Bride of Corinth” and Washington Irving’s “German Student”. But by the time the old Northern myths take literary form, and in that later time when the dissertations, weird appears as a steady element in the literature of the day, we find it mostly in metrical dress; as indeed we find the greater part of the strictly imaginative writing of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The Scandinavian Eddas and Sagas thunder with cosmic horror, and you reference a website in an, shake with the stark fear of Ymir and his shapeless spawn; whilst our own Anglo-Saxon Beowulf and the later Continental Nibelung tales are full of eldritch weirdness. Dante is a pioneer in the classic capture of macabre atmosphere, and in Spenser’s stately stanzas will be seen more than a few touches of fantastic terror in landscape, incident, and character. Prose literature gives us Malory’s Morte d’Arthur, in which are presented many ghastly situations taken from early ballad sourcesthe theft of the sword and silk from the corpse in Chapel Perilous by Sir Launcelot, the ghost of Sir Gawaine, and the tomb-fiend seen by Sir Galahadwhilst other and dissertations, cruder specimens were doubtless set forth in the cheap and sensational “chapbooks” vulgarly hawked about and essay men women, devoured by the ignorant.

In Elizabethan drama, with its Dr. Faustus, the witches in Macbeth, the ghost in Hamlet, and the horrible gruesomeness of on orphans, Webster, we may easily discern the strong hold of the daemoniac on isb essay 2008 the public mind; a hold intensified by the very real fear of living witchcraft, whose terrors, first wildest on the Continent, begin to echo loudly in English ears as the witch-hunting crusades of James the First gain headway. To the lurking mystical prose of the dissertations on orphans, ages is added a long line of treatises on witchcraft and daemonology which aid in exciting the isb essay 2008, imagination of the reading world. Through the seventeenth and into the eighteenth century we behold a growing mass of fugitive legendry and balladry of dissertations, darksome cast; still, however, held down beneath the surface of polite and of sisyphus, accepted literature. Chapbooks of dissertations on orphans, horror and weirdness multiplied, and we glimpse the essay, eager interest of the dissertations, people through fragments like Defoe’s “Apparition of Mrs. Veal”, a homely tale of a dead woman’s spectral visit to how do in an harvard a distant friend, written to advertise covertly a badly selling theological disquisition on dissertations on orphans death. Essay! The upper orders of on orphans, society were now losing faith in the supernatural, and indulging in a period of classic rationalism.

Then, beginning with the cover teacher, translations of Eastern tales in Queen Anne’s reign and taking definite form toward the middle of the dissertations, century, comes the revival of romantic feelingthe era of isb essay 2008, new joy in Nature, and in the radiance of past times, strange scenes, bold deeds, and on orphans, incredible marvels. We feel it first in the poets, whose utterances take on new qualities of hedda gabler essay, wonder, strangeness, and shuddering. And finally, after the timid appearance of a few weird scenes in the novels of the daysuch as Smollett’s Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom the released instinct precipitates itself in the birth of a new school of writing; the “Gothic” school of dissertations, horrible and fantastic prose fiction, long and short, whose literary posterity is destined to become so numerous, and in many cases so resplendent in artistic merit. It is, when one reflects upon it, genuinely remarkable that weird narration as a fixed and academically recognised literary form should have been so late of final birth. The impulse and atmosphere are as old as man, but the typical weird tale of standard literature is a child of the eighteenth century. The shadow-haunted landscapes of “Ossian”, the chaotic visions of William Blake, the grotesque witch-dances in Burns’s “Tam O’Shanter”, the isb essay 2008, sinister daemonism of on orphans, Coleridge’s Christabel and Ancient Mariner, the ghostly charm of James Hogg’s “Kilmeny” , and the more restrained approaches to cosmic horror in Lamia and many of Keats’s other poems, are typical British illustrations of the advent of the weird to formal literature. Truman And Marshall! Our Teutonic cousins of the Continent were equally receptive to the rising flood, and Bürger’s “Wild Huntsman” and the even more famous daemon-bridegroom ballad of on orphans, “Lenore”both imitated in English by Scott, whose respect for the supernatural was always greatare only a taste of the eerie wealth which German song had commenced to provide. Isb Essay 2008! Thomas Moore adapted from such sources the on orphans, legend of the ghoulish statue-bride (later used by Prosper Mérimée in “The Venus of Ille”, and traceable back to great antiquity) which echoes so shiveringly in his ballad of “The Ring”; whilst Goethe’s deathless masterpiece Faust, crossing from mere balladry into the classic, cosmic tragedy of the ages, may be held as the ultimate height to which this German poetic impulse arose. But it remained for a very sprightly and worldly Englishmannone other than Horace Walpole himselfto give the growing impulse definite shape and become the a website style, actual founder of the literary horror-story as a permanent form. Fond of mediaeval romance and mystery as a dilettante’s diversion, and with a quaintly imitated Gothic castle as his abode at Strawberry Hill, Walpole in dissertations on orphans, 1764 published The Castle of Otranto; a tale of the supernatural which, though thoroughly unconvincing and mediocre in itself, was destined to exert an almost unparalleled influence on the literature of the weird. First venturing it only as a translation by one “William Marshal, Gent.” from the hedda essay, Italian of a mythical “Onuphrio Muralto”, the author later acknowledged his connexion with the book and took pleasure in its wide and instantaneous popularitya popularity which extended to many editions, early dramatisation, and wholesale imitation both in England and in Germany.

The storytedious, artificial, and on orphans, melodramaticis further impaired by a brisk and prosaic style whose urbane sprightliness nowhere permits the isb essay 2008, creation of a truly weird atmosphere. It tells of Manfred, an unscrupulous and usurping prince determined to found a line, who after the mysterious sudden death of his only son Conrad on the latter’s bridal morn, attempts to put away his wife Hippolita and on orphans, wed the lady destined for the unfortunate youththe lad, by the way, having been crushed by the preternatural fall of a gigantic helmet in the castle courtyard. Argumentative Essay! Isabella, the widowed bride, flees from this design; and encounters in subterranean crypts beneath the castle a noble young preserver, Theodore, who seems to be a peasant yet strangely resembles the old lord Alfonso who ruled the domain before Manfred’s time. Shortly thereafter supernatural phenomena assail the castle in divers ways; fragments of dissertations, gigantic armour being discovered here and hedda gabler, there, a portrait walking out of its frame, a thunderclap destroying the edifice, and a colossal armoured spectre of on orphans, Alfonso rising out of the essay, ruins to ascend through parting clouds to the bosom of St. Nicholas. Theodore, having wooed Manfred’s daughter Matilda and dissertations on orphans, lost her through deathfor she is slain by her father by mistakeis discovered to be the son of Alfonso and the myth of sisyphus questions, rightful heir to on orphans the estate. Letter Teacher! He concludes the dissertations, tale by wedding Isabella and preparing to live happily ever after, whilst Manfredwhose usurpation was the cause of his son’s supernatural death and his own supernatural harassingsretires to a monastery for penitence; his saddened wife seeking asylum in a neighbouring convent.

Such is the tale; flat, stilted, and altogether devoid of the true cosmic horror which makes weird literature. How Do In An Essay Harvard! Yet such was the thirst of the dissertations on orphans, age for argumentative essay men women those touches of strangeness and spectral antiquity which it reflects, that it was seriously received by the soundest readers and raised in dissertations on orphans, spite of its intrinsic ineptness to how do essay style a pedestal of lofty importance in literary history. What it did above all else was to create a novel type of scene, puppet-characters, and incidents; which, handled to better advantage by writers more naturally adapted to weird creation, stimulated the growth of an imitative Gothic school which in turn inspired the on orphans, real weavers of cosmic terrorthe line of actual artists beginning with Poe. This novel dramatic paraphernalia consisted first of all of the Gothic castle, with its awesome antiquity, vast distances and ramblings, deserted or ruined wings, damp corridors, unwholesome hidden catacombs, and how do a website, galaxy of ghosts and appalling legends, as a nucleus of suspense and daemoniac fright. In addition, it included the tyrannical and dissertations, malevolent nobleman as villain; the saintly, longpersecuted, and generally insipid heroine who undergoes the major terrors and serves as a point of the myth of sisyphus, view and focus for the reader’s sympathies; the valorous and immaculate hero, always of high birth but often in humble disguise; the convention of high-sounding foreign names, mostly Italian, for the characters; and the infinite array of stage properties which includes strange lights, damp trap-doors, extinguished lamps, mouldy hidden manuscripts, creaking hinges, shaking arras, and the like. All this paraphernalia reappears with amusing sameness, yet sometimes with tremendous effect, throughout the history of the Gothic novel; and is by no means extinct even today, though subtler technique now forces it to assume a less naive and on orphans, obvious form. An harmonious milieu for a new school had been found, and hedda, the writing world was not slow to grasp the opportunity. German romance at once responded to the Walpole influence, and soon became a byword for the weird and dissertations on orphans, ghastly. Gabler! In England one of the first imitators was the celebrated Mrs. On Orphans! Barbauld, then Miss Aikin, who in 1773 published an essay unfinished fragment called “Sir Bertrand”, in which the strings of genuine terror were truly touched with no clumsy hand.

A nobleman on a dark and lonely moor, attracted by a tolling bell and dissertations, distant light, enters a strange and ancient turreted castle whose doors open and close and whose bluish will-o’-the-wisps lead up mysterious staircases toward dead hands and animated black statues. A coffin with a dead lady, whom Sir Bertrand kisses, is finally reached; and upon the kiss the scene dissolves to give place to a splendid apartment where the lady, restored to life, holds a banquet in honour of her rescuer. Walpole admired this tale, though he accorded less respect to essay an even more prominent offspring of his Otranto The Old English Baron, by Clara Reeve, published in 1777. Truly enough, this tale lacks the dissertations on orphans, real vibration to the note of outer darkness and mystery which distinguishes Mrs. Barbauld’s fragment; and though less crude than Walpole’s novel, and more artistically economical of horror in its possession of only one spectral figure, it is nevertheless too definitely insipid for the myth essay greatness. Here again we have the virtuous heir to dissertations on orphans the castle disguised as a peasant and cover teacher, restored to his heritage through the ghost of dissertations, his father; and here again we have a case of wide popularity leading to many editions, dramatisation, and ultimate translation into French.

Miss Reeve wrote another weird novel, unfortunately unpublished and lost. The Gothic novel was now settled as a literary form, and isb essay 2008, instances multiply bewilderingly as the eighteenth century draws toward its close. The Recess, written in 1785 by Mrs. Sophia Lee, has the historic element, revolving round the twin daughters of Mary, Queen of Scots; and dissertations on orphans, though devoid of the supernatural, employs the Walpole scenery and mechanism with great dexterity. Five years later, and all existing lamps are paled by the rising of a fresh luminary of wholly superior orderMrs. And Marshall Plan Essay! Ann Radcliffe (17641823), whose famous novels made terror and suspense a fashion, and who set new and higher standards in the domain of macabre and fear-inspiring atmosphere despite a provoking custom of destroying her own phantoms at the last through laboured mechanical explanations.

To the familiar Gothic trappings of her predecessors Mrs. Radcliffe added a genuine sense of the unearthly in on orphans, scene and incident which closely approached genius; every touch of setting and action contributing artistically to argumentative men women the impression of illimitable frightfulness which she wished to convey. A few sinister details like a track of blood on on orphans castle stairs, a groan from a distant vault, or a weird song in a nocturnal forest can with her conjure up the you reference a website in an harvard style, most powerful images of imminent horror; surpassing by far the extravagant and dissertations, toilsome elaborations of others. Nor are these images in themselves any the less potent because they are explained away before the end of the novel. Mrs. Radcliffe’s visual imagination was very strong, and appears as much in her delightful landscape touchesalways in broad, glamorously pictorial outline, and never in close detailas in her weird phantasies.

Her prime weaknesses, aside from the habit of hedda gabler essay, prosaic disillusionment, are a tendency toward erroneous geography and history and a fatal predilection for bestrewing her novels with insipid little poems, attributed to one or another of the characters. Mrs. Radcliffe wrote six novels; The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne (1789), A Sicilian Romance (1790), The Romance of the Forest (1791), The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), The Italian (1797), and Gaston de Blondeville, composed in 1802 but first published posthumously in 1826. Of these Udolpho is by far the on orphans, most famous, and may be taken as a type of the early Gothic tale at isb essay 2008 its best. It is the chronicle of Emily, a young Frenchwoman transplanted to an ancient and portentous castle in the Apennines through the death of her parents and the marriage of her aunt to the lord of the castlethe scheming nobleman Montoni. Mysterious sounds, opened doors, frightful legends, and a nameless horror in a niche behind a black veil all operate in quick succession to unnerve the heroine and her faithful attendant Annette; but finally, after the death of her aunt, she escapes with the aid of a fellow-prisoner whom she has discovered. Dissertations On Orphans! On the way home she stops at a chateau filled with fresh horrorsthe abandoned wing where the departed chatelaine dwelt, and the bed of cover teacher aide, death with the dissertations on orphans, black pallbut is finally restored to of sisyphus questions security and happiness with her lover Valancourt, after the clearing-up of dissertations on orphans, a secret which seemed for a time to involve her birth in mystery. Clearly, this is only the familiar material re-worked; but it is so well re-worked that Udolpho will always be a classic. Mrs.

Radcliffe’s characters are puppets, but they are less markedly so than those of her forerunners. And in atmospheric creation she stands preëminent among those of her time. Of Mrs. Radcliffe’s countless imitators, the doctrine and marshall, American novelist Charles Brockden Brown stands the closest in spirit and method. On Orphans! Like her, he injured his creations by natural explanations; but also like her, he had an uncanny atmospheric power which gives his horrors a frightful vitality as long as they remain unexplained. He differed from her in contemptuously discarding the external Gothic paraphernalia and properties and a website in an essay style, choosing modern American scenes for his mysteries; but this repudiation did not extend to the Gothic spirit and type of incident.

Brown’s novels involve some memorably frightful scenes, and excel even Mrs. Dissertations! Radcliffe’s in the myth essay questions, describing the on orphans, operations of the perturbed mind. Edgar Huntly starts with a sleep-walker digging a grave, but is later impaired by touches of Godwinian didacticism. Ormond involves a member of a sinister secret brotherhood. That and Arthur Mervyn both describe the plague of yellow fever, which the author had witnessed in Philadelphia and New York.

But Brown’s most famous book is Wieland; or, The Transformation (1798), in which a Pennsylvania German, engulfed by argumentative, a wave of religious fanaticism, hears voices and slays his wife and dissertations on orphans, children as a sacrifice. His sister Clara, who tells the letter aide, story, narrowly escapes. The scene, laid at the woodland estate of dissertations on orphans, Mittingen on the Schuylkill’s remote reaches, is drawn with extreme vividness; and the terrors of Clara, beset by spectral tones, gathering fears, and the sound of strange footsteps in the lonely house, are all shaped with truly artistic force. Essay! In the dissertations on orphans, end a lame ventriloquial explanation is offered, but the atmosphere is genuine while it lasts. Isb Essay 2008! Carwin, the malign ventriloquist, is a typical villain of the Manfred or Montoni type.

Horror in dissertations on orphans, literature attains a new malignity in the work of resume cover letter teacher, Matthew Gregory Lewis (17751818), whose novel The Monk (1796) achieved marvellous popularity and earned him the nickname of “Monk” Lewis. This young author, educated in Germany and saturated with a body of wild Teuton lore unknown to on orphans Mrs. Radcliffe, turned to terror in forms more violent than his gentle predecessor had ever dared to think of; and how do style, produced as a result a masterpiece of active nightmare whose general Gothic cast is spiced with added stores of ghoulishness. The story is one of on orphans, a Spanish monk, Ambrosio, who from a state of overproud virtue is tempted to the very nadir of hedda, evil by a fiend in on orphans, the guise of the maiden Matilda; and who is finally, when awaiting death at the Inquisition’s hands, induced to hedda essay purchase escape at the price of his soul from the dissertations on orphans, Devil, because he deems both body and you reference essay harvard style, soul already lost. Forthwith the mocking Fiend snatches him to a lonely place, tells him he has sold his soul in vain since both pardon and a chance for salvation were approaching at the moment of dissertations, his hideous bargain, and completes the sardonic betrayal by rebuking him for his unnatural crimes, and casting his body down a precipice whilst his soul is borne off for essay ever to perdition. The novel contains some appalling descriptions such as the incantation in the vaults beneath the dissertations on orphans, convent cemetery, the burning of the convent, and the final end of the wretched abbot. In the sub-plot where the Marquis de las Cisternas meets the spectre of his erring ancestress, The Bleeding Nun, there are many enormously potent strokes; notably the visit of the animated corpse to the Marquis’s bedside, and the cabbalistic ritual whereby the Wandering Jew helps him to fathom and banish his dead tormentor. Nevertheless The Monk drags sadly when read as a whole.

It is too long and too diffuse, and much of its potency is marred by flippancy and by an awkwardly excessive reaction against those canons of decorum which Lewis at first despised as prudish. One great thing may be said of the how do a website in an, author; that he never ruined his ghostly visions with a natural explanation. Dissertations On Orphans! He succeeded in breaking up the Radcliffian tradition and expanding the field of the argumentative men women, Gothic novel. Lewis wrote much more than The Monk. His drama, The Castle Spectre, was produced in 1798, and dissertations on orphans, he later found time to isb essay 2008 pen other fictions in ballad form Tales of Terror (1799), Tales of Wonder (1801), and a succession of translations from the German.

Gothic romances, both English and German, now appeared in multitudinous and mediocre profusion. Most of them were merely ridiculous in dissertations on orphans, the light of mature taste, and Miss Austen’s famous satire Northanger Abbey was by no means an unmerited rebuke to a school which had sunk far toward absurdity. This particular school was petering out, but before its final subordination there arose its last and greatest figure in truman doctrine and marshall plan essay, the person of Charles Robert Maturin (17821824), an obscure and eccentric Irish clergyman. Out of an ample body of miscellaneous writing which includes one confused Radcliffian imitation called Fatal Revenge; or, The Family of Montorio (1807), Maturin at length evolved the vivid horror-masterpiece of dissertations, Melmoth the Wanderer (1820), in which the Gothic tale climbed to altitudes of sheer spiritual fright which it had never known before. Melmoth is the tale of an Irish gentleman who, in the seventeenth century, obtained a preternaturally extended life from the Devil at the price of his soul. If he can persuade another to take the bargain off his hands, and assume his existing state, he can be saved; but this he can never manage to effect, no matter how assiduously he haunts those whom despair has made reckless and frantic. Isb Essay 2008! The framework of the story is very clumsy; involving tedious length, digressive episodes, narratives within narratives, and laboured dovetailing and coincidences; but at various points in the endless rambling there is felt a pulse of power undiscoverable in any previous work of this kinda kinship to the essential truth of human nature, an understanding of the profoundest sources of actual cosmic fear, and a white heat of sympathetic passion on the writer’s part which makes the book a true document of aesthetic self-expression rather than a mere clever compound of artifice. No unbiassed reader can doubt that with Melmoth an enormous stride in the evolution of the horror-tale is represented.

Fear is taken out of the on orphans, realm of the conventional and exalted into a hideous cloud over mankind’s very destiny. Maturin’s shudders, the work of one capable of shuddering himself, are of the sort that convince. Mrs. The Myth Essay! Radcliffe and Lewis are fair game for dissertations the parodist, but it would be difficult to find a false note in the feverishly intensified action and high atmospheric tension of the Irishman whose less sophisticated emotions and strain of Celtic mysticism gave him the finest possible natural equipment for his task. Without a doubt Maturin is a man of authentic genius, and he was so recognised by Balzac, who grouped Melmoth with Molière’s Don Juan, Goethe’s Faust, and Byron’s Manfred as the you reference style, supreme allegorical figures of modern European literature, and wrote a whimsical piece called “Melmoth Reconciled”, in which the Wanderer succeeds in passing his infernal bargain on to a Parisian bank defaulter, who in turn hands it along a chain of victims until a revelling gambler dies with it in his possession, and by his damnation ends the curse.

Scott, Rossetti, Thackeray, and Baudelaire are the other titans who gave Maturin their unqualified admiration, and dissertations, there is much significance in the fact that Oscar Wilde, after his disgrace and exile, chose for his last days in Paris the assumed name of “Sebastian Melmoth”. Melmoth contains scenes which even now have not lost their power to evoke dread. It begins with a deathbedan old miser is hedda gabler essay, dying of sheer fright because of something he has seen, coupled with a manuscript he has read and a family portrait which hangs in an obscure closet of his centuried home in County Wicklow. He sends to on orphans Trinity College, Dublin, for his nephew John; and the latter upon doctrine and marshall, arriving notes many uncanny things. The eyes of the portrait in dissertations on orphans, the closet glow horribly, and twice a figure strangely resembling the portrait appears momentarily at the door.

Dread hangs over that house of the Melmoths, one of isb essay 2008, whose ancestors, “J. Melmoth, 1646”, the portrait represents. The dying miser declares that this manat a date slightly before 1800is alive. Finally the on orphans, miser dies, and the nephew is told in the will to destroy both the portrait and a manuscript to be found in a certain drawer. Reading the manuscript, which was written late in the seventeenth century by an Englishman named Stanton, young John learns of a terrible incident in Spain in 1677, when the writer met a horrible fellow- countryman and was told of men women, how he had stared to death a priest who tried to on orphans denounce him as one filled with fearsome evil. Isb Essay 2008! Later, after meeting the man again in London, Stanton is cast into a madhouse and visited by on orphans, the stranger, whose approach is heralded by spectral music and whose eyes have a more than mortal glare. Melmoth the Wandererfor such is the malign visitoroffers the captive freedom if he will take over his bargain with the Devil; but like all others whom Melmoth has approached, Stanton is proof against temptation.

Melmoth’s description of the horrors of a life in a madhouse, used to tempt Stanton, is one of the most potent passages of the how do a website in an essay style, book. Stanton is at length liberated, and spends the rest of on orphans, his life tracking down Melmoth, whose family and ancestral abode he discovers. With the family he leaves the manuscript, which by young John’s time is sadly ruinous and fragmentary. John destroys both portrait and manuscript, but in sleep is visited by men women, his horrible ancestor, who leaves a black and blue mark on his wrist. Young John soon afterward receives as a visitor a shipwrecked Spaniard, Alonzo de Monçada, who has escaped from compulsory monasticism and from the perils of the Inquisition. He has suffered horriblyand the on orphans, descriptions of his experiences under torment and in isb essay 2008, the vaults through which he once essays escape are classicbut had the strength to dissertations resist Melmoth the argumentative essay, Wanderer when approached at on orphans his darkest hour in prison. The Myth Of Sisyphus Essay! At the on orphans, house of a Jew who sheltered him after his escape he discovers a wealth of manuscript relating other exploits of Melmoth including his wooing of an truman doctrine and marshall essay Indian island maiden, Immalee, who later comes to dissertations on orphans her birthright in Spain and is known as Donna Isidora; and of his horrible marriage to her by the corpse of a dead anchorite at midnight in the ruined chapel of a shunned and abhorred monastery.

Monçada’s narrative to young John takes up the bulk of Maturin’s four-volume book; this disproportion being considered one of the chief technical faults of the and marshall, composition. At last the colloquies of John and Monçada are interrupted by the entrance of dissertations, Melmoth the Wanderer himself, his piercing eyes now fading, and decrepitude swiftly overtaking him. The term of his bargain has approached its end, and he has come home after a century and a half to meet his fate. Warning all others from the room, no matter what sounds they may hear in the night, he awaits the end alone. Young John and Monçada hear frightful ululations, but do not intrude till silence comes toward morning. They then find the room empty.

Clayey footprints lead out isb essay 2008 a rear door to a cliff overlooking the on orphans, sea, and near the edge of the precipice is a track indicating the forcible dragging of some heavy body. The Wanderer’s scarf is found on a crag some distance below the brink, but nothing further is ever seen or heard of him. Such is the story, and none can fail to notice the difference between this modulated, suggestive, and the myth questions, artistically moulded horror andto use the words of Professor George Saintsbury“the artful but rather jejune rationalism of Mrs. Radcliffe, and the too often puerile extravagance, the bad taste, and the sometimes slipshod style of dissertations, Lewis.” Maturin’s style in itself deserves particular praise, for its forcible directness and resume cover letter, vitality lift it altogether above the pompous artificialities of which his predecessors are guilty. Professor Edith Birkhead, in her history of the Gothic novel, justly observes that with all his faults Maturin was the greatest as well as the last of the Goths. Melmoth was widely read and eventually dramatised, but its late date in the evolution of the dissertations, Gothic tale deprived it of the tumultuous popularity of Udolpho and The Monk. Meanwhile other hands had not been idle, so that above the dreary plethora of trash like Marquis von Grosse’s Horrid Mysteries (1796), Mrs. Roche’s Children of the Abbey (1796), Miss Dacre’s Zofloya; or, The Moor (1806), and the poet Shelley’s schoolboy effusions Zastrozzi (1810) and St.

Irvyne (1811) (both imitations of Zofloya ) there arose many memorable weird works both in English and German. Classic in doctrine essay, merit, and markedly different from its fellows because of its foundation in the Oriental tale rather than the Walpolesque Gothic novel, is the celebrated History of the dissertations on orphans, Caliph Vathek by the wealthy dilettante William Beckford, first written in the French language but published in an English translation before the appearance of the original. Eastern tales, introduced to European literature early in the eighteenth century through Galland’s French translation of the men women, inexhaustibly opulent Arabian Nights, had become a reigning fashion; being used both for allegory and for amusement. The sly humour which only the Eastern mind knows how to on orphans mix with weirdness had captivated a sophisticated generation, till Bagdad and Damascus names became as freely strown through popular literature as dashing Italian and Spanish ones were soon to be. Beckford, well read in Eastern romance, caught the atmosphere with unusual receptivity; and in essay men women, his fantastic volume reflected very potently the on orphans, haughty luxury, sly disillusion, bland cruelty, urbane treachery, and shadowy spectral horror of the isb essay 2008, Saracen spirit. His seasoning of the ridiculous seldom mars the dissertations, force of his sinister theme, and the tale marches onward with a phantasmagoric pomp in which the argumentative, laughter is that of skeletons feasting under Arabesque domes.

Vathek is a tale of the grandson of the Caliph Haroun, who, tormented by that ambition for on orphans super-terrestrial power, pleasure, and learning which animates the average Gothic villain or Byronic hero (essentially cognate types), is lured by isb essay 2008, an evil genius to seek the subterranean throne of the mighty and fabulous pre-Adamite sultans in the fiery halls of Eblis, the Mahometan Devil. The descriptions of Vathek’s palaces and diversions, of his scheming sorceress-mother Carathis and her witch-tower with the fifty one-eyed negresses, of his pilgrimage to the haunted ruins of Istakhar (Persepolis) and of the impish bride Nouronihar whom he treacherously acquired on the way, of Istakhar’s primordial towers and dissertations, terraces in the burning moonlight of the waste, and of the the myth essay questions, terrible Cyclopean halls of Eblis, where, lured by glittering promises, each victim is compelled to wander in dissertations, anguish for ever, his right hand upon his blazingly ignited and eternally burning heart, are triumphs of weird colouring which raise the book to a permanent place in English letters. No less notable are the three Episodes of Vathek, intended for insertion in the tale as narratives of argumentative essay, Vathek’s fellow-victims in Eblis’ infernal halls, which remained unpublished throughout the author’s lifetime and were discovered as recently as 1909 by the scholar Lewis Melville whilst collecting material for his Life and Letters of William Beckford. Beckford, however, lacks the essential mysticism which marks the acutest form of the weird; so that his tales have a certain knowing Latin hardness and clearness preclusive of sheer panic fright. But Beckford remained alone in dissertations on orphans, his devotion to the Orient. Other writers, closer to the Gothic tradition and to European life in general, were content to follow more faithfully in the lead of Walpole. Isb Essay 2008! Among the countless producers of terror-literature in these times may be mentioned the Utopian economic theorist William Godwin, who followed his famous but non-supernatural Caleb Williams (1794) with the intendedly weird St. On Orphans! Leon (1799), in hedda, which the theme of the elixir of on orphans, life, as developed by the imaginary secret order of “Rosicrucians”, is handled with ingeniousness if not with atmospheric convincingness. This element of Rosicrucianism, fostered by a wave of popular magical interest exemplified in the vogue of the charlatan Cagliostro and the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), a curious and compendious treatise on occult principles and how do you reference in an harvard, ceremonies, of which a reprint was made as lately as 1896, figures in Bulwer-Lytton and in many late Gothic novels, especially that remote and enfeebled posterity which straggled far down into the nineteenth century and was represented by George W. M. Reynolds’ Faust and the Demon and dissertations, Wagner, the Wehr-wolf.

Caleb Williams, though non-supernatural, has many authentic touches of terror. Essay! It is the dissertations, tale of a servant persecuted by a master whom he has found guilty of murder, and displays an invention and skill which have kept it alive in a fashion to essay this day. It was dramatised as The Iron Chest, and in that form was almost equally celebrated. Godwin, however, was too much the conscious teacher and prosaic man of thought to create a genuine weird masterpiece. His daughter, the wife of Shelley, was much more successful; and her inimitable Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is one of the horror-classics of all time. Composed in competition with her husband, Lord Byron, and Dr. John William Polidori in an effort to prove supremacy in horror-making, Mrs. Shelley’s Frankenstein was the dissertations on orphans, only one of the rival narratives to be brought to an elaborate completion; and doctrine plan essay, criticism has failed to prove that the best parts are due to Shelley rather than to her. The novel, somewhat tinged but scarcely marred by moral didacticism, tells of the artificial human being moulded from charnel fragments by Victor Frankenstein, a young Swiss medical student.

Created by its designer “in the mad pride of intellectuality”, the dissertations on orphans, monster possesses full intelligence but owns a hideously loathsome form. Essay Men Women! It is rejected by mankind, becomes embittered, and at length begins the successive murder of all whom young Frankenstein loves best, friends and dissertations on orphans, family. It demands that Frankenstein create a wife for resume cover teacher it; and when the student finally refuses in horror lest the world be populated with such monsters, it departs with a hideous threat ‘to be with him on dissertations on orphans his wedding night’. Upon that night the bride is strangled, and from that time on doctrine Frankenstein hunts down the monster, even into the wastes of the dissertations on orphans, Arctic. In the end, whilst seeking shelter on the ship of the man who tells the story, Frankenstein himself is killed by essay, the shocking object of his search and creation of dissertations, his presumptuous pride. Some of the scenes in Frankenstein are unforgettable, as when the newly animated monster enters its creator’s room, parts the curtains of his bed, and gazes at him in the yellow moonlight with watery eyes“if eyes they may be called”. Mrs. Shelley wrote other novels, including the fairly notable Last Man; but never duplicated the success of her first effort.

It has the true touch of cosmic fear, no matter how much the movement may lag in places. Dr. Polidori developed his competing idea as a long short story, “The Vampyre”; in which we behold a suave villain of the true Gothic or Byronic type, and cover letter aide, encounter some excellent passages of stark fright, including a terrible nocturnal experience in a shunned Grecian wood. In this same period Sir Walter Scott frequently concerned himself with the weird, weaving it into many of his novels and dissertations on orphans, poems, and sometimes producing such independent bits of narration as “The Tapestried Chamber” or “Wandering Willie’s Tale” in Redgauntlet, in the latter of which the force of the spectral and isb essay 2008, the diabolic is enhanced by a grotesque homeliness of speech and atmosphere. On Orphans! In 1830 Scott published his Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, which still forms one of our best compendia of European witch-lore. Washington Irving is another famous figure not unconnected with the the myth, weird; for though most of his ghosts are too whimsical and dissertations on orphans, humorous to form genuinely spectral literature, a distinct inclination in this direction is to the myth essay be noted in dissertations on orphans, many of his productions. “The German Student” in and marshall plan, Tales of a Traveller (1824) is a slyly concise and effective presentation of the old legend of the dead bride, whilst woven into the comic tissue of dissertations on orphans, “The Money-Diggers” in plan, the same volume is more than one hint of dissertations on orphans, piratical apparitions in the realms which Captain Kidd once roamed.

Thomas Moore also joined the ranks of the macabre artists in of sisyphus, the poem Alciphron, which he later elaborated into the prose novel of The Epicurean (1827). Though merely relating the adventures of on orphans, a young Athenian duped by the artifice of truman and marshall essay, cunning Egyptian priests, Moore manages to infuse much genuine horror into his account of subterranean frights and wonders beneath the primordial temples of Memphis. On Orphans! De Quincey more than once revels in grotesque and how do a website essay, arabesque terrors, though with a desultoriness and on orphans, learned pomp which deny him the rank of specialist. This era likewise saw the rise of William Harrison Ainsworth, whose romantic novels teem with the eerie and the gruesome. Capt. Marryat, besides writing such short tales as “The Werewolf”, made a memorable contribution in The Phantom Ship (1839), founded on the legend of the Flying Dutchman, whose spectral and accursed vessel sails for ever near the Cape of Good Hope.

Dickens now rises with occasional weird bits like “The Signalman”, a tale of ghostly warning conforming to a very common pattern and touched with a verisimilitude which allies it as much with the coming psychological school as with the argumentative, dying Gothic school. At this time a wave of interest in spiritualistic charlatanry, mediumism, Hindoo theosophy, and on orphans, such matters, much like that of the present day, was flourishing; so that the number of weird tales with a “psychic” or pseudo-scientific basis became very considerable. For a number of these the prolific and popular Lord Edward Bulwer-Lytton was responsible; and essay men women, despite the large doses of turgid rhetoric and empty romanticism in his products, his success in dissertations on orphans, the weaving of a certain kind of hedda essay, bizarre charm cannot be denied. “The House and the Brain”, which hints of Rosicrucianism and at a malign and deathless figure perhaps suggested by Louis XV’s mysterious courtier St. Germain, yet survives as one of the best short haunted-house tales ever written. The novel Zanoni (1842) contains similar elements more elaborately handled, and introduces a vast unknown sphere of on orphans, being pressing on our own world and guarded by a horrible “Dweller of the Threshold” who haunts those who try to enter and questions, fail. Here we have a benign brotherhood kept alive from age to age till finally reduced to a single member, and as a hero an ancient Chaldaean sorcerer surviving in the pristine bloom of youth to perish on the guillotine of the dissertations on orphans, French Revolution.

Though full of the conventional spirit of romance, marred by a ponderous network of symbolic and isb essay 2008, didactic meanings, and left unconvincing through lack of perfect atmospheric realisation of the situations hinging on the spectral world, Zanoni is really an excellent performance as a romantic novel; and can be read with genuine interest today by dissertations, the not too sophisticated reader. It is amusing to note that in essay, describing an dissertations attempted initiation into truman doctrine, the ancient brotherhood the on orphans, author cannot escape using the stock Gothic castle of Walpolian lineage. In A Strange Story (1862) Bulwer-Lytton shews a marked improvement in truman doctrine and marshall essay, the creation of weird images and moods. The novel, despite enormous length, a highly artificial plot bolstered up by opportune coincidences, and an atmosphere of homiletic pseudo-science designed to please the matter-of-fact and purposeful Victorian reader, is on orphans, exceedingly effective as a narrative; evoking instantaneous and unflagging interest, and furnishing many potentif somewhat melodramatictableaux and climaxes. Cover Letter Teacher! Again we have the mysterious user of life’s elixir in the person of the soulless magician Margrave, whose dark exploits stand out with dramatic vividness against the modern background of a quiet English town and of the Australian bush; and again we have shadowy intimations of a vast spectral world of the unknown in the very air about usthis time handled with much greater power and vitality than in Zanoni.

One of the two great incantation passages, where the hero is driven by a luminous evil spirit to rise at night in his sleep, take a strange Egyptian wand, and evoke nameless presences in the haunted and mausoleum-facing pavilion of a famous Renaissance alchemist, truly stands among the on orphans, major terror scenes of literature. Just enough is suggested, and just little enough is told. Unknown words are twice dictated to the sleep-walker, and as he repeats them the argumentative essay men women, ground trembles, and all the dogs of the countryside begin to dissertations on orphans bay at half-seen amorphous shadows that stalk athwart the moonlight. Hedda Gabler! When a third set of on orphans, unknown words is prompted, the sleep-walker’s spirit suddenly rebels at uttering them, as if the soul could recognise ultimate abysmal horrors concealed from the mind; and at last an apparition of an absent sweetheart and good angel breaks the malign spell. This fragment well illustrates how far Lord Lytton was capable of progressing beyond his usual pomp and stock romance toward that crystalline essence of artistic fear which belongs to the domain of how do essay harvard, poetry. Dissertations On Orphans! In describing certain details of incantations, Lytton was greatly indebted to his amusingly serious occult studies, in the course of which he came in touch with that odd French scholar and cabbalist Alphonse-Louis Constant (“Eliphas Lévi”), who claimed to possess the secrets of ancient magic, and to have evoked the spectre of the old Grecian wizard Apollonius of Tyana, who lived in Nero’s time.

The romantic, semi-Gothic, quasi-moral tradition here represented was carried far down the nineteenth century by such authors as Joseph Sheridan LeFanu, Thomas Preskett Prest with his famous Varney, the Vampyre (1847), Wilkie Collins, the late Sir H. Rider Haggard (whose She is really remarkably good), Sir A. Conan Doyle, H. G. Wells, and Robert Louis Stevensonthe latter of whom, despite an atrocious tendency toward jaunty mannerisms, created permanent classics in “Markheim”, “The Body-Snatcher”, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Indeed, we may say that this school still survives; for to it clearly belong such of our contemporary horror-tales as specialise in events rather than atmospheric details, address the the myth of sisyphus, intellect rather than the impressionistic imagination, cultivate a luminous glamour rather than a malign tensity or psychological verisimilitude, and take a definite stand in sympathy with mankind and its welfare. It has its undeniable strength, and because of its “human element” commands a wider audience than does the sheer artistic nightmare. If not quite so potent as the latter, it is because a diluted product can never achieve the dissertations, intensity of a concentrated essence. Quite alone both as a novel and as a piece of terror-literature stands the famous Wuthering Heights (1847) by Emily Brontë, with its mad vista of bleak, windswept Yorkshire moors and the violent, distorted lives they foster. Though primarily a tale of of sisyphus essay, life, and of human passions in agony and conflict, its epically cosmic setting affords room for horror of the dissertations, most spiritual sort.

Heathcliff, the modified Byronic villain-hero, is essay, a strange dark waif found in the streets as a small child and dissertations on orphans, speaking only a strange gibberish till adopted by the family he ultimately ruins. Gabler! That he is in truth a diabolic spirit rather than a human being is more than once suggested, and the unreal is further approached in the experience of the visitor who encounters a plaintive child-ghost at a bough-brushed upper window. Between Heathcliff and dissertations, Catherine Earnshaw is a tie deeper and more terrible than human love. After her death he twice disturbs her grave, and is haunted by an impalpable presence which can be nothing less than her spirit. Hedda Essay! The spirit enters his life more and more, and at last he becomes confident of some imminent mystical reunion. He says he feels a strange change approaching, and ceases to dissertations take nourishment. At night he either walks abroad or opens the gabler essay, casement by his bed. Dissertations On Orphans! When he dies the casement is still swinging open to the pouring rain, and a queer smile pervades the stiffened face.

They bury him in a grave beside the mound he has haunted for eighteen years, and small shepherd boys say that he yet walks with his Catherine in hedda gabler, the churchyard and on the moor when it rains. Their faces, too, are sometimes seen on rainy nights behind that upper casement at Wuthering Heights. Miss Brontë’s eerie terror is on orphans, no mere Gothic echo, but a tense expression of man’s shuddering reaction to the unknown. In this respect, Wuthering Heights becomes the teacher aide, symbol of a literary transition, and marks the growth of a new and sounder school. On the Continent literary horror fared well.

The celebrated short tales and novels of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann (17761822) are a byword for mellowness of background and maturity of form, though they incline to levity and extravagance, and lack the exalted moments of on orphans, stark, breathless terror which a less sophisticated writer might have achieved. Generally they convey the grotesque rather than the terrible. Most artistic of all the Continental weird tales is the German classic Undine (1811), by Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Baron de la Motte Fouqué. Isb Essay 2008! In this story of a water-spirit who married a mortal and dissertations, gained a human soul there is how do you reference style, a delicate fineness of craftsmanship which makes it notable in any department of literature, and an easy naturalness which places it close to the genuine folk-myth. It is, in fact, derived from a tale told by the Renaissance physician and alchemist Paracelsus in his Treatise on dissertations on orphans Elemental Sprites. Undine, daughter of a powerful water-prince, was exchanged by her father as a small child for a fisherman’s daughter, in order that she might acquire a soul by the myth essay, wedding a human being. Meeting the noble youth Huldbrand at the cottage of her foster-father by the sea at the edge of a haunted wood, she soon marries him, and accompanies him to his ancestral castle of Ringstetten. Huldbrand, however, eventually wearies of his wife’s supernatural affiliations, and especially of the appearances of her uncle, the malicious woodland waterfall-spirit Kühleborn; a weariness increased by his growing affection for Bertalda, who turns out to be the fisherman’s child for whom Undine was exchanged. At length, on a voyage down the Danube, he is dissertations, provoked by some innocent act of cover, his devoted wife to utter the angry words which consign her back to her supernatural element; from which she can, by the laws of her species, return only dissertations onceto kill him, whether she will or no, if ever he prove unfaithful to her memory.

Later, when Huldbrand is about to be married to Bertalda, Undine returns for her sad duty, and bears his life away in tears. When he is buried among his fathers in the village churchyard a veiled, snow-white female figure appears among the mourners, but after the prayer is seen no more. Isb Essay 2008! In her place is seen a little silver spring, which murmurs its way almost completely around the dissertations, new grave, and empties into a neighbouring lake. How Do A Website In An Essay Harvard Style! The villagers shew it to this day, and say that Undine and her Huldbrand are thus united in death. Many passages and atmospheric touches in this tale reveal Fouqué as an accomplished artist in the field of the macabre; especially the descriptions of the dissertations, haunted wood with its gigantic snow-white man and various unnamed terrors, which occur early in the narrative. Not so well known as Undine, but remarkable for its convincing realism and freedom from Gothic stock devices, is the Amber Witch of Wilhelm Meinhold, another product of the German fantastic genius of the earlier nineteenth century.

This tale, which is laid in the time of the Thirty Years’ War, purports to be a clergyman’s manuscript found in an old church at Coserow, and centres round the writer’s daughter, Maria Schweidler, who is wrongly accused of witchcraft. She has found a deposit of amber which she keeps secret for various reasons, and plan, the unexplained wealth obtained from this lends colour to the accusation; an accusation instigated by the malice of the dissertations, wolf-hunting nobleman Wittich Appelmann, who has vainly pursued her with ignoble designs. The deeds of argumentative essay men women, a real witch, who afterward comes to a horrible supernatural end in prison, are glibly imputed to the hapless Maria; and after a typical witchcraft trial with forced confessions under torture she is about to be burned at the stake when saved just in time by her lover, a noble youth from a neighbouring district. Meinhold’s great strength is in his air of casual and realistic verisimilitude, which intensifies our suspense and sense of the unseen by on orphans, half persuading us that the menacing events must somehow be either the isb essay 2008, truth or very close to the truth. Indeed, so thorough is this realism that a popular magazine once published the main points of The Amber Witch as an actual occurrence of the dissertations on orphans, seventeenth century! In the present generation German horror-fiction is most notably represented by Hanns Heinz Ewers, who brings to cover letter teacher bear on his dark conceptions an effective knowledge of modern psychology. Novels like The Sorcerer’s Apprentice and Alraune, and short stories like “The Spider”, contain distinctive qualities which raise them to a classic level. But France as well as Germany has been active in the realm of weirdness. Victor Hugo, in such tales as Hans of dissertations, Iceland, and Balzac, in The Wild Ass’s Skin, Séraphîta, and Louis Lambert, both employ supernaturalism to a greater or less extent; though generally only as a means to some more human end, and without the sincere and daemonic intensity which characterises the born artist in shadows.

It is in Théophile Gautier that we first seem to find an authentic French sense of the unreal world, and here there appears a spectral mastery which, though not continuously used, is recognisable at once as something alike genuine and profound. Short tales like “Avatar”, “The Foot of the Mummy”, and “Clarimonde” display glimpses of forbidden visits that allure, tantalise, and sometimes horrify; whilst the Egyptian visions evoked in “One of Cleopatra’s Nights” are of the keenest and most expressive potency. You Reference A Website Essay! Gautier captured the inmost soul of aeon-weighted Egypt, with its cryptic life and Cyclopean architecture, and uttered once and for all the on orphans, eternal horror of its nether world of catacombs, where to the end of time millions of stiff, spiced corpses will stare up in the blackness with glassy eyes, awaiting some awesome and unrelatable summons. Gustave Flaubert ably continued the essay men women, tradition of Gautier in dissertations, orgies of poetic phantasy like The Temptation of isb essay 2008, St. Anthony, and but for dissertations a strong realistic bias might have been an arch-weaver of tapestried terrors. Later on we see the stream divide, producing strange poets and fantaisistes of the Symbolist and Decadent schools whose dark interests really centre more in abnormalities of human thought and instinct than in the actual supernatural, and subtle story-tellers whose thrills are quite directly derived from the night-black wells of cosmic unreality. Of the former class of “artists in sin” the illustrious poet Baudelaire, influenced vastly by harvard style, Poe, is the supreme type; whilst the psychological novelist Joris-Karl Huysmans, a true child of the eighteen-nineties, is at once the summation and dissertations on orphans, finale.

The latter and purely narrative class is continued by Prosper Mérimée, whose “Venus of Ille” presents in terse and convincing prose the argumentative men women, same ancient statue-bride theme which Thomas Moore cast in ballad form in “The Ring”. The horror-tales of the powerful and dissertations, cynical Guy de Maupassant, written as his final madness gradually overtook him, present individualities of their own; being rather the essay, morbid outpourings of a realistic mind in a pathological state than the healthy imaginative products of a vision naturally disposed toward phantasy and sensitive to dissertations the normal illusions of the unseen. Nevertheless they are of the keenest interest and poignancy; suggesting with marvellous force the imminence of how do in an essay harvard style, nameless terrors, and the relentless dogging of an ill-starred individual by hideous and menacing representatives of the outer blackness. Of these stories “The Horla” is generally regarded as the dissertations on orphans, masterpiece. Relating the gabler essay, advent to France of an invisible being who lives on water and milk, sways the minds of others, and seems to be the vanguard of on orphans, a horde of extra-terrestrial organisms arrived on resume earth to subjugate and overwhelm mankind, this tense narrative is perhaps without a peer in its particular department; notwithstanding its indebtedness to a tale by the American Fitz-James O’Brien for details in describing the actual presence of the unseen monster. On Orphans! Other potently dark creations of de Maupassant are “Who Knows?”, “The Spectre”, “He?”, “The Diary of the myth, a Madman”, “The White Wolf”, “On the River”, and the grisly verses entitled “Horror”. The collaborators Erckmann-Chatrian enriched French literature with many spectral fancies like The Man-Wolf, in which a transmitted curse works toward its end in on orphans, a traditional Gothic-castle setting. Their power of creating a shuddering midnight atmosphere was tremendous despite a tendency toward natural explanations and scientific wonders; and few short tales contain greater horror than “The Invisible Eye”, where a malignant old hag weaves nocturnal hypnotic spells which induce the successive occupants of a certain inn chamber to essay hang themselves on a cross-beam. “The Owl’s Ear” and “The Waters of Death” are full of engulfing darkness and mystery, the latter embodying the familiar overgrown-spider theme so frequently employed by weird fictionists. Villiers de l’Isle-Adam likewise followed the macabre school; his “Torture by Hope”, the tale of a stake-condemned prisoner permitted to escape in order to feel the pangs of recapture, being held by some to dissertations constitute the how do you reference a website harvard style, most harrowing short story in literature. Dissertations! This type, however, is less a part of the how do you reference a website, weird tradition than a class peculiar to dissertations itselfthe so-called conte cruel, in which the wrenching of the emotions is accomplished through dramatic tantalisations, frustrations, and gruesome physical horrors.

Almost wholly devoted to hedda gabler this form is the living writer Maurice Level, whose very brief episodes have lent themselves so readily to theatrical adaptation in the “thrillers” of the Grand Guignol. As a matter of dissertations on orphans, fact, the French genius is more naturally suited to this dark realism than to the suggestion of the unseen; since the latter process requires, for resume aide its best and most sympathetic development on on orphans a large scale, the inherent mysticism of the Northern mind. A very flourishing, though till recently quite hidden, branch of weird literature is that of the Jews, kept alive and nourished in obscurity by argumentative men women, the sombre heritage of early Eastern magic, apocalyptic literature, and cabbalism. The Semitic mind, like the Celtic and Teutonic, seems to possess marked mystical inclinations; and the wealth of underground horror-lore surviving in ghettoes and synagogues must be much more considerable than is generally imagined. Cabbalism itself, so prominent during the Middle Ages, is a system of philosophy explaining the universe as emanations of the Deity, and involving the existence of strange spiritual realms and beings apart from the visible world, of which dark glimpses may be obtained through certain secret incantations. Its ritual is bound up with mystical interpretations of the Old Testament, and attributes an esoteric significance to dissertations each letter of the Hebrew alphabeta circumstance which has imparted to Hebrew letters a sort of spectral glamour and potency in the popular literature of magic.

Jewish folklore has preserved much of the terror and mystery of the past, and when more thoroughly studied is likely to exert considerable influence on weird fiction. You Reference! The best examples of on orphans, its literary use so far are the German novel The Golem, by Gustav Meyrink, and argumentative men women, the drama The Dybbuk, by the Jewish writer using the pseudonym “Ansky”. The former, with its haunting shadowy suggestions of marvels and horrors just beyond reach, is laid in Prague, and describes with singular mastery that city’s ancient ghetto with its spectral, peaked gables. The name is derived from a fabulous artificial giant supposed to be made and dissertations, animated by argumentative, mediaeval rabbis according to a certain cryptic formula. The Dybbuk, translated and produced in America in 1925, and more recently produced as an dissertations opera, describes with singular power the you reference essay harvard, possession of a living body by the evil soul of a dead man.

Both golems and dybbuks are fixed types, and serve as frequent ingredients of later Jewish tradition. In the on orphans, eighteen-thirties occurred a literary dawn directly affecting not only the history of the weird tale, but that of short fiction as a whole; and indirectly moulding the trends and fortunes of a great European aesthetic school. It is our good fortune as Americans to be able to claim that dawn as our own, for it came in the person of our illustrious and unfortunate fellow-countryman Edgar Allan Poe. Argumentative Essay Men Women! Poe’s fame has been subject to curious undulations, and it is dissertations, now a fashion amongst the “advanced intelligentsia” to argumentative essay minimise his importance both as an artist and as an influence; but it would be hard for any mature and reflective critic to deny the tremendous value of his work and the pervasive potency of his mind as an on orphans opener of artistic vistas. True, his type of outlook may have been anticipated; but it was he who first realised its possibilities and gave it supreme form and systematic expression. True also, that subsequent writers may have produced greater single tales than his; but again we must comprehend that it was only he who taught them by gabler, example and dissertations, precept the art which they, having the way cleared for them and given an explicit guide, were perhaps able to carry to isb essay 2008 greater lengths. Whatever his limitations, Poe did that which no one else ever did or could have done; and to him we owe the dissertations, modern horror-story in argumentative men women, its final and perfected state. Before Poe the bulk of weird writers had worked largely in the dark; without an understanding of the psychological basis of the dissertations on orphans, horror appeal, and hampered by more or less of conformity to of sisyphus certain empty literary conventions such as the happy ending, virtue rewarded, and in general a hollow moral didacticism, acceptance of popular standards and values, and dissertations on orphans, striving of the author to in an obtrude his own emotions into the story and take sides with the partisans of the majority’s artificial ideas. Poe, on the other hand, perceived the essential impersonality of the dissertations on orphans, real artist; and knew that the function of creative fiction is merely to express and interpret events and sensations as they are, regardless of how they tend or what they provegood or evil, attractive or repulsive, stimulating or depressingwith the author always acting as a vivid and detached chronicler rather than as a teacher, sympathiser, or vendor of opinion.

He saw clearly that all phases of life and thought are equally eligible as subject-matter for the artist, and being inclined by temperament to essay strangeness and gloom, decided to be the interpreter of those powerful feeling, and frequent happenings which attend pain rather than pleasure, decay rather than growth, terror rather than tranquillity, and on orphans, which are fundamentally either adverse or indifferent to the tastes and traditional outward sentiments of mankind, and to the health, sanity, and normal expansive welfare of the species. Poe’s spectres thus acquired a convincing malignity possessed by none of in an, their predecessors, and established a new standard of realism in the annals of literary horror. The impersonal and dissertations on orphans, artistic intent, moreover, was aided by a scientific attitude not often found before; whereby Poe studied the human mind rather than the usages of Gothic fiction, and worked with an analytical knowledge of terror’s true sources which doubled the force of his narratives and emancipated him from all the isb essay 2008, absurdities inherent in merely conventional shudder-coining. This example having been set, later authors were naturally forced to conform to it in order to compete at dissertations on orphans all; so that in this way a definite change began to affect the main stream of macabre writing. Poe, too, set a fashion in essay men women, consummate craftsmanship; and although today some of his own work seems slightly melodramatic and unsophisticated, we can constantly trace his influence in such things as the maintenance of a single mood and achievement of a single impression in a tale, and the rigorous paring down of incidents to such as have a direct bearing on the plot and will figure prominently in the climax. Truly may it be said that Poe invented the short story in its present form. His elevation of disease, perversity, and decay to the level of artistically expressible themes was likewise infinitely far-reaching in effect; for avidly seized, sponsored, and intensified by his eminent French admirer Charles Pierre Baudelaire, it became the nucleus of the principal aesthetic movements in France, thus making Poe in a sense the father of the Decadents and the Symbolists.

Poet and on orphans, critic by nature and isb essay 2008, supreme attainment, logician and philosopher by taste and mannerism, Poe was by no means immune from on orphans defects and affectations. You Reference A Website Harvard! His pretence to profound and obscure scholarship, his blundering ventures in stilted and laboured pseudo-humour, and his often vitriolic outbursts of critical prejudice must all be recognised and forgiven. Beyond and above them, and dwarfing them to insignificance, was a master’s vision of the terror that stalks about and within us, and the worm that writhes and slavers in the hideously close abyss. Penetrating to every festering horror in the gaily painted mockery called existence, and in the solemn masquerade called human thought and feelings that vision had power to project itself in on orphans, blackly magical crystallisations and in an style, transmutations; till there bloomed in the sterile America of the ’thirties and ’forties such a moon-nourished garden of gorgeous poison fungi as not even the nether slope of Saturn might boast. Verses and tales alike sustain the burthen of cosmic panic. The raven whose noisome beak pierces the heart, the dissertations, ghouls that toll iron bells in pestilential steeples, the vault of Ulalume in the black October night, the shocking spires and domes under the sea, the “wild, weird clime that lieth, sublime, out of Spaceout of Time”all these things and more leer at us amidst maniacal rattlings in the seething nightmare of the poetry. And in the prose there yawn open for us the very jaws of the pitinconceivable abnormalities slyly hinted into a horrible half-knowledge by words whose innocence we scarcely doubt till the cracked tension of the speaker’s hollow voice bids us fear their nameless implications; daemoniac patterns and presences slumbering noxiously till waked for one phobic instant into isb essay 2008, a shrieking revelation that cackles itself to sudden madness or explodes in dissertations, memorable and cataclysmic echoes. A Witches’ Sabbath of horror flinging off decorous robes is flashed before usa sight the more monstrous because of the scientific skill with which every particular is the myth of sisyphus essay questions, marshalled and brought into an easy apparent relation to the known gruesomeness of material life.

Poe’s tales, of course, fall into dissertations on orphans, several classes; some of which contain a purer essence of spiritual horror than others. The tales of logic and ratiocination, forerunners of the modern detective story, are not to be included at all in weird literature; whilst certain others, probably influenced considerably by Hoffmann, possess an extravagance which relegates them to the borderline of the grotesque. Still a third group deal with abnormal psychology and monomania in such a way as to express terror but not weirdness. A substantial residuum, however, represent the literature of supernatural horror in its acutest form; and give their author a permanent and unassailable place as deity and fountain-head of all modern diabolic fiction. Who can forget the terrible swollen ship poised on the billow-chasm’s edge in “MS. Found in you reference essay harvard, a Bottle”the dark intimations of her unhallowed age and monstrous growth, her sinister crew of unseeing greybeards, and dissertations on orphans, her frightful southward rush under full sail through the ice of the resume cover teacher, Antarctic night, sucked onward by some resistless devil-current toward a vortex of eldritch enlightenment which must end in destruction? Then there is the unutterable “M.

Valdemar”, kept together by hypnotism for seven months after his death, and dissertations, uttering frantic sounds but a moment before the breaking of the spell leaves him “a nearly liquid mass of loathsomeof detestable putrescence”. In the Narrative of A. Gordon Pym the voyagers reach first a strange south polar land of murderous savages where nothing is white and where vast rocky ravines have the form of hedda essay, titanic Egyptian letters spelling terrible primal arcana of earth; and thereafter a still more mysterious realm where everything is white, and where shrouded giants and snowy-plumed birds guard a cryptic cataract of mist which empties from immeasurable celestial heights into a torrid milky sea. “Metzengerstein” horrifies with its malign hints of a monstrous metempsychosisthe mad nobleman who burns the stable of his hereditary foe; the colossal unknown horse that issues from the blazing building after the owner has perished therein; the vanishing bit of dissertations, ancient tapestry where was shewn the giant horse of the essay, victim’s ancestor in the Crusades; the madman’s wild and constant riding on the great horse, and his fear and hatred of the steed; the meaningless prophecies that brood obscurely over the warring houses; and dissertations on orphans, finally, the burning of the madman’s palace and the death therein of the isb essay 2008, owner, borne helpless into the flames and up the vast staircases astride the beast he has ridden so strangely. Dissertations On Orphans! Afterward the rising smoke of the ruins takes the form of a gigantic horse. “The Man of the Crowd”, telling of truman doctrine and marshall plan, one who roams day and night to mingle with streams of people as if afraid to be alone, has quieter effects, but implies nothing less of cosmic fear. Poe’s mind was never far from on orphans terror and decay, and we see in every tale, poem, and philosophical dialogue a tense eagerness to fathom unplumbed wells of night, to pierce the veil of death, and to reign in fancy as lord of the frightful mysteries of time and space. Certain of Poe’s tales possess an almost absolute perfection of artistic form which makes them veritable beacon-lights in resume aide, the province of the dissertations on orphans, short story.

Poe could, when he wished, give to his prose a richly poetic cast; employing that archaic and Orientalised style with jewelled phrase, quasi-Biblical repetition, and recurrent burthen so successfully used by hedda gabler, later writers like Oscar Wilde and Lord Dunsany; and in the cases where he has done this we have an effect of lyrical phantasy almost narcotic in essencean opium pageant of dream in the language of dream, with every unnatural colour and grotesque image bodied forth in a symphony of corresponding sound. Dissertations On Orphans! “The Masque of the Red Death”, “SilenceA Fable”, and “ShadowA Parable” are assuredly poems in essay, every sense of the word save the metrical one, and owe as much of their power to aural cadence as to visual imagery. But it is in dissertations on orphans, two of the less openly poetic tales, “Ligeia” and “The Fall of the resume cover letter aide, House of Usher”especially the dissertations, latterthat one finds those very summits of artistry whereby Poe takes his place at the head of fictional miniaturists. Simple and hedda, straightforward in plot, both of these tales owe their supreme magic to the cunning development which appears in the selection and collocation of dissertations, every least incident. Letter Teacher! “Ligeia” tells of a first wife of lofty and mysterious origin, who after death returns through a preternatural force of dissertations on orphans, will to take possession of the body of a second wife; imposing even her physical appearance on the temporary reanimated corpse of her victim at the last moment. Despite a suspicion of prolixity and topheaviness, the of sisyphus essay questions, narrative reaches its terrific climax with relentless power. “Usher”, whose superiority in detail and proportion is very marked, hints shudderingly of obscure life in inorganic things, and displays an abnormally linked trinity of entities at the end of a long and dissertations, isolated family historya brother, his twin sister, and their incredibly ancient house all sharing a single soul and meeting one common dissolution at the same moment. These bizarre conceptions, so awkward in unskilful hands, become under Poe’s spell living and convincing terrors to haunt our nights; and all because the author understood so perfectly the very mechanics and physiology of fear and strangenessthe essential details to emphasise, the precise incongruities and conceits to select as preliminaries or concomitants to horror, the exact incidents and allusions to throw out innocently in advance as symbols or prefigurings of each major step toward the hideous denouement to hedda essay come, the dissertations, nice adjustments of cumulative force and the unerring accuracy in you reference a website in an essay harvard style, linkage of parts which make for faultless unity throughout and thunderous effectiveness at the climactic moment, the delicate nuances of scenic and landscape value to dissertations select in establishing and sustaining the desired mood and vitalising the how do you reference a website in an harvard, desired illusionprinciples of this kind, and dissertations on orphans, dozens of obscurer ones too elusive to be described or even fully comprehended by any ordinary commentator. Melodrama and unsophistication there may bewe are told of argumentative essay men women, one fastidious Frenchman who could not bear to read Poe except in Baudelaire’s urbane and Gallically modulated translationbut all traces of such things are wholly overshadowed by a potent and inborn sense of the spectral, the morbid, and the horrible which gushed forth from every cell of the artist’s creative mentality and stamped his macabre work with the dissertations, ineffaceable mark of supreme genius.

Poe’s weird tales are alive in a manner that few others can ever hope to be. Like most fantaisistes, Poe excels in incidents and the myth of sisyphus essay, broad narrative effects rather than in character drawing. His typical protagonist is generally a dark, handsome, proud, melancholy, intellectual, highly sensitive, capricious, introspective, isolated, and sometimes slightly mad gentleman of ancient family and opulent circumstances; usually deeply learned in strange lore, and darkly ambitious of penetrating to forbidden secrets of the universe. Aside from a high-sounding name, this character obviously derives little from the early Gothic novel; for he is clearly neither the wooden hero nor the diabolical villain of Radcliffian or Ludovician romance. Indirectly, however, he does possess a sort of genealogical connexion; since his gloomy, ambitious, and anti-social qualities savour strongly of the typical Byronic hero, who in turn is definitely an dissertations on orphans offspring of the Gothic Manfreds, Montonis, and the myth of sisyphus, Ambrosios. More particular qualities appear to be derived from the psychology of Poe himself, who certainly possessed much of the depression, sensitiveness, mad aspiration, loneliness, and extravagant freakishness which he attributes to dissertations his haughty and isb essay 2008, solitary victims of Fate. The public for whom Poe wrote, though grossly unappreciative of his art, was by no means unaccustomed to the horrors with which he dealt. America, besides inheriting the usual dark folklore of Europe, had an additional fund of dissertations on orphans, weird associations to draw upon; so that spectral legends had already been recognised as fruitful subject-matter for literature. Charles Brockden Brown had achieved phenomenal fame with his Radcliffian romances, and Washington Irving’s lighter treatment of how do a website, eerie themes had quickly become classic. This additional fund proceeded, as Paul Elmer More has pointed out, from the keen spiritual and theological interests of the on orphans, first colonists, plus the strange and forbidding nature of the scene into which they were plunged.

The vast and gloomy virgin forests in isb essay 2008, whose perpetual twilight all terrors might well lurk; the hordes of coppery Indians whose strange, saturnine visages and violent customs hinted strongly at traces of infernal origin; the free rein given under the influence of Puritan theocracy to all manner of dissertations, notions respecting man’s relation to the stern and vengeful God of the Calvinists, and to the sulphureous Adversary of that God, about whom so much was thundered in the pulpits each Sunday; and the morbid introspection developed by an isolated backwoods life devoid of normal amusements and resume cover teacher aide, of the dissertations, recreational mood, harassed by commands for theological self-examination, keyed to unnatural emotional repression, and forming above all a mere grim struggle for truman and marshall essay survivalall these things conspired to produce an environment in which the black whisperings of sinister grandams were heard far beyond the dissertations, chimney corner, and in which tales of witchcraft and unbelievable secret monstrosities lingered long after the dread days of the Salem nightmare. Poe represents the newer, more disillusioned, and more technically finished of the weird schools that rose out of isb essay 2008, this propitious milieu. Dissertations On Orphans! Another schoolthe tradition of moral values, gentle restraint, and mild, leisurely phantasy tinged more or less with the whimsicalwas represented by another famous, misunderstood, and lonely figure in American lettersthe shy and isb essay 2008, sensitive Nathaniel Hawthorne, scion of antique Salem and great-grandson of one of the bloodiest of the old witchcraft judges. In Hawthorne we have none of the violence, the daring, the dissertations, high colouring, the intense dramatic sense, the cosmic malignity, and the undivided and impersonal artistry of essay, Poe. Here, instead, is a gentle soul cramped by the Puritanism of on orphans, early New England; shadowed and wistful, and grieved at an unmoral universe which everywhere transcends the conventional patterns thought by our forefathers to represent divine and immutable law. Evil, a very real force to Hawthorne, appears on cover teacher every hand as a lurking and conquering adversary; and the visible world becomes in his fancy a theatre of infinite tragedy and woe, with unseen half-existent influences hovering over it and through it, battling for supremacy and moulding the destinies of the hapless mortals who form its vain and self-deluded population. The heritage of American weirdness was his to a most intense degree, and he saw a dismal throng of vague spectres behind the common phenomena of life; but he was not disinterested enough to value impressions, sensations, and beauties of narration for their own sake. He must needs weave his phantasy into some quietly melancholy fabric of didactic or allegorical cast, in which his meekly resigned cynicism may display with naive moral appraisal the perfidy of dissertations, a human race which he cannot cease to how do you reference in an cherish and on orphans, mourn despite his insight into its hypocrisy. Supernatural horror, then, is never a primary object with Hawthorne; though its impulses were so deeply woven into isb essay 2008, his personality that he cannot help suggesting it with the force of genius when he calls upon the unreal world to illustrate the pensive sermon he wishes to preach.

Hawthorne’s intimations of the weird, always gentle, elusive, and restrained, may be traced throughout his work. On Orphans! The mood that produced them found one delightful vent in the Teutonised retelling of classic myths for children contained in A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales, and at of sisyphus questions other times exercised itself in casting a certain strangeness and intangible witchery or malevolence over events not meant to be actually supernatural; as in the macabre posthumous novel Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret, which invests with a peculiar sort of repulsion a house existing to this day in Salem, and abutting on the ancient Charter Street Burying Ground. In The Marble Faun, whose design was sketched out in an Italian villa reputed to be haunted, a tremendous background of genuine phantasy and mystery palpitates just beyond the common reader’s sight; and glimpses of fabulous blood in mortal veins are hinted at during the course of a romance which cannot help being interesting despite the persistent incubus of on orphans, moral allegory, anti-Popery propaganda, and argumentative men women, a Puritan prudery which has caused the late D. H. Lawrence to express a longing to treat the author in a highly undignified manner. Septimius Felton, a posthumous novel whose idea was to have been elaborated and incorporated into the unfinished Dolliver Romance, touches on the Elixir of Life in a more or less capable fashion; whilst the notes for a never-written tale to be called “The Ancestral Footstep” shew what Hawthorne would have done with an intensive treatment of an old English superstitionthat of an ancient and accursed line whose members left footprints of on orphans, blood as they walkedwhich appears incidentally in both Septimius Felton and Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret. Many of Hawthorne’s shorter tales exhibit weirdness, either of doctrine and marshall plan essay, atmosphere or of incident, to a remarkable degree. “Edward Randolph’s Portrait”, in Legends of the Province House, has its diabolic moments. “The Minister’s Black Veil” (founded on on orphans an actual incident) and “The Ambitious Guest” imply much more than they state, whilst “Ethan Brand”a fragment of you reference in an essay harvard style, a longer work never completedrises to genuine heights of cosmic fear with its vignette of the wild hill country and the blazing, desolate lime-kilns, and dissertations on orphans, its delineation of the Byronic “unpardonable sinner”, whose troubled life ends with a peal of fearful laughter in the night as he seeks rest amidst the flames of the the myth essay, furnace. Some of Hawthorne’s notes tell of dissertations, weird tales he would have written had he lived longeran especially vivid plot being that concerning a baffling stranger who appeared now and then in isb essay 2008, public assemblies, and who was at last followed and found to come and go from a very ancient grave.

But foremost as a finished, artistic unit among all our author’s weird material is the famous and exquisitely wrought novel, The House of the Seven Gables, in which the relentless working out of an ancestral curse is developed with astonishing power against the sinister background of a very ancient Salem houseone of dissertations, those peaked Gothic affairs which formed the of sisyphus questions, first regular building-up of dissertations on orphans, our New England coast towns, but which gave way after the seventeenth century to the more familiar gambrel-roofed or classic Georgian types now known as “Colonial”. Of these old gabled Gothic houses scarcely a dozen are to be seen today in their original condition throughout the United States, but one well known to Hawthorne still stands in resume letter teacher aide, Turner Street, Salem, and is pointed out with doubtful authority as the scene and inspiration of the romance. Such an edifice, with its spectral peaks, its clustered chimneys, its overhanging second story, its grotesque corner-brackets, and its diamond-paned lattice windows, is indeed an object well calculated to evoke sombre reflections; typifying as it does the dark Puritan age of concealed horror and witch-whispers which preceded the dissertations on orphans, beauty, rationality, and spaciousness of the eighteenth century. Hawthorne saw many in isb essay 2008, his youth, and knew the black tales connected with some of them. He heard, too, many rumours of a curse upon his own line as the result of his great-grandfather’s severity as a witchcraft judge in 1692. From this setting came the immortal taleNew England’s greatest contribution to weird literatureand we can feel in an instant the authenticity of the atmosphere presented to us. Stealthy horror and disease lurk within the weather-blackened, moss-crusted, and dissertations on orphans, elm-shadowed walls of the archaic dwelling so vividly displayed, and we grasp the brooding malignity of the place when we read that its builderold Colonel Pyncheonsnatched the land with peculiar ruthlessness from hedda essay its original settler, Matthew Maule, whom he condemned to the gallows as a wizard in the year of the panic. Maule died cursing old Pyncheon“God will give him blood to drink”and the waters of the old well on the seized land turned bitter. Maule’s carpenter son consented to dissertations build the great gabled house for resume letter teacher aide his father’s triumphant enemy, but the old Colonel died strangely on the day of its dedication. Dissertations On Orphans! Then followed generations of odd vicissitudes, with queer whispers about the truman doctrine and marshall plan essay, dark powers of the Maules, and peculiar and dissertations, sometimes terrible ends befalling the Pyncheons. The overshadowing malevolence of the ancient housealmost as alive as Poe’s House of Usher, though in a subtler waypervades the argumentative, tale as a recurrent motif pervades an operatic tragedy; and when the main story is reached, we behold the modern Pyncheons in a pitiable state of decay.

Poor old Hepzibah, the eccentric reduced gentlewoman; child-like, unfortunate Clifford, just released from undeserved imprisonment; sly and treacherous Judge Pyncheon, who is the old Colonel all over againall these figures are tremendous symbols, and are well matched by the stunted vegetation and anaemic fowls in the garden. It was almost a pity to supply a fairly happy ending, with a union of sprightly Phoebe, cousin and last scion of the Pyncheons, to on orphans the prepossessing young man who turns out to resume aide be the dissertations on orphans, last of the Maules. This union, presumably, ends the doctrine essay, curse. Hawthorne avoids all violence of diction or movement, and keeps his implications of terror well in dissertations, the background; but occasional glimpses amply serve to sustain the argumentative essay, mood and dissertations, redeem the work from pure allegorical aridity. Incidents like the bewitching of argumentative, Alice Pyncheon in the early eighteenth century, and dissertations on orphans, the spectral music of her harpsichord which precedes a death in the familythe latter a variant of an immemorial type of Aryan mythlink the action directly with the supernatural; whilst the dead nocturnal vigil of old Judge Pyncheon in the ancient parlour, with his frightfully ticking watch, is stark horror of the most poignant and genuine sort. The way in which the Judge’s death is first adumbrated by the motions and sniffing of a strange cat outside the window, long before the fact is suspected either by the reader or by any of the isb essay 2008, characters, is a stroke of genius which Poe could not have surpassed. Later the strange cat watches intently outside that same window in the night and on the next day, forsomething.

It is clearly the psychopomp of dissertations, primeval myth, fitted and adapted with infinite deftness to its latter-day setting. But Hawthorne left no well-defined literary posterity. His mood and attitude belonged to the age which closed with him, and argumentative, it is the spirit of Poewho so clearly and realistically understood the natural basis of the horror-appeal and the correct mechanics of its achievementwhich survived and blossomed. Among the earliest of Poe’s disciples may be reckoned the on orphans, brilliant young Irishman Fitz-James O’Brien (18281862), who became naturalised as an American and how do in an harvard style, perished honourably in the Civil War. It is he who gave us “What Was It?”, the first well-shaped short story of dissertations on orphans, a tangible but invisible being, and the prototype of de Maupassant’s “Horla”; he also who created the inimitable “Diamond Lens”, in plan essay, which a young microscopist falls in on orphans, love with a maiden of an infinitesimal world which he has discovered in a drop of water. O’Brien’s early death undoubtedly deprived us of some masterful tales of strangeness and terror, though his genius was not, properly speaking, of the same titan quality which characterised Poe and Hawthorne. Closer to real greatness was the resume letter teacher, eccentric and saturnine journalist Ambrose Bierce, born in 1842; who likewise entered the Civil War, but survived to write some immortal tales and to disappear in 1913 in as great a cloud of mystery as any he ever evoked from his nightmare fancy. Bierce was a satirist and pamphleteer of note, but the bulk of his artistic reputation must rest upon his grim and savage short stories; a large number of which deal with the Civil War and form the most vivid and realistic expression which that conflict has yet received in dissertations on orphans, fiction. Virtually all of Bierce’s tales are tales of horror; and whilst many of them treat only of the physical and psychological horrors within Nature, a substantial proportion admit the malignly supernatural and form a leading element in and marshall essay, America’s fund of weird literature. Mr.

Samuel Loveman, a living poet and critic who was personally acquainted with Bierce, thus sums up the genius of the dissertations on orphans, great shadow-maker in essay harvard, the preface to some of dissertations, his letters: “In ‘The Death of Halpin Frayser’, flowers, verdure, and the boughs and leaves of trees are magnificently placed as an opposing foil to unnatural malignity. Not the accustomed golden world, but a world pervaded with the mystery of blue and the breathless recalcitrance of dreams, is Bierce’s. Yet, curiously, inhumanity is not altogether absent.” The “inhumanity” mentioned by Mr. Loveman finds vent in a rare strain of sardonic comedy and graveyard humour, and a kind of delight in images of cruelty and tantalising disappointment. The former quality is well illustrated by some of the subtitles in the darker narratives; such as “One does not always eat what is on the table”, describing a body laid out for a coroner’s inquest, and “A man though naked may be in rags”, referring to a frightfully mangled corpse. Bierce’s work is in general somewhat uneven. Many of the truman and marshall plan essay, stories are obviously mechanical, and marred by a jaunty and commonplacely artificial style derived from journalistic models; but the grim malevolence stalking through all of them is unmistakable, and several stand out as permanent mountain-peaks of American weird writing. “The Death of on orphans, Halpin Frayser”, called by Frederic Taber Cooper the most fiendishly ghastly tale in the literature of the Anglo-Saxon race, tells of a body skulking by night without a soul in a weird and hedda essay, horribly ensanguined wood, and of a man beset by dissertations, ancestral memories who met death at aide the claws of that which had been his fervently loved mother. “The Damned Thing”, frequently copied in popular anthologies, chronicles the hideous devastations of an invisible entity that waddles and on orphans, flounders on the hills and in the wheatfields by night and day. “The Suitable Surroundings” evokes with singular subtlety yet apparent simplicity a piercing sense of the hedda gabler, terror which may reside in the written word. In the story the on orphans, weird author Colston says to his friend Marsh, “You are brave enough to read me in a street-car, butin a deserted housealonein the forestat night!

Bah! I have a manuscript in my pocket that would kill you!” Marsh reads the manuscript in “the suitable surroundings”and it does kill him. “The Middle Toe of the Right Foot” is clumsily developed, but has a powerful climax. A man named Manton has horribly killed his two children and his wife, the latter of whom lacked the middle toe of the resume letter teacher aide, right foot. Ten years later he returns much altered to on orphans the neighbourhood; and, being secretly recognised, is provoked into a bowie-knife duel in the dark, to be held in the now abandoned house where his crime was committed. When the moment of the of sisyphus essay, duel arrives a trick is played upon him; and he is left without an antagonist, shut in a night-black ground floor room of the reputedly haunted edifice, with the thick dust of dissertations, a decade on the myth essay questions every hand. No knife is drawn against him, for dissertations only a thorough scare is intended; but on truman doctrine and marshall plan essay the next day he is dissertations, found crouched in a corner with distorted face, dead of sheer fright at something he has seen. The only clue visible to the discoverers is one having terrible implications: “In the dust of years that lay thick upon the floorleading from the door by which they had entered, straight across the room to resume aide within a yard of Manton’s crouching corpsewere three parallel lines of footprintslight but definite impressions of bare feet, the outer ones those of small children, the inner a woman’s. From the point at which they ended they did not return; they pointed all one way.” And, of course, the woman’s prints shewed a lack of the middle toe of the right foot. “The Spook House”, told with a severely homely air of journalistic verisimilitude, conveys terrible hints of shocking mystery. In 1858 an entire family of seven persons disappears suddenly and unaccountably from a plantation house in eastern Kentucky, leaving all its possessions untouchedfurniture, clothing, food supplies, horses, cattle, and slaves. Dissertations On Orphans! About a year later two men of high standing are forced by a storm to take shelter in the deserted dwelling, and in so doing stumble into a strange subterranean room lit by an unaccountable greenish light and having an iron door which cannot be opened from within.

In this room lie the decayed corpses of all the missing family; and as one of the discoverers rushes forward to hedda gabler essay embrace a body he seems to recognise, the other is so overpowered by a strange foetor that he accidentally shuts his companion in the vault and loses consciousness. Recovering his senses six weeks later, the survivor is unable to find the hidden room; and the house is burned during the Civil War. The imprisoned discoverer is never seen or heard of again. Bierce seldom realises the atmospheric possibilities of his themes as vividly as Poe; and much of his work contains a certain touch of naiveté, prosaic angularity, or early-American provincialism which contrasts somewhat with the efforts of dissertations, later horror-masters. Nevertheless the genuineness and artistry of gabler, his dark intimations are always unmistakable, so that his greatness is in no danger of eclipse. As arranged in dissertations, his definitively collected works, Bierce’s weird tales occur mainly in two volumes, Can Such Things Be? and In the Midst of Life. The former, indeed, is almost wholly given over to resume cover aide the supernatural. Much of the best in American horror-literature has come from pens not mainly devoted to that medium.

Oliver Wendell Holmes’s historic Elsie Venner suggests with admirable restraint an dissertations on orphans unnatural ophidian element in a young woman pre-natally influenced, and sustains the atmosphere with finely discriminating landscape touches. Isb Essay 2008! In The Turn of the Screw Henry James triumphs over his inevitable pomposity and prolixity sufficiently well to create a truly potent air of sinister menace; depicting the hideous influence of two dead and evil servants, Peter Quint and the governess Miss Jessel, over a small boy and girl who had been under their care. James is perhaps too diffuse, too unctuously urbane, and dissertations, too much addicted to subtleties of speech to realise fully all the wild and devastating horror in his situations; but for all that there is a rare and mounting tide of fright, culminating in the death of the little boy, which gives the novelette a permanent place in its special class. F. Marion Crawford produced several weird tales of varying quality, now collected in a volume entitled Wandering Ghosts. “For the Blood Is the Life” touches powerfully on how do a website style a case of moon-cursed vampirism near an ancient tower on dissertations on orphans the rocks of the how do you reference essay harvard, lonely South Italian sea-coast. “The Dead Smile” treats of family horrors in an old house and an ancestral vault in Ireland, and introduces the banshee with considerable force. “The Upper Berth”, however, is Crawford’s weird masterpiece; and is one of the most tremendous horror-stories in all literature. In this tale of a suicide-haunted stateroom such things as the spectral salt-water dampness, the on orphans, strangely open porthole, and argumentative essay men women, the nightmare struggle with the dissertations, nameless object are handled with incomparable dexterity. Very genuine, though not without the typical mannered extravagance of the eighteen-nineties, is the strain of horror in the early work of Robert W. Essay! Chambers, since renowned for products of a very different quality. On Orphans! The King in Yellow, a series of vaguely connected short stories having as a background a monstrous and suppressed book whose perusal brings fright, madness, and spectral tragedy, really achieves notable heights of cosmic fear in how do you reference a website harvard style, spite of uneven interest and a somewhat trivial and affected cultivation of the Gallic studio atmosphere made popular by Du Maurier’s Trilby. The most powerful of its tales, perhaps, is “The Yellow Sign”, in dissertations on orphans, which is introduced a silent and terrible churchyard watchman with a face like a puffy grave-worm’s. A boy, describing a tussle he has had with this creature, shivers and sickens as he relates a certain detail. “Well, sir, it’s Gawd’s truth that when I ’it ’im ’e grabbed me wrists, sir, and when I twisted ’is soft, mushy fist one of ’is fingers come off in cover letter teacher aide, me ’and.” An artist, who after seeing him has shared with another a strange dream of a nocturnal hearse, is shocked by the voice with which the watchman accosts him. The fellow emits a muttering sound that fills the head like thick oily smoke from a fat-rendering vat or an dissertations on orphans odour of noisome decay.

What he mumbles is merely this: “Have you found the Yellow Sign?” A weirdly hieroglyphed onyx talisman, picked up in the street by the sharer of his dream, is resume cover letter teacher, shortly given the artist; and after stumbling queerly upon dissertations, the hellish and forbidden book of horrors the two learn, among other hideous things which no sane mortal should know, that this talisman is indeed the nameless Yellow Sign handed down from the accursed cult of Hasturfrom primordial Carcosa, whereof the volume treats, and some nightmare memory of which seems to lurk latent and resume letter, ominous at dissertations the back of all men’s minds. Soon they hear the rumbling of the black-plumed hearse driven by the flabby and corpse-faced watchman. He enters the night-shrouded house in quest of the a website in an essay harvard style, Yellow Sign, all bolts and on orphans, bars rotting at his touch. And when the people rush in, drawn by a scream that no human throat could utter, they find three forms on the floortwo dead and one dying. One of the dead shapes is far gone in decay. It is the truman plan essay, churchyard watchman, and the doctor exclaims, “That man must have been dead for months.” It is worth observing that the author derives most of the dissertations on orphans, names and allusions connected with his eldritch land of primal memory from the tales of Ambrose Bierce. Letter Aide! Other early works of Mr. Chambers displaying the outré and macabre element are The Maker of Moons and In Search of the Unknown. On Orphans! One cannot help regretting that he did not further develop a vein in which he could so easily have become a recognised master.

Horror material of authentic force may be found in the work of the New England realist Mary E. Wilkins; whose volume of short tales, The Wind in the Rose-Bush, contains a number of noteworthy achievements. In “The Shadows on the Wall” we are shewn with consummate skill the response of hedda gabler, a staid New England household to uncanny tragedy; and the sourceless shadow of the poisoned brother well prepares us for the climactic moment when the shadow of the secret murderer, who has killed himself in dissertations, a neighbouring city, suddenly appears beside it. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in “The Yellow Wall Paper”, rises to a classic level in subtly delineating the madness which crawls over hedda gabler a woman dwelling in dissertations, the hideously papered room where a madwoman was once confined. In “The Dead Valley” the eminent architect and mediaevalist Ralph Adams Cram achieves a memorably potent degree of vague regional horror through subtleties of gabler essay, atmosphere and description. Still further carrying on our spectral tradition is the gifted and versatile humourist Irvin S. Cobb, whose work both early and recent contains some finely weird specimens. “Fishhead”, an early achievement, is banefully effective in its portrayal of unnatural affinities between a hybrid idiot and on orphans, the strange fish of an isolated lake, which at the last avenge their biped kinsman’s murder. Later work of Mr. Cobb introduces an doctrine plan essay element of possible science, as in the tale of hereditary memory where a modern man with a negroid strain utters words in African jungle speech when run down by a train under visual and aural circumstances recalling the maiming of his black ancestor by a rhinoceros a century before. Extremely high in artistic stature is the novel The Dark Chamber (1927), by the late Leonard Cline.

This is the tale of a man whowith the characteristic ambition of the Gothic or Byronic hero-villainseeks to defy Nature and dissertations, recapture every moment of his past life through the abnormal stimulation of memory. To this end he employs endless notes, records, mnemonic objects, and picturesand finally odours, music, and exotic drugs. At last his ambition goes beyond his personal life and reaches toward the black abysses of hereditary memoryeven back to pre-human days amidst the steaming swamps of the Carboniferous age, and to still more unimaginable deeps of primal time and entity. He calls for madder music and argumentative essay men women, takes stronger drugs, and dissertations, finally his great dog grows oddly afraid of him. A noxious animal stench encompasses him, and truman essay, he grows vacant-faced and sub-human. In the end he takes to the woods, howling at night beneath windows. He is finally found in a thicket, mangled to death. Beside him is the mangled corpse of his dog.

They have killed each other. The atmosphere of this novel is malevolently potent, much attention being paid to the central figure’s sinister home and household. A less subtle and well-balanced but nevertheless highly effective creation is Herbert S. Gorman’s novel, The Place Called Dagon, which relates the dark history of a western Massachusetts backwater where the on orphans, descendants of refugees from the Salem witchcraft still keep alive the truman and marshall plan, morbid and degenerate horrors of the Black Sabbat. Sinister House, by Leland Hall, has touches of magnificent atmosphere but is marred by a somewhat mediocre romanticism. Very notable in dissertations on orphans, their way are some of the weird conceptions of the novelist and short-story writer Edward Lucas White, most of whose themes arise from actual dreams. “The Song of the Sirens” has a very pervasive strangeness, while such things as “Lukundoo” and “The Snout” rouse darker apprehensions. You Reference In An Essay Harvard! Mr. Dissertations! White imparts a very peculiar quality to teacher his talesan oblique sort of glamour which has its own distinctive type of convincingness. Of younger Americans, none strikes the note of cosmic terror so well as the California poet, artist, and fictionist Clark Ashton Smith, whose bizarre writings, drawings, paintings, and stories are the on orphans, delight of a sensitive few.

Mr. Smith has for essay his background a universe of remote and paralysing frightjungles of poisonous and iridescent blossoms on on orphans the moons of Saturn, evil and hedda, grotesque temples in Atlantis, Lemuria, and forgotten elder worlds, and dank morasses of spotted death-fungi in spectral countries beyond earth’s rim. His longest and dissertations on orphans, most ambitious poem, The Hashish-Eater, is in pentameter blank verse; and opens up chaotic and incredible vistas of kaleidoscopic nightmare in the spaces between the stars. In sheer daemonic strangeness and fertility of resume cover teacher, conception, Mr. Smith is perhaps unexcelled by any other writer dead or living. Who else has seen such gorgeous, luxuriant, and feverishly distorted visions of infinite spheres and multiple dimensions and lived to tell the tale? His short stories deal powerfully with other galaxies, worlds, and dimensions, as well as with strange regions and aeons on the earth. He tells of primal Hyperborea and its black amorphous god Tsathoggua; of the lost continent Zothique, and of the fabulous, vampire-curst land of Averoigne in mediaeval France. Some of Mr. Smith’s best work can be found in the brochure entitled The Double Shadow and Other Fantasies (1933). Recent British literature, besides including the three or four greatest fantaisistes of the dissertations, present age, has been gratifyingly fertile in hedda gabler, the element of the weird.

Rudyard Kipling has often approached it; and has, despite the omnipresent mannerisms, handled it with indubitable mastery in dissertations on orphans, such tales as “The Phantom ’Rickshaw”, “ ‘The Finest Story in the World’ ”, “The Recrudescence of Imray”, and “The Mark of the Beast”. This latter is of particular poignancy; the pictures of the naked leper-priest who mewed like an otter, of the spots which appeared on the chest of the man that priest cursed, of the growing carnivorousness of the victim and of the fear which horses began to display toward him, and of the eventually half-accomplished transformation of that victim into a leopard, being things which no reader is ever likely to forget. The final defeat of the argumentative men women, malignant sorcery does not impair the force of the tale or the validity of its mystery. Lafcadio Hearn, strange, wandering, and exotic, departs still farther from the realm of the real; and on orphans, with the truman and marshall essay, supreme artistry of a sensitive poet weaves phantasies impossible to on orphans an author of the solid roast-beef type. His Fantastics, written in America, contains some of the the myth of sisyphus, most impressive ghoulishness in all literature; whilst his Kwaidan, written in Japan, crystallises with matchless skill and dissertations, delicacy the eerie lore and whispered legends of that richly colourful nation. Still more of Hearn’s weird wizardry of language is shewn in some of his translations from the French, especially from Gautier and Flaubert. His version of the men women, latter’s Temptation of St. Anthony is a classic of fevered and riotous imagery clad in the magic of singing words.

Oscar Wilde may likewise be given a place amongst weird writers, both for certain of his exquisite fairy tales, and for his vivid Picture of Dorian Gray, in dissertations, which a marvellous portrait for years assumes the duty of ageing and isb essay 2008, coarsening instead of its original, who meanwhile plunges into every excess of vice and crime without the outward loss of on orphans, youth, beauty, and teacher aide, freshness. There is a sudden and potent climax when Dorian Gray, at on orphans last become a murderer, seeks to destroy the essay, painting whose changes testify to dissertations on orphans his moral degeneracy. He stabs it with a knife, and a hideous cry and crash are heard; but when the servants enter they find it in all its pristine loveliness. Truman And Marshall Essay! “Lying on the floor was a dead man, in evening dress, with a knife in his heart. He was withered, wrinkled, and loathsome of visage. It was not till they had examined the rings that they recognised who it was.” Matthew Phipps Shiel, author of on orphans, many weird, grotesque, and adventurous novels and tales, occasionally attains a high level of horrific magic. “Xélucha” is a noxiously hideous fragment, but is excelled by isb essay 2008, Mr. Shiel’s undoubted masterpiece, “The House of Sounds”, floridly written in the “yellow ’nineties”, and re-cast with more artistic restraint in the early twentieth century. This story, in final form, deserves a place among the foremost things of its kind. It tells of a creeping horror and menace trickling down the centuries on a sub-arctic island off the coast of Norway; where, amidst the sweep of daemon winds and the ceaseless din of dissertations on orphans, hellish waves and cataracts, a vengeful dead man built a brazen tower of terror.

It is vaguely like, yet infinitely unlike, Poe’s “Fall of the House of Usher”. In the novel The Purple Cloud Mr. Shiel describes with tremendous power a curse which came out of the arctic to destroy mankind, and which for a time appears to have left but a single inhabitant on our planet. The sensations of this lone survivor as he realises his position, and argumentative, roams through the corpse-littered and treasure-strown cities of the world as their absolute master, are delivered with a skill and artistry falling little short of actual majesty. Unfortunately the second half of the book, with its conventionally romantic element, involves a distinct “letdown”.

Better known than Shiel is the on orphans, ingenious Bram Stoker, who created many starkly horrific conceptions in resume cover letter, a series of on orphans, novels whose poor technique sadly impairs their net effect. The Lair of the White Worm, dealing with a gigantic primitive entity that lurks in a vault beneath an ancient castle, utterly ruins a magnificent idea by essay, a development almost infantile. The Jewel of Seven Stars, touching on a strange Egyptian resurrection, is less crudely written. But best of all is the famous Dracula, which has become almost the dissertations, standard modern exploitation of the frightful vampire myth. Count Dracula, a vampire, dwells in a horrible castle in the Carpathians; but finally migrates to England with the design of populating the isb essay 2008, country with fellow vampires.

How an on orphans Englishman fares within Dracula’s stronghold of terrors, and how the dead fiend’s plot for domination is at last defeated, are elements which unite to form a tale now justly assigned a permanent place in English letters. Dracula evoked many similar novels of supernatural horror, among which the best are perhaps The Beetle, by Richard Marsh, Brood of the Witch-Queen, by “Sax Rohmer” (Arthur Sarsfield Ward), and The Door of the Unreal, by Gerald Biss. The latter handles quite dexterously the standard werewolf superstition. Much subtler and more artistic, and doctrine and marshall plan, told with singular skill through the juxtaposed narratives of the several characters, is the on orphans, novel Cold Harbour, by Francis Brett Young, in which an ancient house of strange malignancy is powerfully delineated. The mocking and well-nigh omnipotent fiend Humphrey Furnival holds echoes of the Manfred- Montoni type of early Gothic “villain”, but is redeemed from triteness by cover, many clever individualities. Only the slight diffuseness of dissertations on orphans, explanation at the close, and the somewhat too free use of divination as a plot factor, keep this tale from approaching absolute perfection. In the argumentative, novel Witch Wood John Buchan depicts with tremendous force a survival of the evil Sabbat in a lonely district of dissertations on orphans, Scotland.

The description of the black forest with the evil stone, and of the terrible cosmic adumbrations when the horror is finally extirpated, will repay one for wading through the very gradual action and plethora of Scottish dialect. Some of Mr. Buchan’s short stories are also extremely vivid in hedda essay, their spectral intimations; “The Green Wildebeest”, a tale of dissertations on orphans, African witchcraft, “The Wind in the Portico”, with its awakening of dead Britanno-Roman horrors, and “Skule Skerry”, with its touches of sub-arctic fright, being especially remarkable. Clemence Housman, in the brief novelette “The Were-wolf”, attains a high degree of gabler, gruesome tension and achieves to some extent the dissertations on orphans, atmosphere of authentic folklore. In The Elixir of Life Arthur Ransome attains some darkly excellent effects despite a general naiveté of plot, while H. B. Drake’s The Shadowy Thing summons up strange and terrible vistas. George Macdonald’s Lilith has a compelling bizarrerie all its own; the first and simpler of the two versions being perhaps the more effective.

Deserving of distinguished notice as a forceful craftsman to whom an the myth unseen mystic world is on orphans, ever a close and vital reality is the poet Walter de la Mare, whose haunting verse and exquisite prose alike bear consistent traces of a strange vision reaching deeply into veiled spheres of beauty and terrible and forbidden dimensions of being. In the novel The Return we see the letter, soul of a dead man reach out of its grave of two centuries and fasten itself upon the flesh of the living, so that even the face of the victim becomes that which had long ago returned to dust. Of the shorter tales, of on orphans, which several volumes exist, many are unforgettable for their command of fear’s and sorcery’s darkest ramifications; notably “Seaton’s Aunt”, in which there lowers a noxious background of isb essay 2008, malignant vampirism; “The Tree”, which tells of a frightful vegetable growth in the yard of dissertations, a starving artist; “Out of the Deep”, wherein we are given leave to imagine what thing answered the summons of a dying wastrel in a dark lonely house when he pulled a long-feared bell-cord in the attic chamber of his dread-haunted boyhood; “A Recluse”, which hints at what sent a chance guest flying from a house in the night; “Mr. Kempe”, which shews us a mad clerical hermit in quest of the human soul, dwelling in a frightful sea-cliff region beside an archaic abandoned chapel; and argumentative, “All-Hallows”, a glimpse of daemoniac forces besieging a lonely mediaeval church and on orphans, miraculously restoring the rotting masonry. De la Mare does not make fear the sole or even the resume letter aide, dominant element of most of his tales, being apparently more interested in the subtleties of character involved.

Occasionally he sinks to sheer whimsical phantasy of the Barrie order. Still, he is dissertations, among the very few to doctrine essay whom unreality is a vivid, living presence; and as such he is able to put into his occasional fear-studies a keen potency which only a rare master can achieve. His poem “The Listeners” restores the Gothic shudder to modern verse. The weird short story has fared well of on orphans, late, an important contributor being the versatile E. F. Isb Essay 2008! Benson, whose “The Man Who Went Too Far” breathes whisperingly of a house at the edge of a dark wood, and of Pan’s hoof-mark on the breast of a dead man. Mr. Benson’s volume, Visible and Invisible, contains several stories of singular power; notably “Negotium Perambulans”, whose unfolding reveals an abnormal monster from an ancient ecclesiastical panel which performs an act of miraculous vengeance in dissertations on orphans, a lonely village on the Cornish coast, and “The Horror-Horn”, through which lopes a terrible half-human survival dwelling on essay unvisited Alpine peaks. “The Face”, in another collection, is lethally potent in its relentless aura of doom. H. R. Wakefield, in his collections They Return at Evening and Others Who Return, manages now and then to achieve great heights of horror despite a vitiating air of sophistication. The most notable stories are “The Red Lodge” with its slimy aqueous evil, “‘He Cometh and He Passeth By’”, “‘And He Shall Sing . . .’”, “The Cairn”, “‘Look Up There!’”, “Blind Man’s Buff”, and on orphans, that bit of lurking millennial horror, “The Seventeenth Hole at Duncaster”. Mention has been made of the weird work of H. G. Wells and argumentative men women, A. Conan Doyle.

The former, in “The Ghost of Fear”, reaches a very high level; while all the items in Thirty Strange Stories have strong fantastic implications. Doyle now and then struck a powerfully spectral note, as in “The Captain of the ‘Pole-Star’ ”, a tale of arctic ghostliness, and “Lot No. On Orphans! 249”, wherein the reanimated mummy theme is used with more than ordinary skill. Hugh Walpole, of the same family as the how do you reference in an, founder of Gothic fiction, has sometimes approached the bizarre with much success; his short story “Mrs. On Orphans! Lunt” carrying a very poignant shudder. John Metcalfe, in the collection published as The Smoking Leg, attains now and then a rare pitch of potency; the tale entitled “The Bad Lands” containing graduations of horror that strongly savour of isb essay 2008, genius. More whimsical and inclined toward the amiable and dissertations, innocuous phantasy of Sir J. M. Barrie are the short tales of and marshall plan essay, E. M. Dissertations! Forster, grouped under the title of The Celestial Omnibus. Of these only one, dealing with a glimpse of Pan and his aura of fright, may be said to isb essay 2008 hold the true element of on orphans, cosmic horror. Mrs. H. D. Everett, though adhering to very old and conventional models, occasionally reaches singular heights of spiritual terror in her collection of short stories.

L. P. Hartley is notable for his incisive and extremely ghastly tale, “A Visitor from Down Under”. May Sinclair’s Uncanny Stories contain more of traditional occultism than of that creative treatment of fear which marks mastery in essay, this field, and are inclined to dissertations lay more stress on human emotions and psychological delving than upon the stark phenomena of a cosmos utterly unreal. Essay! It may be well to remark here that occult believers are probably less effective than materialists in delineating the spectral and the fantastic, since to them the phantom world is so commonplace a reality that they tend to refer to dissertations it with less awe, remoteness, and impressiveness than do those who see in it an absolute and stupendous violation of the natural order. Of rather uneven stylistic quality, but vast occasional power in its suggestion of lurking worlds and beings behind the ordinary surface of life, is the resume letter, work of William Hope Hodgson, known today far less than it deserves to be. Despite a tendency toward conventionally sentimental conceptions of the universe, and of man’s relation to it and to his fellows, Mr. Dissertations On Orphans! Hodgson is perhaps second only to Algernon Blackwood in his serious treatment of essay men women, unreality. Few can equal him in adumbrating the nearness of nameless forces and monstrous besieging entities through casual hints and insignificant details, or in conveying feelings of the spectral and the abnormal in connexion with regions or buildings. In The Boats of the “Glen Carrig” (1907) we are shewn a variety of malign marvels and on orphans, accursed unknown lands as encountered by how do you reference a website, the survivors of a sunken ship. The brooding menace in the earlier parts of the book is impossible to surpass, though a letdown in the direction of ordinary romance and adventure occurs toward the end.

An inaccurate and pseudo-romantic attempt to dissertations on orphans reproduce eighteenth-century prose detracts from the general effect, but the really profound nautical erudition everywhere displayed is a compensating factor. The House on the Borderland (1908)perhaps the greatest of all Mr. Hodgson’s workstells of in an essay harvard, a lonely and evilly regarded house in Ireland which forms a focus for hideous other-world forces and dissertations, sustains a siege by gabler, blasphemous hybrid anomalies from a hidden abyss below. The wanderings of the dissertations on orphans, narrator’s spirit through limitless light-years of cosmic space and kalpas of eternity, and its witnessing of the solar system’s final destruction, constitute something almost unique in standard literature. And everywhere there is men women, manifest the author’s power to suggest vague, ambushed horrors in natural scenery. But for a few touches of commonplace sentimentality this book would be a classic of the first water. The Ghost Pirates (1909), regarded by Mr. Hodgson as rounding out a trilogy with the two previously mentioned works, is a powerful account of a doomed and haunted ship on its last voyage, and of the dissertations, terrible sea-devils (of quasi-human aspect, and perhaps the spirits of hedda gabler essay, bygone buccaneers) that besiege it and dissertations on orphans, finally drag it down to an unknown fate. With its command of maritime knowledge, and its clever selection of hints and incidents suggestive of latent horrors in essay men women, Nature, this book at times reaches enviable peaks of dissertations on orphans, power. The Night Land (1912) is resume letter, a long-extended (583 pp.) tale of the earth’s infinitely remote futurebillions of billions of years ahead, after the death of the sun.

It is dissertations, told in a rather clumsy fashion, as the dreams of a man in the seventeenth century, whose mind merges with its own future incarnation; and is seriously marred by painful verboseness, repetitiousness, artificial and nauseously sticky romantic sentimentality, and an attempt at archaic language even more grotesque and absurd than that in “Glen Carrig”. Allowing for the myth of sisyphus essay questions all its faults, it is yet one of the most potent pieces of macabre imagination ever written. The picture of a night-black, dead planet, with the remains of the human race concentrated in a stupendously vast metal pyramid and on orphans, besieged by monstrous, hybrid, and altogether unknown forces of the darkness, is something that no reader can ever forget. Of Sisyphus! Shapes and dissertations, entities of an altogether non-human and inconceivable sortthe prowlers of the black, man-forsaken, and unexplored world outside the pyramidare suggested and partly described with ineffable potency; while the letter aide, night-bound landscape with its chasms and slopes and dying volcanism takes on an almost sentient terror beneath the author’s touch. Midway in the book the central figure ventures outside the pyramid on a quest through death-haunted realms untrod by man for millions of yearsand in dissertations on orphans, his slow, minutely described, day-by-day progress over unthinkable leagues of immemorial blackness there is a sense of cosmic alienage, breathless mystery, and terrified expectancy unrivalled in the whole range of literature. Essay! The last quarter of the book drags woefully, but fails to spoil the tremendous power of the whole. Mr. Hodgson’s later volume, Carnacki, the Ghost-Finder, consists of several longish short stories published many years before in magazines.

In quality it falls conspicuously below the level of the dissertations on orphans, other books. We here find a more or less conventional stock figure of the “infallible detective” typethe progeny of M. Dupin and Sherlock Holmes, and the close kin of Algernon Blackwood’s John Silencemoving through scenes and events badly marred by isb essay 2008, an atmosphere of professional “occultism”. A few of the episodes, however, are of undeniable power; and afford glimpses of the dissertations on orphans, peculiar genius characteristic of the author. Naturally it is impossible in a brief sketch to trace out all the classic modern uses of the terror element. The ingredient must of necessity enter into all work both prose and verse treating broadly of life; and we are therefore not surprised to cover aide find a share in such writers as the poet Browning, whose “Childe Roland to dissertations the Dark Tower Came ” is instinct with hideous menace, or the argumentative essay men women, novelist Joseph Conrad, who often wrote of the dark secrets within the on orphans, sea, and of the daemoniac driving power of resume aide, Fate as influencing the lives of lonely and maniacally resolute men.

Its trail is one of infinite ramifications; but we must here confine ourselves to its appearance in a relatively unmixed state, where it determines and dominates the work of art containing it. Somewhat separate from the main British stream is that current of weirdness in dissertations, Irish literature which came to the fore in the Celtic Renaissance of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Ghost and fairy lore have always been of essay style, great prominence in Ireland, and for over an hundred years have been recorded by a line of such faithful transcribers and translators as William Carleton, T. Dissertations On Orphans! Crofton Croker, Lady Wildemother of isb essay 2008, Oscar WildeDouglas Hyde, and W. B. Yeats. Brought to notice by dissertations, the modern movement, this body of myth has been carefully collected and studied; and its salient features reproduced in how do you reference a website essay harvard, the work of later figures like Yeats, J. M. Synge, “A. E.”, Lady Gregory, Padraic Colum, James Stephens, and their colleagues. Whilst on the whole more whimsically fantastic than terrible, such folklore and its consciously artistic counterparts contain much that falls truly within the domain of dissertations, cosmic horror. The Myth Of Sisyphus Questions! Tales of burials in sunken churches beneath haunted lakes, accounts of death-heralding banshees and sinister changelings, ballads of spectres and “the unholy creatures of the raths”all these have their poignant and definite shivers, and mark a strong and distinctive element in weird literature. Despite homely grotesqueness and absolute naiveté, there is genuine nightmare in the class of narrative represented by the yarn of Teig O’Kane, who in punishment for his wild life was ridden all night by a hideous corpse that demanded burial and drove him from churchyard to dissertations churchyard as the dead rose up loathsomely in each one and refused to accommodate the the myth of sisyphus essay questions, newcomer with a berth. Dissertations On Orphans! Yeats, undoubtedly the greatest figure of the Irish revival if not the greatest of all living poets, has accomplished notable things both in original work and in the codification of old legends.

The best horror-tales of today, profiting by letter teacher, the long evolution of the dissertations, type, possess a naturalness, convincingness, artistic smoothness, and skilful intensity of appeal quite beyond comparison with anything in the Gothic work of essay questions, a century or more ago. Technique, craftsmanship, experience, and psychological knowledge have advanced tremendously with the passing years, so that much of the older work seems naive and artificial; redeemed, when redeemed at all, only by a genius which conquers heavy limitations. The tone of dissertations, jaunty and inflated romance, full of false motivation and investing every conceivable event with a counterfeit significance and carelessly inclusive glamour, is now confined to lighter and more whimsical phases of supernatural writing. Serious weird stories are either made realistically intense by close consistency and perfect fidelity to Nature except in the one supernatural direction which the author allows himself, or else cast altogether in the realm of essay, phantasy, with atmosphere cunningly adapted to the visualisation of a delicately exotic world of unreality beyond space and time, in which almost anything may happen if it but happen in true accord with certain types of dissertations on orphans, imagination and illusion normal to the sensitive human brain. This, at least, is the dominant tendency; though of course many great contemporary writers slip occasionally into some of the flashy postures of immature romanticism, or into bits of the equally empty and absurd jargon of pseudo-scientific “occultism”, now at one of its periodic high tides. Mr. Machen, with an impressionable Celtic heritage linked to keen youthful memories of the wild domed hills, archaic forests, and cryptical Roman ruins of the Gwent countryside, has developed an imaginative life of rare beauty, intensity, and historic background. He has absorbed the mediaeval mystery of dark woods and ancient customs, and is a champion of the Middle Ages in all thingsincluding the hedda, Catholic faith. He has yielded, likewise, to dissertations on orphans the spell of the Britanno-Roman life which once surged over his native region; and finds strange magic in the fortified camps, tessellated pavements, fragments of statues, and kindred things which tell of the day when classicism reigned and Latin was the language of the country. A young American poet, Frank Belknap Long, Jun., has well summarised this dreamer’s rich endowments and isb essay 2008, wizardry of dissertations on orphans, expression in the sonnet “On Reading Arthur Machen”: “There is a glory in the autumn wood;

The ancient lanes of England wind and climb. Past wizard oaks and gorse and tangled thyme. To where a fort of mighty empire stood: There is a glamour in the autumn sky; The reddened clouds are writhing in hedda gabler essay, the glow. Of some great fire, and there are glints below. Of tawny yellow where the on orphans, embers die.

High-rais’d in splendour, sharp against essay men women the North, The Roman eagles, and thro’ mists of gold. The marching legions as they issue forth: I wait, for I would share with him again. The ancient wisdom, and the ancient pain.” Of Mr. Machen’s horror-tales the most famous is perhaps “The Great God Pan” (1894), which tells of a singular and terrible experiment and dissertations on orphans, its consequences. A young woman, through surgery of the brain-cells, is made to see the vast and monstrous deity of Nature, and becomes an idiot in consequence, dying less than a year later. Years afterward a strange, ominous, and the myth, foreign-looking child named Helen Vaughan is placed to board with a family in rural Wales, and dissertations, haunts the woods in unaccountable fashion. A little boy is thrown out of his mind at sight of isb essay 2008, someone or something he spies with her, and a young girl comes to a terrible end in similar fashion.

All this mystery is strangely interwoven with the Roman rural deities of the place, as sculptured in on orphans, antique fragments. After another lapse of years, a woman of strangely exotic beauty appears in society, drives her husband to horror and death, causes an artist to paint unthinkable paintings of Witches’ Sabbaths, creates an epidemic of suicide among the men of her acquaintance, and is finally discovered to be a frequenter of the isb essay 2008, lowest dens of vice in London, where even the most callous degenerates are shocked at her enormities. Through the on orphans, clever comparing of notes on the part of those who have had word of her at various stages of her career, this woman is discovered to be the cover letter, girl Helen Vaughan; who is the childby no mortal fatherof the young woman on whom the dissertations on orphans, brain experiment was made. She is a daughter of hideous Pan himself, and at the last is put to death amidst horrible transmutations of form involving changes of sex and a descent to the most primal manifestations of the and marshall plan, life-principle. But the charm of the tale is in the telling. No one could begin to describe the cumulative suspense and ultimate horror with which every paragraph abounds without following fully the precise order in dissertations, which Mr. Hedda Gabler! Machen unfolds his gradual hints and dissertations on orphans, revelations. Melodrama is undeniably present, and coincidence is hedda gabler essay, stretched to a length which appears absurd upon analysis; but in the malign witchery of the tale as a whole these trifles are forgotten, and the sensitive reader reaches the end with only an appreciative shudder and a tendency to repeat the words of one of the on orphans, characters: “It is too incredible, too monstrous; such things can never be in this quiet world. . . . Why, man, if such a case were possible, our earth would be a nightmare.” Less famous and less complex in plot than “The Great God Pan”, but definitely finer in atmosphere and isb essay 2008, general artistic value, is the curious and dimly disquieting chronicle called “The White People”, whose central portion purports to be the diary or notes of a little girl whose nurse has introduced her to some of the forbidden magic and soul-blasting traditions of the noxious witch-cultthe cult whose whispered lore was handed down long lines of on orphans, peasantry throughout Western Europe, and whose members sometimes stole forth at night, one by one, to meet in black woods and lonely places for argumentative essay men women the revolting orgies of the Witches’ Sabbath. Mr. Machen’s narrative, a triumph of skilful selectiveness and restraint, accumulates enormous power as it flows on in a stream of on orphans, innocent childish prattle; introducing allusions to strange “nymphs”, “Dôls”, “voolas”, “White, Green, and Scarlet Ceremonies”, “Aklo letters”, “Chian language”, “Mao games”, and the like.

The rites learned by the nurse from her witch grandmother are taught to how do in an the child by the time she is three years old, and on orphans, her artless accounts of the dangerous secret revelations possess a lurking terror generously mixed with pathos. Evil charms well known to anthropologists are described with juvenile naiveté, and finally there comes a winter afternoon journey into the old Welsh hills, performed under an imaginative spell which lends to the wild scenery an added weirdness, strangeness, and suggestion of essay, grotesque sentience. The details of this journey are given with marvellous vividness, and form to the keen critic a masterpiece of fantastic writing, with almost unlimited power in the intimation of dissertations on orphans, potent hideousness and cosmic aberration. Essay! At length the childwhose age is then thirteencomes upon a cryptic and banefully beautiful thing in the midst of a dark and inaccessible wood. She flees in awe, but is permanently altered and repeatedly revisits the wood. On Orphans! In the end horror overtakes her in a manner deftly prefigured by an anecdote in truman plan, the prologue, but she poisons herself in time. Like the mother of Helen Vaughan in The Great God Pan, she has seen that frightful deity.

She is discovered dead in the dark wood beside the cryptic thing she found; and that thinga whitely luminous statue of Roman workmanship about which dire mediaeval rumours had clusteredis affrightedly hammered into dust by the searchers. In the episodic novel of The Three Impostors, a work whose merit as a whole is somewhat marred by an imitation of the jaunty Stevenson manner, occur certain tales which perhaps represent the high-water mark of Machen’s skill as a terror-weaver. Here we find in its most artistic form a favourite weird conception of the author’s; the notion that beneath the mounds and rocks of the wild Welsh hills dwell subterraneously that squat primitive race whose vestiges gave rise to our common folk legends of fairies, elves, and the “little people”, and whose acts are even now responsible for certain unexplained disappearances, and occasional substitutions of strange dark “changelings” for normal infants. This theme receives its finest treatment in the episode entitled “The Novel of the Black Seal”; where a professor, having discovered a singular identity between certain characters scrawled on Welsh limestone rocks and dissertations, those existing in a website in an harvard, a prehistoric black seal from Babylon, sets out on a course of discovery which leads him to unknown and terrible things. A queer passage in the ancient geographer Solinus, a series of mysterious disappearances in the lonely reaches of Wales, a strange idiot son born to a rural mother after a fright in which her inmost faculties were shaken; all these things suggest to the professor a hideous connexion and on orphans, a condition revolting to cover any friend and respecter of the human race. He hires the idiot boy, who jabbers strangely at times in a repulsive hissing voice, and is subject to odd epileptic seizures. Once, after such a seizure in dissertations, the professor’s study by night, disquieting odours and evidences of and marshall plan, unnatural presences are found; and on orphans, soon after that the professor leaves a bulky document and isb essay 2008, goes into the weird hills with feverish expectancy and strange terror in on orphans, his heart. He never returns, but beside a fantastic stone in the wild country are found his watch, money, and ring, done up with catgut in a parchment bearing the hedda, same terrible characters as those on the black Babylonish seal and the rock in the Welsh mountains. The bulky document explains enough to bring up the most hideous vistas.

Professor Gregg, from the massed evidence presented by the Welsh disappearances, the dissertations, rock inscription, the accounts of ancient geographers, and argumentative essay, the black seal, has decided that a frightful race of on orphans, dark primal beings of immemorial antiquity and wide former diffusion still dwells beneath the resume aide, hills of on orphans, unfrequented Wales. Further research has unriddled the message of the black seal, and hedda gabler, proved that the idiot boy, a son of some father more terrible than mankind, is the heir of monstrous memories and possibilities. That strange night in dissertations on orphans, the study the professor invoked ‘the awful transmutation of the hills’ by the aid of the black seal, and aroused in truman doctrine and marshall plan, the hybrid idiot the horrors of his shocking paternity. He “saw his body swell and become distended as a bladder, while the face blackened. Dissertations! . . You Reference In An Essay Style! .” And then the supreme effects of the invocation appeared, and Professor Gregg knew the stark frenzy of cosmic panic in its darkest form. He knew the abysmal gulfs of abnormality that he had opened, and dissertations, went forth into the wild hills prepared and resigned. He would meet the unthinkable ‘Little People’and his document ends with a rational observation: “If I unhappily do not return from my journey, there is of sisyphus essay, no need to conjure up here a picture of the awfulness of my fate.”

Also in The Three Impostors is the “Novel of the White Powder”, which approaches the absolute culmination of loathsome fright. Francis Leicester, a young law student nervously worn out by seclusion and on orphans, overwork, has a prescription filled by an old apothecary none too careful about the state of his drugs. The substance, it later turns out, is an unusual salt which time and varying temperature have accidentally changed to something very strange and terrible; nothing less, in short, than the mediaeval Vinum Sabbati, whose consumption at the horrible orgies of the Witches’ Sabbath gave rise to shocking transformations andif injudiciously usedto unutterable consequences. Hedda Gabler Essay! Innocently enough, the youth regularly imbibes the powder in a glass of water after meals; and at first seems substantially benefited. Gradually, however, his improved spirits take the form of dissipation; he is dissertations, absent from home a great deal, and appears to have undergone a repellent psychological change. One day an odd livid spot appears on his right hand, and he afterward returns to his seclusion; finally keeping himself shut within his room and admitting none of the household. The doctor calls for an interview, and departs in a palsy of horror, saying that he can do no more in that house. Two weeks later the patient’s sister, walking outside, sees a monstrous thing at the sickroom window; and servants report that food left at the locked door is no longer touched.

Summons at the door bring only a sound of shuffling and a demand in a thick gurgling voice to be let alone. At last an awful happening is reported by a shuddering housemaid. The ceiling of the room below Leicester’s is stained with a hideous black fluid, and a pool of viscid abomination has dripped to the bed beneath. Dr. Haberden, now persuaded to return to the house, breaks down the young man’s door and essay style, strikes again and again with an dissertations iron bar at the blasphemous semi-living thing he finds there. It is “a dark and putrid mass, seething with corruption and hideous rottenness, neither liquid nor solid, but melting and changing”. Hedda Essay! Burning points like eyes shine out of its midst, and before it is despatched it tries to lift what might have been an arm. Soon afterward the physician, unable to endure the memory of what he has beheld, dies at sea while bound for a new life in America. Mr.

Machen returns to the daemoniac “Little People” in “The Red Hand” and “The Shining Pyramid”; and in The Terror, a wartime story, he treats with very potent mystery the effect of man’s modern repudiation of dissertations on orphans, spirituality on the beasts of the world, which are thus led to question his supremacy and to unite for his extermination. Of utmost delicacy, and passing from mere horror into true mysticism, is The Great Return, a story of the Graal, also a product of the war period. Too well known to need description here is the tale of men women, “The Bowmen”; which, taken for authentic narration, gave rise to the widespread legend of the “Angels of Mons”ghosts of the old English archers of Crécy and Agincourt who fought in on orphans, 1914 beside the hard-pressed ranks of England’s glorious “Old Contemptibles”. Mr. Blackwood’s lesser work is marred by several defects such as ethical didacticism, occasional insipid whimsicality, the cover, flatness of benignant supernaturalism, and a too free use of the trade jargon of dissertations, modern “occultism”. A fault of his more serious efforts is that diffuseness and long-windedness which results from an cover aide excessively elaborate attempt, under the handicap of on orphans, a somewhat bald and journalistic style devoid of intrinsic magic, colour, and vitality, to visualise precise sensations and nuances of uncanny suggestion. But in spite of all this, the major products of Mr. Blackwood attain a genuinely classic level, and essay questions, evoke as does nothing else in literature an awed and convinced sense of the immanence of strange spiritual spheres or entities. The well-nigh endless array of Mr.

Blackwood’s fiction includes both novels and shorter tales, the latter sometimes independent and sometimes arrayed in series. Foremost of all must be reckoned “The Willows”, in which the nameless presences on a desolate Danube island are horribly felt and recognised by a pair of idle voyagers. Dissertations! Here art and restraint in narrative reach their very highest development, and an impression of lasting poignancy is isb essay 2008, produced without a single strained passage or a single false note. Another amazingly potent though less artistically finished tale is “The Wendigo”, where we are confronted by dissertations on orphans, horrible evidences of a vast forest daemon about which North Woods lumbermen whisper at evening. The manner in which certain footprints tell certain unbelievable things is really a marked triumph in craftsmanship. In “An Episode in a Lodging House” we behold frightful presences summoned out of black space by a sorcerer, and “The Listener” tells of the awful psychic residuum creeping about an truman old house where a leper died. In the volume titled Incredible Adventures occur some of the finest tales which the author has yet produced, leading the fancy to wild rites on dissertations nocturnal hills, to secret and terrible aspects lurking behind stolid scenes, and to of sisyphus essay questions unimaginable vaults of mystery below the on orphans, sands and argumentative men women, pyramids of dissertations on orphans, Egypt; all with a serious finesse and delicacy that convince where a cruder or lighter treatment would merely amuse.

Some of these accounts are hardly stories at all, but rather studies in elusive impressions and half-remembered snatches of dream. Plot is of sisyphus questions, everywhere negligible, and atmosphere reigns untrammelled. John SilencePhysician Extraordinary is on orphans, a book of essay questions, five related tales, through which a single character runs his triumphant course. Marred only by traces of the popular and conventional detective-story atmospherefor Dr. Silence is one of those benevolent geniuses who employ their remarkable powers to aid worthy fellow-men in difficultythese narratives contain some of the on orphans, author’s best work, and produce an illusion at once emphatic and lasting. The opening tale, “A Psychical Invasion”, relates what befell a sensitive author in resume letter, a house once the scene of dark deeds, and how a legion of fiends was exorcised. “Ancient Sorceries”, perhaps the dissertations on orphans, finest tale in and marshall essay, the book, gives an almost hypnotically vivid account of an old French town where once the unholy Sabbath was kept by all the people in the form of cats. In “The Nemesis of Fire” a hideous elemental is evoked by new-spilt blood, whilst “Secret Worship” tells of dissertations, a German school where Satanism held sway, and where long afterward an evil aura remained. Resume Letter Teacher Aide! “The Camp of the Dog” is on orphans, a werewolf tale, but is hedda, weakened by moralisation and dissertations, professional “occultism”. Too subtle, perhaps, for definite classification as horror-tales, yet possibly more truly artistic in an absolute sense, are such delicate phantasies as Jimbo or The Centaur. Mr.

Blackwood achieves in these novels a close and palpitant approach to the inmost substance of dream, and works enormous havock with the conventional barriers between reality and imagination. Beauty rather than terror is the keynote of Dunsany’s work. He loves the vivid green of jade and of copper domes, and the myth of sisyphus essay, the delicate flush of sunset on the ivory minarets of impossible dream-cities. Humour and irony, too, are often present to impart a gentle cynicism and modify what might otherwise possess a naive intensity. Nevertheless, as is inevitable in a master of triumphant unreality, there are occasional touches of cosmic fright which come well within the authentic tradition. Dunsany loves to hint slyly and adroitly of monstrous things and dissertations on orphans, incredible dooms, as one hints in a fairy tale. In The Book of isb essay 2008, Wonder we read of Hlo-hlo, the gigantic spider-idol which does not always stay at home; of what the Sphinx feared in the forest; of Slith, the thief who jumps over the edge of the world after seeing a certain light lit and knowing who lit it; of the anthropophagous Gibbelins, who inhabit an evil tower and guard a treasure; of the Gnoles, who live in the forest and from whom it is not well to steal; of the City of Never, and the eyes that watch in the Under Pits; and of kindred things of darkness. Dissertations On Orphans! A Dreamer’s Tales tells of the mystery that sent forth all men from isb essay 2008 Bethmoora in the desert; of the dissertations, vast gate of Perdóndaris, that was carved from a single piece of ivory; and of the isb essay 2008, voyage of poor old Bill, whose captain cursed the crew and paid calls on nasty-looking isles new-risen from the sea, with low thatched cottages having evil, obscure windows. Many of Dunsany’s short plays are replete with spectral fear. In The Gods of the Mountain seven beggars impersonate the seven green idols on a distant hill, and enjoy ease and dissertations, honour in a city of worshippers until they hear that the real idols are missing from their wonted seats. A very ungainly sight in the dusk is reported to gabler them“rock should not walk in dissertations on orphans, the evening”and at last, as they sit awaiting the arrival of a troop of men women, dancers, they note that the approaching footsteps are heavier than those of good dancers ought to be.

Then things ensue, and in the end the on orphans, presumptuous blasphemers are turned to green jade statues by the very walking statues whose sanctity they outraged. But mere plot is the very least merit of cover teacher aide, this marvellously effective play. The incidents and developments are those of a supreme master, so that the whole forms one of the most important contributions of the present age not only to drama, but to literature in general. A Night at on orphans an Inn tells of four thieves who have stolen the emerald eye of Klesh, a monstrous Hindoo god. They lure to their room and succeed in slaying the three priestly avengers who are on their track, but in the night Klesh comes gropingly for isb essay 2008 his eye; and having gained it and departed, calls each of the despoilers out into the darkness for an unnamed punishment. In The Laughter of the Gods there is a doomed city at the jungle’s edge, and a ghostly lutanist heard only by those about to die (cf. Alice’s spectral harpsichord in dissertations on orphans, Hawthorne’s House of the Seven Gables ); whilst The Queen’s Enemies retells the anecdote of the myth of sisyphus, Herodotus in which a vengeful princess invites her foes to a subterranean banquet and lets in the Nile to drown them. But no amount of mere description can convey more than a fraction of on orphans, Lord Dunsany’s pervasive charm. Argumentative Essay! His prismatic cities and unheard-of rites are touched with a sureness which only mastery can engender, and we thrill with a sense of dissertations on orphans, actual participation in his secret mysteries.

To the truly imaginative he is a talisman and a key unlocking rich storehouses of dream and essay, fragmentary memory; so that we may think of him not only on orphans as a poet, but as one who makes each reader a poet as well. The art of Dr. James is by no means haphazard, and in the preface to one of his collections he has formulated three very sound rules for macabre composition. A ghost story, he believes, should have a familiar setting in the modern period, in resume letter, order to approach closely the reader’s sphere of experience. Dissertations! Its spectral phenomena, moreover, should be malevolent rather than beneficent; since fear is the emotion primarily to be excited. And finally, the technical patois of “occultism” or pseudo-science ought carefully to truman plan essay be avoided; lest the on orphans, charm of casual verisimilitude be smothered in unconvincing pedantry. Dr.

James, practicing what he preaches, approaches his themes in a website in an harvard style, a light and dissertations on orphans, often conversational way. Creating the illusion of every-day events, he introduces his abnormal phenomena cautiously and gradually; relieved at every turn by touches of homely and prosaic detail, and sometimes spiced with a snatch or two of antiquarian scholarship. Conscious of the close relation between present weirdness and accumulated tradition, he generally provides remote historical antecedents for his incidents; thus being able to isb essay 2008 utilise very aptly his exhaustive knowledge of the past, and his ready and convincing command of archaic diction and colouring. A favourite scene for a James tale is dissertations, some centuried cathedral, which the author can describe with all the how do you reference a website in an essay harvard, familiar minuteness of a specialist in that field. Sly humorous vignettes and bits of life-like genre portraiture and on orphans, characterisation are often to be found in Dr.

James’s narratives, and serve in isb essay 2008, his skilled hands to dissertations on orphans augment the general effect rather than to spoil it, as the same qualities would tend to do with a lesser craftsman. In inventing a new type of ghost, he has departed considerably from the resume teacher aide, conventional Gothic tradition; for where the older stock ghosts were pale and stately, and apprehended chiefly through the sense of sight, the average James ghost is lean, dwarfish, and hairya sluggish, hellish night-abomination midway betwixt beast and manand usually touched before it is seen. Sometimes the spectre is of still more eccentric composition; a roll of flannel with spidery eyes, or an invisible entity which moulds itself in bedding and shews a face of crumpled linen. Dr. James has, it is clear, an intelligent and scientific knowledge of human nerves and feelings; and knows just how to apportion statement, imagery, and subtle suggestions in order to secure the best results with his readers.

He is an artist in incident and arrangement rather than in atmosphere, and reaches the emotions more often through the intellect than directly. Dissertations! This method, of course, with its occasional absences of truman doctrine and marshall plan essay, sharp climax, has its drawbacks as well as its advantages; and many will miss the thorough atmospheric tension which writers like Machen are careful to build up with words and scenes. Dissertations! But only a few of the tales are open to the charge of tameness. Generally the laconic unfolding of abnormal events in how do you reference in an essay, adroit order is amply sufficient to produce the desired effect of dissertations, cumulative horror. The short stories of Dr. James are contained in four small collections, entitled respectively Ghost-Stories of an Antiquary, More Ghost Stories of an Antiquary, A Thin Ghost and Others, and A Warning to the Curious. There is also a delightful juvenile phantasy, The Five Jars, which has its spectral adumbrations. Amidst this wealth of material it is hard to select a favourite or especially typical tale, though each reader will no doubt have such preferences as his temperament may determine. “Count Magnus” is assuredly one of the best, forming as it does a veritable Golconda of suspense and suggestion. Mr.

Wraxall is an English traveller of the middle nineteenth century, sojourning in Sweden to secure material for essay a book. Dissertations On Orphans! Becoming interested in the ancient family of De la Gardie, near the truman and marshall, village of Råbäck, he studies its records; and finds particular fascination in the builder of the existing manor-house, one Count Magnus, of whom strange and terrible things are whispered. The Count, who flourished early in the seventeenth century, was a stern landlord, and famous for on orphans his severity toward poachers and in an harvard style, delinquent tenants. His cruel punishments were bywords, and on orphans, there were dark rumours of influences which even survived his interment in the great mausoleum he built near the churchas in the case of the two peasants who hunted on his preserves one night a century after his death. There were hideous screams in the woods, and near the tomb of Count Magnus an unnatural laugh and the clang of a great door.

Next morning the priest found the two men; one a maniac, and the other dead, with the flesh of his face sucked from the bones. Mr. Wraxall hears all these tales, and stumbles on more guarded references to a Black Pilgrimage once taken by the Count; a pilgrimage to Chorazin in isb essay 2008, Palestine, one of the dissertations, cities denounced by Our Lord in resume letter aide, the Scriptures, and in which old priests say that Antichrist is to be born. No one dares to hint just what that Black Pilgrimage was, or what strange being or thing the Count brought back as a companion. Meanwhile Mr. Wraxall is increasingly anxious to explore the dissertations on orphans, mausoleum of Count Magnus, and finally secures permission to do so, in the company of a deacon. Resume Aide! He finds several monuments and three copper sarcophagi, one of which is the Count’s. On Orphans! Round the edge of essay, this latter are several bands of dissertations on orphans, engraved scenes, including a singular and hideous delineation of a pursuitthe pursuit of a frantic man through a forest by a squat muffled figure with a devil-fish’s tentacle, directed by a tall cloaked man on a neighbouring hillock.

The sarcophagus has three massive steel padlocks, one of argumentative men women, which is lying open on the floor, reminding the on orphans, traveller of a metallic clash he heard the day before when passing the mausoleum and wishing idly that he might see Count Magnus. His fascination augmented, and the key being accessible, Mr. Wraxall pays the of sisyphus essay, mausoleum a second and dissertations on orphans, solitary visit and argumentative men women, finds another padlock unfastened. The next day, his last in Råbäck, he again goes alone to bid the dissertations, long-dead Count farewell. Once more queerly impelled to utter a whimsical wish for a meeting with the buried nobleman, he now sees to his disquiet that only one of the padlocks remains on the great sarcophagus. Even as he looks, that last lock drops noisily to the floor, and there comes a sound as of creaking hinges.

Then the monstrous lid appears very slowly to rise, and isb essay 2008, Mr. Wraxall flees in panic fear without refastening the door of the mausoleum. During his return to England the traveller feels a curious uneasiness about his fellow-passengers on the canal-boat which he employs for the earlier stages. Cloaked figures make him nervous, and dissertations, he has a sense of being watched and followed. Of twenty-eight persons whom he counts, only twenty-six appear at meals; and the missing two are always a tall cloaked man and how do a website style, a shorter muffled figure. Completing his water travel at Harwich, Mr. Dissertations! Wraxall takes frankly to truman and marshall plan flight in a closed carriage, but sees two cloaked figures at a crossroad. Finally he lodges at a small house in dissertations on orphans, a village and spends the time making frantic notes. On the second morning he is resume teacher aide, found dead, and during the inquest seven jurors faint at sight of the body. The house where he stayed is never again inhabited, and upon dissertations, its demolition half a century later his manuscript is discovered in a forgotten cupboard. In “The Treasure of Abbot Thomas” a British antiquary unriddles a cipher on some Renaissance painted windows, and thereby discovers a centuried hoard of you reference a website in an essay harvard style, gold in a niche half way down a well in the courtyard of a German abbey.

But the crafty depositor had set a guardian over that treasure, and dissertations on orphans, something in the black well twines its arms around the searcher’s neck in the myth of sisyphus, such a manner that the quest is abandoned, and dissertations, a clergyman sent for. Each night after that the discoverer feels a stealthy presence and detects a horrible odour of mould outside the door of his hotel room, till finally the clergyman makes a daylight replacement of the stone at the mouth of the treasure-vault in argumentative, the wellout of dissertations, which something had come in the dark to essay men women avenge the disturbing of old Abbot Thomas’s gold. As he completes his work the cleric observes a curious toad-like carving on the ancient well-head, with the Latin motto “Depositum custodi keep that which is committed to thee.” Other notable James tales are “The Stalls of dissertations, Barchester Cathedral”, in which a grotesque carving comes curiously to life to avenge the secret and subtle murder of an old Dean by his ambitious successor; “‘Oh, Whistle, and I’ll Come to You, My Lad’”, which tells of the horror summoned by a strange metal whistle found in a mediaeval church ruin; and “An Episode of essay, Cathedral History”, where the dismantling of a pulpit uncovers an archaic tomb whose lurking daemon spreads panic and pestilence. Dr.

James, for all his light touch, evokes fright and hideousness in their most shocking forms; and dissertations, will certainly stand as one of the few really creative masters in his darksome province. Startling mutations, however, are not to be looked for in either direction. In any case an approximate balance of tendencies will continue to exist; and isb essay 2008, while we may justly expect a further subtilisation of dissertations, technique, we have no reason to think that the general position of the spectral in literature will be altered. It is isb essay 2008, a narrow though essential branch of human expression, and will chiefly appeal as always to a limited audience with keen special sensibilities. Whatever universal masterpiece of on orphans, tomorrow may be wrought from phantasm or terror will owe its acceptance rather to argumentative men women a supreme workmanship than to a sympathetic theme. Yet who shall declare the dark theme a positive handicap?

Radiant with beauty, the Cup of the Ptolemies was carven of onyx.