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books in for research paper, essay It is in essay chicago hard to find in minds otherwise formed [viz., people who have not read the classics], either a real love of excellence, or a belief that any excellence exists superior to their own. Illegal Immigration Paper! (Hazlitt, Round Table.) An art which must be acquired if one is to dissertation sur la contestation paternelle, advance himself or herself, no matter the area of immigration outline for research, pursuit, is to make a list of the best reading material on the subject. Knowing how to read is fundamental, but knowing what to read is in essay citation just as essential. For Research! Education has produced a vast population able to steps to write, read but unable to paper, distinguish what is in pakistan worth reading. ( Trevelyan.) No matter the subject, then, the first question, always is -- What shall I read? Read no mean books, said Emerson who then proceeded to lay down three rules: 1. Outline! Never read any book that is michel de montaigne sparknotes not a year old. 2. Never read any but famed books. 3. Never read any but what you like. Illegal! In short, every book that we take up without a purpose is an michel de montaigne sparknotes, opportunity lost of for research paper, taking up a book with a purpose. One should not be a desultory reader; one should be a purposeful and organized reader. The world is writing ielts structure much too full of books: trivial, enervating, inane, and, even noxious.

It is the illegal outline, case with literature as with life; wherever we turn we come upon the incorrigible mob of thinking questions, humankind, whose name is illegal outline paper Legion, swarming everywhere, damaging everything, as flies in summer. Hence the multiplicity of dissertation filiation paternelle, bad books, those exuberant weeds of immigration, literature which choke the types of critical, true corn. Such books rob the public of time, money, and attention, which ought properly to illegal for research, belong to good literature and noble aims, and they are written with a view merely to make money or occupation. Ielts Essay Structure! They are therefore not merely useless, but injurious. Nine-tenths of our current literature has no other end but to inveigle a thaler or two out of the public pocket, for which purpose author, publisher and printer are leagued together. A more pernicious, subtler, and bolder piece of trickery is that by which penny-a-liners and scribblers succeed in destroying good taste and real culture. . Hence, the illegal immigration for research paper, paramount importance of writing ielts essay, acquiring the art not to read; in illegal, other words, of hour essay, not reading such books as occupy the illegal immigration for research, public mind, or even those which made a noise in dissertation de la filiation, the world, and reach several editions in for research, their first and last years of citation, existence.

We should recollect that he who writes for immigration outline for research fools finds an clep essay for english, enormous audience, and illegal immigration, we should devote the dissertation contestation de la, ever scant leisure of illegal for research paper, our circumscribed existence to the master spirits of all ages and nations, those who tower over steps to write an essay in exam, humanity, and outline, whom the types of critical, voice of illegal outline paper, Fame proclaims: only such writers cultivate and ielts essay structure, instruct us. Illegal For Research! Of bad books we can never read too little; of the good never too much. The bad are intellectual poison and essay for english, undermine the understanding. Immigration For Research Paper! Because people insist on reading not the best books written for all time, but the newest contemporary literature, writers of the for english, day remain in the narrow circle of the same perpetually revolving ideas, and the age continues to wallow in immigration outline, its own mire. . Mere acquired knowledge belongs to us only like a wooden leg and chicago, wax nose. Knowledge attained by immigration for research paper means of thinking resembles our natural limbs, and in essay, is the only kind that really belongs to illegal immigration for research paper, us.

Hence the essay on spring season, difference between the illegal paper, thinker and the pedant. The intellectual possession of the michel sparknotes, independent thinker is like a beautiful picture which stands before us, a living thing with fitting light and shadow, sustained tones, perfect harmony of for research, color. De Montaigne Essays! That of the illegal outline for research paper, merely learned man may be compared to a palette covered with bright colors, perhaps even arranged with some system, but wanting in harmony, coherence and meaning. . Dissertation Sur La Contestation Filiation! Only those writers profit us whose understanding is quicker, more lucid than our own, by illegal immigration whose brain we indeed think for a time, who quicken our thoughts, and lead us whither alone we could not find our way. (Richardson, op. In Essay! cit. , pp. 63-5.) Birrell in another of his essays, Is It Possible to Tell a Good Book from a Bad One? writes as Richardson wrote, the illegal immigration outline for research paper, output of writing essay structure, books is immigration outline for research paper extraordinary and their numbers destroy their reputation. But not only is the outpoint enormous, and what may be called the citation, undergrowth rank, but the illegal immigration, treatment is english too frequently crude. Penmen, as bookwriters are now pleasingly called, in immigration for research paper, their great haste to carry their goods early to questions, market, are too apt to gobble up what they take to be the outline for research, results of dissertation de la paternelle, scientific investigation; and stripping them bare of the illegal immigration paper, conditions and qualifications properly belonging to clep essay for english, scientific methods, to present them to immigration outline, the world as staple truths, fit matter for aesthetic treatment. Steps In Exam! There is outline for research something half comic, half tragic in contestation de la, the almost headlong apprehension of half-born truths by illegal paper half-educated minds. Whilst the in essay citation chicago, serious investigator is carefully sounding his dim and illegal outline for research paper, perilous way, making good his ground as he goes, 'Till captive Science yields her last retreat', these half-inspired dabblers, these ready-reckoners, are already hawking the discovery about the streets, making it the citation, motif of immigration outline paper, their jejune stage-plays and the text of their blatant discourses. Types Of Critical Questions! (Birrell, op. Illegal Immigration Paper! cit. at p. Thinking! 291.) The choice of illegal, books would be greatly aided if the thinking, reader, in taking up a volume, would always ask himself just why he is immigration outline for research going to read it, and of what service it is to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, be to him. Illegal! It should always be borne in essay, mind that the outline, busiest reader must leave unread all but a mere fraction of the good books in the world. I quote, once again: Only a creature possessed of Macaulay's reading power and the leisure of dissertation sur la contestation de la filiation paternelle, St. Simeon Stylites could keep his head above the stream of illegal for research paper, contemporary literature.

Yet even he could be in clep, miserable case. Illegal Immigration Outline Paper! There is 'our magnificent heritage' to be dealt with - the an essay in exam, accumulation of classical English literature. And, vista behind vista, one sees the literature of illegal immigration outline paper, other European nations, stretching back to clep essay, the Greek and Roman classics and frowned over by illegal immigration for research paper those august nightmares, the Sacred Books of the East. What is to be done about It? Even if we allow no time for frivolities and read only citation chicago, those works which 'you really must read,' it has now become impossible for the longest-lived, the most methodical and resolute mortal to outline, get through the michel de montaigne essays, excellent literature which stares at him from the shelves with mute entreaty and reproach. [Too Many Books, Selected Modern English Essays (Oxford University Press, 1927).] For the for research, important question of what to read, one may profitably turn to lists which have already been prepared, provided that such a list has been prepared by a respected authority. For example, for sparknotes the lawyer, who finds his free time to illegal paper, be at a premium, one might look to the article written by the American legal scholar, John H. Dissertation Contestation De La! Wigmore wrote, A List of one Hundred Legal Novels [ Illinois Law Review (1922), # 17, p. Outline! 26] to be of immeasurable help. Wigmore prepared the list with lawyers in mind, his thinking being that lawyers could learn much from the citation, great novel writers of the past. Wigmore broke his list down into outline paper, four categories: (A) Novels in types questions, which some trial scene is described - perhaps including a skilful cross-examination; (B) Novels in which the typical traits of a lawyer or judge, or the ways of professional life, are portrayed;

(C) Novels in which the methods of illegal for research, law in the prosecution and sparknotes, punishment of illegal outline for research, crime are delineated; and. (D) Novels in which some point of law, affecting the english essay on spring season, rights or the conduct of the illegal immigration for research paper, personages, enters into the plot. Though elsewhere I have set forth Wigmore's list let me give an example from hour play each of his categories, as follows: (A) Eliot's Adam Bede (1859); (B) Thackeray's The History of Pendennis (1850); (D) Balzac's Pere Goriot (1834). I might venture to say that a lawyer who has not read at least some of the novels on Wigmore's list is probably going to have a more difficult time trying to size up people, and illegal, sizing up people is one of the principle tasks of a practising lawyer. Emerson, recognizing that during our short life we face a sea of in essay chicago, books, recommended that many might well be read by illegal paper proxy, if we had good proxies. Clep! I have developed the practice to take up with eagerness any book on books where it has been written by outline for research paper an established author. Something I picked up years ago was Great Novelists Their Novels , a book by the children's play W. Illegal Immigration Outline! Somerset Maugham. In this book, Maugham, with great authority, dealt with, among others, Tolstoy, Austen, Stendhal, Bront#235, Flaubert, Dickens, Dostoevsky Melville; together with reviews of each of their great works. Another example of hour, such a book is illegal one that was written by clep essay Arnold Bennett Books and Persons . In this book Bennet deals with, among others: Wordsworth, Conrad, Anatole France, Poe, Wells, Meredith, Trollope, Chesterton, Kipling, Galsworthy, and immigration for research paper, Henry James.

Another, which I have in my library is english season a book by Walter Bagehot (1826-77, a Scottish lawyer to whom, because of his writings, I own much) Literary Studies ( Shelley, Gibbon, Sterne, Scott, Macaulay, Tennyson, Browning, et al.). I leave you, for outline for research paper now, with a thought from Thoreau, How many a man has dated a new era in structure, his life from the reading of a book!

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lise meitner essay A Life in Physics. By Ruth Lewin Sime. Chapter One: Girlhood in Vienna. And even today I am filled with deep gratitude for immigration paper the unusual goodness of michel sparknotes my parents, and the extraordinarily stimulating intellectual atmosphere in which my sisters and brothers and I grew up. Lise Meitner was born in Vienna in 1878, the immigration third child of Hedwig and on spring Philipp Meitner. She would live in Vienna twenty-nine years, and then she would leave, not realizing how permanently, to make her professional home in Berlin. Part of her remained sentimentally, irreversibly Viennese. She gave in to it, laughing at illegal immigration for research herself each time she paid the special fee to maintain her Austrian residency. Na ja, she would shrug.

Foolishness costs money. And later still, after she fled Germany for chicago Stockholm, after every member of her family was gone from Vienna, after the community from which she came was lost forever, even then she clung to her Austrian past, refusing to take Swedish citizenship until she could have both. Had she stayed longer in Vienna, she might not, perhaps, have remained so strongly bound. Of Lise's childhood we have few details. Even her date of birth is not entirely certain. In the birth register of Vienna's Jewish community it is listed as 17 November 1878, but on immigration for research, all other documents it is 7 November, the day Lise herself observed.

It may be that her parents, already ambivalent about their Jewish affiliations, somehow delayed the record, or perhaps the discrepancy was merely a case of Schlamperei, that well-known imprecision that contributed to Vienna's charm. Neither explanation is satisfactory. Lise's name also changed slightly, from in exam its original Elise. Immigration Outline For Research? In Berlin such things might have caused a flurry of english essay on spring in pakistan paperwork; in Vienna it made no difference. Like many of their generation, Lise's parents were recent arrivals in the capital, a move whose sense of future may explain their lack of immigration for research paper attention to a detailed family history. The Meitners traced themselves back only a few generations, to the village of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes Meiethein in Moravia, the fertile region north of Vienna that is illegal immigration, now part of the Czech Republic. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, not long before the Rights of Man began drifting toward Austria, Kaiser Josef II initiated a series of reforms designed to consolidate power and secure the loyalty of all his subjects: he mad German the official language of government, curtailed the Church, gave peasants some relief from serfdom, and granted Jews their first very limited access to civic employment, military service, and in essay education. Immigration? The Kaiser's tolerance did not extend to english essay on spring in pakistan his own environs--fewer than two hundred Jewish families were permitted to live in Vienna--but he cracked the ghetto walls, so that Jews flooded the schools, joined the military, and looked to illegal immigration outline German language md culture for clep its promise of emancipation, opportunity, and humanism. Among Kaiser Josef's administrative reforms was the requirement of a family name.

Lise's great-great,-grandfather took the name Meietheiner, an indication that the family had lived in the village a long time; the name eventually shortened to Meitheiner, Meithner, Meitner. The family lived modestly; if some achieved special distinction, it was for their character and good deeds. Lise's great-grandfather, it was told, crept through the town after dark every Friday night to lay a loaf of challah, the Sabbath bread, at the door of every poor Jew. He did this as secretly as possible and did not permit anyone to thank him, but everyone knew it was the illegal immigration work of Reb Meitner. Reb did not mean rabbi--there were none in the Meitner family--but was a traditional title of respect. Reb Meitner's son Moriz, Lise's grandfather, married Charlotte Kohn Lowy, a widow with two small boys who had inherited an inn, some property, and a guest house in the town of Wsechowitz.

Her granddaughters would remember her as beautiful, well dressed, and as cheerful as she was self-disciplined. The house might burn clown, it was said, and grandmother sings; there is cholera in the village, and still grandmother sings! Moriz and essay for english Charlotte's son, Philipp, was blond and blue-eyed like his mother; like his grandfather, Beb Meitner, he would later be known for his integrity and kindness. Illegal Immigration Outline Paper? In 1873 he married petite, dark-eyed Hedwig Skovran, whose grandfather had emigrated from Russia to types of critical thinking questions Slovakia to immigration escape the ongoing persecution of Jews. Philipp and Hedwig Meitner grew up with Austria's transit on the children's hour essay, from late feudalism to a recognizably modern society. The liberal revolutions of 1848 were crushed in Austria, but the struggle for individual freedoms and national autonomy went on. Industrialization came to illegal paper Vienna and with it, a great internal migration from throughout the empire.

In r858, the medieval fortifications ringing the thinking old inner city were torn down; in their place came the immigration imposing Ringstrasse, grand new public buildings, and essay a parliament with little real power whose Liberal majority pressed for a modern secular state and constitutional government. Immigration Outline? At a time when the to write an essay old order was failing and the very notion of empire was threatened by nationalist dissensions, the illegal for research paper Habsburg monarchy was humiliated by a string of unwise military ventures and steps to write in exam diplomatic blunders. Paper? By 1867, Kaiser Franz Josef saved what he could by dividing the empire md letting Hungary go. To Write An Essay In Exam? He granted his people a number of constitutional laws: national and religious toleration, a laissez-faire economy, an impartial judiciary, greater individual freedoms of outline for research paper education, belief, speech, and press. For Jews, this meant full civic equality, including access to professions from which they had previously been barred. Philipp Meitner was among the first group of Jewish men who were free to study law and be admitted to its practice. In the play essay twenty years from immigration outline paper revolution to constitution (so the steps an essay saying went), Austria had been dragged into the nineteenth century. Illegal Outline For Research Paper? By the time Lise Meitner was born in 1878, imperial Vienna was mostly heater, set with palaces of impossible opulence and a Kaiser, the popular and long-lived Franz Josef. It hardly mattered anymore. The new Vienna was bursting with life of its own, sprawling into of critical the countryside, its population doubling and doubling again with an illegal immigration outline for research influx so constant that for essay generations most Viennese would be born somewhere else: overwhelmingly Catholic with some Jews and virtually no Protestants, mostly German-speaking with large contingents of Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Poles, Croats, Ukrainians, and others who retained their languages and national identities in immigration for research, newspapers and ethnic associations. To many of the steps an essay in exam new arrivals, Vienna was a place of outline for research marginal work and much unemployment, water shortages, and summer cholera, with congestion so severe that even the essay wealthy lived in illegal immigration for research, apartments and the very poor shared beds and slept in the children's hour play, shifts.

The most heterogeneous city in Europe, it was among the most crowded and unsanitary; it had the highest rate of suicide. Illegal Paper? Still people came: conditions in the provinces were not better. Vienna at least promised improvement and pleasure: music of every sort, opera and heater, newspapers by clep for english the dozens, a renowned university, famous physicians and scientists, good food, vineyards at the edge of town, and immigration paper blue hills shimmering hazily in the distance. If the Danube seemed muddy or the waltz overrated, Vienna was beguiling nonetheless, drawing from every stream of European culture, layered with history and beauty every newcomer could aspire to make his own. The intellectual ferment was very great. By the end of the century, Vienna had given birth to Viktor Adler's democratic socialism and types Theodor Herzl's Zionism; it was the home Sigmund Freud loved to hate and the political base For Karl Lueger, the city's longtime mayor, whose heady mix of populism and anti-Semitism drew the rapt attention of the young Adolf Hitler. Immigration? If the nineteenth century came late to this society, the types of critical twentieth arrived early.

When Philipp Meitner entered the illegal for research legal profession in in essay citation chicago, the early 1870s, it was possible not only to practice law but to have a hand in the creation of immigration outline a new political order. The new constitution called for sweeping reforms of Austria's entire legal system, and in Vienna, after years of neglect by Crown and Church, the Liberal city council built an ample water supply and provided flood control and improved public health, hospitals, and schools. It was a time when progress seemed the natural order of things, each decade a noticeable improvement on the one before. As an attorney, freethinker, and in essay humanist, Philipp Meitner was committed to for research paper the Liberal ideals of reason and civic progress, sympathetic to the Social Democratic goals of types of critical justice and individual improvement. He immersed himself in Vienna's political life.

Although he never sought elective office,he and Hedwig made their home a gathering place for interesting people-legislators, writers, chess players, lawyers. The children stayed up and listened. Illegal Outline For Research Paper? Years later, when Lise was asked about in essay citation chicago her childhood, she remembered most of immigration paper all the steps unusual goodness of illegal for research paper my parents, and the extraordinarily stimulating intellectual atmosphere in which my brothers and sisters and I grew up. During Lise's childhood the family lived in the second district, known as Leopoldstadt, just north across the Danube canal from the old city. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? Originally a ghetto, the community was named for illegal for research Leopold I, who expelled Vienna's Jews in the 1600s, then grudgingly permitted them to essay return. For Research Paper? For the essay next two centuries, the number of Jews in the capital remained small, but in the 1860s, when residence restrictions were abolished and illegal immigration outline paper Jews from throughout the empire converged on Vienna, Leopoldstadt grew. Crowded and run-down in some areas, it was pleasant, even somewhat prosperous, in to write an essay in exam, others.

Lise was born in the family apartment at 27 Kaiser Josefstrasse, a tree-lined avenue that traversed Leopoldstadt from a commercial district at one end to the Prater, Vienna's huge park, at the other. For Research Paper? There on steps to write, a Sunday the family could enjoy amusements and cafes, wooded paths and open fields, and even on immigration for research, occasion glimpse the kaiser riding by. On the whole Leopoldstadt was a comfortable place to steps an essay in exam raise a family. The first three Meitner children, Gisela, Auguste (Gust)), and illegal immigration outline Lise, were born only a year apart, followed not quite so rapidly by five more: Moriz (Fritz), Carola (Lola), another boy, Frida, and finally Walter, the baby brother Lise adored, who was born in 1891. Steps In Exam? The large family could afford few luxuries, but Philipp Meitner's law practice did provide the illegal outline paper middle-class essentials: books, a few summer weeks in citation, the mountains, and--virtually a necessity in illegal outline, Vienna--music lessons.

Gusti was the family's most talented musician, a child prodigy who became a composer and pianist of concert rank. Lise played the piano too; all her life music would be a passion for her, as necessary as food. Citation? But she was especially curious about mathematics and science, an eight-year-old who kept a math hook under her pillow and would ask about the colors of an outline for research oil slick and remember what she was told about thin films and the interference effects of reflected light. Clep Essay? In this family children were seen and heard--and expected to think for themselves. Once, when Lise was still very young, her grandmother warned her never to sew on the Sabbath, or the heavens would come tumbling down. Illegal Immigration Outline For Research? Lise was doing some embroidery at the children's hour play the time and decided to make a test.

Placing her needle on immigration paper, the embroidery, she stuck just the tip of clep essay it in and glanced anxiously at the sky, took a stitch, waited again, and illegal then, satisfied that there would be no objections from above, contentedly went on with her work. Along with books, summer hikes, and music, a certain rational skepticism was a constant of Lise's childhood years. Judaism was not one of those constants. In Essay Citation Chicago? In Leopoldstadt the Meitner children lived among Jews, in a neighborhood dotted with synagogues and shuls, fully aware that they too were of Jewish origin. And yet it is clear that the illegal immigration paper family distanced itself from its Jewish past. One of Lise's nephews. Gusti's son, Otto Robert Frisch, would later have the firm impression that his mother and all the Meitner children had been baptized and raised as Protestants. In fact, this was not so: the children were all registered with the Jewish community at birth and steps to write in exam accepted baptism only as adults--Lola and Gisela as Catholics in 1908, Lise as Protestant the same year.

But Frisch's impression was in essence true: the Meitners did leave the old religion for the new. Their reasons were never explicitly stated. Opportunism was apparently not one of outline paper them: Philipp and Hedwig Meitner never baptized their children or themselves and thus derived none of the michel de montaigne essays advantages conversion would have offered, particularly in the legal profession where discrimination remained strong and conversion was still a passport to judgeships and other civil service positions. One can only assume that the Meitner couple lost interest in illegal, Judaism, regarding it as a ghetto relic perhaps, or an undesirable ethnic division; they surely felt little kinship with Leopoldstadt's many Ostjuden, Jews from Galicia and other Austrian-held Polish provinces whose language, dress, and orthodoxy set them apart. Enlightened and progressive, Hedwig and citation chicago Philipp Meitner were drawn to German culture; freshly emancipated, with optimism bordering on faith, they embraced the culture that freed them. By the turn of the century, such optimism must have dimmed somewhat, as the for research paper most charismatic Viennese mayor of all time, the handsome Karl Lueger (der schone Karl), rallied his voters by appealing to their Catholicism, nationalism, and anti-Semitism. It is worth noting that none of the Meitner children followed their father into politics, or even law. But their parents, idealism influenced them nonetheless.

It was part of the unusual goodness Lise remembered, the basis for english essay on spring season the extraordinary intellectual atmosphere that nurtured Lise and the other children in their parents, home. In this atmosphere all the Meitner children, including the five daughters, pursued an advanced education. Even today such a family record would be notable, but at immigration outline for research the time it was truly extraordinary, for until the end of the nineteenth century women were by of critical questions law excluded from Austrian universities and, by the same logic, from rigorous secondary schools as well. While a bright boy might attend a Gymnasium and take the Matura, a leaving examination that was required before entering the university, public school for girls was over at age fourteen, and it was poor. Lise attended the Madchen-Burgerschule at Czerninplatz, a crowded inter section not far from home. On 15 July 1892, she received her final Fahres-Zeugnis, a report card that was also an Entlassungs-Zeugnis, a completion certificate. She had learned bookkeeping arithmetic but not algebra, a smattering of illegal for research paper history, geography, and science, the requisite drawing, singing, and feminine handwork, a little French and gymnastics. Although her grades were all good and her behavior entirely appropriate (vollkommen entsprechend), her diligence was rated only satisfactory (befriedigend) rather than industrious (ausdauernd), an indication that she did not find school very challenging. Inked at the bottom of her Jahres-Zeugnis was the line: vom weiteren Schulbesuch befreit (released from further schooling). For English? Lise had gone as far in public school as an immigration for research paper Austrian girl could go. Not yet fourteen, her choices were few.

Most girls would spend the next few years helping at home, sewing, and daydreaming of marriage. The only way for a girl to go on citation chicago, was to attend a private hohere Tochterschule for young ladies of the middle class; the only profession she could seek was teaching a subject that did not require university education. Lise chose French. Nothing in her contemporary records or later memoirs indicates that she ever had a real interest in it. Instead, she lavished her energy and love on her baby brother, Walter; he would always be her closest sibling. She also tutored younger girls to help pay for Gusti's advanced music lessons and volunteered with the poor in relief organizations and schools. Of these years Lise would remember little but a sense of loss.

Although I had a very marked bent for mathematics and illegal outline physics from my early years, I did not begin a life of study immediately, she wrote later. English On Spring Season In Pakistan? Thinking back to . . . the time of my youth, one realizes with some astonishment how many problems then existed in the lives of ordinary young girls, which now seem almost unimaginable. Among the most difficult of these problems was the possibility of normal intellectual training. In Austria the issue of illegal immigration outline for research higher education for women had been simmering for a generation, certainly since 1867 when universities were first opened to men without regard to michel economic class, religion, or national-origin. Over the years a small number of women had approached the outline for research universities, petitioned professors, begged to essay attend a class or two. Paper? At best they were permitted to sit in as unofficial auditors, not expecting and certainly never receiving any credit or documentation. Most of these women were teachers whose prior education did not qualify them for university admission. But even the few who did qualify--occasionally a young woman from Bohemia or Austrian Poland would somehow manage to attend her local Gymnasium and pass the Matura--were also denied admission. Daughters of the wealthy and the aristocracy were routinely educated in Switzerland.

The rest were trapped in a cycle willed by the state: since the universities (all public institutions) excluded women, the government did not see fit to establish schools that would prepare women for university admission. In Europe, only Germany and Turkey offered more resistance to essay women's education. Toward the illegal immigration outline for research end of the nineteenth century, however, the resistance began to falter. Women's groups, often led by headmistresses of girls, schools, regularly petitioned for improved secondary education; a private Madchengymnasium was established in Vienna in on spring season in pakistan, 1891 even though its graduates were not permitted to take the illegal outline for research Matura; the government itself, urgently needing female physicians for Moslem women in occupied Bosnia and michel de montaigne Herzegovina, recruited foreign women for many years, hired the first Austrian (Swiss-trained) in 1892, but still denied medical certification to other Swiss-trained Austrian women physicians who wished to illegal immigration for research enter private practice, although, at the same time, a highly competent eye surgeon who was born in Russia and trained in Zurich received special permission from the Kaiser to establish a clinic with her husband in Salzburg. Season In Pakistan? Publicity accompanied each case, and opinion gradually softened. It seemed plausible, finally, to suppose that in illegal immigration for research paper, Austria--as in America, France, and in essay citation chicago Switzerland--women could be educated without suffering mental illness or infertility or social catastrophe. By the mid-1890s, even conservative university professors regarded women students as a flood that could no longer be had back. Immigration Outline For Research Paper? In 1897 the government granted women access to the philosophical faculties (letters and sciences) of Austrian universities; a few years later women were admitted to the children's hour play essay medical schools as well.

With this, the cycle of exclusion was thrown into reverse. Justice, and the need for university educated women teachers, required that universities admit women at once, even without Gymnasium preparation. For the immigration for research interim women would be required only to pass the Matura, any way they could. This came as good news--late, but not too late--for Lise and types thinking her sisters. Gisela, already twenty-one, came first. After two years of intensive private lessons, Gisela passed the Matura and entered medical school in 1900. Lise meanwhile completed her teacher training (as insurance, her father advised) and in 1899 began her own lessons in immigration outline for research, a group with two other young women. The Children's Hour? Together they compressed eight missing school years into two: Greek and Latin, mathematics and illegal outline paper physics, botany, zoology, mineralogy, psychology, logic, religion, German literature, history.

Lise studied night and english season day. You'll fail,her younger brothers and sisters would tease. You've just walked across the room without picking up a book. A photograph shows a pale young woman with dark circles under her eyes. For physics and paper mathematics, Lise's group was tutored by Arthur Szarvassy, a young physicist who had just completed his doctorate at the University of Vienna. Dr. Szarvasy [sic] had a real gift for presenting the subject matter of mathematics and the children's play physics in an extraordinarily stimulating manner. Sometimes he was able to show us apparatus in for research, the Vienna University [Physics] Institute, a rarity in private coaching--usually all one was given were figures and diagrams of apparatus. In Essay Citation Chicago? I must confess that I did not always get correct ideas from illegal immigration outline for research these, and steps in exam today it amuses me to think of the astonishment with which I saw certain apparatus for the first time. Lise took the immigration for research paper Matura in of critical, July 1901 at the Akademisches Gymnasium, a distinguished boys' school on-Beethovenplatz in the old city.

The course of study had been so intense and the examination conditions so terrifying--as Externisten (outside students), Lise and the other women were examined in strange surroundings by teachers they had never met-that Lise never failed to for research paper mention it inkier later remembrances. Citation? Of fourteen who took the exam, only four passed; three were the illegal immigration paper students of Dr. Szarvassy. Types Of Critical Thinking? The fourth was Henriette Boltzmann, whose father would soon be a formative influence in Lise's life. Lise would always think of Arthur Szarvassy as her first true teacher. And she was grateful to her parents, who made it possible for her to achieve what few other young women of her generation could. Many parents shared the prejudice of the time against illegal, [women's] education, so that their daughters either had to forgo the education they desired, or fight for it. . . . [I knew] a young woman who at age Z4 wanted to be privately tutored by de montaigne essays sparknotes her cousin to prepare for the Matura; her parents-in other respects very loving, I'm sure-literally kept her prisoner in their apartment to keep her from carrying out her intentions.

On y when she disappeared from the apartment one day and let her parents know that she would not return unless she had permission to immigration for research study, did they give in. Although Lise herself had no such obstacles, she sensed that for her mother, at least, it was not always easy. Hour Play Essay? I had the feeling thee in illegal immigration, the beginning, when first my older sister, and then I passed the Matura, that my mother was inwardly somewhat depressed by it. English Season In Pakistan? But she was much too loving a mother ever to express it in any way. Illegal? From her father there was no such ambivalence. On the contrary, he was a steady source of support and advice. Even as a child I was strongly interested in mathematics and physics, and as I grew up I also developed a very pronounced inclination for social responsibility. . . . When I was 23 years old and about to enter the university, I entertained the idea of primarily pursuing medicine, for its social usefulness, and studying mathematics and physics only at the side.

My father kept me from this incorrect choice by de montaigne making it clear to immigration for research paper me that such a course of study might be possible for a genius like Hermann Helmholtz, but not for another person. Lise entered the clep essay University of Vienna in October 1901. Small and slender, with a faraway expression and serious dark eyes, she looked younger than her twenty-three years. A blue stocking, her nephew would judge later, a young woman who cared for nothing but study. He was probably right. Anxious to for research make up for lost time, Lise filled her university registration book with physics, calculus, chemistry, and botany--twenty-five hours a week of lectures, laboratories, demonstration and discussion sections. No doubt, like many other young students, I began by attending too many lectures. . . . I cannot say I have a very lively recollection of the lectures on experimental physics. Citation Chicago? These were delivered almost without experiments, between noon and illegal for research paper one P.M., when most of the students were already very tired. Sometimes I was really afraid I would slip off my chair. But for calculus, at eight o,clock in the morning, she was awake.

My first term I studied differential and integral calculus with Professor Gegenbauer. In my second term he asked me to in essay detect an error in the work of an Italian mathematician. However I needed his considerable assistance before I found the error, and when he kindly suggested to me that I might like to publish this work on my own, I felt it would be wrong to do so, and so unfortunately annoyed him forever. Outline? Here was Lise, a first-year student, refusing to publish as her famous professor asked. -Assertive in one way, self-deprecating in another--neither to her academic advantage. This incident did make it clear to me, however, that I wanted to become a physicist, not a mathematician. In fact, the in essay physics course Lise attended, her drowsiness nothwithstanding, had the reputation of immigration for research paper being exceptionally well taught. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? It had been designed for pharmacy students, but Professor Franz Exner brought such clarity and perspective to the subject that students from all disciplines thronged to it. The laboratory was directed by immigration outline Anton Lampa, a promising young physicist and teacher.

Lise may have been drowsy in lecture, but she vividly remembered the laboratory: the somewhat aloof instructor, the primitive equipment, the experiments requiring ice that could be done only when there was snow in in essay citation, the courtyard below. For this young woman who had never had science in school, whose only previous encounter with apparatus was to view it with astonishment, the paper laboratory was of on spring in pakistan paramount interest. She would study physics after all. The physics institute was on the Turkenstrasse, a short side street in illegal paper, Vienna's ninth district, on an essay in exam, the same block as the illegal immigration for research paper institutes for pharmaceutical chemistry and medicinal chemistry, not far from the michel essays sparknotes renowned medical school and its clinics. The university had no central campus; its buildings were interspersed among the illegal residences and shops of the neighborhood. A photographer's studio and a coffee house stood on either side of Turkenstrasse 3; Sigmund Freud lived and worked on the steep Berggasse nearby. Originally the structure had been a small apartment house, already run-down when the university purchased it as a temporary building in 1875 (a permanent physics building opened in to write in exam, 1913). Its entrance reminded Lise Meitner of the door to a hen house. Illegal Outline Paper? I often thought, 'If a fire breaks out here, very few of us will get out alive.' Inside were worn stairs and shaky floors, makeshift laboratories with untold amounts of mercury in the floor cracks, a lecture room with neither podium nor desks, ceiling beams so rotten they looked as though they had been chewed by types questions termites. The lecture halls in particular were downright life-threatening. This was so widely known that the Viennese newspaper Arbeiterzeitung once carried this notice: Once again a student has registered at the Physics Institute on the Turkenstrasse; unhappiness in love is said to be the motive for outline paper the deed.

But in that shabby building the quality of teaching and research was very high. Exner, the first professor students encountered, was a multifaceted experimental physicist whose research included electrochemistry, atmospheric electricity, crystal physics, spectroscopy, and optics. A friend of on spring season Wilhelm Rontgen, Exner had introduced x-ray research and its medical applications to Vienna; one of the first to take an interest in paper, redioactivity, Exner secured uranium ore residues for Marie and Pierre Curie, received an enriched radium sample in return, and made Vienna an clep for english early center for radioactivity research. Although Exner lectured only to first-year students, he directed the advanced physics laboratories and supervised a:large number of illegal immigration for research paper doctoral candidates. English On Spring In Pakistan? One of Lise's fellow students, Karl Przibam, remembered Exner for his contagious enthusiasm and for the community spirit that went far beyond the usual relationship between teacher and students. This sense of community was essential for Lise in finding her way. She had come to the university on illegal immigration outline paper, her own, very conscious of how few women there were and how visible she was, how some of the men weary-out of their way to be pleasant and others, just as conspicuously, did the opposite.

Never having gone to a-Gymnasium, she could only imagine that she had missed some vital aspect of normal student life, in academics, perhaps, or student friendships, or relationships with teachers. With Professor Gegenbauer she had apparently been awkward and then embarrassed by sparknotes her awkwardness; not ready to be singled out, she needed first to be convinced that she could be a student like any other. For Lise, this happened in the old building on the Turkenstrasse, in illegal outline for research paper, the cluttered laboratory, during the english in pakistan informal give-and-take of teachers and students. It helped that the subject was difficult, chosen only by illegal outline for research paper a few. In Vienna, indeed worldwide, the number of physicists was small; nearly all were engaged in types thinking, teaching and research, very few in business or industry. Physics was more a calling than a career. Students who committed themselves to physics did so because they could not imagine a more fascinating way to spend their lives.

By 1902, Lise Meitner knew she was one of them. In her second university year, she began studying physics in earnest. Over the next six semesters, her Meldungsbuch lists analytical mechanics, electricity and illegal immigration paper magnetism, elasticity and essay season hydrodynamics, acoustics, optics, thermodynamics, and kinetic theory-of gases as well as mathematical physics each semester and a course in philosophy of science. A fairly typical curriculum, it was highly unusual in one respect: all of illegal outline for research it was taught by hour essay just one person, the theoretical physicist Ludwig Baltzmann. Fifty years later Lise Meitner would still remember Boltzmann's lectures as the most beautiful and immigration outline for research stimulating that I have ever heard. . . . Essay On Spring Season In Pakistan? He himself was so enthusiastic about everything he taught us that one left every lecture with the feeling that a completely new and wonderful world had been revealed. One can scarcely imagine a better teacher for the atomic world that lay ahead. In 1902 Boltzmann was fifty-eight years old, the famed theoretical physicist who had extended-kinetic theory and established statistical mechanics, the leading atomist who tied*he second law of thermodynamics to atomic theory by showing that the inherent irreversibility of natural processes arises from the statistical behavior of atoms in the aggregate. The notion of unseeable atoms with indeterminate behavior was more than some scientists could swallow.

For years Boltzmann was forced to defend his work against outline for research paper, the fairly widespread philosophy of scientific positivism that denied the steps to write value of scientific theory and illegal outline for research the reality of types anything that could not be directly observed. A big man, heavy, very nearsighted, with curly brown hair and a full reddish beard that framed his broad face, Boltzmann aroused admiration and outline affection in his students. He began his mechanics course in 1902 by play offering his students everything! have: myself, my entire way of thinking and feeling, and illegal outline paper asking the de montaigne essays sparknotes same of them: strict attention, iron discipline, tireless strength of for research paper mind. But forgive me if I [first] ask you for that which means most to me: for your trust, your affection, your love--in a word, for essay the most you have the power to give, yourself. Like many of the others, Lise was swept away. He was immensely engaging, she remembered, this famous professor whose lectures were models of clarity, this warmhearted Hofrat (Excellency) who would shrug at his title and laugh, Ach, how dumb of me! at his blackboard errors. Boltzmann had no inhibitions whatsoever about showing his enthusiasm when he spoke, and this naturally carried his listeners along.

He was fond of introducing remarks of an entirely personal character into his lectures. I particularly remember how, in paper, describing the kinetic theory of gases, he told us how much difficulty and in essay opposition he had encountered because he had been convinced of the illegal outline paper real existence of atoms and an essay in exam how he had been attacked from the philosophical side without always understanding what the philosophers held against him. Illegal Immigration Outline? . . . I wonder what he would say about our huge machines and teamwork [today], when I remember how bitterly he complained . English Essay On Spring Season? . . about the great extension of the subject matter of illegal outline for research physics and the resulting overspecialization. He stated categorically that [Hermann] Helmholtz was the last physicist who had been able to have an overall view of the whole subject. His relationship to students was very personal. . . In Essay Citation? . He not only saw to their knowledge of physics, but tried to illegal immigration paper understand their character. Formalities meant nothing to him, and he had no reservations about essay expressing his feelings. The few students who took part in the advanced seminar were invited to his house from time to time.

There he would play for us--he was a very good pianist--and tell us all sorts of personal experiences. Boltzmann accepted women students as a matter of course. In 1872, long before women were admitted to Austrian universities, he met Henriette von Aigentler, an aspiring teacher of mathematics and illegal for research physics in Graz From their four-year correspondence we know of her desire to attend the university (out of eagerness to learn and to qualify for the children's hour play teaching), how she was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures (an administrator declared himself delighted to keep women out, since the character of the university would be lost and the institution endangered by their presence), that Boltzmann advised her to appeal (she did, successfully), and that when he proposed marriage, finally, he began, It seems to me that a constant love cannot endure if the wife has no understanding, no enthusiasm for the endeavors of the husband, but is merely his housekeeper rather than the illegal immigration paper companion in his struggles. Lise may have heard some of english on spring season this; she came to know his wife and illegal immigration outline paper daughters and considered their family life harmonious. In any case, her university years were free of -he obstacles she had encountered earlier and essay on spring season in pakistan the difficulties that lay ahead.

With his intellect and spirit, Boltzmann created a community to which she fully belonged. He was in a way a ,pure soul full of goodness of heart, idealism, and reverence for the wonder of the natural order of things. All who were close to Boltzmann were also aware of his bouts of severe depression and his suicide attempts. His students blamed it on the bitter controversy over whether atoms existed, in which Boltzmann gained many adherents among younger scientists but never the satisfaction of convincing his opponents. It was not that simple. Boltzmann himself jestingly attributed his rapid changes in temperament to the fact that he was born during the night between Shrove Tuesday and outline for research paper Ash Wednesday: he was, almost certainly, manic-depressive. English Essay Season In Pakistan? But he was also very sensitive. As Meitner reflected, [He] may have been wounded by many things a more robust person would have hardly noticed. . . . I believe he was such a powerful teacher just because of his uncommon humanity. Boltzmann's academic career was a series of wanderings. Born in Vienna in 1844, he graduated from the Akademisches Gymnasium, where Lise Meitner and illegal for research also his daughter, Henriette, later took their Matura. Season? At the University of illegal immigration for research Vienna, he was a student of Josef Loschmidt (1821-1895), who made reliable early estimates of molecular size and the number of molecules per mole, and of critical thinking he was assistant to Josef Stefan (1835-1893), who devised an empirical formula for black body radiation that Boltzmann subsequently gave a theoretical basis.

Between 1869 and immigration 1890, Boltzmann held appointments in Graz, then Vienna, then Graz again, a period during which he contributed to english essay season in pakistan all branches of theoretical physics: electromagnetic theory, kinetic theory, the illegal outline paper Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, statistical mechanics. He went to Munich in 1890, returned to Vienna as Stefan's successor in 1894, left for Leipzig in citation chicago, 1900, and immigration came back again in of critical thinking questions, 1902. Illegal Outline For Research? The university had kept his position open in the expectation that he would return. Boltzmann was torn between his attachment to Austria, especially Vienna, and essays the attractions of German universities. Meitner recalled that Boltzmann would tell how in Munich there was wonderful equipment, but far fewer good ideas than in Vienna and illegal paper then hastily add, One must not let the Austrian [education] ministry know that good work can sometimes be done with inferior equipment. Of all universities, he most preferred Berlin, for its intense scientific atmosphere and the presence of Hermann Holmholtz, whom Boltzmann regarded as the greatest physicist of the nineteenth century. Yet in 1888 he refused the offer of a chair in Berlin, in part out of concern for his health, in part, it was said, because he disliked the formality of the Prussian capital.

Later he would tell his students how much he regretted that decision. The position he refused went to types a younger theoretical physicist, Max Planck. A year after Boltzmann came to Vienna in 1894, he was joined on illegal immigration for research paper, the faculty by one of his principal scientific adversaries, the formidable Ernst Mach. The leading proponent of the philosophy of scientific positivism, Mach argued that science can do no more than conduct positive--that is, direct--observations: while scientific theory may be of use for organizing such data, it must not create pictures, as he called it, of underlying reality. Mach's impetus was antimetaphysical, a reaction against nineteenth-century attempts to reduce all of physics to mechanical principles; he opposed the kinetic theory of gases, based as it was on play, molecular motion, and dismissed the existence of atoms in broad Viennese, 'Ave y'seen one of 'em? In the 1890s, according to Boltzmann, the attitude toward the gas theory was malevolent, complete with angry debates at meetings, struggles for the allegiance of illegal outline young scientists, fights over clep essay for english appointments to faculties and journals. Immigration Outline For Research Paper? In central Europe especially, Mach attracted a sizable following, including energeticists led by english essay on spring the physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald, for whom energy was the primary reality and the second law of illegal outline for research thermodynamics superfluous. De Montaigne Essays? For his part, Boltzmann attacked positivism as a modern version of an old aberration, going hack to the philosophy of illegal immigration outline paper George Berkeley. In 1905 he visited a university in California whose campus he described as the loveliest place one can imagine, except for its philosophical aura: The name Berkeley is clep, that of illegal for research a highly reputed English [sic] philosopher who is de montaigne essays, famous for the greatest foolishness ever hatched by the human brain, philosophical idealism, which denies the existence of the immigration outline paper material world. In 1898 Mach suffered a stroke, and he retired from of critical teaching in 1901.

When Boltzmann returned to Vienna m 1902, he claimed the philosophy of science course that had been Mach's for many years. Immigration Paper? Boltzmann's inaugural philosophy lecture in 1903 was thronged by the press, students, including Lise Meitner, and six hundred sensation-seekers. With his predecessor in mind, Boltzmann confessed to his dislike, even hate of philosophy, comparing it to a hallowed virgin . . . Essay? [shad will remain eternally barren as long as it denies the existence of physical reality. Thus the hostilities between the atomic theorists and the followers of Mach went on. But the outline for research dispute over clep essay the reality of atoms was nearing an end. The discovery of radioactivity in 1896 and the electron in 1897 transformed atoms from disputed specks of mass to immigration outline paper complex structures that were divisible, measurable, packed with amazing amounts of internal energy, and composed of fundamental particles of electric charge. No physicist today believes atoms are indivisible, Boltzmann told an audience at the World's Fair in St. Louis in 1904. That was probably true for these who believed in atoms, but not all physicists did, yet.

The final blow came after Albert Einstein in 1905 end dean Perrin in 1908 made detailed studies of Brownian motion, the of critical thinking random movement of particles suspended in a liquid, visible under the microscope. By relating the movement of the suspended particles to the number and immigration paper energy of the molecules in the liquid that were hitting them from one side or another, Einstein and Perrin obtained a value for the number of molecules in a mole that was consistent with other, unrelated experiments. The direct relationship between the heat energy of season atoms and illegal immigration outline the mechanical energy of visible Brownian particles gave complete credence to Boltzmann's interpretation of thermodynamic laws. And somehow it made atoms nearly visible and very real. Ostwald was convinced and in 1908 conceded; it is uncertain if Mach ever did before he died in 1916.

The controversy made plain to students that scientific endeavor is not coldly objective but relies on human judgment. From Boltzmann, Lise Meitner understood physics to be a passionate commitment of intellect, strength, and integrity. Many years later her nephew Otto Robert Frisch wrote, Boltzmann gave her the vision of clep physics as a battle for ultimate truth, a vision she never lost. Meitner's goal in physics would be theoretical understanding; her means, nearly always, would be experiment. In the immigration outline paper summer of the children's play 1905, her coursework completed, she began her doctoral research. In Austrian and German universities the thesis research for a doctorate generally took no more than a few months to illegal outline complete. She chose an experimental project, under Franz Exner and his assistant, Hans Benndorf, undoubtedly-because she wanted the laboratory experience but also, perhaps, because Boltzmann was lecturing in California that summer and had been quite ill before he left. In her research, Lise determined that Maxwell's formula for hour essay the conduction of electricity in an inhomogeneous solid also applies to the conduction of paper heat. Her inhomogeneous solid, an emulsion-a finely divided mixture--of mercury droplets embedded in fat, was layered between two horizontal copper plates, on which was laid a third copper plate that was insulated from the citation chicago bottom two. The temperature of the bottom plate WS kept constant by a stream of running water; when the top plate was heated by steam, three strategically placed thermometers in the emulsion measured the illegal temperature gradient as the questions heat flowed through. Immigration? Exner was pleased, commending her for a not entirety easy investigation that was brought to completion not without experimental skill.

Her dissertation, Test of a Formula of Maxwell's, was published under the title Conduction of Heat in Inhomogeneous Solids in the proceedings of the Vienna Physics Institute. Experiment close to theory, it typified her later approach to physics. To Write In Exam? Personally, however, Exner's influence seems to for research have been slight: in her later memoirs she mentions him only in passing, never with the affectionate term Doktorvater that German-speaking students often use. Most probably Boltzmann's personality eclipsed all others. Both men took part in her Rigorosen, the english essay season oral examinations that she took in December 1905 and passed summa cum laude. She was awarded her doctoral degree on I February 1900. It was the middle of the academic year and illegal immigration paper Lise found herself somewhat at loose ends.

At the time Paul Ehrenfest, a theoretical physicist her own age who had taken his doctorate under Boltzmann a few years before, was in Vienna. When he heard that Lise had taken detailed notes of de montaigne essays all Boltzmann's lectures, he suggested they study his ideas as well as the work of others in analytical dynamics. Ehrenfest had a gift for illegal outline paper explaining theoretical physics; he called Lise's attention to Lord Rayleigh's scientific papers, in particular an article on hour, optics that described an experiment the British physicist could not explain. Meitner not only explained it but also predicted some consequences, proved them experimentally, and described them in her report, Some Conclusions Derived from the Fresnel Reflection Formula. More than her thesis project, this investigation convinced her that she was capable of independent scientific work. While engaged in the optics study, she also decided to learn something of the experimental procedures used in the new field of radioactivity. She had taken an advanced seminar on the subject from Egon von Schweidler the year before; now she became acquainted with Stefan Meyer, an assistant in Boltzmann's institute who was only six years her senior and already quite well known in the field. At Meyer's suggestion, Meitner measured the absorption of alpha and beta radiation in foils of various metals. By June she completed the study, having been introduced to illegal immigration outline several radioactive substances, the to write an essay literature of radioactivity, and illegal immigration for research a new instrument, the leaf electroscope. It was the summer of 1906, a time to assess her future.

For the young woman who had just become Dr. Citation Chicago? Lise Meitner, the future was not much clearer than it had been at age fourteen. As the illegal outline second woman to earn a doctorate in physics from the university, she knew of na prospects for clep essay for english a woman in outline paper, physics; it seemed entirely possible she might never work as a scientist. In Austria there had as yet been no female Assistent, the first position on english season, the academic ladder; there were no women's colleges like those in America with positions for a few women scientists, no great likelihood of a job in immigration for research paper, industry. Of course, Lise had heard of Marie Curie, who had won the 19033 Nobel Prize in physics with her husband, Pierre, and the children's hour Henri Becquerel; if she also knew of Curie's enormous professional difficulties in Paris and how little the prize had alleviated them, she would not have been encouraged. At one point she wrote to illegal for research paper Marie Curie about workin in her laboratory, but there was no position available. There seemed no choice but to follow her father's advice once again and obtain the credentials necessary to earn a living. She signed up for practice teaching at a girls, school. Teaching did not appeal to clep her. Great, perhaps insurmountable, obstacles stood in the way for a woman in science. There was no path to follow.

Late that summer, on 5 September 1906, the physics community was shocked by the news that Ludwig Boltzmann had taken his life. En a tribute to his friend and scientific opponent, Wilhelm Ostwald described Boltzmann as a victim of the immense sacrifices of health and strength demanded of those who struggle for scientific truth. Lise Meitner, more realistically, ascribed his suicide to mental instability; she never understood it. But it seems likely that Boltzmann's death strengthened her determination to remain in physics, so that the spark he had kindled in illegal, her would remain alive. In the types of critical thinking fall of 1906, therefore, she continued working with Stefan Meyer, who temporarily took over Boltzmann's institute. By day she taught school; in the evening she returned to Turkenstrasse 3. During that year she became familiar with radioactivity research, although she had no particular intention of specializing in immigration outline for research, it.

One of the essay in pakistan earliest workers in immigration, the field, Meyer had been investigating the magnetic properties of various elements when polonium, radium, and then actinium were discovered in english essay on spring season in pakistan, the Curies, laboratory in immigration, 1899. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? With von Schweidler, he investigated the radiation emitted by the new elements; using a magnetic field to deflect the radiation, they discovered that beta radiation consists of particles with negative charge, a discovery made at nearly the same time by Henri Becquerel in France and Friedrich Giesel in Germany. A year later Becquerel measured their charge-to-mass ratio and confirmed that beta rays--more correctly, beta particles--are identical to electrons. In a similar experiment, Meyer and von Schweidler studied the alpha radiation from polonium but were unable to observe a deflection; a few years later Ernest Rutherford would use stronger magnets to determine that alpha particles are positively charged. Meyer remained in radioactivity.

He recognized that the puzzling induced activity that early workers had found throughout their laboratories was due to radium, thorium, or actinium emitting a radioactive gas--Rutherford called it emanation--that diffused into the air and then decayed to a solid that coated objects all over the laboratory. The solid, also radioactive, was thereafter termed the illegal immigration outline for research active deposit. (For the an essay in exam radioactive decay series, see Appendix fig. I.) In those -ear y years of radioactivity research, Meyer also studied the physical effects of radiation, such as color changes in immigration paper, minerals. In 1900, four years after the discovery of radioactivity, the number of recognized radioactive species stood at five: the elements uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, and actinium. Essay? When Lise Meitner began research in 1905, the outline for research paper number was over twenty and rising--most confusing, since at first every new radioactive substance was thought to be a new element (the existence of isotopes was not fully appreciated until about 1913, when it became clear that it was possible for michel essays sparknotes different radioactive species to be chemically identical).

In addition, the immigration outline for research paper relationship between radioactive substances was not understood, and little was known about essay their radiation. And yet, chaotic as it was, the field was inviting, for a newcomer needed little more than a radioactive source and a measuring device to quickly discover a new activity or learn something new about its radiation. In Vienna the preferred instrument for radiation measurements was the leaf electroscope. Illegal Outline Paper? A simple device, it consisted of a very thin gold or aluminum leaf fastened to a metal rod whose end protruded from an enclosed container into which it was sealed. When the rod was given an hour essay electric charge, the gold leaf was repelled away from the rod; when a radioactive substance was brought near, its radiation would ionize the surrounding air, the charge on the metal rod and illegal immigration for research the gold leaf would leak away, and the leaf would descend to its resting position, the rate of descent being a measure of the essays sparknotes strength of the radiation. Franz Exner had improved the electroscope for highly sensitive measurements of atmospheric radiation; Julius Elster and Hans Geitel had added a mirror, a scale, and a magnifying glass.

The electroscope was a sensitive instrument, readily modified for alpha, beta, or gamma radiations; its disadvantages included the mind-numbing tedium of the measurements and the delicacy of the metal leaf. Karl Przibam recalled how irritating it was when [the electroscope] was not carefully charged and the little gold leaf hit the top and got stuck, or even tore off! In Meitner's first study, done in the spring of 1906, she measured the absorption in several metals of outline for research paper alpha and beta radiation emitted by the active deposits of thorium and actinium; she found, as others had, that alpha radiation exhibits a well-defined range in each metal, whereas the more penetrating beta radiation tapers off gradually. Although she pointed to the importance of absorption studies for understanding the nature of the radiation, she presented her measurements without speculating on their meaning. Now, in late 1906, Meitner turned to the children's hour play the question of whether alpha particles are merely absorbed as they pass through matter, or whether they are also scattered to some extent.

A number of scientists, including Marie Curie and Rutherford had found evidence of scattering, but W. H. Bragg disputed these findings. The question was of considerable interest for learning something of the nature-of alpha particles and also the matter through which they passed; Rutherford had already noted that scattering brings out clearly the fact that the atoms of outline for research matter must be the thinking seat of very intense electrical forces. For Research Paper? Meitner devised an arrangement by which a beam of alpha particles was collimated--made parallel--by passing through a bundle of de montaigne sparknotes tiny metal tubes, then allowed to penetrate a metal foil, and illegal outline then collimated again by another bundle of tubes some distance away. The attenuation of the beam as it passed through the first and second collimators varied with the distance between them in a manner that could be explained only if the michel essays sparknotes alpha particles were indeed scattered somewhat by the metal foil; Meitner found that the scattering increased with the atomic mass of the metal atoms. In a few years, alpha scattering would lead Rutherford to the nuclear atom; Meitner's was an early example of such experiments, cleverly designed and carefully executed.

She submitted her report to the Physikalische Zeitschrift on 29 June 1907.

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5 Wheaton College football players face felony charges in illegal immigration outline for research hazing incident. A DuPage County judge signed arrest warrants and set $50,000 bonds for five Wheaton College football players, who turned themselves in to authorities. A DuPage County judge signed arrest warrants and to write an essay in exam set $50,000 bonds for five Wheaton College football players, who turned themselves in to authorities. Five Wheaton College football players face felony charges after being accused of immigration a 2016 hazing incident in which a freshman teammate was restrained with duct tape, beaten and left half-naked with two torn shoulders on the children's hour play essay, a baseball field. A DuPage County judge signed arrest warrants and set $50,000 bonds against for research paper, the players — James Cooksey, Kyler Kregel, Benjamin Pettway, Noah Spielman and the children's play essay Samuel TeBos — late Monday afternoon.

Prosecutors charged the athletes with aggravated battery, mob action and immigration for research unlawful restraint. They are expected to turn themselves in to types authorities this week. Three of the accused played in Wheaton College's victory over Carthage College Saturday, and illegal immigration outline for research paper all were listed on the team roster as of Monday afternoon. The Division III program is ranked fourth in the country. The victim, who the Tribune is not naming, left the conservative Christian school shortly after the incident and now attends college in Indiana. This has had a devastating effect on my life, he said in a statement to the children's the Tribune. What was done to me should never occur in connection with a football program or any other activity. Immigration Outline For Research Paper! . I am confident that the criminal prosecution will provide a fair and just punishment to the men who attacked me.

The college released a statement late Monday saying it was deeply troubled by the allegations because it strives to provide an educational environment free from hazing and in essay citation chicago reflective of the school's religious values. The school said it hired a third party to investigate the allegation last year and took corrective actions, but officials declined to illegal immigration for research paper provide details on in essay, any punishment, citing federal privacy laws. Sources told the Tribune that several players were required to perform 50 hours of community service and write an eight-page essay reflecting on their behavior. The conduct we discovered as a result of our investigation into this incident was entirely unacceptable and immigration for research inconsistent with the essay on spring values we share as human beings and immigration outline for research as members of an academic community that espouses to live according to our Community Covenant, campus spokeswoman LaTonya Taylor said in a statement. In Essay Chicago! We are profoundly saddened that any member of our community could be mistreated in any way. The Wheaton Police Department earlier this year refused to release reports related to the incident under the state's Freedom of Information Act, citing a pending investigation.

DuPage County State's Attorney Robert Berlin also declined to comment Monday through his spokesman. The Tribune, however, was able to for research paper obtain records detailing the victim's statements to investigators. This has had a devastating effect on my life. What was done to me should never occur in connection with a football program or any other activity. De Montaigne! Victim of alleged Wheaton College hazing. The student told investigators that he was watching the immigration NCAA basketball tournament in thinking questions a dorm room on March 19, 2016, when several teammates entered the illegal room and tackled him, according to the documents. The freshman kicked his legs and yelled at them to stop, only to be punched and have his bare legs and in essay citation wrists wrapped in duct tape, the victim said. The players put a pillow case over the 19-year-old freshman's head and took him from the residence hall.

Though there was a root beer kegger taking place in the dorm that night, no students or college employees intervened as the freshman was carried out of the for research building, according to michel sparknotes the records. The freshman told investigators that he was placed in the back seat of a teammate's vehicle and immigration paper held down by at least two players while others piled into the vehicle. After the vehicle began moving, the players played Middle Eastern music and made offensive comments about Muslims, according to the victim's account. At one point, the essay players suggested to the freshman that he had been kidnapped by Muslims who wanted to fornicate with goats, the immigration outline for research paper teen told investigators. They patted his foot and suggested he would be their goat for the evening, the the children's hour play records said. The freshman told investigators that his teammates restrained him with more duct tape during the drive, pulled down his shorts and underwear, then repeatedly tried to insert an object into his rectum. After the freshman yelled at illegal outline paper, them to stop, he was beaten, he said. The players drove to a park located off campus and carried the in essay citation freshman onto illegal outline for research, a baseball diamond, according to chicago his account.

The players threw dirt on the teen, took his cell phone and left him half-naked on the field, he said. The freshman, who had just transferred to illegal immigration the college, did not know where he was or how to get back to campus. The temperature that night was about 45 degrees, according to an essay National Weather Service records. About 10 minutes later, a second player was dumped on the field, he told investigators. Outline For Research Paper! The two were eventually driven back to campus by classmates who came looking for clep essay for english, the second player. The freshman returned to his dorm room, called his mother and illegal outline paper then drove himself to clep for english the hospital. He suffered muscle tears in both shoulders, in addition to illegal for research paper various bruises and scratches, the thinking questions records said. Five Wheaton College football players charged are: James Cooksey, from immigration outline for research left, Kyler Kregel, Benjamin Pettway, Noah Spielman and Samuel TeBos.

Five Wheaton College football players charged are: James Cooksey, from left, Kyler Kregel, Benjamin Pettway, Noah Spielman and Samuel TeBos. (Lou Foglia / Chicago Tribune) After he became overcome by emotion in the emergency room, a nurse called police and collected evidence, according to the records. His grandparents later came to the hospital and took him back to their home to spend the night. The next day, his father drove to Wheaton College and english on spring moved the teen out of the dorm. He withdrew from the school a short time later. The former Wheaton student said his injuries required two surgeries since leaving the west suburban campus, according to investigative records. We have all seen situations where young men have engaged in foolish and immature behavior, his attorney Terry Ekl said. What was done to outline our client goes far beyond what is acceptable behavior or which can be dismissed as merely harmless hazing. We are hopeful Wheaton College will learn from this incident, and subsequent criminal investigation and charges, and may not in the future condone this type of conduct. College administrators learned about the incident shortly after it happened from coaches and other team members, according to steps an essay in exam the school's statement. It immediately launched an outline internal investigation and college trustees retained experts to lead a campuswide review of its anti-hazing policy and of the michel sparknotes culture around how students treat one another in our campus communities, athletic teams and organizations.

Wheaton remains committed to providing Christ-centered development programs and illegal outline for research training to all our students, Taylor said. Each year, Wheaton athletes must sign an anti-hazing policy that prohibits them from humiliating, degrading, abusing and endangering another person when they join a campus team or organization. Both teams and individuals can be punished for taking part in hazing rituals, according to the policy, which has been in essay in pakistan place since 2014. The players' status with the team remains unclear following the illegal immigration for research felony charges. Kregel, Pettway and Spielman played in Saturday's game. Kregel, a 21-year-old center from Grand Rapids, Mich., was a second-team All-American center for the Thunder in 2016. Pettway is a 21-year-old offensive lineman from Lookout Mountain, Ga. Cooksey, 22, is a defensive lineman from Jacksonville, Fla., while TeBos, 22, is a linebacker from Allendale, Mich.

Spielman is 21-year-old defensive lineman from Columbus, Ohio. He is the son of de montaigne former NFL All-Pro linebacker Chris Spielman, who currently works as a football analyst for Fox Sports. Messages left with the immigration players or their families were not immediately returned. An incident involving Wheaton College football players who dressed up in Ku Klux Klan robes as part of a parody of the Will Smith film Bad Boys II has rocked the college's campus, which already has been reeling from essay on spring season in pakistan two other recent high-profile incidents. The skit, which took place Feb. 28 in. An incident involving Wheaton College football players who dressed up in Ku Klux Klan robes as part of a parody of the Will Smith film Bad Boys II has rocked the college's campus, which already has been reeling from two other recent high-profile incidents. The skit, which took place Feb. 28 in. (Bob Goldsborough and immigration outline for research Dawn Rhodes) The criminal charges add another troubling incident for Wheaton College's football team, which consistently is ranked among the clep essay for english top Division III programs in the country under longtime head coach Mike Swider.

The team made national headlines nearly three years ago after players dressed up in Ku Klux Klan robes as part of so-called team-building activity in outline paper a campus gym. A group of 20 players, some of whom were black, parodied several movies, including Bad Boys II, a 2003 Martin Lawrence and Will Smith comedy that pokes fun at the KKK. Play! During the skit, the group wore Klan-style white hoods and immigration paper robes and carried Confederate flags. Players involved with the skit said it was intended to be satirical, but acknowledged it was inappropriate. They apologized to the campus community and asked for de montaigne essays, forgiveness.

Tribune reporter Kate Thayer and freelance reporter Clifford Ward contributed.

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essay report layout Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the outline paper current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, scanners. Immigration Paper! A brief history of the scanner and its operation is steps to write in exam, initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into illegal for research paper other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in the children's relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.

The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on outline the future development of clep, scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. Illegal Immigration For Research Paper! The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in michel de montaigne sparknotes a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for illegal for research paper, the development of on spring season, current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Immigration For Research Paper! Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and essay for english scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of illegal for research paper, computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of types thinking questions, two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on for research a hard-drive or floppy disk.

With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. Steps An Essay In Exam! It is now possible to immigration outline paper deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. De Montaigne! This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). Outline For Research! This binary data can then be used to to write an essay store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). Immigration! The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT).

These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on hour play essay the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over illegal immigration outline for research paper the grid and hour play assigns a number to each pixel based on illegal immigration for research paper the main colour in for english that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an immigration outline paper, aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of the children's play, their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs).

Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at illegal high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of types of critical thinking, scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of for research, documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for clep, small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in immigration outline for research paper distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning.

Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in de montaigne essays sparknotes slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and illegal paper detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to an essay in exam only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to immigration paper users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software.

Resolution is a measure of citation, how many pixels a scanner can sample in illegal immigration outline a given image. It is used to describe the play amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Immigration Outline For Research Paper! Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per the children's play essay inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per illegal paper inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the in essay scanning head more frequently as it moves down the illegal outline page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of clep essay for english, 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is for research paper, 1200 dpi.

Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to essay for english digital form. Paper! Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an image. In Essay Citation! The simplest kinds of illegal immigration outline, scanners only record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999).

This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to essay for english photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of illegal immigration outline for research, tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and of critical thinking 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. Outline For Research! A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of clep essay, hardware, requires software.

Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the for research paper information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into the children's play essay a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Immigration Outline For Research Paper! Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of technology such as the recently developed digital camera. This device allows the user to take pictures of citation chicago, three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of immigration outline, a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to english essay on spring improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of illegal for research, sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to clep essay for english manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts.

Further development of CIS technology is illegal immigration outline, needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The performance of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and an essay in exam software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is outline paper, anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. Steps To Write An Essay In Exam! The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range of for research paper, users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers.

This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. To Write An Essay! Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Outline! Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998.

8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. Michel Sparknotes! [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the technology. Appropriately mentions an outline for research, important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of thinking questions, future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start.

Historical background is illegal immigration outline for research paper, then provided. This level of detail should be placed in to write Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an overall picture. It would be more appropriate to outline paper discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in in essay citation chicago the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s).

This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in outline the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged. The student has used information from in essay citation chicago only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. This has severely limited the content of these sections of the illegal for research paper report. This paragraph provides a good description of types of critical questions, this criteria in simple clear language.

It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is illegal outline for research, poorly explained. The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of questions, these ideas has not been provided.

The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to illegal immigration for research paper provide further detail and to on spring season in pakistan provide references to outline paper the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is on spring season, required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. Illegal Outline! It would be better to include more specific information about the steps to write an essay in exam kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology.

However the immigration student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is english essay, required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and illegal immigration for research paper future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the to write an essay in exam requirements of the immigration outline for research assignment description. One source is types of critical questions, used for a number of sections in the report.

The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles. Immigration Outline Paper! This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included. For this report, it is essay season in pakistan, best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals. Content and outline for research paper layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the english essay on spring in pakistan country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is outline for research paper, required in the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate.

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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for for research getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Types Thinking Questions! Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in illegal immigration paper, which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Types Thinking Questions! Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Download selected resumes on your desktop. No front page content has been created yet.

How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and illegal outline for research paper engaging in other overkill tactics. Excessive and irrelevant information only hour, clutters the page and makes it more difficult to find the skills and information for which your prospective employer is searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to the job being sought. For Research! As such, a separate resume should be used for each job if the required skills, education, and experience are different.

At the end of this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. First, though, let’s take a look at how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to be in types of critical, the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to paper not only the skills, experience, and education of a desired employee, but also the for english description, expectations, and demands of the immigration outline for research paper job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. If the employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the an essay job, you may find information by immigration outline for research, reviewing the website or even calling and asking for details.

The more you know about your prospective employers, the more power you have to clep show them a picture-perfect employee on paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for outline paper education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for the job; don’t waste your time applying. Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the bulk of your experience. De Montaigne Sparknotes! You may have to immigration for research begin at an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and upper management applicants from within. If this is the case, be extremely careful about divulging the extent of your education, experience, and salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’. However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is that at some point you just have to accept that options are limited and be willing to chicago ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to excel beyond expectation and increase your odds of recognition and promotion. Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and immigration outline Experience.

If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on the first page and that it’s not crowded with words. In addition to your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a number of years, try to list only the most relevant jobs within the hour past 5-7 years on the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in case the reviewer is so inclined to read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the razzle and illegal outline for research dazzle of the first page of your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to play demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to hone those skills, but employers need to know the capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out of the Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to present a snapshot of what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers.

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For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and play appreciated. Because that sentence will take the illegal immigration paper entire width of the the children's hour play page, your next sections should be small and centered. Illegal Immigration Outline For Research Paper! This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs).

Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for michel essays sparknotes them to review. Illegal For Research! You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to hour play call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested.

If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in between each section, increase the for research paper font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and english essay season outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on illegal immigration outline, your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an clep essay for english, interest in learning more about you by paper, reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in clep essay for english, this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the illegal outline paper outline and consistent information in michel essays, a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. Illegal Immigration Outline! To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the hour play essay same name and for research changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. In Pakistan! Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter.

Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the immigration outline most important step you can towards landing the citation job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the illegal immigration for research paper first thing a potential employer sees, and in exam it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Immigration Outline! Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only michel de montaigne essays, a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and immigration for research double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the the children's essay guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead.

Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on illegal immigration outline for research, your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of an essay in exam, it. Outline! Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Types Of Critical! Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of immigration outline, experience in the field to michel which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to link this paragraph to outline for research paper your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of essay season, all the schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken.

Determine which aspect of illegal outline for research paper, your education is most important to steps to write in exam the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page. This is illegal immigration, your opportunity to de montaigne essays sparknotes tie everything together, leading the reader to illegal outline paper invite you to an interview. Hour Play Essay! You need to reference your resume and for research paper any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. In Essay Chicago! Finally, state the easiest way for for research the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in essay, your letterhead.

For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to illegal immigration outline for research proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and ultimately invite you to of critical thinking questions an interview. The rest is up to illegal paper you! How to prepare for a winning job interview.

In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. The Children's Hour! Your first job as the seller is to illegal for research sell yourself. You need to the children's play stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to illegal immigration outline paper rise to steps in exam the top. Immigration Outline! You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to take it.

Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and essay doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about illegal immigration for research paper five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of steps to write, most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. For Research Paper! After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. Of Critical Questions! It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. Immigration Outline Paper! The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to essays sparknotes perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential.

You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to illegal immigration outline paper demonstrate the homework you have done. Citation! Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. Use the power of imagination to stand out illegal immigration outline paper from the crowd, everybody else is going to be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. The Children's Hour Essay! If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. Landing an immigration outline for research paper, offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort.

If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at michel sparknotes your disposal without any guaranty. The use of these Curriculum samples is at illegal outline for research paper your sole risk.