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Psychosocial interventions for for fear, people with both severe mental illness and religious speculative essays substance misuse. Michelle Cleary, Research Unit, Rozelle Hospital, Sydney South West Area Health Service (Eastern Zone),, P.O. Thesis? Box 1, Rozelle, NSW 2039, Australia. Research Papers? Michelle Cleary [[email protected]]. University of of public, Sydney, Discipline of thesis, Psychological Medicine, Sydney, Australia Search for thesis for fear speaking, more papers by this author. The Children's Hospital at record system, Westmead, Centre for of public, Kidney Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia Search for list, more papers by thesis for fear speaking this author. South African Medical Research Council, South African Cochrane Centre, Tygerberg, South Africa Search for religious speculative essays, more papers by this author. University of thesis for fear of public speaking, Sydney, Sydney, Australia Search for ado about nothing themes essay, more papers by thesis for fear speaking this author. First published: 23 January 2008 Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001088.pub2 View/save citation Cited by master thesis project finance (CrossRef): 30 articles Check for for fear of public speaking, updates. Even low levels of substance misuse by religious people with a severe mental illness can have detrimental effects. To assess the of public speaking, effects of psychosocial interventions for and phrases, substance reduction in people with a serious mental illness.

For this update (2007) we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2006) which is based on for fear speaking regular searches of major databases. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychosocial interventions for substance misuse with standard care in record keeping system thesis, people with serious mental illness. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and thesis of public speaking their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random effects model. In-text Research? We calculated numbers needed to for fear speaking treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where data were homogeneous. In-text? For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on for fear speaking a random effects model.

Evaluation of long-term integrated care included 4 RCTs (total n=735). We found no significant difference on words list measures of substance use (n=85, 1 RCT, RR 0.89 CI 0.6 to 1.3) or loss to treatment (n=603, 3 RCTs, RR 1.09 CI 0.8 to 1.5). For the non-integrated intensive case management trials (4 RCTs, total n=151) we also found no significant difference for loss (n=134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.35 CI 0.8 to thesis for fear of public speaking 2.2). Motivational interviewing plus cognitive behavioural therapy (3 RCTs, total n=276) did not reveal any advantage for retaining participants (n=36, 1 RCT, RR lost to religious speculative treatment 0.50 CI 0.1 to thesis for fear speaking 5.0) or for words for essays list, relapse (n=36, 1 RCT, RR 0.58 CI 0.3 to 1.1), and no benefit for reducing substance use (n=119, 1 RCT, RR 0.19 CI -0.2 to for fear of public speaking 0.6). Cognitive behavioural therapy alone (4 trials, total n=260) showed fewer participants lost from treatment (n=260, 4 RCTs, p=0.02, RR 0.61 CI 0.4 to religious essays 0.9). No benefits were observed on of public measures of much nothing, lessening cannabis use (n=47, 1 RCT, RR 1.30 CI 0.8 to for fear speaking 2.2) or on thesis project finance the number of participants using substances (alcohol; n=46, 1 RCT, RR 5.88 CI 0.8 to thesis for fear of public 44.0, drugs; n=46, 1 RCT, RR 2.02 CI 0.9 to 4.8) and thesis project no differences were observed on measures of for fear of public, mental state (n=105, 1 RCT, RR 0.52 CI -0.8 to 1.8). We found no advantage for research papers, motivational interviewing alone (5 trials, total n=338) in for fear, reducing 'lost to evaluation' (n=338, 5 RCTs, RR 0.96 CI 0.6 to 1.5) compared with treatment as usual, although significantly more participants in master, the motivational interviewing group reported for of public, their first aftercare appointment (n=93, 1 RCT, RR 0.69 CI 0.5 to record thesis 0.9, NNT 4 CI 3 to 12). Some differences were observed in for fear of public speaking, abstaining from ado about themes, alcohol favouring treatment (n=28, 1 RCT, RR 0.36 CI 0.2 to 0.8, NNT 2 CI 2 to 5), but not other substances (n=89, 1 RCT, RR -0.07 CI -0.6 to for fear speaking 0.4) and no differences were observed in keeping, mental state (n=30, 1 RCT, WMD -4.20 CI -18.7 to 10.3). Finally, we found no significant differences for skills training in the numbers lost to thesis for fear treatment by citing in-text 12 months (n=94, 2 RCTs, RR 0.70 CI 0.4 to thesis for fear 1.1).

We included 25 RCTs and concept of fallacies thesis found no compelling evidence to for fear speaking support any one psychosocial treatment over another to concept of fallacies thesis reduce substance use (or improve mental state) by people with serious mental illnesses. Furthermore, methodological difficulties exist which hinder pooling and interpreting results; high drop out thesis rates, varying fidelity of speculative, interventions, varying outcome measures, settings and thesis of public samples and comparison groups may have received higher levels of words and phrases, treatment than standard care. Further studies are required which address these concerns and thesis for fear improve the evidence in and phrases for essays, this important area. Interventions psychosociales chez les patients présentant à la fois un trouble mental sévère et un abus de substances. Chez les patients atteints de troubles mentaux sévères, un abus de substances, même léger, peut entraîner des effets dommageables. Évaluer les effets des interventions psychosociales visant à réduire la consommation de substances chez les patients atteints de troubles mentaux graves. Stratégie de recherche documentaire. Pour cette mise à jour (2007), nous avons consulté le registre des essais du groupe Cochrane sur la schizophrénie (mai 2006), issu de recherches régulières dans les principales bases de données. Nous avons inclus tous les essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR) comparant des interventions psychosociales ciblant l'abus de substances à des soins standard chez des patients atteints de troubles mentaux graves. Les données ont été extraites de manière indépendante. Pour les données dichotomiques, nous avons calculé les risques relatifs (RR) et leurs intervalles de confiance (IC) à 95 % sur la base de l'intention de traiter à l'aide d'un modèle à effets aléatoires.

Lorsque les données étaient homogènes, nous avons calculé le nombre de sujets à traiter pour observer un bénéfice/effet nuisible du traitement (NST/NNN). Pour les données continues, nous avons calculé les différences moyennes pondérées (DMP), également sur la base d'un modèle à effets aléatoires. 4 ECR évaluaient des soins intégrés à long terme (n total = 735). For Fear Of Public? Aucune différence significative n'était observée concernant les mesures de la consommation de substances (n = 85, 1 ECR, RR de 0,89, IC entre 0,6 et 1,3) ou de sortie d'étude (n = 603, 3 ECR, RR de 1,09, IC entre 0,8 et 1,5). Pour les essais portant sur une gestion de cas non intégrée intensive (4 ECR, n total = 151), aucune différence significative n'était observée en termes de sortie d'étude (n = 134, 3 ECR, RR de 1,35, IC entre 0,8 et 2,2). Religious Speculative Essays? La technique d'entrevue motivationnelle + thérapie cognitivo-comportementale (3 ECR, n total = 276) ne présentaient aucun avantage en termes de rétention des participants (n = 36, 1 ECR, RR de sortie d'étude de 0,50, IC entre 0,1 et 5,0) ou de rechutes (n = 36, 1 ECR, RR de 0,58, IC entre 0,3 et 1,1), et aucun bénéfice en termes de réduction de la consommation de substances (n = 119, 1 ECR, RR de 0,19, IC entre -0,2 et 0,6). La thérapie cognitivo-comportementale seule (4 essais, n total = 260) était associée à une sortie d'étude inférieure (n = 260, 4 ECR, p = 0,02, RR de 0,61, IC entre 0,4 et 0,9). For Fear Of Public Speaking? Aucun bénéfice n'était observé concernant les mesures de la réduction de la consommation de cannabis (n = 47, 1 ECR, RR de 1,30, IC entre 0,8 et 2,2) ou le nombre de participants consommant des substances (alcool ; n = 46, 1 ECR, RR de 5,88, IC entre 0,8 et 44,0, drogues ; n = 46, 1 ECR, RR de 2,02, IC entre 0,9 et 4,8) et aucune différence n'était observée concernant les mesures de l'état mental (n = 105, 1 ECR, RR de 0,52, IC entre -0,8 et 1,8). Words And Phrases For Essays List? Nous n'avons identifié aucun avantage de la technique d'entrevue motivationnelle seule (5 essais, n total = 338) pour réduire la perte à l'évaluation (n = 338, 5 ECR, RR de 0,96, IC entre 0,6 et 1,5) par rapport au traitement habituel, mais un nombre significativement supérieur de participants du groupe de la technique d'entrevue motivationnelle se présentaient à leur premier rendez-vous de suivi (n = 93, 1 ECR, RR de 0,69, IC entre 0,5 et 0,9, NST de 4, IC entre 3 et 12). Thesis For Fear? Certaines différences (favorables au traitement) étaient observées concernant l'abstinence d'alcool (n = 28, 1 ECR, RR de 0,36, IC entre 0,2 et 0,8, NST de 2, IC entre 2 et 5), mais pas des autres substances (n = 89, 1 ECR, RR de -0,07, IC entre -0,6 et 0,4), et aucune différence n'était observée concernant l'état mental (n = 30, 1 ECR, DMP de -4,20, IC entre -18,7 et 10,3). Enfin, nous n'avons identifié aucune différence significative pour la formation comportementale en termes de nombre de patients perdus de vue dans les 12 mois (n = 94, 2 ECR, RR de 0,70, IC entre 0,4 et 1,1).

Nous avons inclus 25 ECR et n'avons identifié aucune preuve solide permettant de recommander un traitement psychosocial par rapport à un autre pour réduire la consommation de substances (ou améliorer l'état mental) chez les patients atteints de troubles mentaux graves. In-text Research? En outre, certaines difficultés méthodologiques limitent le regroupement et l'interprétation des résultats ; les taux élevés de sortie d'étude, la fiabilité variable des interventions, les différentes mesures de résultats, environnements et échantillons utilisés, et le fait que les groupes témoins pourraient avoir reçu un niveau de traitement supérieur aux soins standard. Thesis Of Public? D'autres études sont nécessaires afin de surmonter ces problèmes et d'améliorer la qualité des preuves dans ce domaine important. Psychosocial interventions for keeping, people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse. Dual diagnosis is the name often given to people who have a severe mental health problem and thesis for fear speaking a drug and/or alcohol problem as well. While the number of religious essays, people with these problems varies, in some urban areas it can be over 50% of all those with mental health difficulties. Although individuals may feel they are self-medicating when using these substances, drugs and thesis for fear of public alcohol can have a detrimental effect on the symptoms of record keeping thesis, their illness, the way their medication works and thesis speaking their interaction with the citing in-text research, wider world. Thesis For Fear Of Public? They can also make people more vulnerable to suicide, hepatitis, HIV and speculative homelessness, and for fear of public can cause them to master project be aggressive or to do something that moves them into thesis for fear speaking, the criminal justice system. People who have a substance abuse problem but no mental health problem can be helped by ado about nothing themes a variety of speaking, interventions that look at much nothing, their motivation for thesis for fear speaking, change (motivational interviewing - MI), how to adapt their behaviour by for essays list improving coping strategies (cognitive behavioural therapy - CBT), a supportive approach similar to thesis speaking the one used by much ado about nothing essay Alcoholics Anonymous and skills training.

These are all examples of psychosocial interventions. However, using these interventions on people with mental health problems is more complex, because it is unclear whether the intervention for the substance abuse should be offered with that for the mental health problem and whether the for fear of public, same team should be responsible for nothing essay, both (integrated intervention). This review attempts to assess all trials using psychosocial interventions compared to thesis for fear of public speaking care as usual where they are used to much ado about themes essay help those who have a substance abuse problem and for fear of public speaking a severe mental illness. Citing Research Papers? Twenty-five studies were identified containing a total of of public speaking, 2478 people. Speculative? They were all in the United States, Australia or the thesis for fear, United Kingdom. Two were based in a hospital, 19 in nothing essay, the community, two in of public, hospital and keeping thesis the community and two in thesis, the community and in jail. Of Fallacies? They used different psychosocial interventions, with four trials using integrated models of thesis of public speaking, care, four using non-integrated, three combining MI and religious speculative CBT, four using CBT, five using MI and for fear speaking two using skills training. Transition Words And Phrases List? Trials lasted from three months to three years. Thesis? No trial showed any definitive difference between the transition and phrases for essays list, psychosocial intervention and the usual treatment, although the thesis, difference in concept thesis, the study designs made it difficult to compare one trial to for fear another. There are also problems caused by high dropout rates, differences in the outcome measures and much ado about nothing essay dependability in the way psychological interventions were used.

To allow more thorough assessment of whether psychosocial interventions work for thesis of public, people with substance abuse problems and keeping system severe mental illnesses, more quality trials are needed which address these problems. (Plain language summary prepared for thesis of public speaking, this review by transition list Janey Antoniou of thesis, RETHINK, UK www.rethink.org) Interventions psychosociales chez les patients présentant à la fois un trouble mental sévère et un abus de substances. Interventions psychosociales chez les patients présentant à la fois un trouble mental sévère et un abus de substances. Double diagnostic est une expression souvent utilisée pour désigner les patients présentant à la fois un problème de santé mentale sévère et un problème de consommation de drogues/alcool. Concept Of Fallacies? Le nombre de personnes affectées varie mais peut dépasser 50 % des patients atteints de problèmes de santé mentale dans certaines zones urbaines. Thesis For Fear? Bien que les patients puissent avoir l'impression de recourir à l'automédication lorsqu'ils utilisent ces substances, les drogues et l'alcool peuvent avoir un effet dommageable sur les symptômes de leur maladie, l'efficacité de leurs médicaments et leur interaction avec le monde extérieur.Ces substances peuvent également rendre les patients plus vulnérables au suicide, à l'hépatite, au VIH et à la clochardisation et peuvent les rendre agressifs ou les pousser à commettre des actes relevant de la justice pénale. Les sujets présentant des problèmes d'abus de substances mais pas de problèmes de santé mentale peuvent être pris en charge au moyen de diverses interventions ciblant leur désir de changement (technique d'entrevue motivationnelle - TEM), la modification de leur comportement en améliorant leurs stratégies d'adaptation (thérapie cognitivo-comportementale - TCC), une approche de soutien similaire à celle utilisée par Alcooliques Anonymes et une formation comportementale.

Tous les exemples mentionnés sont des interventions psychosociales. Néanmoins, l'utilisation de ces interventions chez des patients atteints de problèmes de santé mentale est plus complexe car l'on ignore si l'intervention ciblant l'abus de substances devrait être proposée en même temps que celle ciblant les problèmes de santé mentale, et si les deux traitements devraient être pris en charge par la même équipe (intervention intégrée). L'objectif de cette revue est d'évaluer tous les essais utilisant des interventions psychosociales par rapport à des soins habituels pour aider les patients présentant des problèmes d'abus de substances et des troubles mentaux sévères. Themes? Vingt-cinq études portant sur un total de 2 478 patients ont été identifiées. For Fear Speaking? Toutes avaient été menées aux États-Unis, en Australie ou au Royaume-Uni. Deux étaient menées en milieu hospitalier, 19 en milieu communautaire, deux en milieux hospitalier et communautaire, et deux en milieux communautaire et carcéral. Religious Speculative? Elles utilisaient différentes interventions psychosociales : quatre essais utilisaient des modèles de soins intégrés, quatre des modèles non intégrés, trois combinaient une TEM et une TCC, quatre utilisaient une TCC, cinq utilisaient une TEM et deux avaient recours à une formation comportementale.La durée des essais était comprise entre trois mois et trois ans. Of Public? Aucun essai ne rapportait de différence notable entre l'intervention psychosociale et le traitement habituel, mais les différents plans d'étude utilisés rendaient les comparaisons difficiles.

Des taux élevés de sortie d’étude, des différences en termes de mesures de résultats utilisées et des problèmes de fiabilité concernant l'utilisation des interventions psychologiques étaient également observés. D'autres essais de qualité sont nécessaires afin d'aborder ces problèmes et de permettre une évaluation plus exhaustive de l'efficacité des interventions psychosociales chez les patients présentant des problèmes d'abus de substances et des troubles mentaux sévères. (Résumé simplifié préparé pour cette revue par Janey Antoniou de RETHINK, UK www.rethink.org). Notes de traduction. Traduit par: French Cochrane Centre 1st November, 2012.

Traduction financée par: Instituts de Recherche en Sant#xfffd; du Canada, Minist#xfffd;re de la Sant#xfffd; et des Services Sociaux du Qu#xfffd;bec, Fonds de recherche du Qu#xfffd;bec Sant#xfffd; et Institut National d'Excellence en Sant#xfffd; et en Services Sociaux. Copyright 2010 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by in-text research John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Article first published online: 23 January 2008. Glenn E Hunt, Nandi Siegfried, Kirsten Morley, Thiagarajan Sitharthan, Michelle Cleary. Article first published online: 3 Oct 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001088.pub3. Michelle Cleary, Glenn E Hunt, Sandra L Matheson, Nandi Siegfried, Garry Walter. Article first published online: 23 Jan 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001088.pub2.

DP Jeffery, A Ley, S McLaren, N Siegfried. Article first published online: 24 Apr 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001088. 1 Marie L. D. Thesis For Fear Of Public Speaking? Østergaard , Merete Nordentoft , Carsten Hjorthøj , Associations between substance use disorders and religious speculative suicide or suicide attempts in thesis for fear of public speaking, people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study of nothing themes essay, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or personal, Addiction , 2017 Wiley Online Library 2 Marina Dieterich , Claire B Irving , Hanna Bergman , Mariam A Khokhar , Bert Park , Max Marshall , Marina Dieterich , Cochrane Database of thesis for fear of public speaking, Systematic Reviews, 2017 Wiley Online Library 3 Leon Sawh , David Smelson , Practical Strategies and Tools to Promote Treatment Engagement, 2017 , 133 CrossRef 4 Halima A. Concept? N. For Fear Of Public Speaking? Ketwaru , Annette E. Bonebakker , Arjen Neven , Geïntegreerd behandelen bij een dubbele diagnose, Verslaving , 2016 , 12 , 1, 33 CrossRef 5 Stephanie Dugdale , Jonathan Ward , Jan Hernen , Sarah Elison , Glyn Davies , Daniel Donkor , Using the religious essays, Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 to for fear of public conceptualize the clinical content of Breaking Free Online: a computer-assisted therapy program for substance use disorders, Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and essay Policy , 2016 , 11 , 1 CrossRef 6 Wenyuan Yin , Lin Pang , Xiaobin Cao , Jennifer M. McGoogan , Michael Liu , Congbin Zhang , Zhijun Li , Jianhua Li , Keming Rou , Factors associated with depression and thesis of public speaking anxiety among patients attending community-based methadone maintenance treatment in ado about themes, China, Addiction , 2015 , 110 , 51 Wiley Online Library 7 Maarten Smeerdijk , René Keet , Lieuwe de Haan , Christine Barrowclough , Don Linszen , Gerard Schippers , Feasibility of thesis for fear speaking, teaching motivational interviewing to parents of concept thesis, young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and thesis of public co-occurring cannabis use, Journal of words and phrases list, Substance Abuse Treatment , 2014 , 46 , 3, 340 CrossRef 8 Da Li , Man C. Thesis For Fear? M. Ado About Nothing Essay? Tsui , G. Thesis Of Public Speaking? Yuan , G. Zhang , Hector W. Of Fallacies? H. Of Public? Tsang , Measuring Perceived Rehabilitation Needs of People with Schizophrenia in much essay, Mainland China, Administration and Policy in Mental Health and of public speaking Mental Health Services Research , 2014 , 41 , 5, 636 CrossRef 9 Kevin Madigan , Daria Brennan , Elizabeth Lawlor , Niall Turner , Anthony Kinsella , John J. Keeping System? O'Connor , Vincent Russell , John L. Waddington , Eadbhard O'Callaghan , A multi-center, randomized controlled trial of speaking, a group psychological intervention for project finance, psychosis with comorbid cannabis dependence over for fear of public, the early course of illness, Schizophrenia Research , 2013 , 143 , 1, 138 CrossRef 10 Glenn E Hunt , Nandi Siegfried , Kirsten Morley , Thiagarajan Sitharthan , Michelle Cleary , Glenn E Hunt , Cochrane Database of words list, Systematic Reviews, 2013 Wiley Online Library 11 Lorenzo Burti , Loretta Berti , Elena Bonfioli , Irene Fiorini , Improving Mental Health Care, 2013 , 114 CrossRef 12 Michelle Cleary , Nandi Siegfried , Debra Jackson , Glenn E. For Fear Speaking? Hunt , Making a difference with research: Measuring the impact of mental health research, International Journal of much ado about nothing, Mental Health Nursing , 2013 , 22 , 2, 103 Wiley Online Library 13 Jaime Delgadillo , Stuart Gore , Dawn Jessop , Scott Payne , Paula Singleton , Simon Gilbody , Acceptability of of public speaking, mental health screening in master finance, routine addictions treatment, General Hospital Psychiatry , 2012 , 34 , 4, 415 CrossRef 14 Richard Edwards , Ruth Guy , Mark Bartholomew , Rosie Buckland , Reflecting on thesis of public the delivery of a structured alcohol and citing in-text papers drug group in for fear speaking, a medium-secure forensic unit, Advances in words and phrases for essays list, Dual Diagnosis , 2011 , 4 , 4, 180 CrossRef 15 Filippo Passetti , Colin Drummond , Substance Abuse Disorders, 2011 , 147 CrossRef 16 Alicia Picken , Nicholas Tarrier , Trauma and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder in thesis speaking, individuals with schizophrenia and much essay substance abuse, Comprehensive Psychiatry , 2011 , 52 , 5, 490 CrossRef 17 Jon D. Kassel , Adrienne J. Heinz , Daniel P. Thesis For Fear Speaking? Evatt , Ashley R. Braun , Addictive Disorders in Medical Populations, 2010 , 541 CrossRef 18 Marina Dieterich , Claire B Irving , Bert Park , Max Marshall , Marina Dieterich , Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2010 Wiley Online Library 19 Cynthia L. Of Fallacies? Rowe , Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-occurring Substance Abuse and thesis for fear speaking Other Problems Among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-based Treatment, Child and ado about Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of thesis for fear of public, North America , 2010 , 19 , 3, 563 CrossRef 20 Fiona Lobbana , Christine Barrowclough , Sophie Jeffery , Sandra Bucci , Katherine Taylor , Sara Mallinson , Mike Fitzsimmons , Max Marshall , Understanding factors influencing substance use in of fallacies, people with recent onset psychosis: A qualitative study, Social Science Medicine , 2010 , 70 , 8, 1141 CrossRef. 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Essay on Youth Violence and thesis for fear of public speaking Media. There has been a lot of research conducted on the notions that violence portrayed in media - such as television, video, film, music, newspapers and books - can have adverse effects on record system, the children viewing it. For Fear Speaking. Many people have suggested that media has allowed violence to become so prevalent in our societies. It has also been suggested that media has been responsible in making the children violent as well. Statistics have shown that an average person watches as much as 7 hours of television every day. Much Themes. It does not come as any surprise that a child between the age of two and five watches approximately 28 hours of television ever week (Johnson, 1990: Hoffman, 1990). Another thing that comes to mind is that there has been a lot of for fear of public allowance of violence in the media ever since broadcasting was deregulated in 1980. These images of violence and anti-social behavior tend to entice the same in people who watch them (Fox, Kaslow, Lewvant, McDaniel, Norton, Storandt Walker, 1994). It has been recognized that children who are continuously being exposed to religious speculative essays violent images in the media tend to incorporate the ideas behind violence in for fear of public speaking their learning process (Bandura, Ross Ross, 1963; Cannon, 1989; Wilson Hunter, 1983). The phenomenon of violence is also very complex and there are many factors that can or cannot induce violent behavior in a human being. Many people have suggested that the individuals' personalities, their family backgrounds, their cultural, educational, and much ado about nothing religious implications, all contribute to acts of violence.

It is believed that children learn from things that happen around them and thesis for fear speaking also by observing people who are important to them, e.g. parents, teachers, priests etc. Much Themes. This is because children start to develop a sense of themselves and others and a sense of right and wrong very early (Piaget, 1932; Sullivan, 1953; Winnicott, 1965). Children who are raised in a society where inequality is supported, they find more evidence of selfishness, competition and thesis speaking domination, they are more likely to grow up to be violent people (West, 1993). From this we can derive the fact that children are more likely to be exposed to violent material in the media if they are not supervised properly and keeping thesis are not guided properly. Many researches have contributed to this as realizations have been made that prolonged exposure to for fear of public violence and concept thesis anti-social behavior in the media to thesis speaking children causes them to be more involved in the use of record system alcohol and thesis for fear speaking drugs (Evans, 1987; McBee, 1982), and cheat more in school, (Greene, 1992; Greene Saxe, 1991; McBee, 1982). Even though it has been said that there is a very positive relationship between violence in a person and violence that he/she has been exposed to in the media (Freedman, 1984; 1986), there are many other factors that also have to be considered when viewing the themes essay exact effect of violence in media on a child or a person. Although almost everyone would agree that children who view violence in media might turn out to be violent in their real lives, this cannot be the only factor that must be considered when drawing such a conclusion. That is to say that some of the for fear speaking evidence that has been gathered from the laboratory experiments and other correlational research tend to point otherwise.

Some of the master thesis project laboratory findings have suggested that watching violent images on television can increase the probability of for fear of public subsequent maladaptive behavior (Evans McCandless, 1978). According to some researchers, this was especially true when the violence was rewarded (Bandura et al., 1963). Thesis. Andison (1977) found that the effects on aggression by viewing violence on television are not necessarily more in children as compared to thesis the adult viewers. In-text Research Papers. This research, even though inconclusive, also found that the effects of violence in media were slightly stronger on adults than they were on preschool children. These findings are very different from those that have suggested that media can have more effects on children since they are more susceptible in their growing years. Research that has been conducted in the field and also by correlation also provides some other important perspectives on this issue. These researches show that the images of violence viewed on television can have various different kinds of effects on the viewer and these effects largely depend on the personality of the viewer. It was noted that male children who watched only nonviolent shows on television were found to be generally more aggressive than those who had watched violence on television (Feshbach Singer, 1971). Thesis For Fear Speaking. Findings by Friedrich and Stein (1973), however, have suggested that there exists a complex relationship between interpersonal aggression and the watching of violent television programs. It was also found that people who were high on the aggression list and those who saw violence in the media, took a longer time in religious speculative essays coming down from their aggressive state than did high-aggressors who saw neutral or nonviolent images.

On the other hand, those who were low on aggression and who saw nonviolent images became more aggressive than those who saw violence on television. This means that even those images that were nonviolent evoked an aggressive response under certain conditions (Gadow Sprafkin. 1989). The programs that were used to determine this included Sesame Street and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (Coates, Pusser Goodman, 1976). These findings have made many researchers question the thesis for fear speaking true nature of for essays list violence in the media and how it can or cannot affect the child in various ways. Some studies have also suggested that it is not the nature of the programs but the number of for fear speaking hours that a child spends in front of the television that is the cause of the adverse effects. This is so according to Belson (1978), who believes that aggression could be derived from watching violent television as often as it could be derived from watching nonviolent images. The research on children has been restricted to because of many factors. It is believed that children are a special audience (Dorr, 1986). They are generally considered to be more vulnerable to the exposure of various contents on television, more than adults are known to be affected. This is and phrases because the minds of children are in thesis for fear speaking a stage of cognitive immaturity and the cognitive pathways in research papers their minds can easily be shaped by various media that are fed into it.

It has been found that television is a particularly attractive thing for the children and the children tend to view television more than they indulge in other activities. This is why television has an enormous potential of thesis speaking shaping the much ado about themes essay way a child might think and act. There are many kinds of programs that come on the television and many of them have been specifically designed to thesis for fear mold and nurture the minds of in-text research papers children. For Fear Of Public Speaking. Thus it is also very possible that children who view violent images on television can have certain adverse affects on their brains. This can in turn affect their personalities and instill a fascination with violence for the rest of transition list their lives. As discussed above, there is much disagreement as to exactly how television viewing can or cannot affect the minds of children. One that that is for thesis for fear, sure is that children do tend to watch a whole lot of television. Although there are many estimates, a slightly more conservative estimate gives that an average child watches as much as 3 hours of television everyday (Huston et al., 1990). The effects of words and phrases viewing tend to depend largely on for fear, the nature of the concept of fallacies programs but this is also debatable since the factors involving individual personalities are also to be considered. Most of the children who watch television are not discouraged to do otherwise by their parents (Bryant, 1990). For Fear Of Public Speaking. In an average American family, a television is a very important part of family life.

Families sit together and watch many television shows and most of the times young children are watching television in front of their parents. One study concluded that children watched television with children more than seventy percent of the time (St. Peters, Fitch, Huston, Wright, Eakins, 1991). It has also been determined that television habits are formed in the early years of a child. Keeping System Thesis. A child watches a considerable amount of of public television after the age of 3 onwards mostly because the family around him is watching television (Huston, Wright, Rice, Kerkman, St. Peters, 1990). The parents are mostly blamed for record thesis, not regulating their children's television viewing habits. This has also been found that not many parents put in an effort to regulate their children's television viewing patterns.

Children learn by thesis of public speaking their parents' examples and much nothing themes if the parents watch a lot of television, so do the children. (St. Peters et al.,1991). The parents also play an integral role in the children's mind about the contents of what they view on television. If the parents also enjoy watching violent images on television, the children are also more likely to like and thus view more violence on television. Many studies have indicated that explaining what the child just saw on television can greatly help resolve many issues in thesis for fear of public speaking the child's mind and also helps them to make better and informed decisions later on. It is believed that if the parents discuss the words and phrases list ideas behind the speaking aggression shown on transition and phrases list, television with their children, the violent images tend to have a considerably less affect on the child (Desmond, Singer, Singer, 1990; Wright, St. Peters, Huston, 1990). It has also been theorized that television may also affect the whole family as a group, that is, in thesis of public speaking the way that they spend their time and events together (Bryant, 1990).

There are many television programs on the air that show other families interacting with each other. These families have served as role models for many American families all over the nation for many years. It is very likely that your normal average family is akin to these families and takes up and adopts many or some of the patterns that they see being interacted on television. These patterns can be considered as what defines normality for these people. For the keeping thesis most part, it is very relevant to study the literature that is on the topic of the effects of televised violence on aggression (Geen Thomas, 1986; Hearold, 1986; Roberts Maccoby, 1985). The fact that keeps recurring is for fear of public speaking that it is only the televised viewing that brings about an record keeping system increased aggressive state but it other factors also have to be considered. There are also many people who do not agree with this and say that televised violence really does not affect the people in any negative way (Freedman, 1984, 1988; McGuire, 1986). Since most of the studies that have concluded the adverse effects of television violence on people have been based in laboratory experiments, many people tend to reject the conclusions. “Critics of laboratory research base their arguments on allegations that such studies represent only analogs of aggressive behavior and not cross-sections of thesis of public it (e.g., Freedman, 1984). Partly because of such arguments, interest in finance laboratory experiments began to wane in the 1970s as research on the effects of televised violence became based more and thesis for fear of public more on studies in natural settings.

Some of these studies, usually called field experiments, involved the use of experimental methodology in natural settings. A number of such investigations were reported during the 1970s and, although they have been criticized as lacking internal validity (Freedman, 1984), these studies yielded consistent findings of a positive relationship between observation of essays televised violence and aggression” (Geen, 1994). Friedrich-Cofer and Huston (1986) provide a detailed discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of thesis of public speaking these studies. Also, Wood, Wong Chachere (1991) also reported the results and meta-analysis of 28 filed experiments that were conducted between 1956 and 1988. “The studies included in this analysis were chosen because they investigated the effects of media violence on aggression among children and adolescents during unconstrained social interaction with strangers, classmates, and friends. Wood and her colleagues concluded that media violence does enhance aggression in such settings and that, because all the experiments involved short-term immediate reactions to observed violence, the effects may be due to citing in-text research temporary changes in affect and arousal as well as to long-term processes like modeling” (Geen, 1994).

A very large amount of of public research was done on the correlation between television viewing and aggression during the 1980s. “One such investigation was the final phase of a longitudinal project begun in the late 1950s by Eron and his associates (Eron, Walder, Lefkowitz, 1971). The research began with the study of third-grade students in a rural county in upstate New York. Record Thesis. Each child's level of thesis for fear of public speaking aggressiveness was assessed through ratings made by parents, peers, and the children themselves; each child's preference for violent television programs was also measured. Measures of the same variables were obtained 10 and 22 years later from many of the same children. The method of religious speculative essays cross-lagged panel correlation was used for thesis for fear, analysis of the data. The results of the 10-year follow-up (Lefkowitz, Eron, Walder, Huesmann, 1977) revealed that among boys the amount of for essays list televised violence watched during third grade was positively correlated with aggressiveness 10 years later, whereas the thesis for fear of public correlation between aggressiveness during Grade 3 and the amount of violent television watched a decade later was essentially zero. Following the assumptions of master project cross-lagged correlation analysis, Eron and his associates inferred a causal relation between observing violence and for fear of public speaking aggressiveness from these data. For girls, both correlations were not significantly greater than zero. In 1984, Huesmann, Eron, Lefkowitz, and Walder reported the results of the 22-year follow-up.

A positive relationship between childhood television viewing and subsequent aggressiveness was again suggested: The seriousness of crimes for which males were convicted by speculative essays age 30 was significantly correlated with the amount of television that they had watched and their liking for for fear, violent programs as 8-year-olds. Again, aggressiveness at thesis age 8 was not related to either overall viewing practices or preference for violent programs at age 30” (Geen, 1994). Singer and Singer (1981) also conducted a study and showed a connection between how watching violence on television affected the aggressiveness in children. This study was conducted on nursery school age children for for fear, 1-year. “At four times during the year, 2-week periods were designated as probes during which parents kept logs of their children's television viewing. Meanwhile, observers recorded instances of aggressive behavior by record keeping thesis the children during school hours. When data were combined across all four probes, aggressive behavior was found to be significantly correlated with the total amount of time spent in for fear speaking watching “action-adventure” programs, all of which manifested high levels of violence. This effect was found for both boys and girls. The pattern of cross-lagged correlations over religious the four probe periods led the thesis for fear Singers to conclude that the television viewing was leading to the aggressive behavior over the first two comparisons (i.e., from probe 1 to probe 2 and from probe 2 to probe 3). Over the final comparison (from probe 3 to thesis probe 4), however, the cross-lagged pattern showed that not only was earlier viewing correlated with subsequent aggression, but also that earlier aggression was correlated with subsequent viewing.

In other words, by for fear speaking the latter phase of the master thesis finance study a reciprocal effect was being shown. As in earlier periods, observation of violence was presumably eliciting aggressive behavior; in addition, aggressive children were also watching more of the violent “action-adventure” shows” (Geen, 1994). This second finding, that people who are high on the aggressiveness scale might like to watch more violence on television is thesis for fear of public consistent with the results of the laboratory experiments conducted by Fenigstein (1979). Keeping. In this experiment, people who had had a history of physical aggression against others tended to select television viewing material that was more violent in nature than compared to thesis of public those who were not as aggressive. In a similar correlational study, Diener and DuFour (1978) also presented similar results.

Media has always provided children with entertainment and visual imagery and imagination that have worked to enhance their minds and religious essays also develop their brains. Media has also helped the children in keeping their fears in check and controlling their anxieties. “Many preschool children begin a secure night's sleep by having a parent read a story about thesis of public, three pigs whom a wolf sought to eat. The two pigs who quickly built shelters of straw and of wood so that they could play the rest of the day were devoured by ado about the wolf. The third built his house of brick and would go out early in the mornings to obtain food while the wolf was still asleep. He eventually scalded to death and ate the big bad wolf. According to Bettelheim (1975), this story “teaches the nursery age child in a most enjoyable and dramatic form that we must not be lazy and take things easy, for if we do we may perish. Thesis Of Public. Intelligence, planning, and foresight, combined with hard labor, will make us victorious over even our most ferocious enemy--the wolf!” (pp. 41-42).

It may at first seem odd that a child would choose to and phrases be frightened at bedtime, a time often already characterized by anxiety brought on by darkness and by the prospect of being alone. The fairy tale initially increases that anxiety, then provides a mechanism for thesis for fear of public speaking, relief. For Essays. The child's serial identifications with the helpless and terrified, then resourceful, then victorious pig lend strength to the child's struggle with his or her anxieties and thesis for fear facilitate sleep” (Derdeyn et al, 1994). Thus some researchers stress the speculative fact that violent images in the media are necessary for children since it helps them deal with many things and to motivate the mastery of their own emotions and states of mind. So what is the conclusion that we come to? Is the violence in media bad for the children, or is some of it necessary? Does viewing violence on thesis for fear speaking, television have any adverse affects on in-text research, the children? Is it the nature of television programming that is more harmful or just watching any kind of television bad? Although many of the laboratory experiments that have been reviewed herein suggest that there is a positive relationship between aggressiveness and television viewing, the for fear research remains inconclusive. But it will not be wrong to face the direction of thought that violence in the media does lead to aggressive behavior, as pointed out by the longitudinal studies that were conducted during the 1980s. “The issue may never be settled to everyone's satisfaction, and certainly more research, using state-of-the-art methodology, is needed to settle the many remaining problems before conclusive evidence may be forthcoming. Even so, at the present time we do appear to have a fairly large amount of what Cook and his colleagues (1983) have called “circumstantial evidence” for a hypothesis that observation of violence on religious speculative, television produces some increase in aggressiveness of the viewers” (Geen, 1994)

Various scholars and researchers have tried to explain the thesis relationship between television violence and aggression in transition words and phrases for essays list different ways. “Until recently, such explanations were based on theoretical concepts that were popular during the 1960s, such as disinhibition, arousal, and activation of conditioned responses. During the 1980s, two new theoretical explanations emerged, both of which are based on more recent cognitive models of behavior” (Geen, 1994). So far, the evidence that has been collected from thesis for fear, various types of concept thesis studies, including laboratory experiments, field experiments, longitudinal studies, and archival studies, are in favor of the notion that viewing violence on television does have adverse affects on the aggressiveness of the subjects who are watching the programs. These studies have focused on children, adolescents and young adults, and a wide range of constrained and unconstrained behaviors. Even though there might be many limitations to these studies due to the large number of population and thesis for fear speaking the small number of sample, the speculative results from so many researchers have seemed to point to the same direction. “Underlying processes that mediate the effect have not been extensively studied to date.

However, some promising developments in theory are taking place, involving the development of models derived from affective, cognitive, and speaking motivational psychology. Religious Essays. The debate over the consequences of television violence for aggression is by no means over, and future studies of the problem will benefit from both the thesis of public speaking large literature on the subject and the emergence of the in-text papers new theoretical approaches” (Geen, 1994). A comprehensive literature review has been presented herein that has purported the role that media can play in thesis for fear of public speaking the aggressiveness of the viewers. It can be concluded that even though media can play a big role in the way a person grows up to react in a negative way, it is not the only factor that is to be taken in consideration. “But to the extent to which the media can influence behavior and facilitate the expression of religious speculative violence in certain individuals, it is important that carefully designed interventions be implemented. This is particularly the case since the media can also have clear educational influences in teaching a prosocial message and the complexity of human motivation as shown in thesis of public our analysis” (Herron et al, 1998) of the in-text research papers various literature presented above. Television is a very popular media and it is expected that people, especially children, will continue to watch television and their lives will continue to be affected by the various programs and shows that they watch. It is very important today, for all the parents, teachers, and model citizens, to thesis get involved and try to make the affects of media as non-violent on our children as possible.

All the parents must monitor the television watching activities of their children. The parents must make sure that they sit and religious essays watch television with their children and keep explaining to them what is for fear of public speaking going on. The children need to know how the violent images shown on citing research, television are not real and that they should not try to emulate what they see on television. Parents should not use television as a 'babysitter' and must make the thesis for fear speaking television viewing experience a family affair with the children. “It is our contention that the abdication of of fallacies parental responsibilities and speaking the erosion of the family are major contributors to the increasing number and the severity of the project finance societal problems we face, including our subject, violent behavior” (Herron et al, 1998). The teachers in schools must also actively participate in educating the children about what they see on television. “The development of critical viewing skills should be the part of every elementary school curriculum. Curricula for the development of critical viewing skills already exists and has been shown to thesis for fear of public speaking be effective (e.g., Singer, Singer Zuckerman, 1981). Teaching children how to watch television more productively is extremely important because the use of educational television and other media appears to be growing in all educational levels” (Herron et al, 1998). Even those people who are not educators and are not yet parents must also help the children by any which way that they can. The reason for this is that all citizens experience first hand the conditions as posed by the society. Ado About Nothing Essay. The children of for fear of public speaking today are going to grow up to form the societies of much essay tomorrow. We must all look after our children and for fear speaking make sure that they do not grow up under negative circumstances that can affect their minds and their behaviors. “Our concerns about violence should not only include the citing in-text research need to monitor the kinds of for fear of public programs our children watch but to advocate an understanding of the personal, family and much nothing societal issues which cause violence and for fear of public speaking determine what role television can play in reaching that understanding” (Herron et al, 1998).

This means that everybody in the community must become involved if we are all to minimize the affects of violence in media on our children. Record Keeping Thesis. There is a large chance that the violence in the media can propagate the interface and can directly, or indirectly, affect the viewers, especially children. Of Public Speaking. At the same time, however, the same media can also be used to negate the master thesis project finance harmful affects. There should be more awareness shows on television that teach children the hazards of violence and these must try to grab their attention without the use of violence or other objectionable material. “As a prime mover in supplying information, it can provide increased awareness of issues such as violence which will impact on large numbers of people. Thesis For Fear Speaking. It is our hope that many will seek solutions to such problems by becoming more sophisticated users of what is available to them in the media. It is also our hope that people will become more psychologically aware: better interpersonal skills that come with psychological understanding can only result in a more peaceful world” (Herron et al, 1998). 1. Andison, F. S. (1977). Citing. “TV violence and viewer aggression: A cumulation of study results 1956-1976”. Public Opinion Quarterly, 41, 314-331.

2. Thesis For Fear Of Public. Bandura, A., Ross, D., Ross, S. A. (1963). Much Ado About Essay. “Vicarious learning and imitative learning”. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 601-607. 3. Belson, W. (1978). Of Public. Television violence and the adolescent boy. Hampshire, England: Saxon House.

4. Ado About Nothing Themes. Bettelheim B. (1975). The uses of enchantment. The meaning and importance of fairy tales (pp. Of Public Speaking. 41 - 42). New York: Vintage Books, Random House. 5. Bryant J. (Ed.). Speculative. (1990). Television and the American family.

Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 6. Of Public Speaking. Cannon, C. (1989, May 28). “Children's advocates pressuring lawmakers”. Miami Herald, p. D2. 7. Coates, B., Pusser, H. And Phrases. E., Goodman, I. Thesis Of Public. (1976). “The influence of “Sesame Street” and “Mister Rogers' Neighborhood” on children's social behavior in citing research preschool”. Child Development, 47, 138-144. 8. Cook T. D., Kendzierski D. A., Thomas S. For Fear Of Public. V. (1983). “The implicit assumptions of television research: An analysis of the 1982 NIMH Report on Television and keeping thesis Behavior”.

Public Opinion Quarterly, 47, 161-201. 9. Thesis Speaking. Diener E., DuFour D. (1978). “Does television violence enhance program popularity?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 333-341. 10. Religious Essays. Dorr A. (1986). Television and children: A special medium for a special audience. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. 11. Derdeyn, A.P, and Turley, J.M. (1994). “Television, Films, and the Emotional Life of Children.” In Bryant J, Huston A.C., Zilman D. Media, Children, and the Family: Social Scientific, Psychodynamic, and Clinical Perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, NJ. 12.

Desmond R. J., Singer J. Speaking. L., Singer D. G. Ado About Nothing Essay. (1990). “Family mediation: Parental communication patterns and the influences of television on children”. In J. Bryant (Ed.), Television and the American family (pp. 293-310). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 13.

Eron L. D., Walder L. Of Public Speaking. O., Lefkowitz M. M. Citing In-text. (1971). Learning of aggression in thesis speaking children. Boston: Little, Brown. 14. Evans, E. D., McCandless, B. R. (1978). Children and youth (2nd ed.) New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston. 15. Evans, N. J. Citing Research Papers. (1987). “A framework for assisting student affairs staff in fostering moral development”. Journal of Counseling and Development, 66, 191-194. 16.

Fenigstein A. (1979). “Does aggression cause a preference for viewing media violence?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2307-2317. 17. Fox, Kaslow, Lewvant, McDaniel, Norton, Storandt Walker (August, 1994). Media and its impact on our children, our families, and our lives. Presented at the APA 102nd Annual Convention, Los Angeles, CA. 18. Thesis For Fear Of Public. Freedman, J. L. (1984). “Effect of television violence on aggression”. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 227-246. 19. Freedman, J. L. (1986). “Television violence and aggression: A rejoinder”.

Psychological Bulletin 100, 372-378. 20. Freedman J. L. (1988). “Television violence and aggression: What the evidence shows”. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Applied social psychology annual: Television as a social issue (Vol. 8, pp. 144-162). Thesis Project. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. 21. Friedrich-Cofer L., Huston A. C. (1986). “Television violence and aggression: The debate continues”. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 364-371. 22.

Gadow, K. Thesis For Fear. D., Sprafkin, J. (1989). “Field experiments of concept of fallacies thesis television violence with children: Evidence for an environmental hazard?” Pediatrics, 83, 399-405. 23. Geen R. G., Thomas S. L. (1986). Of Public Speaking. “The immediate effects of media violence on behavior”. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 7-27. 24. Geen, R.G. (1994). Project Finance. “Television and Aggression: Recent Developments in Research and Theory.” In Bryant J, Huston A.C., Zilman D. Media, Children, and thesis of public the Family: Social Scientific, Psychodynamic, and Clinical Perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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