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Platonism in top resume the Philosophy of Mathematics. Platonism about mathematics (or mathematical platonism ) is the metaphysical view that there are abstract mathematical objects whose existence is independent of us and our language, thought, and practices. Just as electrons and planets exist independently of us, so do numbers and sets. And just as statements about electrons and planets are made true or false by the objects with which they are concerned and these objects' perfectly objective properties, so are statements about numbers and experiments sets. Services? Mathematical truths are therefore discovered, not invented. The most important argument for the existence of abstract mathematical objects derives from Gottlob Frege and goes as follows (Frege 1953). The language of essay mathematics purports to refer to and quantify over abstract mathematical objects.
And a great number of mathematical theorems are true. But a sentence cannot be true unless its sub-expressions succeed in doing what they purport to do. So there exist abstract mathematical objects that these expressions refer to and quantify over. Frege's argument notwithstanding, philosophers have developed a variety of top resume objections to mathematical platonism. Thus, abstract mathematical objects are claimed to essay conclusion, be epistemologically inaccessible and top resume metaphysically problematic. Mathematical platonism has been among the most hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mathematics over the past few decades. Mathematical platonism can be defined as the conjunction of the following three theses: There are mathematical objects.
Mathematical objects are abstract. Mathematical objects are independent of intelligent agents and their language, thought, and practices. Some representative definitions of ‘mathematical platonism’ are listed in the supplement. and document that the above definition is fairly standard. Platonism in general (as opposed to platonism about mathematics specifically) is any view that arises from the above three claims by replacing the university essay 2012, adjective ‘mathematical’ by any other adjective. The first two claims are tolerably clear for present purposes. Existence can be formalized as ‘∃ x Mx ’, where ‘ Mx ’ abbreviates the predicate ‘ x is a mathematical object’ which is services true of all and only the objects studied by pure mathematics, such as numbers, sets, and functions. Abstractness says that every mathematical object is catw passing abstract, where an object is said to top resume, be abstract just in essay transitions case it is non-spatiotemporal and (therefore) causally inefficacious. Top Resume Services? (For further discussion, see the experiments on animals, entry on abstract objects.) Independence is less clear than the other two claims. What does it mean to top resume, ascribe this sort of independence to an object?
The most obvious gloss is probably the school, counterfactual conditional that, had there not been any intelligent agents, or had their language, thought, or practices been different, there would still have been mathematical objects. Top Resume? It is doubtful that this gloss will do the work that Independence is games supposed to do (see Section 5.3); for now, Independence will be left somewhat schematic. Platonism must be distinguished from the top resume services, view of the historical Plato. Few parties to the contemporary debate about platonism make strong exegetical claims about thesis, Plato's view, much less defend it. Top Resume Services? Although the view which we are calling ‘platonism’ is university essay 2012 inspired by Plato's famous theory of abstract and eternal Forms (see the entry on Plato's metaphysics and epistemology), platonism is now defined and debated independently of its original historical inspiration. Not only top resume is the platonism under discussion not Plato's, platonism as characterized above is a purely metaphysical view: it should be distinguished from essay games school, other views that have substantive epistemological content. Many older characterizations of platonism add strong epistemological claims to the effect that we have some immediate grasp of, or insight into, the realm of abstract objects. (See e.g., Rees 1967.) But it is useful (and nowadays fairly standard) to reserve the term ‘platonism’ for the purely metaphysical view described above. Many philosophers who defend platonism in this purely metaphysical sense would reject the additional epistemological claims. Examples include Quine and other philosophers attracted to the so-called indispensability argument , which seeks to give a broadly empirical defense of mathematical platonism. (See the entry on indispensability arguments in the philosophy of mathematics.)
Finally, the above definition of ‘mathematical platonism’ excludes the claim that all truths of pure mathematics are necessary, although this claim has traditionally been made by top resume services most platonists. Again, this exclusion is justified by the fact that some philosophers who are generally regarded as platonists (for instance, Quine and scientific experiments on animals essay some adherents of the aforementioned indispensability argument) reject this additional modal claim . 1.2 The philosophical significance of mathematical platonism. Mathematical platonism has considerable philosophical significance. If the view is true, it will put great pressure on the physicalist idea that reality is exhausted by the physical. For platonism entails that reality extends far beyond the physical world and includes objects which aren't part of the causal and spatiotemporal order studied by the physical sciences. 1 Mathematical platonism, if true, will also put great pressure on many naturalistic theories of knowledge. For there is little doubt that we possess mathematical knowledge. The truth of mathematical platonism would therefore establish that we have knowledge of abstract (and thus causally inefficacious) objects. This would be an top resume important discovery, which many naturalistic theories of knowledge would struggle to accommodate.
Although these philosophical consequences are not unique to mathematical platonism, this particular form of windows vista thesis platonism is unusually well suited to support such consequences. For mathematics is a remarkably successful discipline, both in its own right and as a tool for top resume, other sciences. 2 Few contemporary analytic philosophers are willing to contradict any of the core claims of a discipline whose scientific credentials are as strong as those of mathematics (Lewis 1991, pp. 579). So if philosophical analysis revealed mathematics to have some strange and surprising consequences, it would be unattractive simply to reject mathematics. Santa Clara 2012? 3 A form of platonism based on a discipline whose scientific credentials are less impressive than those of top resume services mathematics would not be in this fortunate situation. For instance, if theology turns out to windows vista thesis, have some strange and surprising philosophical consequences, many philosophers would not hesitate to reject the relevant parts of theology. In contemporary philosophy nominalism is typically defined as the view that there are no abstract objects. Top Resume Services? (In more traditional philosophical usage the word ‘nominalism’ refers instead to the view that there are no universals. See Burgess Rosen 1997, pp. 1325 and the entry on transitions, abstract objects.) Let anti-nominalism be the negation of services nominalism, that is, the claim that there exist abstract objects. Anti-nominalism about mathematics is thus just the conjunction of Existence and Abstractness . Because anti-nominalism leaves out Independence , it is logically weaker than mathematical platonism.
The philosophical consequences of anti-nominalism are not as strong as those of platonism. Many physicalists would accept non-physical objects provided that these are dependent on or reducible to physical objects. They may for essay conclusion, instance accept objects such as corporations, laws, and poems, provided that these are suitably dependent or reducible to physical objects. Moreover, there appears to be no mystery about epistemic access to non-physical objects that we have somehow made or ‘constituted’. Services? If corporations, laws, and catw passing poems are made or ‘constituted’ by us, presumably we gain knowledge of them in the process of making or ‘constituting’ them. Some views in the philosophy of mathematics are anti-nominalist without being platonist. One example are traditional intuitionist views, which affirm the existence of mathematical objects but maintain that these objects depend on or are constituted by mathematicians and their activities. 4 Some further examples of views that are anti-nominalist without being platonist will be discussed in Section 5.2. Truth-value realism is the view that every well-formed mathematical statement has a unique and objective truth-value that is independent of whether it can be known by top resume us and whether it follows logically from catw passing essays, our current mathematical theories. Top Resume? The view also holds that most mathematical statements that are deemed to be true are in fact true.
5 Thus truth-value realism is clearly a metaphysical view. But unlike platonism it is not an ontological view. Conclusion Transitions? For although truth-value realism claims that mathematical statements have unique and objective truth-values, it is not committed to the distinctively platonist idea that these truth-values flow from an services ontology of mathematical objects. Mathematical platonism clearly motivates truth-value realism by providing an account of how mathematical statements get their truth-values. But the former view does not entail the latter unless further premises are added. For even if there are mathematical objects, referential and quantificational indeterminacy may deprive mathematical statements of thesis a unique and objective truth-value. Conversely, truth-value realism does not by itself entail Existence and thus implies neither anti-nominalism nor platonism. Services? For there are various accounts of how mathematical statements can come to possess unique and objective truth-values which do not posit a realm of mathematical objects. 6. In fact, many nominalists endorse truth-value realism, at least about more basic branches of mathematics, such as arithmetic. Nominalists of this type are committed to the slightly odd-sounding view that, although the ordinary mathematical statement.
(1) There are primes numbers between 10 and 20. is true, there are in fact no mathematical objects and essay conclusion thus in particular no numbers. But there is no contradiction here. Services? We must distinguish between the language L M in which mathematicians make their claims and the language L P in windows thesis which nominalists and other philosophers make theirs. The statement (1) is made in L M . Top Resume? But the nominalist's assertion that (1) is true but that there are no abstract objects is made in santa essay prompt 2012 L P . The nominalist's assertion is thus perfectly coherent provided that (1) is translated non-homophonically from L M into L P . And indeed, when the nominalist claims that the truth-values of sentences of services L M are fixed in a way which doesn't appeal to mathematical objects, it is precisely this sort of non-homophonic translation she has in mind. The view mentioned in essay the previous note provides an example. This shows that for the claim Existence to have its intended effect, it must be expressed in top resume the language L P used by us philosophers. If the prompt 2012, claim was expressed in the language L M used by mathematicians, then nominalists could accept the claim while still denying that there are mathematical objects, contrary to the purpose of the claim. A small but important tradition of philosophers urge that the debate about platonism should be replaced by, or at top resume least transformed into, a debate about truth-value realism. Windows Vista? One reason offered in support of this view is that the top resume, former debate is what does being a leader mean hopelessly unclear, while the latter is more tractable (Dummett 1978a, pp. 228232 and Dummett 1991b, pp.
1015). Another reason offered is that the top resume services, debate about truth-value realism is of greater importance to both philosophy and mathematics than the windows thesis, one about platonism. 7. 1.5 The mathematical significance of platonism. Working realism is the methodological view that mathematics should be practiced as if platonism was true (Bernays 1935, Shapiro 1997, pp. 2127 and 3844). This requires some explanation. In debates about the foundations of mathematics platonism has often been used to defend certain mathematical methods, such as the top resume services, following:
Classical first-order (or stronger) languages whose singular terms and quantifiers appear to be referring to and ranging over mathematical objects. (This contrasts with the languages that dominated earlier in the history of mathematics, which relied more heavily on constructive and modal vocabulary.) Classical rather than intuitionistic logic. Non-constructive methods (such as non-constructive existence proofs) and non-constructive axioms (such as the Axiom of Choice). Impredicative definitions (that is, definitions that quantify over a totality to which the object being defined would belong). Does Essay? ‘Hilbertian optimism’, that is, the belief that every mathematical problem is in principle solvable. 8. According to working realism, these and other classical methods are acceptable and services available in all mathematical reasoning. But working realism does not take a stand on whether these methods require any philosophical defense, and if so, whether this defense must be based on platonism. In short, where platonism is an explicitly philosophical view, working realism is first and essay school foremost a view within mathematics itself about the correct methodology of this discipline.
Platonism and working realism are therefore distinct views. However, there may of course be logical relations between the two views. Services? Given the origin of on animals essay working realism, it is not surprising that the top resume services, view receives strong support from mathematical platonism. Assume that mathematical platonism is true. Then clearly the language of essay conclusion mathematics ought to services, be as described in (i). Secondly, provided it is legitimate to reason classically about vista, any independently existing part of reality, (ii) would also follow. Thirdly, since platonism ensures that mathematics is discovered rather than invented, there would be no need for mathematicians to restrict themselves to constructive methods and services axioms, which establishes (iii).
Fourth, there is a powerful and influential argument due to Gödel (1944) that impredicative definitions are legitimate whenever the objects being defined exist independently of our definitions. (For instance, ‘the tallest boy in the class’ appears unproblematic despite being impredicative.) If this is correct, then (iv) would follow. Finally, if mathematics is about some independently existing reality, then every mathematical problem has a unique and determinate answer, which provides at least some motivation for Hilbertian optimism. (See, however, the discussion of plenitudinous platonism in Section 5.1.) The truth of mathematical platonism would therefore have important consequences within mathematics itself. It would justify the santa university, classical methods associated with working realism and top resume encourage the windows, search for new axioms to settle questions (such as the Continuum Hypothesis) which are left open by our current mathematical theories. However, working realism does not in any obvious way imply platonism. Although working realism says that we are justified in using the platonistic language of contemporary mathematics, this falls short of top resume services platonism in at least two ways.
As the above discussion of truth-value realism showed, the platonistic language of mathematics can be analysed in such a way as to avoid reference to and quantification over mathematical objects. Moreover, even if a face-value analysis of the language of essay conclusion transitions mathematics could be justified, what would follow is anti-nominalism but not yet platonism. An additional argument would be needed for the third component of platonism, namely, Independence . The prospects for such an services argument are discussed in Section 3.2. 2. The Fregean Argument for Existence. We now describe a template of an argument for the existence of mathematical objects. Catw Passing? Since the first philosopher who developed an top resume argument of this general form was Frege, it will be referred to as the Fregean argument . But the template is general and abstracts away from most specific aspects of Frege's own defense of the games school, existence of top resume services mathematical objects, such as his view that arithmetic is reducible to logic. Fregean logicism is just one way in which this template can be developed; some other ways will be mentioned below. The Fregean argument is based on two premises, the first of which concerns the semantics of the language of mathematics: The singular terms of the language of conclusion transitions mathematics purport to refer to mathematical objects, and its first-order quantifiers purport to range over top resume services such objects. The word ‘purport’ needs to be explained. When a sentence S purports to refer or quantify in a certain way, this means that for S to be true, S must succeed in referring or quantifying in this way.
The second premise does not require much explanation: Most sentences accepted as mathematical theorems are true (regardless of their syntactic and semantic structure). Consider sentences which are accepted as mathematical theorems and which contain one or more mathematical singular terms. By Truth , most of what being a leader mean these sentences are true. 9 Let S be one such sentence. By Classical Semantics , the truth of S requires that its singular terms succeed in top resume services referring to mathematical objects. Essay? Hence there must be mathematical objects, as asserted by Existence . 10. Classical Semantics claims that the language of mathematics functions semantically much like language in general functions (or at least has traditionally been assumed to top resume, function): the semantic functions of singular terms and mean quantifiers are, respectively, to refer to objects and to range over objects.
This is a broadly empirical claim about the top resume, workings of a semi-formal language used by the community of professional mathematicians. (In the widely adopted terminology of Burgess Rosen 1997, pp. 67, Classical Semantics is a hermeneutic claim; that is, it is a descriptive claim about windows, how a certain language is actually used, not a normative claim about how this language ought to be used.) Note also that Classical Semantics is compatible with most traditional views on services, semantics; in particular, it is compatible with all the standard views on the meanings of sentences, namely that they are truth-values, propositions, or sets of experiments on animals essay possible worlds. Classical Semantics enjoys strong prima facie plausibility. Services? For the language of mathematics strongly appears to have the same semantic structure as ordinary non-mathematical language. As Burgess (1999) observes, the following two sentences appear to have the same simple semantic structure of a predicate being ascribed to essay games school, a subject (p. Top Resume? 288): (4) Evelyn is prim. Catw Passing? (5) Eleven is prime. This appearance is also borne out by the standard semantic analyses proposed by top resume services linguists and semanticists. Classical Semantics has nevertheless been challenged, for instance by nominalists such as Hellman (1989) and by Hofweber (2005). (See also Moltmann (2013) for some challenges concerned with arithmetical vocabulary in natural language.) This is not the place for an extended discussion of such challenges.
Let me just note that a lot of scientific experiments work is top resume services needed to substantiate this sort of challenge. Essay Games School? The challenger will have to argue that the apparent semantic similarities between mathematical and top resume non-mathematical language are deceptive. And these arguments will have to be of the sort that linguists and semanticistswith no vested interest in catw passing the philosophy of mathematicscould come to recognize as significant. 11. Truth can be defended in a variety of different ways. Common to all defenses is that they first identify some standard by which the services, truth-values of mathematical statements can be assessed and santa university essay prompt then argue that mathematical theorems meet this standard.
One option is to appeal to a standard that is more fundamental than that of mathematics itself. Logicism provides an top resume services example. Frege and scientific on animals other logicists first claim that any theorem of pure logic is true. Then they attempt to show that the theorems of certain branches of mathematics can be proved from pure logic and definitions alone. Another option is to appeal to the standards of empirical science. The Quine-Putnam indispensability argument provides an example.
First it is top resume argued that any indispensable part of empirical science is likely to be true and university essay prompt therefore something we are justified in believing. Then it is argued that large amounts of mathematics are indispensable to empirical science. If both claims are correct, it follows that Truth is likely to top resume services, be true and that belief in Truth therefore is justified. A third option is to appeal to the standards of mathematics itself. Why should one have to appeal to non-mathematical standards, such as those of essay conclusion transitions logic or empirical science, in top resume services order to defend the truth of mathematical theorems? When we defend the truth of the claims of logic and physics, we do not need to passing essays, appeal to standards outside of top resume services respectively logic and physics. Rather we assume that logic and on animals essay physics provide their own sui generis standards of top resume justification. Why should mathematics be any different? This third strategy has received a lot of attention in essays recent years, often under the heading of ‘naturalism’ or ‘mathematical naturalism’. (See Burgess Rosen 1997, Maddy 1997, and, for top resume services, critical discussion, see the entry on naturalism in the philosophy of mathematics.) Here is an example of how a naturalistic strategy can be developed.
Call the clara university essay prompt 2012, attitude that mathematicians take to the theorems of mathematics ‘acceptance’. Then the following claims seem plausible: (6) Mathematicians are justified in accepting the services, theorems of mathematics. What Does? (7) Accepting a mathematical statement S involves taking S to be true. Services? (8) When a mathematician accepts a mathematical statement S , the content of this attitude is in general the literal meaning of S . From these three claims it follows that mathematical experts are justified in taking the theorems of mathematics to be literal truths. By extension the clara essay 2012, rest of top resume us too are justified in believing Truth . Note that the experts with whom (6) is concerned need not themselves believe (7) and passing essays (8), let alone be justified in any such belief. What matters is that the three claims are true. The task of establishing the truth of (7) and (8) may fall to top resume, linguists, psychologists, sociologists, or philosophers, but certainly not to mathematicians themselves.
2.4 The notion of ontological commitment. Versions of the Fregean argument are sometimes stated in essay games terms of the notion of top resume ontological commitment. Assume we operate with the standard Quinean criterion of ontological commitment: A first-order sentence (or collection of such sentences) is ontologically committed to such objects as must be assumed to be in the range of the variables for the sentence (or collection of sentences) to be true. Then it follows from Classical Semantics that many sentences of mathematics are ontologically committed to mathematical objects. Essay Games School? To see this, consider a typical mathematical theorem S , which involves some normal extensional occurrence of either singular terms or first-order quantifiers. By Classical Semantics , these expressions purport to refer to or range over mathematical objects. For S to be true, these expressions must succeed in services doing what they purport to do.
Consequently, for S to be true, there must be mathematical objects in the range of the variables. By Quine's Criterion this means that S is a leader ontologically committed to mathematical objects. Quine and many others take Quine's Criterion to top resume, be little more than a definition of the term ‘ontological commitment’ (Quine 1969 and Burgess 2004). Essay Games? But the criterion has nevertheless been challenged. Services? Some philosophers deny that singular terms and first-order quantifiers automatically give rise to scientific on animals, ontological commitments. Perhaps what is “required of the world” for the sentence to be true involves the top resume services, existence of some but not all of the objects in the range of the scientific on animals, quantifiers (Rayo 2008). Or perhaps we should sever the link between the first-order existential quantifier and the notion of services ontological commitment (Azzouni 2004 and does being mean essay Hofweber 2000).
One response to services, these challenges is to observe that the Fregean argument was developed above without any use of the being a leader, term ‘ontological commitment’. Any challenge to the definition of ‘ontological commitment’ provided by services Quine's Criterion therefore appears irrelevant to the version of the Fregean argument developed above. Essays? However, this response is unlikely to top resume services, satisfy the challengers, who will respond that the transitions, conclusion of the argument developed above is too weak to have its intended effect. Recall that the conclusion, Existence , is formalized in our philosophical meta-language L P as ‘∃ x Mx ’. So this formalization will fail to have its intended effect unless this meta-language sentence is of the sort that incurs ontological commitment. But that is precisely what the challengers dispute. This controversy cannot be pursued further here. For now, we simply observe that the top resume, challengers need to provide an account of why their non-standard notion of ontological commitment is better and theoretically more interesting than the standard Quinean notion. 3. From Existence to Mathematical Platonism.
Recall that mathematical platonism is the result of adding to Existence the two further claims Abstractness and Independence . By the standards of philosophy, Abstractness has remained relatively uncontroversial. Among the few philosophers to have challenged it are Maddy (1990) (concerning impure sets) and Bigelow (1988) (concerning sets and various kinds of numbers). This relative lack of controversy means that few explicit defenses of conclusion Abstractness have been developed. But it is not hard to top resume services, see how such a defense might go. Here is one idea. It is a plausible prima facie constraint on any philosophical interpretation of mathematical practice that it should avoid ascribing to mathematics any features which would render actual mathematical practice misguided or inadequate. This constraint makes it hard to does being a leader mean essay, deny that the objects of pure mathematics are abstract.
For if these objects had spatiotemporal locations, then actual mathematical practice would be misguided and inadequate, since pure mathematicians ought then to take an interest in top resume the locations of on animals their objects, just as physicists take an interest in the locations of theirs. The fact that pure mathematicians take no interest in this question suggests that their objects are abstract. Independence says that mathematical objects, if there are any, are independent of intelligent agents and their language, thought, and top resume practices. This claim has received relatively little explicit attention in recent decades. (Among the exceptions are philosophers of intuitionist and constructivist leanings, such as Dummett. See also Cole 2009.) The claim appears to does essay, have been tacitly accepted by most analytic philosophers, not always because they are moved by any arguments in its favor, but often only because they don't understand what it would be for the claim to fail. Ordinary physical objects provide a good model for what it is for an object to be independent of us and our activities. But it remains unclear what it would be for an object not to be thus independent. However, a failure to see any clear alternatives to a view is not a defense of the view. Can one do better?
One strategy is to search for a route from working realism to Independence . Assume that the top resume services, methodology of classical mathematics is justified. Could it be that the essay conclusion transitions, best explanation of this fact is that Independence is true? One such argument is top resume suggested by Gödel, who claims that the catw, legitimacy of impredicative definitions is best explained by services the truth of some form of platonism, including something like our claim Independence (Gödel 1944, pp. 455457; see also Bernays 1935 for santa university prompt 2012, a related but weaker claim). However, although it is widely agreed that Independence would support the legitimacy of impredicative definitions, it remains an top resume open question whether the converse implication is essay games defensible. Another option is to proceed from the methodology of contemporary set theory to services, Independence (Gödel 1964). Much of the catw essays, search for new axioms in set theory is services today based on so-called “extrinsic justifications”, where candidate axioms are assessed not just for their intrinsic plausibility but also for their capacity to explain and systematize more basic mathematical facts.
Perhaps this methodology can somehow be used to motivate Independence . However, it remains an passing essays open question whether this suggestion can be developed into a convincing argument. Top Resume? (See Maddy 1988 for a discussion of extrinsic justifications in set theory. See also Parsons 1995 for santa prompt, a discussion of Gödel's platonism.) 4. Objections to Mathematical Platonism. A variety of services objections to mathematical platonism have been developed. Here are the essay games, most important ones.
The most influential objection is top resume services probably the santa university, one inspired by Benacerraf (1973). Services? What follows is an improved version of vista Benacerraf's objection due to Field (1989). 12 This version relies on the following three premises. If these three premises are correct, it will follow that mathematical platonism undercuts our justification for top resume, believing in mathematics. But are the premises correct? The first two premises are relatively uncontroversial. Scientific Experiments? Most platonists are already committed to Premise 1. And Premise 2 seems fairly secure. If the reliability of services some belief formation procedure could not even in principle be explained, then the procedure would seem to work purely by chance, thus undercutting any justification we have for the beliefs produced in this way. Premise 3 is more controversial.
Field defends this premise by observing that “the truth-values of our mathematical assertions depend on facts involving platonic entities that reside in a realm outside of space-time” (Field 1989, p. 68) and thus are causally isolated from us even in principle. However, this defense assumes that any adequate explanation of the reliability in catw question must involve some causal correlation. This has been challenged by a variety of philosophers who have proposed more minimal explanations of the reliability claim. (See Burgess Rosen 1997, pp. 4149 and Lewis 1991, pp. 111112. See Linnebo 2006 for a critique.) 13. Another famous article by Benacerraf develops a metaphysical objection to mathematical platonism (Benacerraf 1965, Kitcher 1978). Although Benacerraf focuses on arithmetic, the objection naturally generalizes to most pure mathematical objects. Benacerraf opens by defending what is now known as a structuralist view of the natural numbers, according to top resume, which the natural numbers have no properties other than those they have in virtue of being positions in an ω-sequence. For instance, there is nothing more to being the number 3 than having certain intrastructurally defined relational properties, such as succeeding 2, being half of 6, and being prime.
No matter how hard we study arithmetic and set theory, we will never know whether 3 is identical with the essay games, fourth von Neumann ordinal, or with the corresponding Zermelo ordinal, or perhaps, as Frege suggested, with the class of top resume all three-membered classes (in some system that allows such classes to exist). Benacerraf now draws the following conclusion: Therefore, numbers are not objects at all, because in giving the properties of numbers you merely characterize an abstract structureand the does a leader mean, distinction lies in the fact that the “elements” of the top resume, structure have no properties other than those relating them to other “elements” of the same structure. (Benacerraf 1965, p. 291) In other words, Benacerraf claims that there can be no objects which have nothing but structural properties. All objects must have some non-structural properties as well. (See Benacerraf 1996 for some later reflections on catw passing essays, this argument.) Both of the top resume services, steps of Benacerraf's argument are controversial. The first stepthat natural numbers have only essay games school structural propertieshas recently been defended by a variety of mathematical structuralists (Parsons 1990, Resnik 1997, and Shapiro 1997). But this step is denied by logicists and neo-logicists, who claim that the natural numbers are intrinsically tied to the cardinalities of the collections that they number. And the second stepthat there can be no objects with only top resume structural propertiesis explicitly rejected by all of the structuralists who defend the does being a leader, first step. (For some voices sympathetic to the second step, see Hellman 2001 and MacBride 2005. See also Linnebo 2008 for discussion.)
In addition to Benacerraf's, a variety of metaphysical objections to mathematical platonism have been developed. One of the more famous examples is an argument of Nelson Goodman's against set theory. Goodman (1956) defends the Principle of Nominalism , which states that whenever two entities have the top resume services, same basic constituents, they are identical. Conclusion Transitions? This principle can be regarded as a strengthening of the familiar set theoretic axiom of extensionality. The axiom of top resume extensionality states that if two sets x and y have the same elementsthat is, if ∀ u ( u ∈ x ↔ u ∈ y )then they are identical. The Principle of Nominalism is obtained by replacing the clara essay prompt 2012, membership relation with its transitive closure. 14 The principle thus states that if x and y are borne ∈* by the same individualsthat is, if ∀ u ( u ∈* x ↔ u ∈* y )then x and top resume y are identical. By endorsing this principle, Goodman disallows the formation of sets and classes, allowing only the formation of mereological sums and the application to the standard mereological operations (as described by his “calculus of individuals”).
However, Goodman's defense of the Principle of Nominalism is what being a leader essay now widely held to be unconvincing, as witnessed by the widespread acceptance by services philosophers and mathematicians of set theory as a legitimate and valuable branch of mathematics. Anti-nominalism says there exist abstract mathematical objects, whereas platonism adds Independence , which says that mathematical objects are independent of intelligent agents and their language, thought, and practices. Essay Transitions? Alternatives are available; this final section surveys some lightweight forms of platonism which belong somewhere in the territory between anti-nominalism and full-fledged platonism. One lightweight form of platonism (its name notwithstanding) is the top resume services, “full-blooded platonism” of Balaguer 1998. This form of platonism is characterized by a plenitude principle to the effect that any mathematical objects that could exist actually do exist. For instance, since the Continuum Hypothesis is independent of the standard axiomatization of clara essay prompt 2012 set theory, there is a universe of services sets in which the games, hypothesis is true and another in services which it is false. And neither universe is metaphysically privileged. Essay? By contrast, traditional platonism asserts that there is a unique universe of sets in which the Continuum Hypothesis is either determinately true or determinately false. 15. One alleged benefit of this plenitudinous view is in the epistemology of mathematics. If every consistent mathematical theory is true of some universe of mathematical objects, then mathematical knowledge will, in some sense, be easy to obtain: provided that our mathematical theories are consistent, they are guaranteed to be true of some universe of mathematical objects.
However, “full-blooded platonism” has received much criticism. Top Resume Services? Colyvan and Zalta 1999 criticize it for undermining the possibility of reference to santa essay prompt 2012, mathematical objects, and Restall 2003, for lacking a precise and coherent formulation of the plenitude principle on which the view is services based. Martin (2001) proposes that different universes of windows vista thesis sets be amalgamated to yield a single maximal universe, which will be privileged by fitting our conception of set better than any other universe of sets. A different version of plenitudinous platonism is developed in Linsky Zalta 1995 and a series of top resume services further articles. (See, for instance, Linsky Zalta 2006 and other articles cited therein.) Traditional platonism goes wrong by “conceiv[ing] of abstract objects on the model of physical objects” (Linsky Zalta 1995, p. 533), including in particular the idea that such objects are “sparse” rather than plenitudinous. Linsky Zalta develop an alternative approach on the basis of the second author's “object theory”. Windows Vista Thesis? The main feature of object theory is top resume a very general comprehension principle which asserts the existence of a plenitude of abstract objects: for catw passing, any collection of properties, there is an abstract object which “encodes” precisely these properties. Services? In object theory, moreover, two abstract objects are identical just in case they encode precisely the same properties. Object theory's comprehension principle and identity criterion are said to “provide the link between our cognitive faculty of understanding and abstract objects” ( ibid ., p. Experiments Essay? 547). (See Ebert Rossberg 2007 for top resume services, critical discussion.) Assume that anti-nominalism is experiments essay true. For convenience, assume also Classical Semantics . These assumptions ensure that the singular terms and services quantifiers of mathematical language refer to and range over abstract objects. Given these assumptions, should one also be a mathematical platonist?
That is, do the objects that mathematical sentences refer to and quantify over satisfy Independence or some similar condition? It will be useful to vista thesis, restate our assumptions in more neutral terms. We can do this by invoking the notion of services a semantic value , which plays an important role in semantics and the philosophy of language. In these fields it is widely assumed that each expression makes some definite contribution to the truth-value of sentences in which the expression occurs. Catw Passing? This contribution is top resume known as the semantic value of the expression. It is widely assumed that (at least in extensional contexts) the semantic value of a singular term is just its referent.
Our assumptions can now be stated neutrally as the claim that mathematical singular terms have abstract semantic values and that its quantifiers range over the kinds of item that serve as semantic values. What Essay? Let's focus on the claim about singular terms. What is the philosophical significance of this claim? In particular, does it support some version of Independence ? The answer will depend on what is required for a mathematical singular term to have a semantic value. Some philosophers argue that not very much is required (Frege 1953, Dummett 1981, Dummett 1991a, Hale Wright 2000, and Wright 1983). It suffices for the term t to make some definite contribution to the truth-values of sentences in which it occurs. Top Resume Services? The whole purpose of the notion of a semantic value was to represent such contributions.
It therefore suffices for a singular term to essay school, possess a semantic value that it makes some such suitable contribution. This may even open the way for a kind of reductionism (Dummett 1991a, Linnebo 2012). Although it is perfectly true that the mathematical singular term t has an abstract object as its semantic value, this truth may obtain in virtue of more basic facts which do not mention or involve the relevant abstract object. Compare for instance the top resume, relation of ownership that obtains between a person and her bank account. Although it is perfectly true that the person owns the bank account, this truth may obtain in virtue of more basic sociological or psychological facts which do not mention or involve the bank account. If some lightweight account of semantic values is defensible, we can accept the scientific experiments on animals essay, assumptions of anti-nominalism and Classical Semantics without committing ourselves to any traditional or robust form of platonism. 5.3 What is mathematical platonism anyway? Do the lightweight forms of platonism deserve to be called ‘platonist’?
Since the views clearly qualify as anti-nominalist, the question is whether they are sufficiently true to the claim Independence . A natural gloss on Independence is the counterfactual conditional that, had there not been any intelligent agents, or had their language, thought, or practices been suitably different, there would still have been mathematical objects. If this is all that Independence amounts to, then the top resume, lightweight forms of platonism are likely to vista, satisfy the claim and thus qualify as genuinely platonist. But it is doubtful that this gloss is acceptable. For Independence is top resume services meant to substantiate an analogy between mathematical objects and ordinary physical objects. Just as electrons and planets exist independently of us, so do numbers and sets. And just as statements about electrons and planets are made true or false by the objects with which they are concerned and these objects' perfectly objective properties, so are statements about numbers and sets. Since the lightweight forms of platonism explicitly distance themselves from this analogy, Independence should presumably be glossed in a way that makes it incompatible with the lightweight forms of platonism. The problem is the elusive nature of the analogy on which Independence is based.
Until we get a better grip on this analogy, it will remain unclear exactly how platonism is supposed to go beyond anti-nominalism. Azzouni, Jody, 2004, Deflating Existential Consequence: A Case for Nominalism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Balaguer, Mark, 1998, Platonism and essay games Anti-Platonism in Mathematics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Balaguer, Mark, 2001, “A theory of mathematical correctness and mathematical truth”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 82: 87114. Services? Benacerraf, Paul, 1965, “What numbers could not be”, Philosophical Review , 74: 4773. Santa Clara Essay 2012? Benacerraf, Paul, 1973, “Mathematical Truth”, Journal of Philosophy , 70(19): 661679. Benacerraf, Paul, 1996, “What mathematical truth could not be, i”, in Benacerraf and services His Critics , A. Morton and S. Stich, eds., Oxford: Blackwell.
Benacerraf, Paul and Putnam, Hilary (eds.), 1983, Philosophy of passing essays Mathematics: Selected Readings , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Second edition. Bernays, Paul, 1935, “On Platonism in top resume services Mathematics”, Reprinted in essay school Benacerraf and Putnam (1983). Bigelow, John, 1988, The Reality of Numbers: A Physicalist's Philosophy of services Mathematics , Oxford: Clarendon. Santa Clara Essay? Burgess, John P., 1999, “Review of Stewart Shapiro, Philosophy of top resume Mathematics: Structure and Ontology”, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic , 40(2): 28391. Burgess, John P., 2004, “Review of Jody Azzouni, Deflating Existential Consequence: A Case for Nominalism”, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic , 10(4): 573577. Burgess, John P. and windows thesis Rosen, Gideon, 1997, A Subject with No Object , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Services? Cole, Julian C., 2009, “Creativity, freedom, and authority: A new perspective on essay conclusion transitions, the metaphysics of mathematics”, Australasian Journal of services Philosophy , 87: 589608. Scientific On Animals Essay? Colyvan, Mark and services Zalta, Edward N., 1999, “Mathematics: Truth and Fiction?”, Philosophia Mathematica , 7(3): 336349. Dummett, Michael, 1978a, “The philosophical basis of intuitionistic logic”, in essay conclusion transitions Truth and Other Enigmas , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 215247.
Reprinted in Benacerraf and Putnam (1983). Dummett, Michael, 1978b, Truth and Other Enigmas , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dummett, Michael, 1981, Frege: Philosophy of Language , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, second ed. Dummett, Michael, 1991a, Frege: Philosophy of top resume services Mathematics , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. On Animals Essay? Dummett, Michael, 1991b, The Logical Basis of Metaphysics , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ebert, Philip and Rossberg, Marcus, 2007, “What is the purpose of neo-logicism?”, Travaux de Logique , 18: 3361. Field, Hartry, 1989, Realism, Mathematics, and Modality , Oxford: Blackwell.
Frege, Gottlob, 1953, Foundations of Arithmetic , Oxford: Blackwell. Transl. by services J.L. Austin. Gaifman, Haim, 1975, “Ontology and Conceptual Frameworks, Part I”, Erkenntnis , 9: 329353. Gödel, Kurt, 1944, “Russell's Mathematical Logic”, In Benacerraf and does a leader Putnam (1983).
Gödel, Kurt, 1964, “What is Cantor's Continuum Hypothesis?”, In Benacerraf and Putnam (1983). Gödel, Kurt, 1995, “Some basic theorems on the foundations of mathematics and their implications”, in Collected Words , S. Feferman et al, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, vol. III, 304323. Goodman, Nelson, 1956, “A World of Individuals”, reprinted. in P. Benacerraf and H. Putnam, eds., Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings, 1st ed., Prentice-Hall. Hale, Bob, 1987, Abstract Objects , Oxford: Blackwell. Hale, Bob and Wright, Crispin, 2000, “Implicit Definition and services the A Priori”, in New Essays on the A Priori , Paul Boghossian and Christopher Peacocke, eds., Oxford: Oxford University Press. Thesis? Reprinted in Hale and top resume services Wright (2001).
Hale, Bob and Wright, Crispin, 2001, Reason's Proper Study , Oxford: Clarendon. Hellman, Geoffrey, 1989, Mathematics without Numbers , Oxford: Clarendon. Hellman, Geoffrey, 2001, “Three Varieties of Mathematical Structuralism”, Philosophia Mathematica , 9(3): 184211. Hilbert, David, 1996, “Mathematical problems”, in From Kant to Hilbert , William Ewald, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, vol. 2, 10961105. Hofweber, Thomas, 2000, “Quantification and essay non-existent objects”, in Empty Names, Fiction and the Puzzle of Non-Existence , Anthony Everett and Thomas Hofweber, eds., Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 24973. Hofweber, Thomas, 2005, “Number determiners, numbers, and arithmetic”, Philosophical Review , 114(2): 179225. Isaacson, Daniel, 1994, “Mathematical intuition and top resume objectivity”, in Mathematics and essay Mind , Alexander George, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, chap. 5. Kitcher, Philip, 1978, “The plight of the platonist”, Noûs , 12: 119136. Kreisel, Georg, 1958, “Review of Wittgenstein's remarks on the foundations of mathematics”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 9: 135158. Lewis, David, 1991, Parts of Classes , Oxford: Blackwell.
Linnebo, Øystein, 2006, “Epistemological challenges to mathematical platonism”, Philosophical Studies , 129(3): 545574. Linnebo, Øystein, 2008, “Structuralism and the notion of dependence”, Philosophical Quarterly , 58: 5979. Linnebo, Øystein, 2012, “Reference by abstraction”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 112: 4571. Linsky, Bernard and Zalta, Edward N., 1995, “Naturalized platonism versus platonized naturalism”, Journal of Philosophy , 92(10): 525555. Top Resume Services? Linsky, Bernard and Zalta, Edward N., 2006, “What is what a leader neologicism?”, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic , 12(1): 6099. MacBride, Fraser, 2005, “Structuralism Reconsidered”, in Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic , Stewart Shapiro, ed., Oxford: Clarendon, 563589.
Maddy, Penelope, 1988, “Believing the axioms, i and ii”, Journal of Symbolic Logic , 53: 481511 and 736764. Maddy, Penelope, 1990, Realism in Mathematics , Oxford: Clarendon. Maddy, Penelope, 1997, Naturalism in Mathematics , Oxford: Clarendon. Martin, Donald A., 2001, “Multiple universes of sets and indeterminate truth values”, Topoi , 20(1): 516. Moltmann, Friederike, 2013, “Reference to services, numbers in natural language”, Philosophical Studies , 162: 499536. Parsons, Charles, 1980, “Mathematical Intuition”, Proceedings of the essay games, Aristotelian Society , 80: 14568. Parsons, Charles, 1983, Mathematics in Philosophy , Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Parsons, Charles, 1990, “The Structuralist View of Mathematical Objects”, Synthese , 84: 303346. Top Resume? Parsons, Charles, 1995, “Platonism and mathematical intuition in Kurt Gödel's thought”, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic , 1(1): 4474. Quine, W.V., 1969, “Existence and quantification”, in Ontological Relativity and Other Essays , New York: Columbia University Press, 91113. Rayo, Agustín, 2008, “On specifying truth-conditions”, Philosophical Review , 117(3): 385443. Rees, D.A., 1967, “Platonism and passing the platonic tradition”, in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Paul Edwards, ed., New York: Macmillan, vol. 5, 333341.
Resnik, Michael, 1980, Frege and the Philosophy of Mathematics , Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Resnik, Michael, 1997, Mathematics as a Science of Patterns , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Top Resume Services? Restall, Greg, 2003, “Just what Is full-blooded platonism?”, Philosophia Mathematica , 11(1): 8291. Shapiro, Stewart, 1997, Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wright, Crispin, 1983, Frege's Conception of Numbers as Objects , Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press. Wright, Crispin, 1992, Truth and Objectivity , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[Please contact the author with suggestions.] Thanks to Philip Ebert, Leon Horsten, James Ladyman, Hannes Leitgeb, David Liggins, Alexander Paseau, and Philip Welch for comments and discussion. Thanks also to an audience at the ECAP6 in scientific on animals essay Krakow, where parts of top resume this material were presented. This article was written during a period of leave funded by experiments on animals an AHRC Research Leave Grant (number AH/E003753/1). I gratefully acknowledge their support. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.
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an essay on top resume services, anything “Man, this essay is going to be impossible .” We’ve all been in this boat before, confronted with an essay assignment that is school, beyond difficult. What if I told you that I can teach you how to top resume services write an essay about pretty much anything under the sun? Even … hmm …wombats. Games! “What? Why wombats?” you wonder. Top Resume! Well, for one, just look how flipping CUTE the little guy is. Conclusion Transitions! But also, I want to make a point about this random noun I literally plucked out of thin air: no essay topic is actually impossible , as you will see.
In this post, I’m going to teach you how to write an essay on just about anything under the top resume, sun, from santa clara essay 2012, brainstorming through proofreading. Top Resume Services! First, we’ll review the essential elements of a good essay, and then I’ll detail a foolproof process that will lead you to essay a unique, interesting essay on services, just about anything you — or your teacher — can imagine. What Are the 3 Essential Elements of a Great Essay? There are three essential elements every essay needs to be, well, an essay. These include: Let’s break these elements down a little bit. The most essential ingredient of a great essay is university prompt, a clear central idea. This is usually called a thesis statement . The thesis statement makes your purpose for writing clear. Your readers will know whether they should prepare to be entertained, informed, or so moved they’ll need to bring Kleenex.
For when reading gets serious. The thesis also lays out your claims or opinions about services, your topic. It means taking a stand for what you believe to be true about your topic or what you will prove through your writing. Vista Thesis! The second element of a great essay is top resume services, broad appeal . By that, I mean that your essay needs to essay school have meaning to your audience — not just yourself. An informative essay, for instance, should teach your audience something they might feasibly want to know. This applies to services personal essays, too. Experiments Essay! Even though the essay is about you, it should serve a larger purpose or highlight some truth about the world or how things work.
If you are literally the only person on top resume, earth who cares about your topic, you could certainly still write an essay about it. Conclusion Transitions! But what’s the point? Ultimately, a great essay has to pass the “So what?” test. No one should read your thesis — let alone reach the top resume services, end of your conclusion — and experiments on animals, be able to reasonably ask, “So what?” Lastly, every essay needs a structure . It could have as few as three paragraphs — introduction, body, conclusion — or go on for pages and pages and services, pages. Either way, there should be a logical framework that guides the reader through your writing. University Prompt! No matter what you’re writing about, these three elements will put you on the road to a great essay. Now, let’s look at services, a process that walks you through how to write an being a leader mean, essay — about services, anything! How to essay Write an top resume services, Essay that Rocks — Every Time. No matter what type of vista thesis essay you’re writing or how long it will be, there is a set of reproducible steps you can take to top resume services prepare for writing, to write your paper, and to revise your writing.
Best of all, you can adapt these steps to vista thesis fit essay assignments ranging from 1 page to 100. Research can mean many things. In an services, informative or argumentative essay, you obviously need concrete facts and possibly statistics in order to teach or persuade your audience. In a literary analysis essay, your research might entail a close reading of a specific text or reading literary journals to essay determine what other critics have said about your topic. And if you’re feeling a bit smug because you’re writing a personal essay and think you get to skip this step, think again.
Research can also mean talking to others who share your memories of an event, digging through old photos for top resume services, inspiration, and so forth. If having an item, a fact, a figure, a quote, or a recollection will help you write a stronger, richer essay, then now is the time to essay games go look for it. Keep your eyes open for what Joe Bunting of The Write Practice calls “the story of surprise.” Jot down things that are surprising, shocking, or interesting about your topic during the top resume services, research phase — these often lead to the best essays. Take that sweet, cuddly wombat I mentioned earlier, for instance. In doing a little research, I found out passing, that wombats poop cubes and use their armored butts as weapons. Color me surprised!
Professor Cal Newton recommends that you take an “idea vacation” — hey, it’s not Hawaii, but it is free. He says that after you’ve done some research, but before you’ve pinned down your main idea, you should walk away from the computer. Just go be with your ideas. Top Resume Services! I do all my best thinking upside down. I’m inclined to agree with him. Some of my best ideas have struck when I was washing the dishes, taking a walk, driving, or otherwise not at the keyboard. (I’m not sure that pondering wombat poop ranks among my best ideas). Nonetheless, I absolutely recommend that you leave yourself enough time to take such a brainstorming break when your research is done. I also want you to ignore your first few ideas.
No, I mean it — throw them out. Games School! Poof! They’re gone. Services! Before you get mad at me for experiments, wasting your time, though, let me explain: don’t go with the low-hanging fruit. Services! Your first few ideas about your topic are probably obvious and easy. Think about it this way: if they’re the first things you thought of when considering your topic, they’re probably the things your audience would have thought of, too. Bo-ring.
When you feel as though you have some solid ideas for clara essay, what you want to say about your topic, move on to the next step. Step 3: Narrow your focus and write your thesis. I like wombat butts, and services, I cannot lie. Now that you’ve had a bit of respite, you probably have a pretty good overview of santa clara 2012 your topic and some interesting ideas about top resume, how you will approach it. But now is the point when you want to narrow your focus and games school, hone in on a thesis statement. You don’t want your topic to be so broad that you can barely touch on one subtopic before moving on top resume services, to the next. At the same time, you don’t want a topic so specific that you can barely find anything to say about it, either. So how do you find the middle ground? Let’s revisit our wombat friends to see this idea in action.
An informative essay describing why wombats are all-around bad*sses? Yup, totally doable. But what if you’re limited to two pages? Covering every facet of this critter’s awesomeness in so few pages would hardly do it justice. Therefore, I decided to focus on just one element: its bum. I know, I know. What Does Being A Leader Mean! But we’re all adults here, right? (Haha, wombat butts! ) Thanks to my research, I now know that wombats have rather robust rumps that protect and serve them in a variety of ways. I could also feasibly cover that topic in detail in a short essay. Therefore, I wrote the following thesis: The wombat’s unique posterior sets the marsupial apart from top resume, other mammals and is key to its survival.
Now that you have a main idea, it’s best to organize your ideas into conclusion transitions an outline. In fact, by the time you’re done with this step, you’ll have the five most important sentences of your essay written. For my hypothetical essay outline, I’m using the basic 5-paragraph structure featuring an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Your essay may have more or fewer paragraphs, but this is a great, basic structure to build upon. You don’t have to top resume services write complete sentences to fill in an outline, but I recommend that you do. It’s just five sentences, after all: your thesis, a topic sentence for scientific experiments on animals, each paragraph, and a topic sentence for top resume services, your conclusion that ties back to the thesis. Check out my example below: It probably seems like you’ve done a lot of work up to essay this point. Top Resume! (You have.) You might wonder whether all that was really necessary. (It was.) But here’s the thing: by now, you know what you’re going to write about. You have sources to catw essays back up your claims.
You know the structure your essay will take. Services! And best of all, you already have the five most important sentences in your essay written. All you have left to do is support the main ideas you’ve already written. You also need to lead into your thesis with a compelling hook. And remember — just because your essay needs to have an introduction, body, and conclusion when you finish doesn’t mean you have to write them in that order. Windows! Personally, I find it easiest to write the body first, then the introduction, and then the conclusion.
This way, I can jump right into the meaty part of the essay without wasting a lot of time thinking about my hook, and I don’t have to try and introduce writing that doesn’t exist yet. Lastly, to make the drafting process as painless as possible, just worry about getting words on the page at this point. Follow your outline, of course, but don’t worry too much about editing yourself or getting things ‘just so’ — the time will come for editing. If at all possible, wait a day, or at top resume services, least a few hours, before moving on essay school, to this step. Top Resume! You’ll be more patient, less frustrated, and what being mean essay, better able to services spot issues in what mean, your writing. Start the revision process by top resume, reading through your essay and looking for essay conclusion transitions, problems with flow, clarity, structure, and logic. It’s okay to fix grammar or punctuation errors at top resume services, this point if you spot them, but don’t focus on surface-level issues until you’ve patched up the deeper problems first. Once you’re feeling confident about your content, it’s time to proofread.
Reading your essay out catw passing essays, loud is one of the best ways to spot grammar and punctuation errors and issues with wording — give it a shot! Running short on time or patience? Let us help with this step! A fresh set of eyes (from the pros, no less) can help you spot major issues with your organization or clarity, and we can ensure that your essay is in its best possible shape before you turn it in. Final Thoughts on How to Write an services, Essay About Anything. We’re cute but not fun to write about. Catw Essays! The next time you’re assigned a groan-worthy essay topic, repeat after me: “At least it’s not wombat butts.” And take heart — you not only know more about wombats’ rear-ends than you could ever want, but you also know exactly how to write an essay about top resume services, pretty much anything your teacher can throw at conclusion transitions, you. Services! Psst.
98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Erin H. has been wowing Kibin customers since her first edit in August 2013. She is now Kibin's community manager and passing, a regular contributor to Kibin's blog.
She lives in Indiana with her husband and daughter. This was really helpful and also interestingly cute! Thank you! Thanks so much, Annie! It was fun to services write #8212; I#8217;m really glad it helped you #128578; Hi, I#8217;m having problems identifying what type of essay should I write. My theme is: Smart cities from theory to practice, critical reflections applied to a real case. Is it an games, analytic essay? a summary analysis? a critical analysis? I am really confused about the right outline#8230;Could you help me figure it out please?
Thanks in advance!
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Introduction to Musical Theatre Essay. The concept of musical theatre combines the drama and plot of a stage play with a musical component; the extent of this musical collaboration has changed over the years, from operas to orchestras to full-fledged plays. From its humble beginnings to its current status as Broadway spectacle, the art form has carried a great influence in the world of performance. Services. In this essay, a detailed history of musical theatre, from its infancy to now, will be explored. Musical theatre has had a long, storied history; the style dates all the way back to ancient Greek theatre, back in the 5th century BCE. In that time, Greek comedies and catw tragedies almost always had a musical component; songs and dance were common to the plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles, who acted as composers and choreographers to their own works. In Rome in the 3rd century BCE, Plautus wrote comedies that also had orchestrations and choreographed dances to their songs. Roman theatre also innovated the process of dancing, creating crude tap shoes called sabilla , which were chips of metal attached to top resume services the shoes of performers to make their steps easier to hear and notice in scientific experiments on animals essay, the large theatres they played in. The Middle Ages saw theatre take a much more mobile, nomadic route to services performance; with traveling minstrels moving from town to town and games village to top resume services village, performing songs and small routines. Small troupes of clara essay prompt, performers would do the same, offering slapstick-filled, delightful plays they would offer to those who would watch them. The 12th and 13th centuries saw the musical theatre advent of top resume, religious dramas, like The Play of what being a leader essay, Daniel and The Play of Herod ; these dramatic works would have church chants interspersed within them, offering that musical component.
This would evolve into the mystery play, which told a story of the Bible in a musical manner. Services. The mobility of performing troupes would also be made more efficient through the advent of pageant wagons. These were mobile stages the troupe would bring with them to provide added production value to scientific their plays; they would settle down, perform their show, and pack up. These shows often consisted of poetic forms, prose dialogue, and musical numbers. In the Renaissance, musical theatre took a giant leap forward with the top resume, development of commedia dell’arte, a type of musical theatre where well-known stories were improvised by prompt actors using the art of top resume services, clown to create broad humor throughout.
Music became a large part of Jacobean and Elizabethan plays; lutes, organs, pipes and more would play during these performances in order to enhance a scene. Often, if a play was a tragedy or a heavier historical, it would be interrupted with short plays filled with music to catw passing essays add levity. This is where the jig was created; jiggs were broad, farcical afterpieces that followed these heavier works. In the Tudor period, court masques were created, where the first inklings of modern musical theatre were created. In these masques, elaborate set designs were combined with elegant and detailed costuming, as well as performances that combined singing, dancing and acting to music. Top Resume Services. The purpose of these masques were often to flatter a royal patron or nobility that was in the audience at the time. The masques were popular types of theatre created by playwrights such as Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare. Soon, just the musical components of masques would be made into operas altogether; acting as sung plays that would be the first templates of musical theatre. The famous French playwright Moliere created farces that would have musical components to them (song and dance numbers interspersed within the work). These developments led to the creation of English opera; some of the more famous playwrights were Thomas Shadwell, John Blow, Henry Purcell, and essay more. By 1685, however, English opera started to lose its luster.
In the 1700s, musical theatre in England developed into two distinct varieties: ballad operas and top resume comic operas. The Beggar’s Opera by scientific experiments on animals John Gay is the quintessential example of the ballad opera; it offered new lyrics spoofing the popular songs of the time, the olde English equivalent of top resume services, a jukebox musical. Comic opera, on the other hand, carried a romantic plot set to original music; The Bohemian Girl by windows thesis Michael Balfe is a fine example of a comic opera. In the meantime, lighter, more fleeting forms of opera were being created, like Comedie en vaudeville and top resume services opera comique, which led to the notions of essay, burlesque, melodramas, vaudevilla, and the notion of the music hall. Since many London theatres only got a license as a music hall, plays had to services have music in them; therefore, musical theatre became a more popular part of theatrical life in England, and this led to the popularization of melodramas and burlettas. In Colonial America, the first real presence of theatre to thesis be found did not happen until 1752, when a theatre was formed in Williamsburg, Virginia by William Hallam, which performed classic English plays. Services. Soon after, however, they moved to The Beggar’s Opera and other ballad operas and farces in New York. This theatrical presence slowly morphed into what would become Broadway in the 1920s and 1930s. These early plays were the first to be widely recorded and toured, with hundreds of performances in a single run for many musical plays. The further evolution of musical theatre came with the development of the operette, which was created in 1850 by the French composer Herve.
These were light musical comedies that would often provide broad satire and wit to the stage, combined with bright melodies and high energy. These would be the model for all musical theatre that would come after it. Vista Thesis. After Jacques Offenbach and Johann Strauss II would develop the style further, it would become popularized in the works of services, Gilbert and Sullivan, Irving Berlin and Rodgers and Hammerstein. The music hall and musical burlesques would comprise the majority of musical theatre in 19th century England. The Black Crook proved to catw be the services, very first play that would fit the modern conception of the musical – this combined dance and original music which would supplement the straightforward story being told. What Does Essay. In 1866, this play premiered in New York and became a staggering success. Top Resume Services. Other musical comedies came out around this year, and the late 19th century saw comedic musical theatre that spoke to the common man, adding legitimacy to the theatrical proceedings. The stories were no longer broad, royal farce; they were meant to clara 2012 be more legitimate, with complex plotting and significant characters. Top Resume. By landing more reputable singers like Vivienne Segal, Fay Templeton and more, they offered significant credentials to those who put on these plays. Once the modern musical was developed, there were other changes to theatrical procedure that allowed for longer runs. With street lights and electricity, it was safer to come out at night; therefore, night shows became the norm, adding a larger number of performances for each show.
With the money that came from the catw passing essays, added revenue these extra shows afforded them, production value of services, Broadway and West End shows increased substantially. Gilbert and Sullivan began producing large comic opera shows that would become extremely popular around this time; shows like HMS Pinafore and The Mikado , as well as The Pirates of university 2012, Penzance , were family friendly and top resume services very accessible, leading to worldwide success. Due to their unparalleled success, the standards for theatrical popularity changed dramatically. Gilbert and catw essays Sullivan also pioneered several conventions of the modern musical as well; in their shows, the dialogue and the lyrics were combined to make the story more understandable and sensible, even with the top resume services, integration of music into the performance. P.G. Wodehouse, Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Andrew Lloyd Weber and more would take this particular style of comic opera and essay games develop it further. The Savoy operas in the 1880s began to enjoy considerable success in America as well.
Unlike the tawdry sensibilities of previous musicals, these shows were thought to be family friendly and respectable, something that was harder to look down upon. Before these developments, musical theatre was often thought to services be for perverts, a much seedier audience; now, theatre was for everyone, especially musical theatre. Broadway saw its fair share of musicals in the 1890s as well; attempting to ape Gilbert and Sullivan, many copycat productions took place, like El Capitan by John Philip Sousa. Ragtime became more popular as a freeform style of theatre, a different, more fast-paced and modern variety of vaudeville. Musical comedies continued throughout the early 20th century, through Tin Pan Alley-composed songs. In Broadway, the runs were shorter than in the West End (never reaching thousands of performances like some Gilbert and Sullivan shows), but often would have longer tours with the original cast.
In the “Gay Nineties” (the subjectively wonderful 1890s in England, as they were known), musicals were becoming more popular on essay the London Stage. George Edwardes took over the Gaiety Theatre, seeking to change it from the bawdy burlesque show that it was and services providing a straightforward, light musical alternative to the heavy, absurdist and politically charged Savoy operas that were the flavor at the time. He decided to try doing family friendly, breezy, lighthearted comic romances, combined with style and spectacle. While there were burlesque elements to them, there were also comic opera traditions sprinkled throughout, and the replacement of low-class burlesque dancers with respectable dancers and singers. These types of plays were such a success, they would determine the next thirty years of essay conclusion transitions, musical theatre in services, London. Many of these plays, like The Shop Girl and A Runaway Girl , followed the tropes of romances where the poor maiden falls in love with royalty, and faces many obstacles before finally winning him. These set the tone for musical comedies that would sweep across the catw passing essays, face of musical theatre in both England and America, as many other theatres would copy these shows with increasing complexity, including Sidney Jones’ The Geisha and San Toy . During this time, the operetta had been essentially removed from the English stage due to the prevalence of Edwardian musical comedies, but it made a comeback in the early 20th century with the operetta The Merry Widow, which premiered in 1907 in London and Broadway. Services. This success led to the direct competition of musicals and experiments on animals essay operettas for the next few years, with new and old operettas being brought out on the stages of both American and England. New operettas that premiered at this time included the works of Victor Herbert ( Babes in Toyland, The Red Mill, The Fortune Teller ), and top resume services modern musical plays that were a bit more intimate. In an attempt to windows vista thesis cash in on the still-popular Gilbert and Sullivan-style musical, P.G.
Widehouse, Jerome Kern and Guy Bolton all came out with “Princess Theatre shows,” which offered light entertainment while remaining continuous with its songs and plot, offering a complete, detailed and complex story throughout. Unlike the broader comedies of the time, and top resume which had come before, situational comedies had a much greater influence, and the characters were more realistic. The songs were actually used to develop the passing essays, characters or move the plot along; this was a breakthrough in the plotting and development of musical theatre. Services. With the advent of the Princess Theatre musicals, these lighter shows proved they could integrate song and story just as well as Gilbert and Sullivan could. The theatre experienced a boom in business with the start of World War I; given the devastation of the battlefield and the front, audiences flocked to the stages in order to scientific essay get some escapism. Irene , a play by Harry Tiernet and top resume services Joseph McCarthy, premiered in scientific experiments essay, 1919 to widespread popularity, holding the top resume services, Broadway record for longest run (670 performances) for a long time. While those were impressive by American standards, they held nothing to the British capacity for holding a musical run; Chu Chow Chow ran for over two thousands performances. Revues started to become popular, as they incorporated light, multi-act performances that offered variety.
As the 20th century chugged along, American musical theatre began to windows vista take dominance in top resume, both popularity and quality. Santa Clara Essay Prompt. The Theatrical Syndicate, led by Charles Frohman, spearheaded the development of top resume services, shows like the scientific experiments on animals, Princess Theatre shows and top resume many other Tin Pan Alley-inspired musicals. Jazz and ragtime became a much more popular component of modern musicals at the time, and the Gershwin brothers, as well as Irving Berlin and windows thesis others, started to get shows produced. This shift in services, American musical theatre’s popularity was due to the changes in society that were happening at the time; the increase in vernacular and clara university essay prompt 2012 naturalism that was desired by audiences of the modern era led to a slow death of the broad, the theatrical and the operatic. Shows and musicals were more direct with their plot, their characters and their intentions, and tradition gave way to top resume innovation. The Roaring Twenties saw the advent of the motion picture, and its rise in windows vista, popularity; this proved to be a challenge for theatres. Even though they were silent at services first, and essay games so could not offer the top resume services, audio component of theatre, the creation of being a leader essay, talking films like The Jazz Singer meant that it offered a real threat to live theatre. Top Resume. Musicals in that era started to bring in what does mean, bigger stars and greater spectacle, offering loudness and music hall sensibilities in lieu of complex plotting and character development.
Despite the top resume services, fact that there was not a whole lot tying these glorified revues together, they proved extremely popular and light entertainment. Theatre writers began to transition into popular music, as most of the music people were listening to at the time was what they heard in these reviews and vaudeville shows. Transitions. Production values increased substantially during this time, making the services, musical more expensive to produce than ever. The concept of being a leader mean essay, standards became popular in the 1920s; the lighthearted shows were never that memorable ( Sally, Oh, Kay! ), but their songs would stick in the public’s mind. As a result, they would be covered by a variety of popular music artists, like Cole Porter, Marilyn Miller, Fred Astaire. Operettas also came back into top resume, the limelight for a time, and Noel Coward and other composers started to clara university essay enjoy newfound popularity. Show Boat in 1927 proved to be one of the most complex mixes of score and book that there had been to date; even the Princess Theatre musicals lacked this level of sophistication. There existed dramatic themes that were told with every component of the show, from the movement to the setting. This integration of production value with narrative complexity that rivaled anything that had come before.
While this was popular, events like the Great Depression led to people going back to top resume lighter entertainment. When the clara university essay prompt 2012, Great Depression hit, it left people with little money to entertain themselves with; this mean substantially reduced ticket sales. It was also cheaper to go to top resume the ‘talkies’ than see a show, making it even more challenging for theatres to find an audience. Vaudeville was eliminated by musical films, as they agreed to be filmed for one-off shows that effectively killed future live performances of essay transitions, their work. Top Resume Services. There were still Show Boat -like shows that were great hits for those who could afford the ticket price; Of Thee I Sing was the catw essays, first musical that was given the Pulitzer Prize. Anything Goes cemented singers like Ethel Merman, who would become the queen of musical theatre due to her loud, booming voice. The first Broadway show to star a black person (Ethel Waters), was 1933’s As Thousands Cheer . Porgy and Bess proved to be a very popular musical, created by George Gershwin and released in 1935. Modern musicals like Knickerbocker Holiday by top resume services Kurt Weill provided satire of FDR and detailed the history of New York City.
With these more complex works, there were still lighter hits on Broadway, like I’d Rather Be Right and a leader The Dancing Years . Top Resume. Cole Porter came into popularity with Anything Goes and DuBarry Was a Lady . All of these contributions led to the overall success and survival of essay conclusion transitions, musical theatre, which was a miracle in services, a time when economic destitution was the worst this country has ever experienced. The evolution of musical theatre at this time allowed for fast-paced music, staging, choreography and more naturalistic dialogue, a far cry from the overt theatricality and what being mean essay melodrama of previous eras. Musical theatre in the 1940s would hit a new zenith with Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical Oklahoma! Continuing the Show Boat tradition of having complex plotting and serious storytelling amongst musical numbers, the top resume services, show offered dream ballets and integrated the music more cohesively into santa essay prompt, the story, rather than providing dance as an excuse for men to see barely-dressed women. Agnes de Mille was the top resume services, choreographer for what a leader, this show, and top resume services it revolutionized the format of musical theatre by providing a decided lack of tawdriness and an earnest desire for storytelling that was not present at this level before.
In the opening number, there were no showgirls, but instead the actual play began with “Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'”. This earnestness and quality of production gave the show rave reviews and unexpected popularity. It got the Pulitzer Prize, and the musical achieved new narrative heights. It turned into the first Broadway show to be considered a “blockbuster,” and was even adapted into what being essay, film. In the canon of top resume services, musical theatre, it was the first extremely successful Broadway musical, and it holds a beloved place as a milestone of theatrical history. The success of the play sent Rodgers and Hammerstein into incredible popularity, coming out santa essay prompt 2012 with a string of further hits, like South Pacific, The King I and The Sound of Music. In all of their shows, dark themes were presented in a way heretofore unseen in musical theatre; Oklahoma’s villain was a murderer, and Carousel tackled the theme of domestic abuse. Due to their vast creativity, everyone else wanted to emulate them, which meant a string of top resume services, successive musicals in that vein; this led to the Golden Age of American musical theatre. The war itself was brought to the theatre, with many war-themed shows becoming popular; On the Town showcased a shore leave between soldiers and their women, bringing wartime uncertainty and pathos to the big stage. Annie Get Your Gun, Finian’s Rainbow, Kiss Me, Kate and other such plays were modeled after the Oklahoma! trend of having complex plots with integrated music within, enhancing the overall quality of the musical theatre canon.
In the 1950s, shows like Guys and Dolls, Paint your Wagon, My Fair Lady and more continued the tradition of complex characters within musicals; records continued to be shattered, with My Fair Lady running a record 2,717 performances. Each of thesis, these popular musicals would have film adaptations made of them as well, bringing in a newfound collaboration between Broadway and Hollywood. Stars like Julie Andrews and top resume services Judy Garland dominated musicals at this time. Off-Broadway musicals also came to catw essays prominence, with shows like The Threepenny Opera and The Fantasticks proving that a show does not have to be part of the Broadway system to be critically and financially successful. Top Resume. The orchestras were smaller, and essay conclusion the scale was toned down, but they could still work. West Side Story adapted Romeo and Juliet into a modern New York City setting, and brought home significant box office returns and myriad Tonys. This cemented Stephen Sondheim’s reputation as a master composer for musicals. The 1960s saw even greater popularity and experimentation on the part of musicals. Services. More blockbusters, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Hello Dolly!, Funny Girl and Man of La Mancha would be created, and passing essays some of the services, overt sexuality of the burlesque would come back with the scientific experiments on animals essay, popularity of Cabaret . The rock musical would then usurp these musical styles by the end of the 1960s. Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman would significantly shape the pattern of musicals in this decade and the next, through the darker themes that he would explore in works like Sweeney Todd and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum . These plays were bloody, cynical, and top resume services gritty, eschewing the sunny dispositions of essay, earlier musicals to top resume make plays about a leader, singing surprisingly dark and brooding. Into the Woods and Assassins explored these themes further, showcasing a sophistication in lyrics and music that belied the overall exclusiveness of some of the top resume services, plays’ themes.
Soldheim tried a number of windows thesis, new things during this time, including reverse-engineering shows and top resume services breaking the fourth wall to the audience, all things that made musical theatre challenging and intriguing again. With the start of the santa clara university essay prompt 2012, musical Hair , rock music would be incorporated into services, musicals. Also, the Vietnam War was brought up as a theme, something which would prove controversial and essay conclusion also indicative of musical theatre’s propensity to challenge societal attitudes at the time. Racial tolerance was found in many Golden Age musicals, which were then resurfaced ( The King I, South Pacific , and more). Racial integration finally occurred in the end of the 1960s; homosexuality was first openly explored as a theme in Hair , and then moved onto other shows. In the 1970s, with the top resume services, advent of the rock musical, The Rocky Horror Show, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell and experiments essay more started to bring in this rapidly popular style of music to top resume services the theatrical realm, bringing with it an added edge that was never before seen onstage. Some of clara university prompt 2012, these plays, like the Who musical Tommy , tended to work more towards concepts of top resume, opera than they did musicals, with little spoken dialogue and being a leader mean most of the top resume, story and character conveyed through song. African-Americans got their own musical representation onstage, portraying the black experience through The Wiz, Dreamgirls and more.
As the Broadway canon expanded, more and more variation occurred, with musicals of every genre coming into prominence. A Chorus Line proved to be a giant among contemporary musicals; released in 1975, the play, which was about an being essay, audition for a musical, broke narrative conventions in a fascinating way, also providing with it amazing music and spectacle, busting box office records and reaching incredible critical acclaim. This led to more plays along that same style, such as Chicago, Pippin, Nine, Evita and more. Top Resume. These were risque, tawdry yet liberating pieces, bringing sensuality to the stage without it being classless or inaccessible. In the 1980s and 1990s, pop music began to passing invade musicals to a larger degree, and larger production values brought incredible spectacle to these productions, like falling chandeliers in The Phantom of the Opera . Novel and literary adaptations were beginning to be the norm, and top resume services European influences were more and catw passing essays more prevalent. Andrew Lloyd Webber became an incredible mega-hit musical creator with Cats and Evita , The Phantom of the Opera and more. A greater emphasis on adaptations has been put forth as the 1990s rolled along; corporations began to get into the Broadway game, with the Disney Company allying with Broadway to adapt their musical films to the stage; Julie Taymor’s production of services, The Lion King stands out university prompt among that canon.
With the top resume, greater opportunities available for smaller playwrights to create small-scale musicals, musical theatre split into larger, spectacle-based musicals of Broadway, and the quirkier, smaller musicals of off-Broadway. Little Shop of Horrors , Bat Boy: The Musical , and others provided smaller scale but interesting stories that eschewed overly elaborate set pieces for small sets of characters and catw passing developed storylines. Incredible innovations would come from shows such as these, and a new niche audience was created for top resume, them. In order to attract younger audiences, Rent was released on Broadway and the West End, a dramatic tale of New York bohemia, rock music, and clara essay prompt AIDS. Top Resume Services. The incredible success of the conclusion transitions, musicals invigorated the theatre scene with a much younger demographic, leading to services the advent of interesting, new and unusual shows. Urinetown and Avenue Q brought modern, crude but wacky humor to smaller stages, Spring Awakening and on animals other shows doing the same.
While Broadway continued to play it safe with their familiar shows, the rise of adaptations began to surface. Wicked , The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray and others indicate a modern, ongoing trend of taking an established property and making it into a musical. The point of this is to offer something familiar, which audiences already know from established material and have a fondness for, and offer a musical component to it. Top Resume Services. The jukebox musical, exemplified by Mamma Mia! and others, continues this trend of catw passing, offering familiar songs framed around a new story.
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Consider adding achievements , skills, details about how you fit in with the company’s culture, knowledge of services, their competition, and knowledge of their brand. Use a natural and likable style. Vista Thesis! More companies are hiring based on services personality , so don’t be afraid to show who you are. Of course, keep in windows, mind that some companies will appreciate a more formal tone than others. It's up to top resume you to decide what level of formality to use when considering how to email your resume. Also, notice where the windows vista thesis, candidate wrote “ our possibilities ,” it displays a level of solidarity with the employer and what they do . Of course, emailing a resume this personable is only possible if you research the company beforehand. At the end, you can add a postscript.
Adding a postscript to an email allows you to top resume emphasize particular information, like a certification or achievement. Also, don't forget to include one of the following phrases: Please find my CV attached. Please find my resume attached. Please find my CV attached for your consideration. Please find my resume attached for your consideration. It is also important to mention referrals at this point if relevant. Pro Tip: Save your files using your name - “ Han Solo Resume. ” That's how your resume remains easy to find among others with similar file names. Have you considered saving your resume as a PDF? Sending your resume as a PDF guarantees that you formatting won't glitch. Santa Clara University Essay Prompt 2012! Want to know more?
Read our guide: Word Vs PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? What Comes Next? Secret Ways to Track Your Resume. Okay, so you’ve finally gotten to top resume the point in the emailing a resume process where you’ve clicked send. Now, what? Somewhere, either in your cover letter or in the email, you’ve probably written that you will contact the hiring manager within a given amount of windows vista, time. But, how do you know if the services, hiring manager has read your email? It might be a bit awkward if you make that call and being mean they haven’t read your email yet. Mixmax is an online tool with email tracking capabilities.
If you download a free trial version, you will be able to see if a hiring manager has opened your email. It’s a small thing, but it will help you keep tabs on your resume. Pro Tip: You can set up reminders in Mixmax that will automatically alert you to top resume the fact that you have not received a reply after emailing a resume. Mixmax will also tell you if the receiver clicked on and downloaded your resume. Having this knowledge allows you to know when and if you should send a follow-up email. If your campaign isn't working, it's time to find an alternative email address and try again. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. After figuring out how to essay conclusion transitions email a resume to an employer, you need to check your general online presence and do some housekeeping. That's because there could be things lurking on the Internet that you didn't know where out there. Services! And you may not have had anything to do with putting them there in thesis, the first place. Type your name into services, Google and other search enginges to see what comes up in the results.
Set all your social media profiles to private and assume hiring manager's won't find you. Most of you will find nothing more than links to your social media profiles. Clara Essay 2012! As long as you’ve updated your LinkedIn profile to match your resume , and checked to see what content can be seen by the public on your Facebook and Twitter profiles, you should be good to go. Just make sure no unprofessional content is visible to the general public. If you happen to services have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not show up in the results at all. On the other hand, some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent.
If you find embarrassing content about yourself on scientific a particular web page, Google suggests that the best solution is to contact the webmaster (owner) and ask them to remove the content. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Would you rather apply for services 50 random positions and end up with a mediocre job? Or would you rather pinpoint 10 positions and school spend 10 minutes figuring out how to send a resume that will result in a job that interests you? Choosing the second option means taking the top resume, time to do research, tailor your resume , and contact a hiring manager. At the same time, until you take the time to on animals think about how to email a resume and personalize your approach , a girl is no one. And a man will not hire a girl who is no one. Besides making yourself known to a hiring manager, taking a personal approach to top resume services emailing a resume also makes a lasting impression. The hiring manager is on animals essay going to know that you have what it takes to get where you want to services be. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. Catw! She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.