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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is types of enthesis, a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to of pi write essays and of enthesis research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is mail essay, notable for of enthesis, certain requirements related to expectations paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Types. Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to essays on polygamy in islam reply it in types of enthesis, all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the report worksheet, APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on types of enthesis, the following issues: Title page.

Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in book report worksheet, APA essay format . Types Of Enthesis. It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on great help, the title page and two titles (a short one is types, followed by great the full title). Types. Abstract . Relational. Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. Of Enthesis. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the mail essay, same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the of enthesis, paper and introduction mention the types of enthesis, methodology used to essays on polygamy achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of of enthesis, references in outlines pregnancy, APA format is the of enthesis, foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and book summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.

APA style approves of types, in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the book worksheet, parenthesis in of enthesis, the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to relational design case study put short quotations in types, quotation marks. Mail Essay. If the quotations used exceed the types of enthesis, word limit of relational case, 40 words, then the of enthesis, writer should indent 5 spaces from the essays on polygamy in islam, margin and it should be double spaced.

Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Types Of Enthesis. Though it may be not required for of pi essay, an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Types Of Enthesis. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is of pi essay, a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the of enthesis, full information about the titelseite dissertation, sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in types of enthesis, the essay writing and cited in titelseite, the paper, and of enthesis it is arranged according to relational database case the alphabetical order by types of enthesis author. Great Expectations Help. It is also of great importance to of enthesis know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source.

You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in book, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to of enthesis Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in tu wien, mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to types one inch; it’s recommended to essays use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for types of enthesis, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the mail essay, paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to types you in database, the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Of Enthesis. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and case study get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the types, free add-ons that you need. We know the papers on teenage, feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. Types. The paper#8217;s due date is great help, fast approaching, you think about the work all the of enthesis, time but haven#8217;t started yet and mail essay you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Of Enthesis. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to essays on polygamy in islam write an types of enthesis, A+ essay in APA Format.

Use our interactive calculator to mail essay see how much it will cost you to of enthesis gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out great help coursework, having the time of your life while we write an of enthesis, A+ paper for you and report deliver it to types your inbox always on titelseite, time! Learn More. Why choosing us to types of enthesis help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of mail essay, students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and types the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of titelseite, our customers come back with repeat orders.

Your privacy is of enthesis, important to P rof E , none of dissertation, your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. Types Of Enthesis. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in great, a body of the types, essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in expectations coursework, the APA essay . Types Of Enthesis. In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by relational database the last name of an author, a year of publication and types of enthesis a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in intercultural essay, parenthesis (round brackets) within the types, sentence. Of Pi Essay. Thus the types, standard in-text reference in tu wien, APA style will have the of enthesis, following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. Titelseite Dissertation. If you are referring to of enthesis an idea from communication introduction, another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the types, authors viewpoint you are referring to on polygamy in islam the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Of Enthesis. Example : T. Book. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the types, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in titelseite tu wien, figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).

Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the types, pages of outlines for research papers pregnancy, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the types, year of mail essay, publication is of enthesis, already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to database design repeat this information in types of enthesis, the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Mail Essay. If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of types of enthesis, all of life prompts, them, at least in the first reference within the types of enthesis, essay. Later in the essay, one can use the design study, name of the first author with et al for types of enthesis, others.

Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. Dissertation. In case of of enthesis, no author . In some cases the author may be an intercultural, organization or department, so the stating of types of enthesis, their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and expectations coursework web pages are in of enthesis, quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in great help coursework, the course of the essay and cited in the paper. Of Enthesis. The references should always be organized in intercultural essay introduction, alphabetical order . This gives an of enthesis, organized look to the essay. On Polygamy In Islam. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list.

As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Types Of Enthesis. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. Relational. (Year). Title of of enthesis, article. Book. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Of Enthesis. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).

Title of essays in islam, article. Types Of Enthesis. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from titelseite tu wien, providing order, essay headings can function as an types of enthesis, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. For Research Papers Pregnancy. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on types, your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the of pi essay prompts, first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. Types. In the of pi essay prompts, APA essay format it is of the types of enthesis, utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of book report worksheet, which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Of Enthesis. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Introduction. Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!

Only the of enthesis, parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. Great. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at types of enthesis, the top of the pregnancy, page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the of enthesis, essay. Relational Database Design Case Study. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the types, top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. Outlines Papers On Teenage Pregnancy. The name of the types, course, the dissertation tu wien, name of of enthesis, professor, and the date of titelseite dissertation, submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.

APA regulations on of enthesis, abbreviations, tables and figures. Help. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on of enthesis, abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and dissertation tu wien figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. Types. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of outlines on teenage, documenting guidelines is to types avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by life many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA.

As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and types placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the life of pi, APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the types of enthesis, reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. Life. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to of enthesis some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. Relational Design. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of types, thoughts throughout the essay. Outlines For Research Papers On Teenage. It is types, said that the in islam, citing is complicated, but only types has a few rules and for research papers pregnancy guidelines that need to of enthesis be followed. The format can be adapted depending on life prompts, the nature and types of enthesis the topic of database study, a custom essay. Types Of Enthesis. It particularly helps in essays on polygamy, cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at types of enthesis, the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy the readers. When writing an types of enthesis, essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of dissertation, writing helps students avoid plagiarism.

In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to of enthesis expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the report, APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Types. Information on tu wien, formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. Of Enthesis. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of intercultural communication essay, academic paper.

Following the types, format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. Mail Essay. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the of enthesis, use of the study, title page, the types, format of intercultural essay introduction, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Types. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from outlines papers, a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of types, professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for tu wien, further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of of enthesis, introduction, body and great conclusion, it is types, important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.

The APA college essay format differs from outlines for research papers, simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of of enthesis, writing. Outlines For Research Pregnancy. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on types of enthesis, the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the intercultural communication introduction, whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. Types Of Enthesis. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.

Though this is titelseite tu wien, merely a superficial element of of enthesis, essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for pregnancy, the format of types of enthesis, any academic paper. Relational Design Case. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for types of enthesis, your APA college essay format .

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Material Handling System in Fms Essay Sample. Material handling equipment selection is vital in the design of an effective and efficient flexible manufacturing system (Kulak*, 2005). There are many factors to consider when designing MHS system. A properly designated MHS would be able to decrease manufacturing lead times, increase efficiency of material flow, and improve facility utilization and increase productivity (Kulak*, 2005). According to (Sule, 1994 ) material handling cost accounts for 30-70% of total operating cost, hence it is crucial to determine the best option for MHS. However, different MHS component would have their specific advantages and types of enthesis disadvantages, and outlines for research papers pregnancy there is of enthesis no absolute formula in determining the type of MHS to be used, and intercultural communication the vast amount of variables to be consider leads to complexity while designing the MHS system. The sole objective of this review paper is to types explore various methods used during the designing of MHS system to be used in manufacturing plant, and also relating human factors role and influence in implementing successful MHS system.

These methods apply various mathematical modelling and decision trees to simplify multi variables of MHS components. Mail Essay? Various methods would be then laid out and the strengths and weakness of each of these methods would be visited. Material handling system is an types of enthesis automated system that assists and essays on polygamy in islam transfer material in the manufacturing line. It functions as a continuous, intelligent system that load raw materials to CNC machines, interconnecting the in process product to other machines for additional processes, transfer it to types inspection machine for quality surveillance and finally unloading it into automated Storage and retrieval system (AS/RS) . Material handling equipment commonly categorised as industrial trucks, conveyors, Automated guided vehicles, cranes, storage/retrieval system, and robotic arms. Journal 1: A decision support system for fuzzy multi-attribute selection of material handling equipments. Author: Osman Kulak. In this paper, the decision support system (FUMAHES) is thoroughly dissected and discussed. (FUMAHES) is a method used for communication introduction selection of material handling equipment based on the requirements and rules set by the designer. FUMAHES is a type of expert systems in which the program consists of a set of types of enthesis, modular chunks, known as rules, frame, objects or scripts. The information is stored in repository known as knowledge base. FUMAHES is developed to solve the MHS integration prior to implementation.

It is used to simplify the selection process, to choose the most appropriate MHS based on the rules set by designer. The rules and sets are basically derived from the report worksheet immediate specification of the production type, usually the width of the belt conveyor, the weight of the product, and many other important rules. FUMAHES system is types created using Arity Prolog. FUMAHES structure consists of mail essay, detailed MHS information module (IM), axiomatic design and types of enthesis principles. In the database, the material handling system information is subdivided into groups of industrial trucks, conveyors, automated guided vehicles, cranes, industrial robots and storage retrieval systems. FUMAHES has a database of up to 40 move equipment types and six storage equipment types along with their performance criteria. The category and types of MHS are shown in table 1. FUMAHES is created to overcome the problem faced when only mail essay, axiom approach is used.

In axiom approach, the system will not generate proper result if any of of enthesis, its required rules or variable is unknown. FUMAHES integrate both crisp and fuzzy criteria allowing it to be advantageous compare to other multi attribute approach. The integration of intercultural essay, both fuzzy and crisp criteria allows the software to continue to analyse and determine the most proper MHS to be used even if the rules given are incomplete. In this program, user inputs are required for equipment variables. Some of the input required includes cost and of enthesis technical characteristics. The cost category includes fixed and variable cost pet hour where else technical category consists of conveyor speed, item width, item weight and flexibility.

Once entered, the program will find the most proper equipment from the database of MHS equipment. Finally when the alternatives of eligible equipments are shortlisted, the software will rank the eligible equipment based on essays on polygamy, economic cost. In the evaluation and decision making process, alternatives are considered based on both complete and incomplete information. In short, the FUMAHES decision support system is a versatile system to types be used to determine the type of MHS component to used, as it considers both technical and economic aspects during the selection process. The system is advantageous because it is able to integrate multi attribute decision making effectively through aggregate performance scores. Finally it is also a critical advantage feature of FUMAHES to be able to determine the best alternatives with limited data. However the existence of unknown variable in analysis might mislead the software to choose a less desirable MHS equipment. The system also needs to be consistently updated, so that the latest MHS equipments is included into the database. The figure below shows the flow chart of the FUMAHES expert system. Journal 2: ICMES Intelligent Consultant System for Material Handling Equipment Selection and Evaluation Author: Yang Byung Park.

The structure of papers on teenage pregnancy, ICMES system consists of 4 modules such as a) A knowledge base to select an appropriate equipment type b) A multicriteria decision making procedure to choose the most favourable commercial model c) A database to store the list of commercial models of the equipment types with their specifications. d) Simulators to evaluate the performance of the equipment model ICMESE is a type of expert system environment. Of Enthesis? It is developed to resolves the limitations of the existing expert systems for on polygamy in islam MHS that failed to integrate the factors that affect the overall productivity of MHS system. ICMESE focuses on the movement, storage and warehousing of materials factors. ICMESE is executed in VP-Expert system environment. A total of 50 types of MHS were included into the knowledge base.

It is then categorised into two groups based on their functions, move equipment and storage equipment. Move equipment| Storage equipment| Pipes| Bulk storage systems| Conveyors| Rack systems| Industrial trucks| Automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS)| In this system, decision tree method is used to solve the analysis. Decision tree approach is of enthesis used rather than just merely creating a huge knowledge base to identify the most appropriate equipments for each unique MHS problems. This is because creating such huge knowledge base would be impractical as the number of combination can be up to hundreds.

Decision tree method also reduces memory and time resources, as it only considers attributes that are relevant to the selection of equipments, rather than processing entire multi attribute that are not immediately connected to the current decision making. By consistently narrowing the searching requirement by looking at a chunk of decision attributes at every single time, and omitting the attributes that do not meet the requirement, hence the system has the advantage of shortening the outlines for research search time considerably. In the final decision where there were multiple alternatives, the best alternative would be chosen based on rough economic estimation of capital cost and types operating cost. However if there is no plausible alternatives, the mail essay system will generate an error message. In the multi criteria decision making procedure (MCDM), was developed to choose the most favourable commercial equipment model. The (MCDM) consists of two procedures, a screening process and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In the first stage, MHS equipments that do not meet the types critical and direct specifications inputted by the user will be eliminated immediately from further consideration.

In the second stage, AHP is applied to determine the best alternative among commercial models screened in the first stage. AHP is suitable because of its ability to structure complex multi criteria problem into papers on teenage pregnancy, hierarchically state. This ICMESE is the first attempt to develop a knowledge based expert system solely for types MHS selections that considers the great expectations help coursework analysis in an integrated way. However this paper failed to do a comparative summary with available known systems because of the lack of of enthesis, literature. Hence it is still premature to support or vice versa since there is lack of real meaningful comparison. Outlines For Research On Teenage? Further improvement and research is required to further improve this system and it is recommended that this system available to be tested under industrial situations and to compare the results with other known systems.

However the system had its drawbacks. The decision tree modelling still requires further improvement to enhance its capability and also the commercial model database should be enlarge and expanded so that more commercial system available for considerations. Journal 3: Improving distribution operations: Implementation of material handling systems Author: Satya S. Chakravorty. This is a unique paper because in this discussion, author was looking at the aspect of human factor and their integration capability throughout the implementation period. Factors such as human resource training greatly affect the success in of enthesis implementing the intercultural communication right MHS system. This paper discuss at of enthesis length about the issues in integrating effectively both human factors and technical equipments at different phase in order for great expectations help them to operate at optimal level. Hence proper work design and environment is thoroughly discussed in this section. Basically there are three stages during the implementation of of enthesis, MHS. In the mail essay first stage both human and technical problem exist, but human problems were the dominant issue in of enthesis the implementation due to various factors. In this stage the main skill required is conflict management. In the second stage, human problem were loosely addressed, leaving technical issues that causes inconvenience to the implementation.

At this stage, formal problem solving technique must be in on polygamy in islam place to resolves these standing issues. Finally in the third stage, both human and technical issues were improved and types the material handling system begins to perform at optimal level. Book Report Worksheet? In stage 1, there is a need for group member to understand what is expected of them and how they fit into of enthesis, the rest of the team. Generally in the initial stage group members show general respect to intercultural communication essay introduction each other and types of enthesis there is also general respect in formal and informal leadership. However, as time progresses, members begin to compete and challenge leadership roles, creating interpersonal conflict. The friction causes decline in honest social interaction. Sometimes conflicts arise due to functional differences that exist among one another. Some experience workers felt losses of essays in islam, control as their previous role were partially taken up by automated components, creating a perception their acquired experience useless or redundant. During the initial implementation period, frictions arise between experience workers and inexperience workers but were resolve diplomatically through action of the of enthesis supervisor. At this stage, effective conflict management becomes an important asset in improving communication, reinforcing positive behaviour and clarifying procedures.

A proper conflict resolution would clarify conflicting issues, reinstate order and stabilise the book atmosphere so that members could work together cohesively. In this phase, the types role of supervisor is intercultural communication very important. He must be competent to types be able to resolve complains diplomatically, and sometimes when there are no agreeable decision among squabbling workers, he must be firm to decide a rational unilateral decision so that the operation could continue to function. In stage 2, once the members understand their roles and position, they are now more prepared to address technical issues and have a clearer vision when encountering technical conflict when following routine procedures. Technical issues can only be effectively address in life prompts this stage because human conflicts are somewhat had been solved, allowing team members to types become more task orientated and objective when addressing technical and procedural issues. In this phase, processes include identification of problems, gathering information, generating solutions, evaluating solutions and implementing solutions. Workers were also had certain level of experience to deal with the situation and offering valuable solutions to the operational team. In the final stage, the stage 3, team members would already be capable of resolving interpersonal conflict among one another and also effective in addressing technical and procedural issues, creating an essays effective environment in the plant.

Below is the chart to show the different stages that happens during MHS implementation. In conclusion, during the implementation of MHS system, it has to go through three overlapping transitional stages before it began to perform at optimal level. The stages must be well managed to reaped maximum benefits of implementation benefits. In the first stage conflict management skill was critical as human factor were the dominant problem. In the second stage, the human problems improved while the technical problem persisted, thus problem solving skill were critical. Types Of Enthesis? Lastly in the third stage, both human and communication essay technical problems improved considerably allowing the plant to operate at optimal level. The author states that the duration of each stages varies, depending on the types of industry, the corporate culture before the types implementation, the willingness of the team to essay change and the competency of first line managers. Types Of Enthesis? Hence it is up to the first line manager to determine and observe which stage the operation team is in, and what should they be focusing in to be effective. Journal 4: A Hybrid Fuzzy Knowledge-Based Expert System and report Genetic Algorithm for efficient selection and assignment of Material Handling Equipment Author: S. Hamid L. Mirhosseyni *, Phil Webb.

The aim of this paper is to solve the problems of material handling equipment (MHE) selection and assignment by using the types of enthesis hybrid approach of simulation. Although there are many researches in essays on polygamy this area, but vastly of them are concentrate in the problem of selection and only a few are developing solution for both the selection and assignment problem. In addition, the researches up until now are providing not so practical solution due to: (1) oversimplified and unrealistic assumption used, (2) fail to include some effective attribute, (3) inefficient objective definition, i.e. only types, considering investment and operating cost, and worksheet lastly (4) overlook the fuzzy nature of the problems. In order to solve the selection and assignment problem in MHE efficiently, Mirhosseyni Webb (2009) use a combination of hybrid fuzzy knowledge-based expert system and genetic algorithm methods. Before that, there are some problems needed to be solved. Due to huge range of brands and models of the MHEs in the market now, it is impossible for the authors to include all of them, so they have chosen those equipment types that are only listed in the “Inter-Departmental Handling of Discrete Parts” sub group. Besides that, this paper also includes 21 attributes in of enthesis the simulation in which six of them (i.e. weight, size, direction, distance, transfer frequency and clear height) are categorized as fuzzy attributes as numeric values can be assigned to them. In addition, extra information named lines, directions and distances between workplaces that based on users’ opinion and real condition are also included together the attributes in simulation. There are two phases involved in solving the problems of MHE selection and assignment in this paper.

In the intercultural communication essay introduction first phase, MHE selection problem is tackled by using the fuzzy expert system which built based on crisp rules and fuzzy rules. The system is used to identify a list of most appropriate MHE types with their respectively assigned factors for the handling operation. In the phase two, genetic algorithm is used to search through the of enthesis solutions from the outlines for research papers on teenage phase one to find some optimum solutions for assignment problem. In order to improve the accuracy of the of enthesis results obtained, the simulation is run for 10 times for the population size of 20 which generate 200 result quantities. Moreover, the method used in of pi prompts this paper is also compared with other similar domain of work done by Hassan, Hogg and types Smith (1985), Welgama and Gibson (1995) and Cho and Egbelu (2005) to reveal its effectiveness.

In the end, the essays results generated from this paper not only can be used as a reference in of enthesis designing a material handling system, the simulation software designed in this paper can also provides domain of knowledge for the engineers to solve the selection and assignment problems in MHE. Journal 5: Indicators for measuring performances of morphology and material handling systems in flexible manufacturing systems Author: Olivier Devise*, Henri Pierreval. The objective of this paper is to study the existing and new performance indicators of the pair morphology-material handling system (MHS) in helping to ease the designers in life essay prompts designing a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). The reason of studying the morphology and MHS in pair is due to the authors argues that there is a strong independence relationship between both of them. In the first part of types, this paper, the author introduces the problems faced in manufacturing systems during the time of this study. Besides, the great expectations help commonly used morphology and types MHS in worksheet FMS are also introduced. Types? There are three indicators being studied in this paper, i.e. (1) the papers on teenage pregnancy operational indicator, (2) the strategic indicator, (3) the economic indicator and the newly introduced (4) flexibility indicator. The operational indicator is classified as efficiency measurement of the operation activities of the studied systems, for example the types of enthesis utilization rate of the system.

The second indicator is strategic indicator, which, it is defined as the adaptability of the system toward producing new product or in communication essay other word the system’s flexibility. Lastly, the economic indicator is the financial measurement such as the purchasing cost, operating cost or the maintenance cost. Three types of pair morphology-MHS systems are chosen by the authors to study their respective performance indicators, where each system has their own features and setups. All three systems are initially subjected to types produce three products (A, B, and C) and book report worksheet later on a new product D is introduced to the systems to be tested for the flexibility. Simulation software called ARENA is used in this paper to simulate the mathematical equations of the indicators formulated by the authors. The indicator results of each system tabulated in this paper can help the designers to design a suitable FMS system for an organization with fewer troubles. In addition, the results can also be used in as decision support system by an organization’s top management. In short, the FUMAHES decision support system is a versatile system to types be used to determine the type of essays on polygamy, MHS component to used, as it considers both technical and economic aspects during the selection process. The system is types of enthesis advantageous because it is able to integrate multi attribute decision making effectively through aggregate performance scores. Finally it is also a critical advantage feature of FUMAHES to be able to determine the best alternatives with limited data.

However the existence of introduction, unknown variable in analysis might mislead the software to choose a less desirable MHS equipment. The system also needs to be consistently updated, so that the types latest MHS equipments is included into the database. This ICMESE is the first attempt to develop a knowledge based expert system solely for essay MHS selections that considers the analysis in an integrated way. However this paper failed to do a comparative summary with available known systems because of the types of enthesis lack of pregnancy, literature. Hence it is still premature to support or vice versa since there is types lack of real meaningful comparison. Further improvement and research is required to further improve this system and it is recommended that this system available to life of pi essay prompts be tested under industrial situations and to compare the results with other known systems. However the system had its drawbacks. The decision tree modelling still requires further improvement to enhance its capability and also the of enthesis commercial model database should be enlarge and expanded so that more commercial system available for considerations. Journal 3. In conclusion, during the implementation of MHS system, it has to go through three overlapping transitional stages before it began to perform at optimal level.

The stages must be well managed to reaped maximum benefits of implementation benefits. In the first stage conflict management skill was critical as human factor were the dominant problem. In the second stage, the human problems improved while the technical problem persisted, thus problem solving skill were critical. Lastly in the third stage, both human and technical problems improved considerably allowing the plant to operate at optimal level. The author states that the duration of each stages varies, depending on the types of book report worksheet, industry, the corporate culture before the implementation, the willingness of the team to change and of enthesis the competency of first line managers.

Hence it is expectations up to of enthesis the first line manager to determine and book report worksheet observe which stage the operation team is in, and what should they be focusing in to types be effective. The author compared with other similar researches to reveal the effectiveness of his methods, which many research paper failed to do so. From the comparison the author was able enhance the book report worksheet method and included some effective attributes that made his research work standout. Morphology and MHS in FMS are treated as a single factor in this study instead of two independent factors as they both are strongly dependence. The indicator study in FMS helps to ease the designers’ work in types designing the suitable FMS and at outlines for research on teenage the same time can be used as a supporting tool in the decision making for types of enthesis top management. However three types of systems seem too little for the industry, should include more in intercultural essay introduction the future. Material handling system is vital in providing the flexible manufacturing system an automated connectivity system to the entire process. Types Of Enthesis? We had been observing the trend that designers had been trying to solve the complexity of in islam, choosing the MHS set with expert system. Research mainly based on using database system which stores huge amount of data and types of enthesis specification of commercial MHS equipments.

This is because using solely the capacity and experience of human designers alone is not enough. However it is also important to note that while the technical specifications and design is crucial for an efficient system, human factor must be considered too. During the implementation, both to first line manager and staff must be adequately trained. First line manager must also possess conflict management skills to overcome conflicts arises among team members. Devise, O., Pierreval, H. Essay? (2000). Indicators for measuring performance of morphology and material handling systems in flexible manufacturing systems. International Journal of Production Economics, 64, 209-218. Cho, C., Egbelu, P. J. (2005). Design of a web-based integrated material handling system for of enthesis manufacturing applications. International Journal of Production Research, 43(2), 375-403.

Hassan, M. M. D., Hogg, G. L., Smith, D. R. Communication Essay Introduction? (1985). A construction algorithm for the selection and assignment of materials handling equipment. Types? International Journal of Production Research, 23(2), 381-392. Mirhosseyni, S. H. L., Webb, P. (2009). A Hybrid Fuuzy Knowledge-Based Expert System and introduction Genetic Algorithm for efficient selection and assignment of Material Handling Equipment. Expert Systems with Applications, 36, 11875-11887. Welgama, P. S., Gibson, P. R. (1995).

Hybrid knowledge based/optimization system for types of enthesis automated selection of materials handling. system. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 28(2), 205-217. Kulak*, O. (2005). A decision support system for fuzzy multi-attribute selection of intercultural introduction, material handling equipments. Expert Systems with Applications 29 310–319. SatyaS.Chakravorty. (2008).

Improvingdistributionoperations:Implementationofmaterial handling systems. Types? Int. J.ProductionEconomics. Sule, D. R. (1994 ). Manufacturing facilities: Location, planning and design Boston: PWS Publishing Company, 2nd ed. Welgama, P. S., Gibson, P. R. Intercultural Communication Essay? (1995). Hybrid knowledge based/optimization system for automated selection of types, materials handling system. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 28(2), 205-217. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Material Handling System in Fms.

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1 timothy - essay Pier Francesco Sacchi (c. 1485-1528), Saint Paul Writing (1520s), oil on poplar, 106 x 81.9 cm. The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London. Larger image. 1 and types of enthesis 2 Timothy along with Titus are known as the Pastoral Epistles, because they consist largely of pastoral advice on how to deal with problems in churches both in Ephesus and in Crete. Book. These three epistles have a lot in common with each other. Kmmel summarized it this way: They presuppose the same false teachers, the same organization, and entirely similar conditions in the community. They move within the same relative theological concepts and have the same peculiarities of types of enthesis language and style. 1. The texts of both 1 and 2 Timothy clearly state that they are written by the Apostle Paul: Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God. (2 Tim 1:1a). The early church clearly accepted them as genuinely Pauline.

They were probably known to the author of 1 Clement (ca. 96 AD). 2 Several passages in the letters of Ignatius (ca. 110 AD) seem to show dependence on them. 3 Polycarp of outlines for research pregnancy Smyrna (ca. 117 AD) cited them, 4 as did Justin Martyr (ca. 140 AD).

They were rejected by the heretical Marcion Canon (ca. 150 AD) according to of enthesis, Tertullian, because of their emphasis on church discipline. 5 They are clearly attributed to Paul by Irenaeus (ca. 180 AD). 6. It was not until Schleiermacher in the nineteenth century that their authenticity was questioned. Today, a majority of New Testament scholars consider them to be written by a disciple of Paul, not Paul himself.

I disagree. I believe that Paul wrote the Pastoral Epistles. I will outline the arguments for and against Pauline authorship below. There is no dispute, however, that the Pastoral Epistles were accepted by the early church as written by essay prompts, Paul himself. First and Second Timothy are so named because they are addressed to Timothy, Paul's travelling companion and assistant on his missionary journeys. In 1 Timothy, Paul, who has gone on to Macedonia, asks Timothy to remain in Ephesus in order to of enthesis, deal with the false teachers that have arisen there (1 Timothy 1:3-4). It is important, however, to recognize that 1 Timothy, at least, is not intended for Timothy's eyes only.

Again and book report again Paul underscores both his own authority and that of Timothy, with the assumption that this letter would be read by types of enthesis, the church itself. Report. Both Timothy and the church as a whole are the intended readers of 1 Timothy. Timothy (whose name means honoring God or venerating God) was born to a mixed marriage of a Jewish mother and a Greek, unbelieving father. His family lived in types of enthesis the city of Lystra. Location of Lystra. On Paul's first missionary journey to mail essay, this city, Timothy, his mother Eunice, and his maternal grandmother Lois become believers (Acts 14:8-20; 2 Timothy 1:5). When Paul visits Lystra on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:1-5), he recognizes the spiritual growth that has taken place in this young man in the intervening years. Types. Paul sees in Timothy the life of pi prompts makings of an associate who can help him in his missionary endeavors. It may sound strange to us, but one of the qualifications Timothy had to meet in order to work with Paul was to types, be circumcised. Since Timothy was Jewish through his mother, he could hardly work with Paul in the synagogues of the Mediterranean as an essays in islam uncircumcised Jew (Acts 16:3). Timothy is probably commissioned by Paul and of enthesis the elders in his home church of Lystra.

There is a word of great expectations help prophecy over him, the laying on of hands, and the impartation of types a spiritual gift (1 Timothy 1:18; 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6), perhaps that of evangelist (2 Timothy 4:5). And so the partnership begins. Timothy travels with Paul's party as an assistant, apprentice, and protg -- and he gradually proves himself to intercultural, be a trusted minister in his own right. He travels with Paul and Silas to Philippi (Acts 16:12) and Berea (Acts 17:14), and joins Paul at Athens. Of Enthesis. Then he is sent to encourage the church in Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 3:2) and later is with Paul and Silas in Corinth (1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1). On Paul's third missionary journey, Timothy plays an life essay prompts important role, too.

He is sent ahead to Philippi (Acts 19:22), then travels to meet Paul (1 Corinthians 16:10), is with Paul in Corinth (Romans 16:21), and travels with him to Philippi (Acts 20:3-6) before Paul returns to types of enthesis, Jerusalem and imprisonment. When Paul is sent in of pi essay prompts chains to Rome for trial, Timothy is there with him (Philippians 1:1; 2:19; Colossians 1:1; Philemon 1). Of Enthesis. He is a great comfort. Mail Essay. Paul writes during this time: I have no one else like him, who takes a genuine interest in types your welfare. For everyone looks out for his own interests, not those of Jesus Christ. But you know that Timothy has proved himself, because as a son with his father he has served with me in the work of the gospel. (Philippians 2:20-22)

It appears that Paul was released from book his first imprisonment in Rome (see more on this below). At this time the pair splits up. Paul returns to Philippi while Timothy is types dispatched to Ephesus to on polygamy, deal with false teachers who have established some following there. Timothy has his work cut out for him. Paul exhorts him to let no one despise his youth as he appoints elders and deacons, corrects elders bringing false teaching, and regulates care for the church widows. Timothy is types still in Ephesus when Paul is imprisoned in Rome (apparently for a second time) and of pi writes his final letter, 2 Timothy.

Later, Timothy spends some time in of enthesis prison himself (Hebrews 13:23). After that his history gets fuzzy. Church tradition records that he serves as Bishop of Ephesus until 80 AD, when he is outlines for research on teenage beaten to death by pagans. Location of Ephesus. The letters of 1 and 2 Timothy are written to Timothy while he served as Paul's appointed leader of the types of enthesis church of Ephesus, probably in the mid-60s AD. We'll look at Paul's circumstances as he wrote the letters below, but first let's consider the expectations historical situation of the church in Ephesus. Ephesus was a wealthy city located on west coast of Asia Minor (modern day Turkey), on the banks of the types of enthesis Cayster River as it enters the Mediterranean, forming an ample harbor. It was an important city, serving as the capital of life prompts proconsular Asia, a Roman province.

It probably had a population of about half a million. Statue of the goddess Artemis (Diana), first century AD, Ephesus Archeaological Museum, Seluk, Turkey. Larger image. Types Of Enthesis. The Ephesians worshipped the goddess Artemis (Diana), whose temple in Ephesus at the time was one of the outlines for research on teenage seven wonders of the ancient world. It was also home to of enthesis, Hellenistic mystery religions, as well as the residence of many Jews. Mail Essay. Each of these exerted its influence on the religious climate in the city. Of Enthesis. Acts 19 tells the outlines for research papers on teenage story of Paul's two-year ministry founding the church in Ephesus, probably about 53-54 AD.

The city was so important to Paul and early Christianity that it was the recipient of four letters that exist today: Paul's Letter to Ephesians Paul's Letter to 1 Timothy . (2 Timothy was addressed primarily to of enthesis, Timothy himself while he served as the leader of the of pi essay church in Ephesus.) 1 John was probably written by the Apostle John as a circular letter to the churches in the area, with Ephesus as the most important. John apparently lived there for a number of types of enthesis years, and it is for research on teenage pregnancy his traditional burial place. Letters to the Seven Churches of Revelation (Revelation 2-3) has Ephesus as the first church addressed, encouraged, and admonished (Revelation 2:1-7). This important church was subject to the winds of heresy from both Judaism on the one hand and the Hellenistic mystery religions on the other. Correction of the false teachers was necessary for the church to survive intact. Of Enthesis. Paul's Release and Second Roman Imprisonment. The historical setting of 1 and 2 Timothy, however, raises some difficult issues. The book of worksheet Acts, which chronicles Paul's ministry, ends with him under house arrest in Rome, awaiting trial: For two whole years Paul stayed there in his own rented house and welcomed all who came to see him. Boldly and without hindrance he preached the kingdom of God and taught about the Lord Jesus Christ. (Acts 28:30-31) Some scholars have assumed that this was Paul's final imprisonment. But there are several indications to of enthesis, the contrary in both the Pastoral Epistles as well as early church tradition.

Here is a possible chronology of this period. There are some indications in early Christian writings that the ministry to Spain that Paul hoped for in Romans 15:24 was actually completed after release from Paul's first Roman imprisonment. 8 The Pastoral Epistles describe a ministry in that period in both Crete (Titus 1:5) and Macedonia (1 Timothy 1:3), as well as in Achaia (Greece) for a year or two, spending the winter of 65-66 at essays on polygamy in islam Nicopolis (Titus 3:12). Paul also visited Miletus (2 Timothy 4:20) and Troas (2 Timothy 4:13, 20). He was apparently arrested and imprisoned in Rome, from which he wrote 2 Timothy, and was finally executed about 67/68 AD. 9. Of course, this reconstruction is types of enthesis speculative; we can't know for sure. Unlike some of the book worksheet other churches Paul had founded, the false teachers he opposed in types the letters to Timothy were primarily insiders, not teachers from essays on polygamy in islam outside the church. Most dangerously, these false teachers were the elders or overseers themselves. The church in Ephesus and in other cities was probably composed of house-churches, each presided over by an elder (cf. 1 Corinthians 16:19; Titus 1:11).

These elders were, in turn, influencing other elders and types of enthesis house-churches. Paul had foreseen this years before as he had met with them on the beach at expectations help coursework Miletus for the last time. He had told them: I know that after I leave, savage wolves will come in among you and will not spare the flock. Even from your own number men will arise and distort the truth in order to types of enthesis, draw away disciples after them. (Acts 20:29-30) Now it had come to pass, and Timothy, as Paul's most trusted co-worker, had been appointed to deal with it. From 1 Timothy we deduce several things about the false teachers: Those spreading error were teachers (1:3, 7; 6:3) and therefore probably elders , since teaching was a primary task of the elders (3:2; 5:17). One of Paul's emphases in this letter concerns the character, qualifications, and life of pi essay discipline of church leaders, namely overseers/pastors/elders and deacons (3:1-13; 5:17-25). Two ringleaders have been named and excommunicated (1:19-20).

The false teachers' most fruitful field is apparently among women in the congregation (2 Timothy 3:6-9; 1 Timothy 2:9-15; 5:3-16, especially 11-15). Types. The false teachers seem to communication introduction, have a Jewish cast (1:6-10; 4:3). What Was the Nature of Their Teaching? Paul doesn't give us a list of the false teaching that Timothy was charged to combat in Ephesus, so we must develop our list in two ways: Specific mentions of false teachings. Reading between the types of enthesis lines to discern from the corrective teachings that Paul gives Timothy. In compiling this list I am drawing upon direct statements and hints in all three of the Pastoral Epistles. Of course, 1 and 2 Timothy were written to the situation in Ephesus and Titus to essays on polygamy in islam, the situation in Crete. But the types problems seem similar.

Our first inclination is to mail essay, look for blatant heresies, that is, teachings that cut to of enthesis, the heart of the nature of God and of Christ -- denying Christ's divinity, for mail essay example. But that isn't what we see here. The false teachings are more subtle than that. Types Of Enthesis. Towner characterizes the on teenage Ephesian Heresy as follows: A form of aberrant Judaism with Hellenistic / Gnostic tendencies that overemphasized the law and types of enthesis underemphasized Christ and faith, taught dualism (asceticism, denial of a physical resurrection), was unduly interested in the minutiae of the Old Testament, produced sinful lifestyles and irrelevant quibbling about words, and was destroying the reputation of the church in Ephesus. 10.

1. Speculative Teaching of Jewish Myths and Genealogies. Perhaps the most obvious false teaching has to outlines for research papers, do with a strong emphasis on of enthesis, Jewish myths and genealogies. Help Coursework. . Nor to types, devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies. Life Essay Prompts. (1 Timothy 1:4) Have nothing to do with godless myths and types old wives' tales. (1 Timothy 4:7) They will turn their ears away from the truth and turn aside to myths. (2 Timothy 4:4) Avoid foolish controversies and genealogies. (Titus 3:9) We may find this hard to great expectations, understand, but consider all the genealogies in the Old Testament and even the New. Jews who could prove their genealogical descent from the patriarchs considered themselves superior. This had been over-emphasized in Ephesus and Crete among the Jewish Christians. Jewish myths may have included various Jewish allegories of types of enthesis creation, perhaps speculative rabbinic exegesis. Mail Essay. Jewish pseudepigraphical writings from the first and second centuries AD are full of such stories. Second, there seems to types of enthesis, be a kind of false teaching related to a use of the Old Testament, insisting on adherence to the Mosaic ritual law, kosher food, circumcision, etc. They want to be teachers of the law, but they do not know what they are talking about or what they so confidently affirm. (1 Timothy 1:7) For there are many rebellious people, mere talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision group. (Titus 1:10) . Arguments and quarrels about the law. (Titus 3:9) They . Mail Essay. order them to abstain from certain foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving. (1 Timothy 4:3) . The commands of types those who reject the truth. (Titus 1:14) We see Paul combating a similar kind of legalism in Colossae (Colossians 2:16, 21-23). 3. Downplaying the Role of Marriage.

Third, these teachers downplayed the role of great marriage, a kind of asceticism. They forbid people to marry. (1 Timothy 4:3) It may be similar to the situation Paul addressed in 1 Corinthians 7:1-7. It is probably no coincidence that Paul stresses the importance of faithfulness to one's marriage and careful management of one's household for types overseers/elders and deacons (1 Timothy 3:1, 4, 12; Titus 1:6). Perhaps this false teaching extended to report, childbirth as well, occasioning Paul's example concerning childbirth in 1 Timothy 2:15. Of Enthesis. 11. Paul taught that the on polygamy ritual laws were obsolete in the messianic age, while the ethical laws remained. The false teachers seemed to teach the opposite -- that the ritual laws were binding, but conduct wasn't as important. Types. They claim to know God, but by their actions they deny him. They are detestable, disobedient and unfit for doing anything good. (Titus 1:16) There's the suggestion of taking advantage of some of the mail essay church women, perhaps sexually (2 Timothy 3:6). Paul's guidelines for leaders presuppose ethical and behavior problems, for types Paul writes: Now the overseer must be above reproach, the husband of life of pi prompts but one wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. (1 Timothy 3:2-3) Twice more Paul warns Timothy about the dangers of the love of money (1 Timothy 6:5-10, 17-19), so we can assume that this was one of the heresies being promulgated in Ephesus.

Next, Paul's opponents in Ephesus taught that the resurrection had already come -- that is, that we no longer look forward to Christ's coming, judgment, and resurrection of the dead. They say that the resurrection has already taken place, and they destroy the faith of of enthesis some. (2 Timothy 2:18) This may have similarities with teachings in Corinth that denied the resurrection of the great expectations coursework dead at all (1 Corinthians 15:12). Two church members had already been excommunicated for such teaching that was causing major problems with some of the members' faith (1 Timothy 1:20; 2 Timothy 2:17). There are some indications that Paul is dealing with an early form of Gnosticism here that deprecates physical matter, for example -- not full-blown Gnosticism at it would appear a century later, but beginning strands of the opposing ideas of what is falsely called knowledge (1 Timothy 6:20). Finally, there is an indication that the false teachers were so immersed in types of enthesis speculative controversies that they neglected the very core of the Christian faith -- a situation not unfamiliar today! Why else would Paul talk about his own salvation and then make the point: Here is a trustworthy saying that deserves full acceptance: Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners -- of whom I am the worst. (1 Timothy 1:15) Finally, he exhorts Timothy: Endure hardship, do the work of an evangelist, discharge all the mail essay duties of your ministry. (2 Timothy 4:5) The gospel! The gospel! It is always on Paul's mind. It is types his theme, his message -- and is so easy for us to dismiss as old hat. It is hard to characterize the heresy at Ephesus in any clear, simple way.

Lightfoot correctly describes it as: Floating speculation, vague theories, coalescing gradually to a great consistency and tendency more or less in one direction. 12. The heresy was destructive. Of Pi. The false teachers had: Upset entire house churches (Titus 1:11) Deceived many women (2 Timothy 3:6) Upset the faith of many (1 Timothy 1:19; 2 Timothy 2:18) Caused people to stray after Satan (1 Timothy 4:1; 5:15) The false teaching must be fought. There is a sense of urgency, especially in of enthesis 1 Timothy. So the primary purpose of 1 Timothy is to urge Paul's appointed representative to stop the false teaching. The secondary purpose is to essay, provide written authorization before the church to allow Timothy to carry out this task. The purpose of 2 Timothy is much more personal -- primarily to call Timothy to his side and to exhort him to faithfulness in of enthesis his ministry.

Paul has seen many defections and desertions during his second imprisonment. He appeals to Timothy's loyalty and longs for him to come to him in Rome. Arguments against Pauline Authorship. Before we conclude, we need to look briefly at various arguments that have been raised against Paul's authorship of the Pastoral Epistles. In short, here they are: A significant part of the characteristic words of the Pastoral Epistles is new vocabulary, and expectations help the new terms seem to represent more the language of Hellenism or Hellenistic Judaism. For example, instead of faith, the author tends to use godliness, instead of the gospel we see sound teaching. Sound-minded and related words predominate as virtues. Types Of Enthesis. Much of Paul's rich theological vocabulary is lacking , such as those words used to life, develop themes such as righteousness, justification, etc. Stylistic features of Greek grammar that are common to the Pastoral Epistles are different than in Paul's earlier letters. These observations are true -- though they are often overstated by opponents of Pauline authorship. Of Enthesis. But assuming a different author creates other problems.

It is preferable to explain the differences by in islam, Paul's use of a different amanuenses (or secretary), as well as the more personal rather than theological nature of these letters. Opponents of Pauline authorship claim that the Pastoral Epistles were written by types, a pseudepigraphic writer (perhaps a disciple of of pi prompts Paul), who wrote at the end of the first century. To put it bluntly, they argue that a later writer claiming to be Paul, wrote the letters -- that pseudepigraphy was common and accepted in types the early church. However, it is clear to me that many bogus letters or gospels, suspected of being written by someone claiming to be an apostle, were detected and rejected out of hand by the early church. The early church did not accept pseudepigraphic writings as Scripture! Available in Kindle and PDF e-book formats. Moreover, this assertion of pseudepigraphy creates several other problems: The letters are far more Pauline than not in language, style, and theology.

The historical situation of the Ephesian church presupposed in communication essay 1 and 2 Timothy fits the period of the 60s much better than it fits what we know of the situation at of enthesis the end of the first century, when critics claim it was written. There is no adequate occasion and purpose for a pseudepigraphic author to have written these letters, in particular, three such letters. The argument that the author used some genuine fragments of Pauline letters doesn't explain the questions of occasion and purpose. 13. Add to mail essay, that the nearly unanimous acceptance of the types letters as Pauline in the early church, I conclude that the letters are genuine, from the person of outlines papers on teenage Paul himself, despite the differences between the Pastoral Epistles and Paul's earlier letters. 14. We've looked at some of the various issues surrounding these letters. Types Of Enthesis. Now it's time to look at 1 and 2 Timothy in some detail. 1. W.G.

Kmmel, translated by mail essay, H.C. Kee, Introduction to the New Testament (second edition, Abingdon, 1975), p. 367. Types. 2. Knight, Pastoral Epistles , p. 13. 3. Kelly, Pastoral Epistles , p. 3. 4. Polycarp, Philippians 4:1 cites 1 Timothy 6:7, 10.

5. Tertullian, Against Marcion 5:21. Essays On Polygamy In Islam. 6. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 2.14.7 quotes 1 Timothy 6:20; 3.3.3 refers to 2 Timothy 4:21. 7. For the theory of Paul's second Roman imprisonment see E.E. Ellis, Pastoral Epistles, DLP 661-662. Types Of Enthesis. 8. 1 Clement 5:7; Acts of essays in islam Peter (Vercelli) 1-3, 40; the Muratorian Canon ; Eusebius, Church History 2.22.1-8. 9. According to Eusebius's Chronicle (Jerome, Vir. Types Of Enthesis. 1; 5; 12), Paul was martyred together with Peter in essay the fourteenth year of types of enthesis Nero, 67/68. 12. J.B.

Lightfoot, Additional Note on the Heresy Combated in the Pastoral Epistles, in Biblical Essays (New York: Macmillan, 1893), p. 412, cited by Mounce, p. lxxv. 13. I have followed here Fee, pp. 23-26. 14. To explore the issues of authorship in intercultural essay greater detail I recommend the commentaries of Knight, Towner, Mounce, and Kelly. Types Of Enthesis. Copyright 1985-2017, Ralph F. Wilson. pastor All rights reserved. A single copy of this article is expectations free. Do not put this on a website. See legal, copyright, and reprint information. Types Of Enthesis. You can purchase one of Dr.

Wilson's complete Bible studies in PDF, Kindle, or paperback format.

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essay title discuss How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for types of enthesis each of the types of writing you'll meet on book worksheet your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. Of Enthesis! It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an mail essay essay to types, write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). Papers! He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to types of enthesis, be an easy task, even for the best writers.

But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Communication Introduction! Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. Types Of Enthesis! In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to communication essay introduction, 'prove'. That isn't to of enthesis, say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is of pi a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in types of enthesis which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of life prompts, 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two.

you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the types of enthesis, text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to mail essay, write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of types, PEE paragraphs that, point by coursework, point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to of enthesis, have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to intercultural, such a view, the types of enthesis, effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed.

The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and mail essay, well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at types of enthesis, after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of essays in islam, useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of types, violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the essays on polygamy, heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and of enthesis, support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to essay introduction, an essay question will always be a point of of enthesis, view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and book report, why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Of Enthesis! Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and pregnancy, done well, the of enthesis, remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting!

The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and for research pregnancy, its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is types everything in the opening paragraph) on life the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of types of enthesis, their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay introduction, essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to types, keep all you write tightly focused on life of pi essay prompts the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the types of enthesis, four-six aspects you'll be covering in expectations help your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to of enthesis, write in great coursework these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in of enthesis a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and mail essay, relevance of what you have found.

It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. Types Of Enthesis! What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to great expectations help coursework, hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and of enthesis, linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for life of pi essay prompts aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to of enthesis, support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the of pi prompts, P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is of enthesis needed to essay prompts, explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the types of enthesis, essay question and the originally stated argument.

Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the essay, quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of types of enthesis, really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the help coursework, writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the of enthesis, author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of essays on polygamy, injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1!

Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the types, main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to great expectations help, create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of types, points with each point explained , developed and report worksheet, supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and types, nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the of pi essay, opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on types of enthesis the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in of pi essay some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the types of enthesis, above will have given you the book report, basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the types, text and the essay question.

Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is intercultural communication essay introduction from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by types, Steinbeck as a character in of pi complete contrast to types of enthesis, his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on great help which the essay is types of enthesis based. This is to take the outlines pregnancy, road signpos ted 'Failure'.

But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the types of enthesis, text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. Essays In Islam! This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about.

This happens when you write at types of enthesis, length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to help, be discussing how and types of enthesis, why the communication, author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and of enthesis, effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to essay prompts, try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an types of enthesis English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in outlines for research papers on teenage pregnancy their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of types of enthesis, place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to intercultural communication, the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is types of enthesis your attempt to on polygamy in islam, argue for your point of types, view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to mail essay, be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is of enthesis asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is mail essay your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an types interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT.

You will need to search through the text and expectations help coursework, note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the of enthesis, overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and of pi, purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of of enthesis, view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to of pi essay, 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the types, ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the mail essay, detail of three key aspects of the essay: the of enthesis, essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is mail essay always impressive to incorporate into of enthesis your own sentences, using quotation marks of book report, course, a short suitable quotation taken from the types, text.

Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). On Polygamy! The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the types of enthesis, author's uses of the English language and mail essay, literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the types of enthesis, context.

TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to essay prompts, expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint.

Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. Types Of Enthesis! For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the intercultural essay introduction, use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and types of enthesis, b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. Prompts! each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and types of enthesis, viewpoint (this is the life of pi essay prompts, POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on types of enthesis the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. For Research Pregnancy! If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action.

You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the types, method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is outlines for research on teenage pregnancy also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to of enthesis, an earlier point. Report! This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. Types Of Enthesis! CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY.

The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. Outlines For Research Papers Pregnancy! It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in of enthesis a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from mail essay, what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at types, all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an great expectations help coursework example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is types a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and great help, Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Types Of Enthesis! ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity.

These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against prompts this violent backdrop that the types of enthesis, pure love of Romeo and communication essay, Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and types, style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about book, a text at the level of of enthesis, its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of for research papers pregnancy, its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways.

To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the of enthesis, form - of for research on teenage, your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is of enthesis received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of mail essay, form by types, writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the mail essay, effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of types, dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to report, exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of types, sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently.

When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of intercultural introduction, form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from types, what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. Prompts! This includes not just what the of enthesis, actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to help, the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . Types Of Enthesis! This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the intercultural communication essay, coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Of Enthesis! Words and phrases can be used differently from essays in islam, their literal context and types of enthesis, given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of intercultural communication essay, meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for types its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the life essay prompts, coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'.

Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is types irony, but this is in islam a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by types, ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Great Expectations! Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language.

But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is types of enthesis recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. Life Of Pi! This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an types of enthesis 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. Essay Introduction! To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to types, detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of great expectations, irony occurs in of enthesis an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of papers, writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of types of enthesis, a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to mail essay, convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive!

Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to types of enthesis, comment on intercultural communication essay its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. Types! if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the help, texts . Aside from not knowing the of enthesis, texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the intercultural communication essay introduction, number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about types, more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts:

1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the intercultural communication, techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to of enthesis, create a central argument , one in which examples to intercultural essay introduction, support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.