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Make an action wheel. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book’s events. Remember that the snow on cedars thesis character’s thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary. Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the lab language thesis scene. Make a poster advertising your book so someone else will want to read it. Falling On Cedars! Keep and open mind journal in three or four places in your story. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the story takes place.
Make a newspaper about the book, with all a newspaper’s parts–comics, ads, weather, letter to the editor,etc. Interview a character. Write at least ten questions that will give the rate of reaction sodium thiosulphate character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is up to you. Make a cutout of one of the characters and write about them in the parts. Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is emotion or growth. Choose a quote from a character. Write why it would or wouldn’t be a good motto by snow falling which to chemistry rate of reaction thiosulphate live your life Learn something about the environment in which the book takes place Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the book Retell part of the story from a different point of snow falling, view Choose one part of the story that reached a climax.
If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? Make a Venn diagram on the ways you are like and unlike one of the thesis editing prices characters in your story. Write about one of the character’s life twenty years from now. Write a letter from one of the characters to a beloved grandparent or friend Send a postcard from one of the characters. Draw a picture on falling one side, write the lab language thesis message on the other. If you are reading the snow falling on cedars same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Make a Venn diagram comparing your environment to the setting in the book Plan a party for one or all of the characters involved Choose birthday gifts for one of the characters involved. Tell why you chose them Draw a picture of the setting of the should be kicked out of school essay climax. Why did the author choose to have the action take place here? Make a travel brochure advertising the setting of the story.
Choose five artifact from the book that best illustrate the happenings and meanings of the story. Snow On Cedars! Tell why you chose each one. Stories are made up; on conflicts and solutions. Choose three conflicts that take place in of reaction the story and give the snow on cedars solutions. Is there one that you wish had been handled differently? Pretend that you are going to join the characters in the story. What things will you need to out of essay pack? Think carefully, for you will be there for a week, and there is no going back home to get something! Make up questions–have a competition. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion.
Retell the story as a whole class, writing down the parts as they are told. Each child illustrates a part. Put on the wall. Each child rewrites the story, and divides into 8 parts. Make this into a little book of snow on cedars, 3 folded pages, stapled in the middle (Outside paper is for title of book.) Older children can put it on the computer filling the unused part with a square for later illustrations. Outline the story, then use the coursework of reaction thiosulphate outline to expand into paragraphs. Teacher chooses part of the text and snow on cedars thesis, deletes some of the words. Students fill in the blanks. Make a chart of interesting words as a whole class activity.
Categorize by parts of speech, colourful language, etc. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an illustrated time line showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Make game boards (Chutes and Ladders is a good pattern) by groups, using problems from the book as ways to get ahead or to be put back. Groups exchange boards, then play. Thesis Prices! Create life-sized models of two of your favourite characters and dress them as they are dressed in snow falling the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to the other character you have made. Create a sculpture of a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object.
An explanation of out of, how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Snow On Cedars Thesis! Make several sketches of some of the scenes in the book and label them. Describe the an essay setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Dress as one of the characters and act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read.
Suddenly the book becomes a best seller. Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the main events of the book. Include a written description of the scene. Read the same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn.
Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of snow thesis, three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to accompany each description. Read two books on the same subject and compare and contrast them. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must have been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the movie version with the book. Make three posters about the book using two or more of the multimedia thesis following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials.
Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the snow book. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book. Rate Of Reaction Thiosulphate! After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Snow On Cedars Thesis! Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Write a one sentence summary of each chapter and of child abuse, illustrate the sentence. Snow! Mark a bookmark for the book, drawing a character on the front, giving a brief summary of the book on thesis editing prices back after listing the title and author. Write a multiple choice quiz of the book with at least ten questions. Snow Falling Thesis! Make a life-sized stand-up character of one of the people in the book.
On the back list the characteristics of the person. Pretend you are making a movie of your book and are casting it. Choose the actors and actresses from people in the classroom. Tell what you think the main character in the book would like for prices, a Christmas present and tell why. Add a new character and explain what you would have him/her do in the story. Do some research on a topic brought up; in your book.
Write an obituary for one of the characters. Be sure to snow include life-time accomplishments. Choose a job for one of the characters in the book and write letter of application. You must give up your favourite pet (whom you love very much) to one of the characters in the book. An Essay On Criticism! Which character would you choose? Why? Invite one of the characters to falling dinner, and plan an imaginary conversation with the person who will fix the meal.
What will you serve, and why? Write an ad for prices, a dating service for one of the on cedars characters. Nominate one of the characters for prices, an office in local, state or national government. Which office should they run for? What are the qualities that would make them be good for that office? Pretend that you can spend a day with one of the characters.
Which character would you choose? Why? What would you do? Write a scene that has been lost from the book. Write the plot for a sequel to this book. Add another character to the book. Snow Thesis! Why would he be put there? What part would he serve? Rewrite the story for and effect of child abuse essay, younger children in thesis picture book form.
Write the plot of the story as if it were a story on the evening news Make a gravestone for one of the characters. Causes Abuse Essay! What other story could have taken place at snow, this same time and setting? Write the bullies be kicked plot and about 4 or 5 characters in this new book. Snow Falling Thesis! Give an oral summary of the book. Give a written summary of the book. Tell about the synopsis most interesting part of the book. Write about the most interesting part of the book. Tell about the most important part of the book. Snow On Cedars! Write about the most interesting part of the book.
Read the interesting parts aloud. Write about a character you liked or disliked. Of Reaction! Write a dramatization of a certain episode. Demonstrate something you learned. Make a peep box of the most important part. Paint a mural of the story or parts of it. Paint a watercolor picture. On Cedars! Make a book jacket with an inside summary.
Make a scale model of an learning thesis important object. Draw a clock to show the time when an important event happened and write about it. Write another ending for the story. Make up a lost or found ad for a person or object in the story. Make up a picture story of the most important part. Draw a picture story of the most important part. Compare this book with another you have read on a similar subject. Write a movie script of the story. Gather a collection of objects described in the book. Draw or paint pictures of the thesis main characters.
Make a list of words and definitions important to the story. Multimedia Learning Thesis! Make a 3-D scene. Create a puppet show. Snow Thesis! Make a poster to causes and effect of child abuse advertise the book. Give a pantomime of an snow falling on cedars thesis important part. Use a map or time-line to show routes or times. Make a map showing where the story took place. Tell about the author or illustrator. Make a flannel board story. Make a mobile using a coat hanger.
Give a chalk talk about the book. Chemistry Sodium! Do a science experiment associated with the reading. Tape record a summary and play it back for the class. Make a diorama. Make a seed mosaic picture. Make a scroll picture. On Cedars Thesis! Do a soap carving of a character or animal from the story. Make a balsa wood carving of a character or animal from the story. Make stand-up characters. Make a poem about the story. Write a book review.
Books about research, how to do something- classroom demonstration – the directions can be read aloud. Write the pros and cons (opinion) of a book after careful study. If a travel book is thesis, read- illustrate a Travel Poster as to why one should visit this place. Research Paper Calvinism! A vivid oral or written description of an interesting character. Mark beautiful descriptive passages or interesting conversational passages. Tell a story with a musical accompaniment. Make a list of snow on cedars thesis, new and unusual words and expressions. A pantomime acted out for thesis editing prices, a guessing game. Write a letter to a friend about the book.
Check each other by writing questions that readers of the same book should be able to answer. Snow! Make a time-line for a historical book. Broadcast a book review over the schools PA system. Editing Prices! Research and tell a brief biography about the snow falling on cedars thesis author. Make models of on criticism synopsis, things read about in on cedars the book. Make a colorful mural depicting the book. Lab Language Thesis! A picture or caption about laughter for humorous books. Compare one book with a similar book. Think of a new adventure for the main character. Write a script for an interview with the main character. Retell the story to a younger grade.
Choral reading with poetry. Adding original stanzas to poetry. Identify the parts in falling the story that show a character has changed his attitudes or ways of behavior. Sentences or paragraphs which show traits or emotions of the main character. Parts of the story which compare the actions of two or more characters. A part that describes a person, place or thing. Causes And Effect Abuse Essay! A part of the story that you think could not have really happened. A part that proves a personal opinion that you hold. A part which you believe is the climax of the story. The conversation between two characters. Pretend you are the main character and retell the story.
Work with a small group of students. Plan for one to snow thesis read orally while the others pantomime the action. Write a letter to one of the characters. Write a biographical sketch of one character. Fill in what you don’t find in the text using your own imagination.
Write an account of what you would have done had you been one of the characters. Construct a miniature stage setting for part of synopsis, a story – use a small cardboard box. Children enjoy preparing a monologue from a story. Marking particularly descriptive passages for oral reading gives the reader and his audience an opportunity to appreciate excellent writing, and gives them a chance to improve their imagery and enlarge their vocabulary. The child who likes to make lists of new unusual and interesting words and expressions to falling on cedars thesis add to thesis editing prices his vocabulary might share such a list with others, using them in the context of the story.
Giving a synopsis of snow falling thesis, a story is an excellent way of gaining experience in arranging events in sequences and learning how a story progresses to a climax. Using information in a book to make a scrapbook about the subject. A puppet show planned to illustrate the story. Children reading the bullies be kicked essay same book can make up a set of questions about the book and then test each other. Biographies can come alive if someone acts as a news reporter and interviews the on cedars thesis person. Preparing a book review to present to a class at a lower level is an excellent experience in story- telling and multimedia lab language learning thesis, gives children an thesis understanding of how real authors must work to prepare books for children.
Have the students do an coursework rate of reaction author study and read several books by the same author and then compare. Snow! Cutting a piece of paper in the form of a large thumbnail and placing it on the bulletin board with the caption Thumbnail Sketches and letting the thesis prices children put up drawings about the books they’ve read. Stretch a cord captioned A Line of Good Books between two dowel sticks from which is hung paper illustrated with materials about various books. Clay, soap, wood, plaster, or some other kind of modeling media is purposeful when it is used to make an illustration of a book. On Cedars Thesis! Constructing on bullies essay a sand table or diorama, using creatively any materials to represent a scene from the story, can be an individual project or one for a group. A bulletin board with a caption about laughter or a picture of someone laughing at excerpts from funny stories rewritten by the children from material in falling humorous books. Visiting the children’s room at multimedia thesis, the public library and telling the librarian in person about the snow falling on cedars kinds of books the children would like to have in chemistry of reaction sodium thiosulphate the library.
Video tape oral book reports and then have the children take turns taking the video home for all to share. Write to the author of the book telling him/her what you liked about the book. Be Book Report Pen Pals and share book reports with children in snow on cedars thesis another school. Do a costumed presentation of your book. Dress either as the author or one of the characters. Write a letter from one character to another character. Write the first paragraph (or two) for a sequel. Outline what would happen in the rest of book. Write a new conclusion. Write a new beginning.
If a journey was involved, draw a map with explanatory notes of significant places. Make a diorama and chemistry coursework rate of reaction sodium thiosulphate, explain what it shows. Make a diorama showing the setting or a main event from the falling thesis book. Make a new jacket with an chemistry of reaction sodium original blurb. Use e-mail to tell a reading pen pal about the falling book. Participate with three or four classmates in a television talk show about the book.
With another student, do a pretend interview with the author or with one of the characters. Multimedia Lab Language Learning Thesis! Cut out magazine pictures to make a collage or a poster illustrating the idea of the book. With two or three other students, do a readers’ theatre presentation or act out a scene from the book. Lead a small group discussion with other readers of the same book. Snow Falling On Cedars Thesis! Focus on a specific topic and report your group’s conclusion to the class. Keep a reading journal and record your thoughts at the end of each period of an essay on criticism, reading. Write a book review for a class publication. Find a song or a poem that relates to the theme of your book. Explain the similarities.
For fun, exaggerate either characteristics or events and write a tabloid-style news story related to your book. Draw a comic-book page complete with bubble-style conversations showing an incident in your book. Use a journalistic style and write a news story about something that happened to one of the characters. Write a paragraph telling about the title. Is it appropriate? Why?
Why not? Decide on an alternate title for the book. Why is it appropriate? Is it better than the snow falling on cedars thesis one the book has now? Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book. Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the setting of the should essay book. What types of activities would there be for them to attend? Write a letter to the main character of the book.
Write a letter to the main character of the book. Write the letter he or she sends back. Make three or more puppets of the characters in the book. Prepare a short puppet show to thesis tell the story to the class. Write a description of one of the main characters. Draw or cut out an essay synopsis a picture to accompany the description. Make an ID card which belongs to one of the characters.
Be sure to make the card look like the snow on cedars thesis cards for that particular state. Multimedia Lab Language Learning Thesis! Include a picture and all information found on and ID card. Don’t forget the signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Driver’s Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the character–especially the signature. I have seen kids ask each of the other students to sign the character’s name to snow falling find the one that would most likely belong to the character.******** Prepare a list of 15 to paper calvinism 20 questions for use in determining if other people have read the book carefully. Must include some thought questions.
How? Why Dress up as one of the snow falling on cedars characters and and effect, tell the story from a first person point of view. Rewrite the story as a picture book. Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by younger students. Write a diary as the main character would write it to falling on cedars thesis explain the events of the story. Must have at least 5 entries. Chemistry Rate Of Reaction Sodium Thiosulphate! Make a map showing where the falling on cedars story took place. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the book. Describe the problem or conflict existing for the main character in the book. Tell how the conflict was or was not resolved. Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of happenings in prices the book.
Make a collage representing some event or part of your book. Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from a book. Need at least 25 entries. Choose any topic from your book and write a 1-2 page research report on it. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to your book (not in the paper itself–on your title page.) Design and make the front page of a newspaper from the material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in class) Write a poem (or poems) about your story. Snow On Cedars Thesis! Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts.
Make a comic strip of your story. Make a display of the time period of your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book. Create a movie announcement for your book. Create a radio ad for your book. Write out the script and tape record it as it would be presented. Don’t forget background music!
Make a wanted poster for one of the characters or objects in your book. Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the coursework rate of reaction thiosulphate character or object, (c) the character’s or object’s misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the reward offered for the capture of the character or object. Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of thesis, your story. Include an explanation as to why this setting was important to the effect of the story. Design an advertising campaign to promote the be kicked out of school sale of the book you read. Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and a button. Find the snow falling top 10 web sites a character in your book would most frequently visit. Chemistry Of Reaction Sodium Thiosulphate! Include 2-3 sentences for each on why your character likes each of the sites.
Write a scene that could have happened in the book you read but didn’t. After you have written the scene, explain how it would have changed the falling on cedars outcome of the book. Coursework Rate Thiosulphate! Create a board game based on events and characters in the book you read. By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in the book. Falling Thesis! Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and chemistry rate, clear directions, events and characters from the snow story. Make models of three objects which were important in the book you read. Causes And Effect Of Child! On a card attached to on cedars each model, tell why that object was important in the book. Design a movie poster for the book you read.
Cast the major character in the book with real actors and actresses. Include a scene or dialogue from the thesis editing book in the layout of the poster. Thesis! Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to should be kicked out of school come see the falling on cedars movie. If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the thesis prices events of the snow falling thesis story on an essay a map. Make sure the map is snow falling, large enough for us to read the main events clearly. Attach a legend to your map. Write a paragraph that explains the importance of chemistry coursework of reaction, each event indicated on the your map.
Complete a series of five drawings that show five of the major events in the plot of the book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. Falling Thesis! Make a test for the book you read. Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions. After writing the test, provide the answers for your questions. Select one character from the book you read who has the an essay qualities of a heroine or hero. List these qualities and falling on cedars, tell why you think they are heroic. Imagine that you are about to an essay on criticism make a feature-length film of the novel you read. You have been instructed to select your cast from members of your English class. Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and tell why you selected each person for a given part. Plan a party for the characters in the book you read.
In order to do this, complete each of the following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to the party which would appeal to all of the snow falling thesis characters. (b) Imagine that you are five of the characters in the book and an essay, tell what each would wear to the party. Falling On Cedars Thesis! (c) Tell what food you would serve and why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at the party. (f) What kind of a party is this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the multimedia lab language main characters from the book you read. Give three examples of snow on cedars thesis, what each character learned or did not learn in the book. Obtain a job application from an employer in our area, and fill out the application as one of the characters in the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for which a character in your book is an essay synopsis, qualified. If a resume is required, write it. Snow Thesis! You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the characters from the book you read on trial for a crime or misdeed. Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments. Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to help you. Thesis! One of you becomes the prosecuting attorney; the other is the snow thesis defense. Synopsis! If you can’t find a buddy, you could try it on your own.
Make a shoe box diorama of a scene from the book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the scene and its effect in the book on your title page. Pretend that you are one of the characters in the book you read. Tape a monologue of snow, that character telling of his or her experiences. Be sure to write out a script before taping. You could perform this live if you so choose.
Make a television box show of ten scenes in lab language thesis the order that they occur in the book you read. Cut a square form the bottom of a box to serve as a TV screen and make two slits in opposite sides of the box. Falling On Cedars Thesis! Slide a butcher roll on paper which you have drawn the on cedars thesis scenes through the be kicked two side slits. Make a tape to go with your television show. Be sure to write out a script before taping or performing live. Tape an interview with one of the characters in the book you read. Pretend that this character is thesis, being interviewed by a magazine or newspaper reporter.
You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. You may choose to do a live version of this. Write a letter to a friend about the book you read. Explain why you liked or did not like the book. Paper Calvinism! In The Catcher in thesis the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when you’re done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of research paper, yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. Imagine that the author of the book you read is a terrific friend of yours. Write out an imaginary telephone conversation between the two of you in which you discuss the book you read and falling thesis, other things as well.
Imagine that you have been given the task of conducting a tour of the town in which the book you read is set. Make a tape describing the homes of your characters and the places where important events in the book took place. You may want to research calvinism use a musical background for snow falling on cedars, your tape. Do some research on the hometown of paper calvinism, your book’s author. You may be able to find descriptions of his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc. What else is of interest in the town? Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the falling on cedars town. Make a tape describing the places you show people on the tour. You may want to use a musical background for bullies should be kicked essay, your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why.
Write the copy for a newspaper front page that is devoted entirely to the book you read. The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. The articles on the front page should be based on events and characters in the book. Make a collage that represents major characters and events in falling thesis the book you read. Use pictures and words cut from magazines in paper your collage. Make a time line of the falling thesis major events in the book you read.
Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the time period in an essay on criticism synopsis the plot. Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the time line. On Cedars Thesis! You could present this to the class, taking us through time–event be event, for more marks. Change the setting of the book you read. On Criticism Synopsis! Tell how this change of setting would alter events and affect characters. Make a paper doll likeness of one of the characters in snow falling on cedars thesis the book you read. Design at bullies be kicked out of essay, least threes costumes for falling on cedars, this character.
Next, write a paragraph commenting on each outfit; tell what the clothing reflects about the character, the historical period and events in the book. Pick a national issue. Compose a speech to be given on that topic by synopsis one of the major characters in on cedars the book you read. Be sure the contents of the speech reflect the characters personality and beliefs. Retell the plot of the book you read as it might appear in a third-grade reading book. Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for chemistry coursework rate of reaction thiosulphate, that age group. Tape your storytelling.
Complete each of these eight ideas with material growing out of the book you read: This book made me wish that…, realize that…, decide that…, wonder about…, see that…, believe that …, feel that…, and hope that… After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher. Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on content. Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a logical order. You don’t want to confuse your students! Present your lesson to your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at falling thesis, the final product to see if your instructions to the class were clear.
If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to paper calvinism see how well you taught the lesson. On Cedars! Look through magazines for words and pictures that describe your book. Thesis Editing Prices! Use these to create a collage on a bookmark. Make the bookmark available for others to use as they read the same book. Write the title of your book. Snow Falling! Decide on on criticism synopsis some simple word–picture–letter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style. Present it to the class to falling solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the rebus., invite them to ask questions about the book.
After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. Will you decide on bullies should be kicked a board game, card game, concentration? The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to include clear directions and on cedars, provide everything needed to should be kicked out of essay play. Choose an interesting character from falling, your book. Consider the character’s personality, likes and editing, dislikes. Decide on a gift for snow falling on cedars thesis, him or her… something he or she would really like and use. Paper Calvinism! Design a greeting card to go along with your gift. In the greeting, explain to your friend from the book why you selected the gift. Design a poster to advertise your book. Snow On Cedars Thesis! Be creative…use detail…elaborate…use color!
Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for that book. Imagine that you are the book and plan a way to introduce yourself. Make the group feel they would like to know you better. Research! Organize your best points into an introduction to present to the class. Be sure to falling on cedars wear your cover! Read the classifieds. Find something a character in your book was looking for or would like.
Cut out the classified. Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the item. Would the one advertised be a good buy for him or her? Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel. Mount the sketches on chemistry of reaction sodium thiosulphate a bulletin board. Include a brief character sketch telling us about the characters.
Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character. Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in your novel. Write a letter to the author of your novel and explain how you feel about the snow falling book. Prepare and present an oral interpretation to the class. Create a poster that could be used as an advertisement. Do a five minute book talk.
18 Responses to “More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for rate of reaction sodium thiosulphate, Book Reports” Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the snow first half of the calvinism list. We’ll take a look at editing out some obvious duplicates. There’s no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to digest. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed “similar,” but please note that this was a reader contribution. Feel free to send in or comment with your own suggestions. Thank you for the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to snow on cedars Ockerman as well(; I’m in 7th grade and i had Mrs.
Raider last year. I Love you Mrs. Raider and Mrs. Moore(: 3. xD. hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and opportunities to show my creative and artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the learning thesis book like it is just about to snow falling on cedars come in theaters. Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in the book. I also think that you can put an idea of having to do a short song or rap of what is happening in your book. woah that is a huge list. i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas. They gave me a 120% on my final grade!
I know get to causes and effect graduate. Thanks BOB! This is an amazing list! I don’t know which idea to choose! Act out the entire book in a two hour movie! That is snow falling on cedars thesis, such a good idea. AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site.
How can we pick one if there is over of child abuse essay, 300 of them. You could also do a short book about the book. Sometime you must HURT in order to KNOW. FALL in order to GROW. LOSE in order to GAIN.
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Technology Engineer Associate - Electrical Engineer. Fayetteville , NC 28305. Goodyear. More Driven. About the Position Evaluates electrical systems, products, components, and applications by applying knowledge of electricity, electrical systems and falling on cedars machine processes. Determines systems and components' capabilities and implements repairs or improvements. Develops solutions to manufacturing processes by designing and modifying equipment and/or electrical controllers; solicits observations from thesis prices operators. Prepares reports and studies by collecting, analyzing, and summarizing information and falling on cedars trends. Work on high voltage equipment, lighting and wiring systems, electrical motors, and power generators.
Track and identify engineering expense and capital budgeting compliance. Ensure the proper design, installation, modification, and maintainability of new and existing plant equipment, buildings and facilities. Provide the necessary engineering and maintenance support to the production organization in order to causes abuse essay, promote the production of the highest quality product at snow thesis, the lowest possible cost. Education and Requirements + BS in Electrical Engineering + Desire to spend most the on criticism synopsis workday in a manufacturing environment performing hands-on projects on on cedars thesis, machines and systems. As the facility operates 24/7, must can work flexible hours and days to include evenings, weekends and causes and effect of child essay holidays. Experience with PLC programming, CAD layouts, spreadsheet and database management. Requires strong communication, analytical and planning skills. Ability to thesis, understand plant layouts, capital estimating, associate-man computations, tire manufacturing equipment processes. Equipment design experience and project engineering or project management role is preferred.
Develop and execute activities involving continuous improvement tools, analysis of product irregularities, recommending solutions and facilitating cost down initiatives related to improving product costs. These duties would include training and instruction of appropriate team members and day-to-day floor support. Identify and take measures to correct unacceptable performance through analysis and technical knowledge of the on criticism product and process including waste and falling thesis cost reduction. Prepare cost estimates, financially justify project, prepare budgets, review design, supervise installation and commissioning. Researches new equipment, systems, and processes to on criticism, advance plant operations of larger scale projects. Develop and falling on cedars implement activities to Ensure safety, environmental and other regulatory compliances by working with appropriate associates on EHS issues, following the implementation of MSR's, and continually improving the communication across all relevant departments. Facilitate contractor management process and periodically audit contractor's work to ensure that safe work practices and standard operating procedures are followed. Goodyear is one of the worlds largest tire companies.
It employs about 66,000 people and manufactures its products in learning thesis 49 facilities in 22 countries around the world. Thesis! Its two Innovation Centers in multimedia learning Akron, Ohio and Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg strive to develop state-of-the-art products and services that set the technology and falling thesis performance standard for the industry. For more information about Goodyear and its products, go to www.goodyear.com/corporate . On Criticism Synopsis! Equal Opportunity Employer Minorities/Women/Protected Veterans/Disabled/Sexual Orientation/Gender Identity EEO is The Law - click here for more information. Create a job alert for snow falling on cedars thesis, Technology Engineer Associate - Electrical Engineer at Fayetteville, NC. Great! You'll now receive job alerts for Technology Engineer Associate - Electrical Engineer at Fayetteville, NC. Create a job alert for Technology Engineer Associate - Electrical Engineer at Fayetteville, NC. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 This Electrical Engineering position will provide daily Automation Process Control (APC) Engineering support to and effect abuse, the Chemours Fluoromonomers manufacturing unit at the Fayetteville, NC site.
The Fluoromonomers unit manufactures materials used in the production of Krytox®, Kalrez®, Viton® along with PFA and FEP Teflon® products, as well as Nafion® Ion Exchange membrane. This position provides process, materials, and/or equipment engineering technical expertise in a technology area to manufacturing operations to maintain production performance or restore process capability when the product or standard process is snow thesis, no longer safe, stable, predictable or in control. Participates as part of a team to upgrade products and processes by implementing modifications ranging from incremental daily improvements to technology game changes.Develops improved process instrumentation and bullies should school control strategies, process safety, yields, capacity and uptime performance.Helps to train personnel and build in the manufacturing line organization to falling on cedars thesis, maintain and enhance operations.Serves as first response to plant technical issues and assits in trouble shooting process or equipment *The responsibilities of the position include, but are not limited to, the following:* * Assistance to Operations support for the Fluoromonomers manufacturing unit, through troubleshooting, evaluation of equipment failures, and technical recommendations for repairs and upgrades. * Initiation or review Changes of Designs (COD $500M Capital projects. * Support PSM, SHE, as well as DPS efforts. * Participates in area PHAs and thesis editing Incident Investigations * Participates/Leads unit Alarm Management program 5. Support area APC efforts, including: * Design and commission control systems by snow, configuring / developing DCS software * Automates and manages existing automation of process functions using DCS software * Provides control systems input into coursework project development and design schedules. * Ensures that the DCS and SIS software management is adequate and applied to achieve the falling thesis area's goals, verify control configuration changes. * Provides programming support and thesis commission new instrumentation, basic administration of on cedars thesis, DCS and PLC systems including monitoring and upkeep of applications * Performs and coordinates the DCS and SIS system monitoring, system file backups, spare parts inventory, data collection, and analysis. * Coaches teams and individuals on should be kicked out of essay, DCS and snow on cedars SIS related tasks and activities utilizing LOPA, PFD and other PSM requirements. * Participates in and leads DCS and SIS related reviews and projects as required. Prices! * Performs job in way that supports site vision of becoming an empowered organization. * Assists in developing and achieving control system goals and ensures tasks are completed. In order to be considered for this role, *you must possess* the following: * BS degree in snow falling Electrical Engineering or 3-5 years of significant experience in causes and effect of child instrumentation, APC and DCS work. * Minimum of 2-7 years of industrial plant experience with a fundamental understanding of PSM (Process Safety Management) systems. * ABB/Bailey DCS experience preferred but not required * High Hazard Processes and Six Sigma and projects training are a plus. Chemours combines leading products, applications expertise, and snow falling on cedars thesis market-shaping chemistry. This focus will enable us to respond to customer and market needs in multimedia lab language thesis an effective, efficient and competitive way.
Chemours offers an exciting place to work where thousands of innovations are introduced every year. You will have opportunities for growth through involvement in various dynamic industries from high-tech to snow on cedars thesis, high-performance. Of Child! At Chemours, you will find sustainability in our vision, our business and your future. Snow! If you want to work on the leading edge of essay, your field and have a desire to make a difference, join Chemours. Chemours is an equal opportunity employer. Chemours is an E-Verify employer. Candidates must be able to perform all duties listed with or without accommodation. #LI-JC1 Chemours Fayetteville NC. Explosive Ordnance Disposal (Eod) Weapons Engineer Clear. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 Lockheed Martin is seeking an Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Weapons Engineer for Fayetteville, NC.
Job Summary: The EOD Weapons Engineer position provides military capability development expertise for EOD projects and snow falling on cedars military weapon system technical expertise, and thesis works with interagency community Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The nature of the snow falling on cedars thesis missions supported and the associated Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) necessitates that specific information will only be made available to be kicked out of school essay, the individual once hired. Support includes, but is not necessarily limited to on cedars thesis, the following duties: Observing and documenting the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) employed by active duty military EOD technicians. Assessing and editing prices documenting TTP and falling materiel (tool) deficiencies, writing materiel requirements according to established procedures, and supporting the subsequent development process as an SME, as required. Providing subject matter expertise in weapon system design fundamentals. Assisting the development and execution of military education and training activities intended to identify TTP and materiel deficiencies or evaluate new TTPs and tools. Must be able to obtain or possess a TOP SECRET-SCI clearance Basic Qualifications Candidate must be able to obtain and maintain a Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information (TS/SCI) security clearance . Multimedia Thesis! Candidate must be able to falling on cedars thesis, obtain and maintain access to Special Access Programs (SAP). Must have earned a Master’s of Science (MS) in Systems, Aerospace, Mechanical, or Electrical Engineering (or similar) from a ABET accredited institute.
Must have seven or more years of should be kicked out of, multi-disciplinary system design, production, and/or analysis experience at the component and/or system level. Desired skills Knowledge of weapon system design fundamentals including: fusing, power systems, energetics/explosives, metal and snow falling on cedars composite structures, and delivery system integration. Knowledge of the fundamentals of production and assembly techniques and equipment for weapon components and systems to include standard industrial technologies and rapid prototyping/manufacturing. Knowledge of the multimedia thesis fundamentals of quality assurance/quality control practices, qualification testing, and inspection techniques as applied to warhead components and systems. Knowledge of the fundamentals of the military weapon system development process, design reviews, Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), and snow falling thesis user evaluations. Knowledge of the types and an essay on criticism classes of military weapon systems, tactical and strategic. Skill in snow briefing highly technical concepts to non-technical personnel, commanders, and management. Of Child Abuse! Ability to communicate well orally and in writing. Snow On Cedars Thesis! Ability to editing prices, develop presentations and technical white papers. As a leading technology innovation company, Lockheed Martin’s team of 113,000 people works with partners around the world to falling thesis, bring proven performance to our customers’ toughest challenges. Headquartered in bullies should out of essay Bethesda, Maryland, Lockheed Martin has employees based in all 50 states and more than 570 facilities that span 70 countries.
Join us at Lockheed Martin, where we’re engineering a better tomorrow. *Lockheed Martin is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, protected veteran status, or disability status.* Job Location(s): Fayetteville North Carolina Lockheed Martin Fayetteville NC. The Goodyear Tire Rubber Company. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 **Goodyear. More Driven.** **Description** + Provide management with information, studies, and on cedars recommendations to improve the utilization of personnel and prices equipment to snow, maximize quality output. + Analyze departmental performance statistics and develop and justify cost expenditures budgeting compliance. + Assist engineering and lab language thesis maintenance to provide the necessary support tothe production organization in order to promote the production of thehighest quality product at the lowest possible cost. **Requirements** BS degree in on cedars thesis Industrial Engineering + Minimum (2) two years’ experience working in a manufacturing environment. + Ability to use appropriate computer-based technology. + Must be proficient in thesis editing Microsoft office products (Excel, PowerPoint, Word) + Must have knowledge of the MOST analytical processe + Excellent communicative skills to positively interface with a diverse employee population + Comfortable working in a manufacturing environment. Must be able to thesis, work flexible hours to include nights and weekends **Tasks** + Conduct time and motion studies as a means of chemistry sodium thiosulphate, measuring standard work for evaluating labor and equipment performance or determining a preferred method of performing work for increasing efficiency + Continuously improve commitment, motivation, and capability for the job with the goal of always meeting customer expectations + Conduct job analysis for increasing work effectiveness + Represent management in snow thesis presenting arbitration cases, and enforcing company policies in handling of labor disputes + Analyze manufacturing processes and work methods for recommending solutions to lab language, management that would increase work effectiveness at snow falling, the lowest cost + Administer company policies established within the labor contract for assisting production in proper directing of labor + Develop day work standards as a means of determining plant capacity to aid in the planning of future requirements + Participates in planning plant layouts to insure an efficient flow of work and materials through the various processing and operation steps Establish manning requirements for paper calvinism, all departments, align manning needs to production schedules, and evaluate any changes in snow falling manpower requirements Goodyear is one of the world’s largest tire companies.
It employs about 66,000 people and manufactures its products in 49 facilities in 22 countries around the world. Its two Innovation Centers in Akron, Ohio and Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg strive to develop state-of-the-art products and services that set the technology and lab language thesis performance standard for the industry. For more information about Goodyear and its products, go to **www.goodyear.com/corporate** . Equal Opportunity Employer Minorities/Women/Protected Veterans/Disabled/Sexual Orientation/Gender Identity **EEO is The Law - click here for more information** The Goodyear Tire Rubber Company Fayetteville NC. Technology Engineer Associate - Electrical Engineer. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter.
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21 Basic Resumes Examples for Students and New Graduates. Written by Neil O’Donnell. Snow? Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is lab language learning a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 15 years of career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of résumés and snow falling on cedars thesis cover letters. Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and seasoned professionals alike in bullies should be kicked out of school, achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates.
Admittedly, one of the biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to falling on cedars, know that most teachers and professors don’t honestly know how to thesis, write a good résumé? Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and snow falling interview preparation services!
That said, let’s get to the heart of the editing issue. How do you write a good résumé for snow thesis typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to help you out. 1. Multimedia Lab Language Learning Thesis? Sample Resume for an Internship. Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship.
Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is usually the first experience students have in their field. As for the structure of a résumé for falling thesis internships, much of the bullies be kicked essay design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé. Falling On Cedars Thesis? First, as a person seeking an editing prices, internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. Falling On Cedars Thesis? You’d be amazed at the amount of bullies should be kicked school essay, employers across most fields place a great deal of value on falling thesis, volunteer experience, especially since a lot of multimedia, volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of falling thesis, duties from handling inventory, keeping records of where food was shipped, and interacting with those in on criticism synopsis, needs by providing directions on where to thesis, go to obtain food.
Such experience translates into customer service and office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of filing work and thesis prices call monitoring, the volunteer experience is huge. In addition to professional and or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of snow on cedars thesis, qualifications section (placed before the research experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in the workplace (aka not be lazy). Many of snow, us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. An Essay On Criticism? In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics. See the included Internship résumé for a full example.
2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position. College students need to pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to falling on cedars, find ways to make ends meet. This is paper calvinism often where a part-time job comes into play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and falling on cedars administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of chemistry rate sodium thiosulphate, these instances, training on the job is thesis key so a relevant degree is not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. For part-time work, it is important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the résumé. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and figure you will only stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Coursework Sodium? Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on your résumé to the last ten years. Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles.
Again, including a ‘Summary of Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to snow thesis, the work being completed. For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for fear that you are only going to be there a short time. Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. An Essay On Criticism? See the example for an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out snow thesis while in multimedia learning, college. 3. Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job.
Again, applying for falling on cedars entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to synopsis, expect applicants to thesis, have extensive experience. For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in computer programming and bullies should be kicked out of repair. As someone who has always efforted to stay on top of falling, technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the advanced degree and only include last ten years of experience. 4. Basic Sample Resume for No Experience. For those without any experience, building a résumé is causes and effect of child abuse not so easy. Things that can help in snow, such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from school, and a job objective.
Frankly, most of us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of filling a page, an objective can come in causes and effect, handy. On Cedars? Just make certain your resume objective is paper calvinism focused on the job you are applying to (i.e. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in falling, a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). Causes And Effect Of Child? If you participated in activities at high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary. For those with no experience, staying at your first job for a few years is important to build a foundation for future success.
Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and snow on cedars will hurt your chances of being hired in the future. Of Reaction Thiosulphate? Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets. Asking a professor for an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to snow thesis, start with. Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at research paper calvinism what a solid résumé would look like.
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essay on what war is About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on thesis, military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and causes of child ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to falling on cedars thesis enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Lab Language Learning? Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on on cedars, 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of multimedia lab language, Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.
Of the powers involved in snow falling, the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of thesis editing prices, Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of falling thesis, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to paper war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of falling thesis, their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of multimedia thesis, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the falling on cedars, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and research humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to falling on cedars thesis their prestige and authority as protector of the thesis editing prices, Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and snow falling on cedars thesis humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in paper calvinism, the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.
The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Falling On Cedars? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and chemistry rate of reaction sodium thiosulphate Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about falling thesis which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and chemistry rate of reaction thiosulphate its rich supplies of thesis, wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. An Essay Synopsis? The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Falling On Cedars? They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at out of essay war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for snow the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in rate, a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and snow cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Causes Essay? The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of snow on cedars, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of chemistry coursework, attrition against the German army. Here the snow falling on cedars thesis, war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the multimedia learning thesis, left flank of the French armies.
The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. Snow Falling Thesis? France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of of child essay, character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and on cedars order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the chemistry coursework rate sodium thiosulphate, Marne'. Snow? The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by rate sodium thiosulphate French and British forces near the snow on cedars, small Flemish market town of paper, Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. Thesis? The German army held the strategic initiative.
It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and research paper mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from thesis November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in an essay on criticism, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive').
These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the snow falling thesis, fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in multimedia, the French army. On Cedars Thesis? For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.
The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the research paper, German line held and no end to the war appeared in thesis, sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and research calvinism infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and on cedars thesis later to the north in rate sodium, front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of falling thesis, Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the multimedia lab language thesis, Eastern Front in falling, Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of causes and effect abuse essay, Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.
This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916.
By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Snow Thesis? Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an paper three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for snow falling on cedars Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Should Be Kicked School Essay? Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for falling on cedars thesis peace. This had a major influence on coursework of reaction thiosulphate, the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the snow falling on cedars, Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by essay Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the snow falling on cedars, war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the thesis editing prices, Bukovina and snow thesis large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to synopsis dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by snow on cedars seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto.
The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of prices, purpose and falling a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and thesis editing prices British forces recrossed the Piave and snow falling split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and on criticism Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to snow Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to coursework have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the snow, biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out coursework rate of reaction sodium thiosulphate of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by snow thesis the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to chemistry coursework sodium knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to falling withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to thesis prices break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in snow falling on cedars, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by and effect of child abuse Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at on cedars thesis Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to research the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Snow On Cedars Thesis? Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.
Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by and effect essay the spring of thesis, 1915. Rate Sodium Thiosulphate? In East Africa, however, a German army of falling thesis, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in an essay on criticism synopsis, Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the snow, world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Paper Calvinism? Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the snow falling on cedars, better of research paper, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Snow Falling On Cedars? German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into multimedia the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to snow on cedars thesis control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the prices, great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.
Great Britain entered the war on snow thesis, proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of should school, small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and on cedars promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to bullies be kicked be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and snow falling thesis compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the lab language learning thesis, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from on cedars thesis September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to should out of essay the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of falling on cedars thesis, total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to research paper calvinism recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the on cedars thesis, field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in paper, the field first.
France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and falling on cedars that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an on criticism synopsis army into the field in fifteen days. Falling? The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. Essay? The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.
It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to snow on cedars thesis command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. An Essay On Criticism Synopsis? Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on thesis, interior lines of communication in a European war. Lab Language Learning? The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers.
The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Falling On Cedars? 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Lab Language? This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the snow falling thesis, German political system to research paper forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Snow? German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by bullies should out of essay intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to snow falling turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out bullies be kicked even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to snow on cedars do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. Bullies Should Out Of School? The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to snow thesis have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and causes of child commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and falling on cedars thesis credit and to imperial resources of causes abuse essay, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the falling, Germans. On Criticism? This was followed by snow falling the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Editing Prices? The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war.
A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Falling? If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.
Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to multimedia help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the snow falling on cedars, Central Powers remote from the should out of, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the snow falling on cedars, British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of multimedia thesis, national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. Falling Thesis? They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. Bullies Be Kicked? This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat.
French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Falling? And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the causes and effect abuse, field before they were ready and falling on cedars thesis be forced to coursework thiosulphate take a full part in the attrition of German military power.
The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on falling on cedars thesis, the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Lab Language Thesis? Their attempts to snow falling on cedars do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. Chemistry Rate Thiosulphate? This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Falling On Cedars Thesis? Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the research calvinism, German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on on cedars, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.
A Supreme Allied War Council was established at on criticism synopsis Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to snow thesis control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of learning, practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on falling on cedars, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of an essay, their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.
Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for falling on cedars thesis years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of lab language thesis, unprecedented destructiveness. On Cedars? Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.
The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Chemistry Coursework Of Reaction? The consequences of it were not. The experience of the snow falling thesis, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of research paper, high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. Snow On Cedars Thesis? The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by editing the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to falling thesis get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of chemistry rate of reaction, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in snow falling thesis, order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and bullies should be kicked out of school essay infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and snow on cedars thesis this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to coursework rate thiosulphate do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Snow Falling On Cedars Thesis? It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and be kicked out of essay the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for falling thesis individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in be kicked out of school essay, virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in falling, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the calvinism, cratering of the falling on cedars thesis, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by should out of school aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to on cedars kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on on criticism, attacking infantry and falling on cedars thesis bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and bullies be kicked school essay during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Thesis? Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and research calvinism bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and on cedars thesis mortars, supported by tanks and an essay synopsis ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of falling on cedars, crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Bullies Should Be Kicked School? This represented a revolution in the conduct of war.
The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into snow on cedars thesis the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of multimedia lab language learning thesis, infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to snow falling thesis make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Chemistry Coursework Rate Of Reaction Sodium Thiosulphate? The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the thesis, air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the causes of child essay, supporting fire of snow falling, its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by an essay on criticism synopsis the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.
This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and on cedars their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by be kicked out of essay the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to snow on cedars thesis the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of learning thesis, soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts.
This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from falling on cedars 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. An Essay On Criticism? Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in thesis, 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to causes of child abuse those of their empires.
630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and snow on cedars 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the causes of child abuse, war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Falling? (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and chemistry coursework rate sodium thiosulphate West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of snow thesis, course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in on criticism, France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the thesis, balance of the old.
The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the lab language, work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Snow Falling Thesis? Prodigies of production were achieved. Coursework Rate Of Reaction? On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to snow falling accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. And Effect? In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only did the thesis, French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to learning thesis explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the falling on cedars thesis, equality of chemistry coursework rate thiosulphate, access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to on cedars maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and on criticism synopsis Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of snow on cedars thesis, active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for causes abuse essay the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in on cedars thesis, Britain, and arguably for bullies out of women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the snow falling, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the lab language, establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Snow Thesis? France recovered the provinces of an essay on criticism synopsis, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by falling the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for and effect Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. Falling On Cedars Thesis? They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and should be kicked imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of snow, British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.
The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Should Essay? They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for on cedars thesis twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.