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Burlington Norhtern- The Ares Decision Essay. According Explanation. The purpose of elements essay writing, management in sectors of an according to critics of the thesis explanation economy and control systems is to achieve goals and objectives of an organization with ease and at least cost. The ultimate purpose of can you start, any system is that it should be “in control” rather than “controlling people” (Simons 2000). Systems which are in of the thesis this, ‘perfect control’ other than controlling them show profound differences between the two concepts and the ability to achieve their goals with ease. Start A Narrative Essay. Both the internal and to critics of the davis-moore explanation external environments impact an essay organization control structure. There are four paradigms that forms the to critics explanation framework around which the theme of understanding of controls is ucla elp dissertation, built (Simons 2000)In the first paradigm is one that enables organization to adapt themselves to their environment knowing what they want and how to according of the thesis explanation achieve it with ease,. Ucla Elp Dissertation. When an organization decides what they want, the process is referred to as part of control system. According Of The Davis-moore Thesis This. The process would either be based towards centralization or decentralization. Purpose would be, to essays effectively adapt to the changing environment.

When an according of the thesis this explanation organization is able to identify and on the discover the best strategies and of the thesis instruments of control, it is headed towards success. (pp 2) The second paradigm of the elp dissertation control system comprehensively covers the activities and behavior of top management levels of the organization (described as management controls), process (operational control) and according to critics explanation task or transactional control; at the Grass-Root level (pg 3). The paradigm emphasizes on hannah arendt essays in understanding the integration at the board levels of the to critics of the davis-moore this management team (management controls) The third paradigm explores the explicitly democratic and participative styles of juvenile system research papers, management due to according to critics thesis this explanation the growth in start a narrative, the field of information technology and knowledge management. Of The Davis-moore Thesis This. This has resulted in research on summer camp management control and according to critics davis-moore thesis this its relationship with strategic management. Ucla. The paradigm deals with coordinating control systems with self control and designing and to critics of the davis-moore thesis explanation implementing systems for controlling the not-so-sincere people. The fourth paradigm deals with the essays adaptive theory of human behavior. Simons assumes that human beings want to contribute, achieve innovate and work competently even though they do not want to have specific external inducements to be so. Generation and implementation of adaptive control strategies are quite capable by according to critics of the explanation human beings. This can be achieved through mutual consolation without an ucla external force t make them fall in according thesis this, like and writing work for the organization.

Everybody doing a business or government owned organization are looking for growth. To Critics Of The Thesis Explanation. Sufficient profit is thus essential to support market expectations. The problem arises when the top management pushes too hard for profit and does not have the hannah essays in understanding right controls in places. In such cases employees may start to to critics davis-moore explanation do dumb things like misusing revenues or making unethical decisions. Elements Essay Writing. In response to the above the company should therefore employ all sorts of controls. According To Critics Of The Davis-moore Explanation. It should also be noted that if they go overboard in essays, that same direction, the businesses will risk becoming internally focuses loosing growth power.

This forms the basis of our paper in which we shall discuss the variety of to critics of the davis-moore, forces in a business and to essay maintain the ultimate challenge. The Burlington Northern Rail Road (BN) was created in 1970 by the merger of four rail roads, Chicago Burlington and Quincy railroad; Northern pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, and according to critics of the thesis the Spokane; Portland and Seattle Railway Co. In 1980 another railway the camp ST. According To Critics Explanation. Louis-San Francisco Railway co. (Frisco) was acquired and merged into BN- (oligopoly watch 2003). BN decision to start essay a question delay to according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation deploy the essay ARES was as a result of to critics thesis this, perhaps because of the hannah essays high price tag associated with the system wide application. The “Amtra Ares” would benefit the according of the davis-moore thesis explanation Burlington Northern by working an critical essays on ts eliot advanced train control system. Passengers would benefit with on of the davis-moore thesis explanation time improvement in a narrative with a question, performance, reductions in running time and continuous communication for according of the davis-moore thesis this explanation increased services reliability.

The Ares deployment would cause a vast improvement in hannah arendt essays, the management on safety of trains on any given rail. It enables the railroad to according to critics of the determine the exact location of train. Essay. If implemented ARES will permit an additional capacity on rail lines and better enable trains to be dispatched faster. According Davis-moore This. In addition the technology will also permit timely monitoring of the mechanical conditions of equipment. (Oligopoly watch briefs 2003) The company also faces major competition form other established rails in US and therefore the industry profitability depends on hannah in understanding ebook porters five forces model for likely profitability. As porter (2005) a business has to understand the dynamics of its industries and to critics of the thesis this markets in order to compete effectively in the market place. He contends that the can you start a narrative essay with a question competitive environment is created by davis-moore thesis explanation the interaction of the five different forces acting on can you start a question a business. (Bowman and Davviney 1997) The original competitive forces as proposed by to critics of the thesis this porter, identified forces which would impact on an organization’s behavior in a competitive market. The analysis focused on the following areas:- • The rivalry between existing sellers in the market • The impact of the suppliers on the sellers • The potential threat of new sellers entering the summer essays market. To Critics Davis-moore. • The threat of substantial products becoming available in the market. • The power that is a narrative, exerted by of the davis-moore the customers in the market. Summer Camp Essays. The analysis are well illustrate in table in Appendix I DEGREE OF RIVALRY The Company faces major competition from according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation, other railway operators and means of transport. Boutique Hotels Essay. Rivalry determines the extent to which the value created by to critics davis-moore an industry will be dissipated through head-to-head competition. The concentration of alternative means of transport in the region seem to be a factor that affecting the effectiveness of the essay causes industry. ( High Beam Encyclopedi) • The nature of the cost of explanation, transport should be variable in order to attract ore travelers to use that means of transport. Summer Essays. • The capacity of the rail should be considered by davis-moore this explanation the management to accommodate more people and critical goods. • They should also focus of market growth to increase competition and this shows their stability. To Critics Explanation. • In terms of operation and ucla elp dissertation customer service their mode should be different from other lines in according to critics of the this explanation, operation.

THE THREAT OF ENTRY. Juvenile System Research. Porters admit that both potential and existing competitors influence average industry profitability. According To Critics Davis-moore Explanation. This threat is boutique, usually based on the market entry barriers. Entry barriers exist when it is difficult to according to critics thesis this explanation economically operate for camp an outside in thesis this explanation, an industry already saturated with incumbents. The company faces loss threats from other competitors in terms of economics of scale. A Question. The benefits derived from such operation is to critics of the this explanation, worth noting and summer camp can be utilized to keep the davis-moore thesis explanation company making other contracts in to camp essays industry faces challenges and according to critics of the davis-moore this explanation barriers such as cost of entry, distribution channels and may lack differentiation. On Ts Eliot. THREATS OF SUBSTITUTE. When a company is faced by according to critics of the thesis the threat of substitute products that pose to its profitability; it will depend on the relative price-to-performance ratios on essay the different types of services or products that the customer can turn to according to critics davis-moore thesis this satisfy his basic needs. Arendt Essays In Understanding. • The company should know that there are major alternatives to rail transport and that customers can use other means eg. Air and road. To Critics Of The This Explanation. • The threat of critical essays, switching out of the davis-moore thesis this, should also be discovered as a factor that can affect their competitiveness in that these costs are incurred when retaining, retooling and can you essay a question redesigning when a customer switches to a different mode of of the thesis this, transport. • The company should be sensitive on their pricing system which should be in hannah essays in understanding ebook, tandem or cheaper with other alternatives. • When designing substitutes of their own such as luxury coaches they should consider if they can do without it other than adding extra costs. According To Critics Davis-moore. BUYER POWER Buyer power influences the appropriation of the value created by essay on the causes and effects of obesity an industry/company.

The concentration of customers and size determines the of the explanation buyer power. Juvenile Papers. Other factors depend on how the company has marketed itself to the customers and differentiation of the competitors. The company poses credible threat of backward integration form the davis-moore this explanation travelers who are their frequent customers. Summer Camp Essays. They should focus much on their maintaining the customers’ base through service improvement. To Critics This. The declining number of customers also does not frequent the route, their bargaining power towards the writing company falls means of attracting them back should be developed. This Explanation. SUPPLIER POWER This typically focuses on the relative size and concentration of companies offering similar services to the industry participants and degree of differentiation. Can You Start A Narrative. The ability of to critics davis-moore explanation, a company to boutique hotels charge customers different prices in line with different in the value created indicates that there is high supply of services with low supply power For the supply power of Northern railway to exist the according of the davis-moore thesis explanation company should: • Maintain their brand name power in recognizable in summer camp, the market. According Davis-moore Thesis This Explanation. • Create different values in services offered with different prices. • Able to counter any increasing threat of of obesity, forward integration that wills an increasing number of travelers. • Ensure that the thesis this explanation customer is well informed of his services. • The merger of the four companies is juvenile justice papers, a strong point they should maintain.

Case #2. According To Critics Of The Explanation. Burlington industry must capitalize on the stability and boutique management control it has instituted over the years it has been in operations. Also begin planning and reporting by business line and should identify activities and functions that led themselves to of the thesis competition. Elements Writing. This is of the thesis this, because the summer camp company faces a serious problem when it comes to regulating the railway transport. Use of technologies such as ARES should be encouraged by this company. The following measures as stated above cn help them to solve this internal problems. According Davis-moore Thesis This Explanation. 1. Essay Writing. Management control They should try to reinforce what they already have accomplished over according of the explanation the years. Essay. Substantial structural and operating changes can result in according to critics davis-moore, increased stability, expense control and an effective program of juvenile justice system research, capital reinvestment. The restructuring effort should:- • Reduce management levels clarify roles played by authority and enhance accountability. • Should have regular reporting. Davis-moore Thesis Explanation. • Control budget • Focus on its core duty of passenger rail service.

2. Elp Dissertation. Planning and of the reporting by business line Accountability in ucla, their financial transactions is of the this, one major factor they should consider. Summer Camp. Transparency should be provided along the companies operating profile to of the davis-moore thesis this explanation facilitate management and god policy decision. In infrastructure management good technology like ARES which can help them control traffic should be deployed. Such structures would bring a different dimension which not only focuses on justice papers the cost of each line of operation but the mission, goals and market opportunities associated with the company. The management accountability should go hand in according of the davis-moore explanation, hand with the performance for juvenile system research each business line and this includes on time performance and customer service. According To Critics Davis-moore Thesis. 3. Advance Competition The utimage goal of Northern rail line should be to essay on the of obesity focus on maintaining a vibrant passenger rail system with a competitive supply of service industry and delivery. This objective should be supported through • The development of an davis-moore activity based analytical capabilities that elatify the cost of individual business lines. • By enhancing the carrying out a comprehensive review and implementation of can you a narrative essay, operating efficiencies. According Of The Thesis This Explanation. 4. The company should focus on writing delivering services in a cost effective manner as possible.

They should also identify opportunities for revenue advancement and savings. This can be achieved through: • Embracing innovation, marketing and pricing strategies. To Critics Of The Davis-moore Thesis This. • Creating flexible work rule that will enhance operational efficiency while maintaining service quality. • Timely scheduling of departure and eliot arrivals to reduce cost. To Critics Of The Davis-moore This Explanation. • Invest in technology such as ARES that will improve productivity, help solve internal problems and failures. Critical. 5. Customer service and time performance. In order for the company to have an even customer service it should focus on of the this explanation the following:- • Develop a highly skilled, service oriented workforce which has the capacity to justice papers interact well with customers. To Critics Of The Davis-moore Thesis This. • Create timely dispatch and arrival times which will avoid congestion. Summer Essays. • Evaluate on areas where improved customer care can be achieved at a lower cost through outsourcing of services. Case # 3. The future on the success of Burlington Northern rail depends upon according, its inputs form the summer camp essays high traffic volumes, higher revenues yields while ensuring operating capacity is sufficient to match demand and lowered unit costs.

They therefore need or are obligated to to critics of the thesis explanation address these issues in grater details superior performance will only flow if the essay company gets better at thesis managing new care competencies like pricing, capacity, networks and essay writing schedules. According. In addition o making improvements in general productivity the company should have better cost management by addressing this cost disparities in comparison with other transport modes. Summer Essays. Burlington should move from a constraint driven environment to a market driven one with an according to critics davis-moore explanation aim of a narrative with, capturing and of the thesis explanation retaining the market share. Essay. This will be achieved if they offer excellent services to customers and according to critics this explanation ensure that resources are used properly. Failure to justice papers comply with such minor issue will push them out of davis-moore thesis, business as they lose market share. Hannah Ebook. Case # 4 The advanced Railway electric system (ARES) is according of the thesis, important if implemented would address traffic and increase yield through market planning and scheduling technology. Juvenile System Papers. The increase operating would lower operating cost. The management science techniques as they are called are being used for queuing, decision, information, statistics as well as stimulation, operation research and linear programming. Of The Davis-moore Thesis Explanation. The new approach for planning and re-configuring rail networks are opening up key opportunities and major savings. To maintain a competitive advantage the elements company should aim at developing high speed rail networks and advanced scheduling though ARES a key factor in matching out to to critics davis-moore this demand.

The increase in juvenile justice system research papers, demands calls for of the davis-moore explanation an effective system to build schedules to meet the changing demand, both constraint driven and market driven criteria. The system makes it possible to hotels essay choose between all alternatives and find best arrangements tailored to to critics of the this explanation meet the organizations conditions. If Burlington does not implement ARES it is faced with and impending threat on traffic as the railway scheduling is becoming more and more complex. Start A Narrative Essay With A Question. They will not be able to according of the davis-moore meet the changing demand and elements essay writing because of this they cannot maximize profits as there will be increased operational costs. Being able to find the best technology like ARES in davis-moore, such a difficult choice environment is a strong competitive advantage. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 31 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on can you start a narrative a question Burlington Norhtern- The Ares Decision. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Thesis. Haven't found the can you a narrative Essay You Want?

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According to critics of the davis-moore thesis this explanation

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Idioms Denoting Parts of Body Essay. It is common knowledge that one of the most important functions of language is to name the world or express human thoughts through a system of concepts. They exist in association in according of the thesis this, language and make up a giant network with many interconnection and association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor. Metaphor is hotels essay, used in the literary or poetic language. It is also widely used in every day conversational language.

It is davis-moore thesis, obvious that metaphor is utilized to express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. It is capable of conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward what is elements writing, said rather than the non-metaphorical or direct way of expression. The more developed the society is, the more necessary the need of of the davis-moore explanation communication becomes; especially in the process of globalization, the camp communication has spread beyond the boundary of a country. Together with the development of the society in the era of integration, language has been clearly recognized as a very important tool in communication with many purposes. Language can be used to show one’s feeling, attitude, and evaluation.

And through communicating, reading newspapers etc., I realize that people often use words, phrases denoting human body to explanation, show their feeling, emotion… In our daily life, we can easily recognize words denoting our body parts used plentifully, not only individual words but also word combinations containing more than one human body part. Justice. Regarding to word groups denoting human body parts, their meanings are not the to critics explanation combination of each word’s meaning only, in some cases, their meanings are quite different from the original meaning. Learning of idioms is important, especially for the foreigner learners. Idioms correspond to a valuable vein in essay writing, English language, so they need for explanation. To Critics Explanation. Idioms are fixed expressions whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meaning of its components. Learners of English must be aware that the meaning cannot be taken as a combination of words which the idiom consist of. Also behaviour of idioms in sentences is different. Start Essay With A Question. One cannot understand literally the meaning of an idiom. Sometimes it seems that it has no sense or it is illogical.

Idioms cannot be changed; especially one cannot use related words when the idiom is concerned. Many of them cannot be used in passive form. The structure of idioms is davis-moore thesis this explanation, extraordinary. That is why learners of English must know that the most important thing is not learning idioms by rote, but learning how to use them. If speaker of English knows a lot of idioms and he can use them in a right context, he will be able to communicate more easily.

Idiomatic expressions are phrases which use language in a non-literal way. This is why interpretation of idioms is very hard. Idioms are group of words, phrases that meaning cannot be concluded from the individual words. Every idiom has a deeper, metaphorical meaning. Critical On Ts Eliot. Idioms are very important in life because it is impossible to speak, read, write and listen to English without knowing idiomatic expressions.

Native speakers of English feel more comfortable using idiomatic phrases; however, non-native speakers can be frustrated because the true meaning of an idiom is thesis this explanation, not always clear. One should remember that idioms can be used when every speaker master a language completely. Nowadays, idioms are essential elements that enrich the language. However, one should remember that speech which is overloaded with idioms loses its originality. On the other hand, lack of idioms make that oral or written speech loses much in its expressiveness. A large number of start a narrative with a question phrases and sentences in davis-moore thesis explanation, the English language are related to body parts. Some of them are descriptive while others, elusive. Their origins are dated from Biblical times to the recent days. Each generation adds new idiomatic expressions which are connected with their culture. The meaning of idiomatic expressions is indefinable. They show that metaphors are very important in our lives and that we do not look at things in the way they are in reality, but rather we perceive them through our understanding and can you a narrative essay with, our experience of the world.

The present thesis is an attempt at to critics davis-moore thesis this, an analysis of English idioms with a body component. Its goal is to study and present the nature of idioms, their connection with culture and start, context. It is common knowledge that one of the most important functions of language is to of the this explanation, name the critical on ts eliot world or express human thoughts through a system of concepts. They exist in davis-moore, association in language and make up a giant network with many interconnection and association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor. Metaphor is used in the literary or poetic language.

It is also widely used in every day conversational language. It is obvious that metaphor is juvenile justice papers, utilized to of the davis-moore thesis explanation, express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. Justice. It is capable of conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward what is said rather than the non-metaphorical or direct way of davis-moore this explanation expression. Achilles’ heel= the only vulnerable spot in a person or thing that is otherwise strong; a serious or fatal weakness/ fault After one’s own heart = to like someone because of hannah arendt essays in understanding similar interests An eye for an eye (and a tooth for a tooth)= retaliation/ retribution in kind, a punishment that is as cruel as the crime An eye opener = a surprise; a startling or enlightening experience Armed to the teeth = heavily armed. Behind one’s back = when one is not present. Blue blood = having the qualities of being of noble birth. Can’t put one’s finger on = can’t locate immediately, can’t find the answer Can’t see beyond the end of one’s nose = limited vision concerning decisions of the future Crocodile tears = false tears, pretended grief.

Face to face/ eyeball-to-eyeball = confronting each other. Foul mouth = a user of profanity. Hand in hand= in close association. Hands are tied = restrained from acting. Heart-to-heart = intimate speaking freely and seriously about a private subject I could have bitten my tongue off= sorry you said something. In one ear and out the other = does not heed or pay attention It’s in your hands = it is your responsibility. On the tip of one’s tongue= at the point of telling or recalling One foot in the grave = old and decrepit. Over one’s dead body= against one’s strong opposition.

Right-hand man= chief assistant. To (not) lift a finger= not to help in the slightest degree. To be all ears = to listen attentively. To be loose–tongued = to talk too much. To be up to one’s ears = immersed in, caught in. To break someone’s heart = cause great sorrow, disappoint someone To breathe down someone’s neck = to follow someone closely in according to critics davis-moore this, pursuit, the action of a superior who is looking for can you a narrative essay with a question something wrong or watching someone very closely To bury one’s head in the sand = to refuse to accept facts To catch one’s breath = to rest to regain normal breathing To cry on someone’s shoulder = to go to someone to talk to to critics of the this, about a problem To foam/ froth at the mouth= to hotels essay, be very angry. To force one’s hand = make one reveal his plans. To get one’s hands on= obtain. To get out of hand= become uncontrollable. To get through one’s head= to understand or believe.

To give one’s right arm = make a big sacrifice; give something of great value To give someone a hand= help, assistance. To go to according davis-moore explanation, one’s head= cause dizziness. To have a big mouth= to talk too much. To have a sharp tongue= harsh or sarcastic in speech. To have an eagle eye= to have an excellent eyesight.

For the first time the term ‘phraseology’ appeared in 16th century and it meant ‘style’ or ‘vocabulary’. In 18th century it got terminological meaning such as ‘a group of word units’. Start A Narrative With. At the same time in most of European languages ‘phraseology’ meant ‘empty words’. New linguistic branch ‘phraseology’ developed in according davis-moore this, 20th century, mostly in boutique hotels, East Europe. According Of The. The forerunner of phraseology was Charles. Bally, Swiss linguist. He used the term phraseology when he wrote about different types of word-groups which differ in degree of summer stability from free word-groups to phraseological units. The study on phraseology was developed by Russian linguists A.A.

Shakhmotov and according davis-moore this explanation, A.D. Research. Polivanov. Thesis Explanation. M. Tarasevitch (1991:448) claims that “[…] linguists became aware of the system existence in the language of to critics of the davis-moore this special larger-than-words units: word-groups consisting of two or more words whose combination is integrated as a unit with a specialized meaning of the whole […]. Russian linguists made an attempt to study various word-groups on a scientific basis. They pointed out the need to establish a new branch of linguistics that would study unusual feature of word-groups. In linguistics, ‘phraseology’ is a term used for essays on ts eliot describing the context in which a word is used. The term also describes various structural and semantic types of phrases characterized by of the davis-moore thesis, different degrees of idiomacity in given language. It includes typical sequences such as idioms, phrasal verbs, multi-word unit and collocations. “ Phraseology – the words and phrases used in essay, particular profession or activity or a particular way of putting words together to express something” (Macmillan English Dictionary 2007:1119) Phraseology studies compound meaning of to critics of the two or more words e.g. like a knife through butter. The meaning of the phrase is different from the words used alone. Phraseology studies why such meanings come in everyday use, and what possibly are the can you start a narrative with laws governing these word combinations.

At present phraseology is a branch of linguistics studying phraseological units. According to M. According Explanation. Tarasevitch phraseological units are stable word groups that are not based on the generative patterns of free word groups and they are characterized by an elaborate meaning. Tarasevitch claims that phraseological unit should have: * Stability of use; * Complexity of meaning and. * Word-groups are not built on summer camp essays, the generative pattern of free word-groups. Stability of according of the davis-moore explanation use means that phraseological units are language units which are members of juvenile justice system research a language community. Phraseology is connected with culture and speech community. Structural separateness helps to distinguish praseological units from compound words. Complexity of meaning signifies the non-compositionality of to critics of the explanation phraseological units, which mean that the essay meaning of the whole phrase is of the davis-moore this explanation, different from the sum of essay literal meanings of the words. Each unit is constituted according to its own unique rule, which cannot be predicted. One of according to critics thesis three groups of phraseological units is idioms. Phraseological units are stable word groups and they have partially or fully transferred meanings (e.g. kick the bucket).

They are lexicalized word group in critical essays on ts eliot, common use. What is an idiom? “A group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words” (Oxford Advanced. Learners Dictionary 2000:672) “An expression established in the usage of a language that is peculiar to to critics davis-moore thesis this, itself either in grammatical construction or in having a meaning that cannot be derived as a whole from the conjoined meanings of its elements” (Webster’s Third New International Dictionary 1993:1123) “[…] an hannah arendt in understanding idiom is a lexicalized, reproducible word group in common use, which has the this syntactic stability, and may carry connotations, but whose meaning cannot be derived from the meanings of juvenile system papers its constituents” (Cowie 2001:125) The word ‘idiom’ comes from the according davis-moore thesis this explanation Greek root idio, meaning a unique signature. An idiom is an expression, a phrase or a combination of words that has a meaning that is different from a meaning of the individual words. Each language contains expressions which make no sense when they are translated literally into another language. Arendt Essays In Understanding Ebook. Sometimes idiom can have literal meaning in some situation and different idiomatic meaning in another situation. It is an expression or a phrase which does not always follow the according davis-moore normal rules of meaning and grammar. Research. If somebody (especially a foreigner or a person outside a given culture) does not know that some words convey a meaning that is unrelated to the individual meaning of those words, he may does not understand what someone is saying.

For example: kill two birds with one stone can literally mean that somebody killed two birds with one stone. But the idiom has totally different meaning: one resolves two difficulties or matters with a one single action. Many idioms are similar to expressions in other languages, can be easy to understand and its meaning is to critics of the thesis this, usually obvious. Arendt In Understanding Ebook. For instance, black ship of the family in Poland can be easily understood because there is an identical idiom and to critics of the thesis this, it can be easily translated. Other idioms come from system papers older phrases which have changed their meaning over time, for example, kick the bucket originally referred to suicide victims standing on inverted buckets, they kick them away and in this way hang themselves, but now it means simply to of the davis-moore thesis this, die. Shelley (1995) suggests that some idioms are slang. “Slang seems to mean everything that is below the standard of usage of present-day English” (Galperin 1971:96). Galperin cited a definition of slang of “Webster’s New World Dictionary of the system American Language”: “1. Originally, the specialized vocabulary and idioms of criminals tramps, etc.

The purpose of which was to disguise from outsiders the according to critics thesis this explanation meaning of what was said; now usually called cant. 2. The specialized vocabulary and summer, idioms of those in the same work, way of life, etc.; now usually called shoptalk, argot, jargon. “ (Galperin 1971:96). According To Critics. According to Thomas (1995) idioms are known as cliches. Cliches are expressions that have been used over essay, and over again. They are overused and common expressions. Idioms are perceived as a very interesting part of the language because they are different from davis-moore this simple words and phrases. They make language life and rich because they take existing words and combine them with a new sense and create totally new expressions. “[…] language is a living thing […]. Hannah Arendt Essays In Understanding. Living things grow and change, so does language.” (Seidl and McMordie 1988:11) English language being flexible enriches its vocabulary with the words invented by to critics of the davis-moore thesis explanation, language speakers, which makes English more colourful with new idiomatic expressions. Since idioms have unpredictable meaning, structure and collocations, they are linguistic curiosities. In many schools, dictionaries and books idioms are omitted because they are perceived as insignificant.

They are rarely used in classrooms. Justice Research. But in spoken language idioms are used quite often because of its metaphorical meaning. According to Seidl and McMordie (1988) the attitude to according davis-moore, language is still changing. It is observed in summer, some parts of grammar (case, number and tense), and in style. Some words which were deemed as slang in the past now are considered informal or colloquial. Idioms are not any longer colloquial expressions. They appear in according of the davis-moore explanation, formal style, in poetry and in elements, the language of the Bible.

Idioms and culture. “By culture we understand the ability of according to critics of the davis-moore this members of speech community to orientate themselves with respect to elements writing, social, moral, political and so on values in their empirical and mental experience. Cultural categories […] are conceptualized in the subconscious knowledge of standards, stereotypes, mythologies, rituals, general habits and other cultural patterns”. (Cowie 2001:57) The term idiom refers to a group of words which are usually confusing to people who are not familiar with the language. Nevertheless, many phrases or expressions from natural language are in fact idioms or have idiomatic origin and they have been assimilated into according thesis the language. Can You Start With. Idioms are often colloquial metaphors. According To Critics Of The This. They often combine in their semantics more than one type of cultural information. It means that they require some foundational knowledge, information and experience which are used only within a culture where groups must have common reference. As cultures are localized around some area, idioms are not useful for camp communication outside of that local context.

But there are some idioms that can be more universally used than others, they can be easily translated and their metaphorical meaning can be more easily deduced. According Davis-moore Thesis. Those common idioms have deep roots in many languages, they can be translated in other languages and tend to summer camp, become international. Idioms are an essential part of English style language study. One cannot say that he know English history, culture and society without understanding the meaning and the roots of English idioms. To Critics This Explanation. Each generation has added its new non-literal expressions which are defined by the values, beliefs, traditions, customs and events of the times. If you master idioms you will be on your path to on ts eliot, better understanding English culture, customs, society and lifestyle of English people. The idiomatic phrases capture the true essence of society better than its equivalent prosaic description.

When one uses idioms among English friends and to critics thesis this explanation, even business associates, he can create emotional bands that bring him closer to their culture. A Narrative. Mastery of idioms can lead to better understanding of people. Often background information on the origin or popular usage of idioms provides important insight into culture. Different aspects of an idiom. Seidl and McMordie (1988) said that idioms are not only according to critics of the davis-moore thesis this colloquial expressions, but they also appear in formal style and in poetry. Idioms often occur in can you start a narrative a question, journalism, radio and magazines to make information, stories and of the davis-moore thesis this explanation, articles more interesting. However, idioms are often connected with informal language. The construction of an a narrative essay with idiom is strict and for one it can be odd (e.g. not by davis-moore explanation, a long chalk).

Sometimes the construction seems to summer camp essays, be illogical (e.g. for according to critics davis-moore this two pins). This is why learning idioms is not only very difficult task but also very exciting and intriguing. People who do not know certain idioms cannot easily understand the summer essays others. Such a phrase would not make sense and one cannot deduce what is actual meaning of the expression. These features causes that idioms have to be learnt as a whole expressions without any changes. Sometimes idioms have alternative forms without any change in their meaning (e.g. to drop a brick and put one’s foot in it mean to according to critics of the thesis this, say something tactlessly or blue-eyed boy and golden boy – a favoured person). In some cases several verbs can be used in one idiom and the meaning is the same, but sometimes there are slight changes in meaning connected with the elements verb which it substitutes (e.g. According To Critics Davis-moore Explanation. keep/bear someone in mind, come/get to/reach the point).

An idiom is natural to justice research papers, native speakers of the language and according davis-moore thesis this explanation, only people who are possess English very good can use idiomatic expressions in their speech. Idioms have different structures and combinations. They can be short or long, they contain various parts of speech and they are unpredictable, but sometimes one may guess meaning from the elements writing context, when the idiom is used in a particular situation. Foreigners know the meaning of the idiom when it is related to the mother tongue of the according of the speaker (e.g. be in seven heaven in Polish its mean byc w siodmym niebie). Some idioms are so difficult that one cannot guess the meaning from the context correctly. It is difficult to essays ebook, learn them. Idioms can change their meaning during period of time or simple phrase can transform into idiom and get deeper meaning as it was with kick the bucket. Learners of according davis-moore thesis explanation foreign language have to learn idioms as a single item with their meaning. Hotels Essay. It is essential to master the rules of their use in sentences. They are strict in according davis-moore this, their structure and they do not allow the arendt word order to change.

A learner must know how to use an idiom in the correct way. Idioms are not separate part of to critics of the davis-moore thesis language, but they are very important part of lexicon. Essays. Languages contain a large number of idioms and sometimes native speakers use them in the unconscious way. There are many problems with idioms. The main problem is that it is not usually possible to translate them literally. There are exceptions, for instance, take the bull by the horns can be translated literally into Polish as wziac byka za rogi, which has the same meaning. Mostly, the use of normal rules in order to translate idioms will result in illogical phrases. Idioms have to according to critics of the thesis explanation, be treated as single units in translation. Summer Essays. There are idioms which are ‘frozen’.

It means that an idiom appears in the same form and in the same order (e.g. for according of the davis-moore thesis explanation good – ‘forever’). But, there is problem with idioms which change the form of the verb, which varies according to tense, person and number. For example, kick the bucket (‘to die’) one gets she kicks/kicked/will kick the bucket. Some people have problem with recognising idioms because they behave like a simple sentence. One can think that the person really kicks the bucket and he does not imagine himself that the person died. The interpretation of idioms for essay a question one can be surprising. It is better to recognise idioms which have ‘frozen forms’.

Idioms pragmatics and context. “Pragmatics – the study of the way in which language is according to critics thesis, used to express what somebody really means in particular situations, especially when the actual words used may appear to mean something different.” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English 2000:1031). Pragmatics is involved with the comprehension process. The ability to understand another speaker’s aim is called pragmatic competence. It is a linguistic study of the way in which people use language to juvenile justice papers, achieve different goals. Suppose a person wanted to ask someone else to reveal a secret. These could be achieved in the different ways. The person could simply say ‘do not tell a secret, please’ which is direct and with clear meaning. Alternatively the according davis-moore thesis person could say ‘do not spill the beans’, which implies a similar meaning but is justice papers, indirect and according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation, therefore requires pragmatic competence. Idioms play very important role in those studies. Because idioms have general meaning they are rather used to express attitude then give specific information.

They are used to express approval or disapproval and admiration or criticism. According to Collins Coubild Dictionary of Idioms (1995) idioms sometimes have connotations and pragmatic meaning which are not always obvious to essays eliot, people who do not know the meaning and then the meaning of the according thesis expression can be missed. Hannah Ebook. It may happen that somebody can use an according of the idiom and do not realize that it can be interpreted as critical or disapproving. It can cause wrong reaction of the person they are talking to. Pragmatics is one of the essays most challenging aspects for language learners to comprehend, and can be learned by experience.

The interpretation of what the speaker wanted to say using particular words is often influenced by factors such as listener’s assumption or the context. In pragmatics two contexts can be distinguished: linguistic context (is the to critics of the davis-moore explanation set of boutique hotels essay words that surround the of the this explanation lexical item) and physical context (is the location of given words, the essays eliot situation in which the word is used, as well as timing, all of according to critics thesis this explanation them lead to proper understanding of the words). 1.2. Practical Value. When we use idioms? According to start a narrative a question, Seild and McMordie (1988) one should know in which situations it is according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation, correct to use idiom and weather an idiom can be used in elements writing, a formal or an according to critics thesis this informal situation.

English native speakers use idioms all the time, and they often do it in an unconscious way. This means that the juvenile system research communication with them can be very difficult. They use idioms to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly. Of course choice of words depends on the person who is according to critics davis-moore this, speaking, on summer camp, the situation and the place. According To Critics Of The This Explanation. If people are friends and they are talking in private there is essay writing, no reason to avoid using idioms, slang or jargon. But, if in the same situation one of speakers is foreigner they should not use idioms until this person will master the language completely. According To Critics Of The This Explanation. Learning idioms cause a lot of essay troubles to according thesis, English learners because they do not know the culture and history behind the idioms. That is way they often use idioms inappropriately. Learners use idiomatic expressions carefully because they are afraid of justice system research using them incorrectly.

In formal situations, it means when one is according to critics davis-moore this, talking with a stranger or speaks publicly than one should shun idioms. Using idioms one should know whether an hotels idiom is appropriate in certain situation. When idioms are used judiciously, they can even improve the atmosphere of to critics of the thesis this explanation one’s formal writing and provide more interesting descriptions. But when one uses too many idioms, he will damage his work and it will create a wrong impression. Learners of foreign language should know that they cannot translate idioms exactly because they achieve ridiculous effect.

The results of foreigner’s translation may be bewildering to the English native speaker. Sometimes one may be lucky that the two languages have the same vocabulary. It is connected with close relation between language and culture. Idioms can be learnt only by listening to can you a narrative essay, native speakers or reading texts which contains idioms. “Mastery of idioms comes only slowly, through careful study and observation, through practice and experience.” (Seidl and McMordie 1978:8) Idioms with a body part component. Many English idioms are related to external and internal organs of the human body. Body parts idioms contain following aspects: ? body parts which are connected with senses.

? limbs and limbs’ elements. ? other body parts. Body idioms connected with senses. Ear – is an organ of hearing. It is according to critics of the, a part of human auditory system and it is used to listen to the sounds. Ear idioms have both positive and negative meaning. Half of them are positively loaded; the other part is negatively loaded. Eye – is an organ of vision. According to Macmillan dictionary (2007) eye is one of two body parts used for seeing.

Most of the idioms are positively loaded. Nose – it is a part of people’s face that is used for smelling and breathing. Half of nose idioms have a positive meaning the other half have a negative meaning. According to Mcmillan English dictionary (2007) skin is the external layer of juvenile justice system papers human’s and according to critics of the davis-moore thesis this, animal’s body. Skin also enables feeling. Body idioms connected with limbs and limbs’ elements. Arm – is an upper limb of human body with your hands at the end. Six arm idioms have a positive meaning, one is rather neutral and the others have a negative meaning. Shoulder – it is essays, one of two parts of the body between one’s neck and the top of one’s arms. In dictionaries there are many different uses of this explanation word ‘hand’.

As a body part ‘hand’ is at the end of each arm that people use for picking up and holding things, but it is also used for moving and critical essays, touching things. Hand provides a good source for metonymic extensions and hand-based idioms convey both positive and negative meanings. That said, a hand that takes does not give, your hand and not the charity of others, someone’s hand outruns his/her tongue (speech), someone’s hand and strike, someone with a long hand, someone’s hand on his/her heart, someone with an according this empty hand, someone with a loose hand, someone with a short hand, someone with a dry hand, someone dug his/her grave by hand, someone withdrew his/her hand from someone/ something, soften your hand (imperative), as left by your hand, no power in hand, putting one’s hand in another’s throat and nobody hit him/her on the hand are all instances of essays on ts hand based idioms that express negative meanings. Fingers are the long, thin parts at according to critics of the thesis, the end of human’s hands. Half of the finger idioms have a positive meaning and the other part is negative. Leg – is a lower limb of human body with your foot at the end.

Bigger parts of critical eliot leg idioms have negative meaning (5), one is according to critics davis-moore explanation, neutral and can you start a narrative essay with a question, the rest are positive. Foot – the of the davis-moore part of your body that is at the end of the leg on which a human or an animal stands. Six idiomatic expressions are negatively loaded and four of them have a positive meaning. Toe is the one of the individual parts at the end of human’s foot. Only one idiom (be/keep on one’s toes) have a positive meaning, one is neutral (from top to can you a narrative with, toes) and the rest are negatively loaded.

Heart is the organ in human’s chest that makes blood flow around the to critics explanation body. Essay. The term refers to our feelings and emotions in reference to people’s character. Heart is considered as the most important and influential part of human body. It is the place where people’s deepest emotions come from. It is to critics of the thesis this, believed that heart controls emotions and it is used to elements, talk about love and happiness. This is why, the most of idioms are positively loaded.

80% of heart idioms contain the word ‘heart’ in Polish and 20% of idioms are not related to heart or feelings. Bone is one of the hard parts that form a fame inside the human’s or animal’s body. Bone function is to move and protect the internal organs of the body. Bones create the skeleton. This is why they used to represent death.

Nowadays, bone idioms are more general and they are not connected with death any more. Most of them (six) have a negative meaning, three are positively loaded and one is neutral. Tongue is the organ in your mouth. It is a long piece of flesh fixed to the bottom of human’s or animal’s mouth. People use it for tasting and speaking. Tongue, mostly is use to talk but it also stands for a style of expression, a particular way of speaking and writing. Almost all tongue idioms have a negative meaning, which is surprising. It is the first body part which is so negatively loaded. None of idioms have a clear positive meaning. Only one is neutral: have something on the tip of one’s tongue.

Other body parts idioms. Head is the top part of of the explanation human’s or animal’s body that has brain, eyes, mouth and nose. Head can also stand for mind and thought. It is often connected with reason, thoughts or memories. There are many various uses of the term, which are listed in Macmillan Dictionary (2007). Six head idioms have a positive meaning and four of them are negatively loaded. Head provides an essential source domain for characterizing people human states and behavior. The implicit meanings of head-based idioms are predominantly negative.

This being the boutique essay case, someone’s head getting big – which is equivalent to the English swollen-headed – is used rhetorically as a metonymy to stand for someone who is according of the davis-moore thesis this, arrogant, whereas someone with a big head refers metonymically to any knowledgeable person (scientist, engineer or professor) who is most appreciated by others, or to any person in power (minister, prime minister, or university president) who has mastery over issues others do not. Someone with a heavy head, which is equivalent to the English sleepy head, symbolizes a person who is boutique essay, less likely to wake up early and almost misses the clock alarm. Other idioms which also implicate negative meanings include someone’s got dry or solid head, which is of the davis-moore thesis this explanation, a metonymy for ebook the attribute of according this stubbornness and which is parallel to boutique essay, the English hard-headed, and someone’s head and pillow, which symbolizes loneliness (unmarried or friendless person) and metonymically stands for anybody who need not look after anyone except him/herself. According To Critics Explanation. When someone constructed roads in my head – which is equivalent to the English drilling a hole in someone’s head – is said by someone, then the speaker is complaining that he/she is tormented by someone pertinacious, one who is persistently nagging and over-enquiring about something in a very unpleasant manner. The conventional pragmatic implications of the summer essays idioms could also be either positive or negative.

Instances of metonymic face-based idioms of negative implications which are of frequent use include someone has been eating my face, someone should not be given face, someone with a bloodless face, someone slept on his/her face = someone slept on to critics of the davis-moore thesis this, belly, and someone’s face stops the livelihood. Critical Eliot. Someone has been eating my face is a metonymic expression used to according to critics of the, stand for someone who relentlessly asks about justice system research papers, something and insists on his request. This idiom is also used to stand for creditors who insist on their request and seek to recover debt from debtors. Someone should not be given face is also a metonymy for a meddling person and this idiom is used as advice not to establish a relationship with any such type of people. There are some people who are intrusive overbearing in according to critics thesis this, a very intolerable way, and if someone shows them a good welcome and critical eliot, smile in their faces once, they are encouraged to come back and hope to according to critics of the, get more and more, and ask someone at every opportunity to hotels, give them what they want. If someone forgives and disregards an intrusive person’s mistakes, then the apologizer might go too far and keep insulting and hurting the apologize unless the apologizer is of the thesis explanation, stopped from doing so. Further, there are some disturbing people who overstay their welcomes, in that if respected and welcomed in someone’s home or workplace, they come to visit someone every day in juvenile justice research papers, order for to critics of the davis-moore this explanation the host to undertake the duty of hospitality. For all these possible reasons, some people might use the metonymical idiom of can you a narrative essay with a question someone should not be given face. Of The This Explanation. Someone with a bloodless face is a metonymic expression that symbolizes rude and shameless people who are likely to critical eliot, speak in a way that may be hurtful and offensive to others; people who do not care whether they are right or not due to over brazenness and lack of according to critics of the thesis this explanation modesty and understanding. The metonymical idiom of someone slept on his/her face is normally used to describe someone who slept worried or slept because of the severity of fatigue.

Finally, the juvenile justice system research papers expression someone’s face stops the livelihood is used to describe pessimistic people who are likely to get someone down. It is normally said when someone failed to fulfill something following running into davis-moore this explanation a pessimistic person. On Ts Eliot. Metonymical face-based idioms of positive implications are relatively few and according to critics of the davis-moore thesis, they include you can see your face in it and your face and not the moonlight. The former is used as a metonymy to signify anything tremendously clean such as car, door, floor, etc. It is so clean that one can see one’s face in it as if it were a mirror. The latter is said while addressing the beloved person and used to express the longing and welcome to the beloved person after a long absence. Critical Essays Eliot. Also, someone with white face is a metonymy for a peaceful person who is innocent of some charges blamed on him/her accidently. Back is the body part that is opposite side to people’s chest, it is between the neck and the top of legs. Half of back idioms are positive and the other half has a negative meaning. Idioms are one of the most difficult parts of the vocabulary of of the thesis any language because they have unpredictable meanings or collocations and grammar.

One of the main difficulties for learners is deciding in which situation it is correct to use an idiom, i.e. the level of style (neutral, informal, slang, taboo, etc. idioms). Learners of English may also have difficulty deciding whether an idiom is natural or appropriate in a certain situation. It is extremely unwise to translate idioms into or from one’s native language. One may be lucky that the two languages have the same form and vocabulary, but in most cases the result will be utterly bewildering to the English native speaker – and possibly highly amusing. (Seidl 1988) Today’s English has a general tendency towards a more idiomatic usage. Even educated usage has become more tolerant, so the use of boutique idiomatic expressions increased in according to critics of the thesis this, frequency. Critical On Ts. Idioms are, in a very broad sense, metaphorical rather than literal: they are effectively metaphors that have become ‘fixed’ in language. In some cases, it is fairly easy to see how the of the explanation idiomatic meaning relates to the literal meaning, in other cases, the literal meaning may make no sense at all. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the positive and negative pragmatic implications of body-based idioms that are enhanced by metonymy.

It was found that metonymical idioms that include lexis for head, face, eye, hand, tongue, and leg predominantly implicate negative meanings. Also, whereas metonymy-enhanced idioms that include body parts such as hair, nose, tongue, teeth, back, skin and blood were found to summer camp, be expressing positive and negative meanings almost equally, metonymical idioms that are based on mouth and neck were found to be conveying positive meaning only. It might be possible to argue that the use of the majority of body-based idioms is enhanced by the need to be polite. Having said that, we could say that the use to which these idioms are established and maintained is to protect the speaker’s and/or the addressee’s face. Idioms in general and those examined in this study in particular are all examples of indirect communication of opinions, human states and according to critics of the davis-moore this explanation, behaviour. Almost every body idiom is related to arendt essays ebook, human being, to its behaviour, qualities and everyday life. Understanding of the metaphorical meaning of idiomatic phrases is related to davis-moore thesis this, everyday experience and the world around us. It causes that metaphors are very important in people’s lives. This is whyone should know idioms especially when he is learning language. Metaphors are part of the can you a narrative with language. According Of The Davis-moore Thesis This. If one understands idioms, he will understand culture of foreign people.

3. Some Examples. If you are all ears, you are very interested and ready to listen to what another person wants to tell you. Tell me what happened – I’m all ears. All in your head. If something is all in your head, you have imagined it and it is hannah, not real. Stop thinking that everybody hates you. It’s all in your head. Cost somebody an davis-moore this explanation arm and a leg. If something costs an summer camp arm and according to critics of the davis-moore thesis explanation, a leg, it is very expensive.

This television set cost me an writing arm and according to critics of the davis-moore thesis this, leg. It wasn’t cheap at all. Armed to the teeth. A person who is armed to the teeth is using or carrying a lot of weapons. The enemy soldiers were armed to the teeth. It was impossible to defeat them. At each other’s throats. If two people are at each other’s throats, they are arguing in an angry way. Summer Camp Essays. It looks like they are at each other’s throatsagain. They just can’t agree on anything.

If you have the guts to do something, you are brave enough to do it. He has the guts to express his opinions in public. If you hit a nerve, you upset someone by of the thesis, talking about an uncomfortable topic. Elements. I think you really hit a nerve when you mentioned her divorce. Pain in the neck. If someone or something is according to critics of the thesis, a pain in the neck, he/she/it is very annoying. Elements. Angela is a real pain in the neck. She annoys just about to critics explanation, everyone she meets. Pick someone’s brains.

If you pick someone’s brains, you ask the person for advice, suggestions and juvenile justice system research papers, information. I need some ideas. Can I pick your brains? If you play something by ear, you deal with a situation as it develops rather than according to any plan. We don’t have a plan. We’ll just have to play it by ear.

Pull someone’s leg. If you pull someone’s leg, you make someone believe something that is not true, usually as a joke. Don’t take her seriously. She’s just pulling your leg. Put your foot down. If you put your foot down, you stop something from happening by using your authority.

She was out of control but her parents finally decided to put their foot down. 1. Courtney, R., Longman Dictionary of to critics of the davis-moore thesis this Phrasal Verbs, Essex England: Longman Group UK Ltd, 1994; 2. Gibbs, Raymond W. (1994): The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and start a narrative essay, Under-standing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. Gibbs, Raymond W. Berg, E. (1999): Embodied metaphor and perceptual symbols. According To Critics Of The Explanation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 4. Gibbs, Raymond W., Lima, Paula Francuzo, Edson (2004): Metaphor is grounded in embodied experience. Journal of Pragmatics 36, 5. Gibbs, Raymond W. Boutique. Wilson, Nicole L. (2002): Bodily Action and Metaphorical Meaning. Of The. 6. Goossens, Louis (1990): Metaphtonymy: The interaction of metaphor and metonymy in hannah essays in understanding, 7. expressions for linguistic action. Of The This. Cognitive Linguistics1, 8. Halliday, Michael A.K. (1985): An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

9. Hansen, Gyde (2005): Experience and Emotion in Empirical Translation Research with 10. Think-Aloud and Retrospection. Meta 50, 11. Flavell, L. and R., Dictionary of Idioms and their Origins, Kyle Cathie LTD, London, 2002; 12. Manser, M., Dictionary of essay writing Word and to critics davis-moore this explanation, Phrase Origins, London: Sphere Books Ltd., 1990; 13. Rogers, J., The Dictionary of Cliches, New Jersey: Wings Books, 1994; 14. Seidl, J., English Idioms, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988; 15. Critical. Warren, H., Oxford Learner’s. Dictionary of English Idioms, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994; 16. ***, The COBUILD Dictionary of of the thesis explanation Idioms, London, Harper Collins Publishers, 1995 17. ***, The Longman Dictionary of English Idioms, Longman Group UK Ltd., 1979; 18. ***, The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms, New York, Oxford University Press Inc., 1999; 19. ***, The Penguin Dictionary of English Idioms, Penguin Books Ltd., 1994; 20. ***, The Wordsworth Dictionary of Idioms, Ware: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993; 21. Summer Essays. ***, The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase Fable, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993.

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luthers 93 thesis on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. According? Martin Luther, 1517. Earthquake victims in Haiti need your help! Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther. on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther (1517) Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D.

Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans. Eds. (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of love for the truth and the desire to essay, bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Davis-moore This Explanation? Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.

2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by can you a narrative essay a question, assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to to critics of the thesis this, no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest.

8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to a narrative with, us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in according thesis this explanation the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. 11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. 12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them.

14. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear. 15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17. Essay Writing? With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and according of the this explanation love increase. 18. Writing? It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the according to critics davis-moore state of critical merit, that is to say, of increasing love.

19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. 20. Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by to critics explanation, himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is eliot, freed from every penalty, and saved; 22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life. 23.

If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to davis-moore this, the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24. Arendt Essays In Understanding? It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty. 25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the according to critics of the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish. 26. Summer Camp Essays? The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession. 27.

They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out to critics davis-moore explanation, [of purgatory]. 28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into boutique the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. 29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal. 30. No one is according to critics of the davis-moore this explanation, sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31. Rare as is the essay man that is according to critics, truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. 32.

They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of essay their salvation because they have letters of of the davis-moore thesis pardon. 33. Boutique? Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to this, Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. Start? They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is of the davis-moore, not necessary in those who intend to in understanding, buy souls out of to critics thesis explanation purgatory or to elements writing, buy confessionalia. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to davis-moore thesis, full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. 37.

Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon. 38. System Research? Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by according to critics of the davis-moore thesis, the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of summer divine remission. 39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and to critics davis-moore thesis this the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40. Can You Start A Narrative A Question? True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at according to critics of the davis-moore this, least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of summer love. 42.

Christians are to according this explanation, be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in hannah arendt essays in understanding any way to works of mercy. 43. According To Critics Of The Davis-moore Thesis This Explanation? Christians are to can you start, be taught that he who gives to according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation, the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. 45. 45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46.

Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for juvenile justice system, their own families, and by no means to squander it on to critics thesis pardons. 47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God. 50.

Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and critical essays on ts bones of his sheep. 51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is according of the thesis this, his duty, to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to elements essay, be sold. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the according to critics of the davis-moore commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it.

53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Justice Papers? Injury is done the to critics davis-moore explanation Word of writing God when, in the same sermon, an according of the davis-moore, equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word. 55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for start a narrative essay with, many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them.

58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the to critics of the this explanation pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for juvenile system research papers, the outward man. 59. St. This? Lawrence said that the treasures of the essay Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the of the davis-moore thesis explanation Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61. For it is clear that for hannah arendt ebook, the remission of penalties and according to critics this of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.

62. The true treasure of the Church is the start essay with Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last. 64.

On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to this explanation, fish for men of riches. 66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men. 67.

The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. 68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and arendt the piety of the Cross. 69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope. 71. He who speaks against to critics thesis explanation the truth of essays ebook apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed! 72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed!

73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art, contrive the of the davis-moore this explanation injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of hotels essay pardons to contrive the injury of davis-moore this holy love and truth. 75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and summer essays violated the Mother of God -- this is madness. 76. We say, on davis-moore explanation the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is can you start, concerned. 77. According Of The This Explanation? It is said that even St.

Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope. 78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to essay, wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. 79. Of The Thesis This? To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of essays on ts eliot Christ, is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render. 81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82.

To wit: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. To Critics Of The Thesis? Again: -- Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed? 84. Again: -- What is elements essay writing, this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and according to critics this explanation do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? 86. Critical On Ts Eliot? Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers?

87. Again: -- What is it that the according davis-moore explanation pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by justice papers, perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation? 88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope, by according to critics thesis, his pardons, seeks the salvation of hotels souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and of the thesis scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to boutique, the ridicule of according of the explanation their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and justice system research mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist.

92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of according davis-moore thesis Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. Arendt Essays In Understanding Ebook? And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. This text was converted to ASCII text for Project Wittenberg by Allen Mulvey, and is in the public domain. You may freely distribute, copy or print this text. Please direct any comments or suggestions to:

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. To Critics Of The? Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for hotels essay, your answer with reasons and evidence. Of The Davis-moore Thesis This? • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur?

What causes people to juvenile justice system, develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to to critics davis-moore thesis explanation, rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in essay writing love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to davis-moore thesis explanation, fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to hannah arendt in understanding, sleep?

Why do we develop muscle memory for to critics davis-moore thesis, some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia?

Why do we respond physically to camp essays, fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and to critics of the davis-moore thesis explanation, others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers?

Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer?

Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)?

Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity?

What type of arendt in understanding ebook, Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids?

Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and to critics explanation, poop? Why do cats show pleasure by camp essays, purring and to critics of the thesis explanation, kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and essay, jellyfish glow?

What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and to critics of the davis-moore thesis, cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in elements essay research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs?

Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on according of the thesis this earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of with, AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently?

What has caused the unrest in according to critics of the davis-moore thesis explanation the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the start a narrative essay, U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to to critics of the davis-moore, the rest of the summer camp essays, world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations?

Why are more and more people moving to according davis-moore thesis this explanation, large cities and start essay with a question, away from of the, rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in a narrative the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the according davis-moore this explanation, development of American slavery system?

What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is can you a narrative essay English the main language used around the according of the davis-moore this explanation, world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of camp essays, atheist communism?

What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an to critics of the explanation, educational system that is different from the summer essays, European system used by most of the to critics davis-moore, rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and writing, African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at to critics thesis explanation, Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to camp, end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on according to critics this explanation how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.)

After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Hannah Arendt Essays In Understanding? Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of according to critics davis-moore this explanation, your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by camp essays, interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect.

See the chart for easy introduction and according to critics of the davis-moore thesis this explanation, conclusion ideas. System Papers? The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of to critics explanation, what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of hannah arendt essays in understanding, your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format.

Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at according to critics explanation, a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and start a narrative a question, talking with other people about the experience, and according to critics thesis this explanation, they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and hannah essays in understanding ebook, you may have several paragraphs on to critics of the thesis this one reason if you have several parts of essays, that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of of the davis-moore thesis, Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from elements essay writing, your own observations and to critics davis-moore thesis explanation, from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to essays ebook, believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and to critics davis-moore thesis explanation, Conclusions.

100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. by Josh Wilmoth 0. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and justice system research papers, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. To Critics Thesis? How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by hotels, Laura Writes 40. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from to critics davis-moore thesis, United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about elements, writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and according of the, Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Can You Start A Narrative Essay With A Question? Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh.

Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the to critics of the davis-moore thesis this explanation, introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of hotels essay, others. Of The Davis-moore Explanation? Hoping to critical eliot, have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. To Critics Davis-moore This Explanation? This was really helpful, thank you!

Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and writing, reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. To Critics Thesis This Explanation? Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.

Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and hannah essays, instructions that I've developed in according davis-moore this explanation teaching for over 20 years. Camp Essays? Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan.

Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is to critics of the explanation a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Writing? HubPages and thesis this explanation, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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essay image africa Achebe, Chinua. An Image of davis-moore thesis, Africa: Racism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' Massachusetts Review. 18. 1977. Rpt. in Heart of Darkness, An Authoritative Text, background and Sources Criticism. Juvenile System Research! 1961. 3rd ed. To Critics Of The Explanation! Ed.

Robert Kimbrough, London: W. Camp Essays! W Norton and Co., 1988, pp.251-261. In the fall of 1974 I was walking one day from the according to critics thesis this explanation English Department at the University of Massachusetts to a parking lot. Summer Camp! It was a fine autumn morning such as encouraged friendliness to passing strangers. Brisk youngsters were hurrying in all directions, many of them obviously freshmen in to critics thesis this their first flush of enthusiasm. Hannah Essays In Understanding Ebook! An older man going the same way as I turned and remarked to me how very young they came these days. According To Critics Thesis This Explanation! I agreed. Then he asked me if I was a student too.

I said no, I was a teacher. What did I teach? African literature. Now that was funny, he said, because he knew a fellow who taught the same thing, or perhaps it was African history, in a certain Community College not far from here. It always surprised him, he went on to say, because he never had thought of Africa as having that kind of can you start a narrative essay with, stuff, you know. By this time I was walking much faster. Oh well, I heard him say finally, behind me: I guess I have to according to critics of the davis-moore thesis this, take your course to find out. A few weeks later I received two very touching letters from high school children in Yonkers, New York, who -- bless their teacher -- had just read Things Fall Apart . One of them was particularly happy to learn about the customs and essay writing superstitions of an according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation, African tribe. I propose to arendt essays, draw from these rather trivial encounters rather heavy conclusions which at first sight might seem somewhat out of proportion to them.

But only, I hope, at first sight. The young fellow from Yonkers, perhaps partly on account of to critics of the this explanation, his age but I believe also for much deeper and more serious reasons, is obviously unaware that the life of critical on ts eliot, his own tribesmen in Yonkers, New York, is full of odd customs and superstitions and, like everybody else in his culture, imagines that he needs a trip to Africa to encounter those things. The other person being fully my own age could not be excused on the grounds of his years. Ignorance might be a more likely reason; but here again I believe that something more willful than a mere lack of according of the davis-moore thesis this, information was at work. For did not that erudite British historian and Regius Professor at Oxford, Hugh Trevor Roper, also pronounce that African history did not exist? If there is something in these utterances more than youthful inexperience, more than a lack of factual knowledge, what is it?

Quite simply it is the desire -- one might indeed say the need -- in Western psychology to set Africa up as a foil to Europe, as a place of negations at once remote and vaguely familiar, in comparison with which Europe's own state of spiritual grace will be manifest. This need is not new; which should relieve us all of considerable responsibility and perhaps make us even willing to look at this phenomenon dispassionately. I have neither the wish nor the competence to embark on the exercise with the tools of the social and biological sciences but more simply in the manner of a novelist responding to one famous book of European fiction: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , which better than any other work that I know displays that Western desire and need which I have just referred to. Arendt Ebook! Of course there are whole libraries of books devoted to the same purpose but most of them are so obvious and so crude that few people worry about them today. According To Critics Thesis This Explanation! Conrad, on the other hand, is undoubtedly one of the hotels great stylists of modern fiction and a good storyteller into the bargain.

His contribution therefore falls automatically into a different class -- permanent literature -- read and according thesis taught and constantly evaluated by serious academics. Heart of essay writing, Darkness is indeed so secure today that a leading Conrad scholar has numbered it among the half-dozen greatest short novels in the English language. I will return to this critical opinion in due course because it may seriously modify my earlier suppositions about who may or may not be guilty in some of the matters I will now raise. Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as the other world, the antithesis of of the davis-moore this, Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man's vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant beastiality. Justice! The book opens on the River Thames, tranquil, resting, peacefully at the decline of day after ages of good service done to the race that peopled its banks. According Thesis Explanation! But the actual story will take place on the River Congo, the very antithesis of the Thames. The River Congo is quite decidedly not a River Emeritus. It has rendered no service and enjoys no old-age pension.

We are told that Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world. Is Conrad saying then that these two rivers are very different, one good, the other bad? Yes, but that is not the real point. It is not the boutique differentness that worries Conrad but the lurking hint of to critics of the thesis this, kinship, of common ancestry. For the Thames too has been one of the critical essays on ts eliot dark places of the earth. It conquered its darkness, of course, and is now in daylight and at peace. But if it were to visit its primordial relative, the Congo, it would run the terrible risk of hearing grotesque echoes of its own forgotten darkness, and falling victim to an avenging recrudescence of the of the explanation mindless frenzy of the first beginnings. These suggestive echoes comprise Conrad's famed evocation of the African atmosphere in Heart of hannah arendt essays, Darkness . According To Critics! In the final consideration his method amounts to no more than a steady, ponderous, fake-ritualistic repetition of two antithetical sentences, one about silence and essays on ts the other about frenzy.

We can inspect samples of this on pages 36 and according to critics davis-moore this explanation 37 of the present edition: a) it was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over an inscrutable intention and b) The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. Elements Essay Writing! Of course there is a judicious change of davis-moore thesis explanation, adjective from time to time, so that instead of elements essay, inscrutable, for example, you might have unspeakable, even plain mysterious, etc., etc. The eagle-eyed English critic F. R. Leavis drew attention long ago to of the this explanation, Conrad's adjectival insistence upon juvenile justice system research, inexpressible and to critics of the davis-moore thesis this incomprehensible mystery. That insistence must not be dismissed lightly, as many Conrad critics have tended to do, as a mere stylistic flaw; for it raises serious questions of artistic good faith. Arendt Essays Ebook! When a writer while pretending to record scenes, incidents and their impact is in reality engaged in inducing hypnotic stupor in his readers through a bombardment of emotive words and other forms of trickery much more has to be at stake than stylistic felicity. Generally normal readers are well armed to of the davis-moore explanation, detect and resist such under-hand activity.

But Conrad chose his subject well -- one which was guaranteed not to put him in conflict with the psychological predisposition of his readers or raise the need for him to summer essays, contend with their resistance. He chose the role of purveyor of comforting myths. The most interesting and revealing passages in Heart of Darkness are, however, about people. I must crave the indulgence of my reader to quote almost a whole page from about the middle of the stop/when representatives of Europe in a steamer going down the Congo encounter the denizens of Africa. We were wanderers on according of the davis-moore thesis, a prehistoric earth, on an earth that wore the aspect of an with, unknown planet. We could have fancied ourselves the first of men taking possession of an accursed inheritance, to be subdued at according of the davis-moore this explanation, the cost of profound anguish and essay writing of excessive toil. But suddenly as we struggled round a bend there would be a glimpse of rush walls, of peaked grass-roofs, a burst of yells, a whirl of black limbs, a mass of hands clapping, of feet stamping, of bodies swaying, of eyes rolling under the droop of heavy and motionless foliage.

The steamer toiled along slowly on to critics of the davis-moore this explanation, the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. The prehistoric man was cursing us, praying to us, welcoming us -- who could tell? We were cut off from the comprehension of our surroundings; we glided past like phantoms, wondering and secretly appalled, as sane men would be before an enthusiastic outbreak in a madhouse. We could not understand because we were too far and could not remember, because we were traveling in the night of first ages, of those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign -- and no memories. The earth seemed unearthly.

We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of a conquered monster, but there -- there you could look at critical on ts, a thing monstrous and according of the davis-moore explanation free. It was unearthly and justice system research papers the men were . No they were not inhuman. Well, you know that was the worst of it -- this suspicion of to critics davis-moore thesis this, their not being inhuman. It would come slowly to one. They howled and leaped and spun and made horrid faces, but what thrilled you, was just the justice system thought of their humanity -- like yours -- the thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar. Ugly. Yes, it was ugly enough, but if you were man enough you would admit to yourself that there was in you just the faintest trace of of the davis-moore thesis, a response to essays, the terrible frankness of of the davis-moore this, that noise, a dim suspicion of essays on ts, there being a meaning in it which you -- you so remote from the night of according to critics of the thesis, first ages -- could comprehend. Herein lies the meaning of system papers, Heart of Darkness and thesis explanation the fascination it holds over the Western mind: What thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours . Ugly.

Having shown us Africa in the mass, Conrad then zeros in, half a page later, on a specific example, giving us one of his rare descriptions of an African who is not just limbs or rolling eyes: And between whiles I had to look after the savage who was fireman. Camp Essays! He was an improved specimen; he could fire up a vertical boiler. According To Critics Of The! He was there below me and, upon my word, to look at him was as edifying as seeing a dog in a parody of breeches and a feather hat walking on his hind legs. A few months of training had done for that really fine chap. Hannah Arendt Essays! He squinted at the steam-gauge and at the water-gauge with an evident effort of intrepidity -- and he had filed his teeth too, the poor devil, and the wool of his pate shaved into thesis this explanation queer patterns, and three ornamental scars on each of summer camp essays, his cheeks. He ought to have been clapping his hands and stamping his feet on the bank, instead of which he was hard at work, a thrall to strange witchcraft, full of according to critics davis-moore thesis explanation, improving knowledge. As everybody knows, Conrad is a romantic on the side. He might not exactly admire savages clapping their hands and stamping their feet but they have at least the merit of being in their place, unlike this dog in a parody of breeches.

For Conrad things being in their place is of the hannah utmost importance. Fine fellows -- cannibals --in their place, he tells us pointedly. Tragedy begins when things leave their accustomed place, like Europe leaving its safe stronghold between the policeman and the baker to like a peep into the heart of darkness. Before the story likes us into the Congo basin proper we are given this nice little vignette as an example of things in their place: Now and then a boat from the shore gave one a momentary contact with reality. It was paddled by black fellows. You could see from of the davis-moore thesis, afar the white of elements essay, their eyeballs glistening. According Of The Davis-moore! They shouted, sang; their bodies streamed with perspiration; they had faces like grotesque masks -- these chaps; but they had bone, muscle, a wild vitality, an intense energy of movement that was as natural and hue as the surf along their coast.

They wanted no excuse for being there. They were a great comfort to look at. Towards the end of the story Conrad lavishes a whole page quite unexpectedly on an African woman who has obviously been some kind of mistress to Mr. Kurtz and now presides (if I may be permitted a little liberty) like a formidable mystery over hotels essay, the inexorable imminence of his departure: She was savage and to critics of the davis-moore explanation superb, wild-eyed and magnificent . She stood looking at us without a stir and like the wilderness itself, with an air of brooding over an inscrutable purpose. This Amazon is drawn in considerable detail, albeit of essays on ts, a predictable nature, for two reasons. Davis-moore This! First, she is in her place and so can win Conrad's special brand of approval and second, she fulfills a structural requirement of the critical story: a savage counterpart to the refined, European woman who will step forth to according davis-moore this, end the story: She came forward all in elements essay black with a pale head, floating toward me in to critics of the explanation the dusk. She was in mourning . She took both my hands in hers and murmured, I had heard you were coming.. She had a mature capacity for elements essay fidelity, for belief, for suffering. The difference in the attitude of the novelist to according to critics this, these two women is conveyed in arendt essays in understanding too many direct and subfile ways to need elaboration.

But perhaps the most significant difference is the one implied in the author's bestowal of according thesis, human expression to the one and juvenile justice system research papers the withholding of it from the other. It is clearly not part of Conrad's purpose to confer language on the rudimentary souls of Africa. According This! In place of speech they made a violent babble of uncouth sounds. They exchanged short grunting phrases even among themselves. Essay With! But most of the time they were too busy with their frenzy. According To Critics Of The Davis-moore This Explanation! There are two occasions in the book, however, when Conrad departs somewhat from his practice and confers speech, even English speech, on the savages. The first occurs when cannibalism gets the better of them: Catch 'im, he snapped with a bloodshot widening of his eyes and a flash of sharp teeth -- catch 'im. Give 'im to us. To you, eh?

I asked; what would you do with them? Eat 'im! he said curtly. . . . The other occasion was the famous announcement:Mistah Kurtz -- he dead. At first sight these instances might be mistaken for unexpected acts of generosity from Conrad. In reality they constitute some of his best assaults. Boutique Hotels Essay! In the case of the cannibals the incomprehensible grunts that had thus far served them for speech suddenly proved inadequate for Conrad's purpose of letting the European glimpse the unspeakable craving in this their hearts.

Weighing the necessity for consistency in boutique essay the portrayal of the dumb brutes against the sensational advantages of securing their conviction by clear, unambiguous evidence issuing out of their own mouth Conrad chose the according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation latter. Hotels Essay! As for the announcement of Mr. Kurtz's death by the insolent black head in the doorway what better or more appropriate finis could be written to according to critics of the davis-moore thesis this, the horror story of that wayward child of civilization who willfully had given his soul to the powers of elements essay, darkness and according of the explanation taken a high seat amongst the devils of the land than the proclamation of his physical death by the forces he had joined? It might be contended, of course, that the attitude to the African in boutique essay Heart of according to critics of the thesis, Darkness is not Conrad's but that of his fictional narrator, Marlow, and that far from endorsing it Conrad might indeed be holding it up to irony and criticism. Certainly Conrad appears to go to essays eliot, considerable pains to set up layers of insulation between himself and the moral universe of his history. He has, for example, a narrator behind a narrator. The primary narrator is Marlow but his account is given to us through the filter of a second, shadowy person. But if Conrad's intention is to according to critics thesis, draw a cordon sanitaire between himself and the moral and psychological malaise of his narrator his care seems to me totally wasted because he neglects to hint however subtly or tentatively at an alternative frame of reference by which we may judge the actions and opinions of his characters. It would not have been beyond Conrad's power to make that provision if he had thought it necessary. Marlow seems to me to elements writing, enjoy Conrad's complete confidence -- a feeling reinforced by the close similarities between their two careers.

Marlow comes through to us not only as a witness of truth, but one holding those advanced and humane views appropriate to the English liberal tradition which required all Englishmen of decency to of the davis-moore this, be deeply shocked by atrocities in hannah in understanding ebook Bulgaria or the Congo of King Leopold of the Belgians or wherever. Thus Marlow is able to toss out such bleeding-heart sentiments as these: They were dying slowly -- it was very clear. They were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now, nothing but black shadows of disease and according of the this explanation starvation lying confusedly in the greenish gloom. Brought from all the recesses of the coast in all the legality of time contracts, lost in uncongenial surroundings, fed on unfamiliar food, they sickened, became inefficient, and with were then allowed to to critics this explanation, crawl away and rest. The kind of liberalism espoused here by Marlow/Conrad touched all the best minds of the age in England, Europe and America. It took different forms in the minds of different people but almost always managed to sidestep the ultimate question of equality between white people and black people. That extraordinary missionary, Albert Schweitzer, who sacrificed brilliant careers in music and theology in Europe for a life of service to Africans in critical essays on ts much the same area as Conrad writes about, epitomizes the thesis this ambivalence. Juvenile System Research Papers! In a comment which has often been quoted Schweitzer says: The African is indeed my brother but my junior brother.

And so he proceeded to build a hospital appropriate to the needs of to critics of the thesis, junior brothers with standards of hygiene reminiscent of medical practice in the days before the germ theory of disease came into being. Essays! Naturally he became a sensation in Europe and to critics of the davis-moore thesis this explanation America. Pilgrims flocked, and I believe still flock even after he has passed on, to witness the prodigious miracle in Lamberene, on the edge of the primeval forest. Conrad's liberalism would not take him quite as far as Schweitzer's, though. He would not use the word brother however qualified; the farthest he would go was kinship. Boutique Essay! When Marlow's African helmsman falls down with a spear in his heart he gives his white master one final disquieting look. And the intimate profundity of that look he gave me when he received his hurt remains to this day in my memory -- like a claim of distant kinship affirmed in a supreme moment. It is important to note that Conrad, careful as ever with his words, is concerned not so much about distant kinship as about someone laying a claim on it.

The black man lays a claim on the white man which is well-nigh intolerable. Davis-moore Explanation! It is the laying of this claim which frightens and at the same time fascinates Conrad, . the thought of their humanity -- like yours . Ugly. The point of my observations should be quite clear by now, namely that Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist. That this simple truth is glossed over in criticisms of justice system research papers, his work is due to the fact that white racism against of the this explanation Africa is such a normal way of thinking that its manifestations go completely unremarked. Students of Heart of Darkness will often tell you that Conrad is concerned not so much with Africa as with the deterioration of one European mind caused by critical solitude and sickness. They will point out to you that Conrad is, if anything, less charitable to the Europeans in the story than he is to the natives, that the point of the story is to ridicule Europe's civilizing mission in Africa. A Conrad student informed me in Scotland that Africa is merely a setting for the disintegration of the mind of Mr. Kurtz. Which is partly the point. Africa as setting and backdrop which eliminates the African as human factor.

Africa as a metaphysical battlefield devoid of all recognizable humanity, into which the wandering European enters at his peril. Can nobody see the preposterous and perverse arrogance in thus reducing Africa to according this, the role of arendt ebook, props for the break-up of one petty European mind? But that is not even the point. The real question is the dehumanization of Africa and Africans which this age-long attitude has fostered and to critics of the continues to foster in the world. Writing! And the question is according explanation, whether a novel which celebrates this dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race, can be called a great work of art. My answer is: No, it cannot. I do not doubt Conrad's great talents. Even Heart of Darkness has its memorably good passages and moments:

The reaches opened before us and closed behind, as if the forest had stepped leisurely across tile water to bar the arendt ebook way for our return. Its exploration of the minds of the European characters is often penetrating and full of insight. But all that has been more than fully discussed in the last fifty years. His obvious racism has, however, not been addressed. And it is high time it was! Conrad was born in 1857, the very year in which the first Anglican missionaries were arriving among my own people in Nigeria. It was certainly not his fault that he lived his life at to critics, a time when the reputation of the black man was at a particularly low level. But even after due allowances have been made for all the influences of contemporary prejudice on his sensibility there remains still in Conrad's attitude a residue of antipathy to black people which his peculiar psychology alone can explain.

His own account of his first encounter with a black man is very revealing: A certain enormous buck nigger encountered in Haiti fixed my conception of blind, furious, unreasoning rage, as manifested in the human animal to research papers, the end of my days. Of the nigger I used to dream for years afterwards. Certainly Conrad had a problem with niggers. His inordinate love of that word itself should be of interest to psychoanalysts. Sometimes his fixation on blackness is equally interesting as when he gives us this brief description: A black figure stood up, strode on long black legs, waving long black arms. . . . as though we might expect a black figure striding along on black legs to wave white arms! But so unrelenting is Conrad's obsession. To Critics Thesis This Explanation! As a matter of can you start, interest Conrad gives us in davis-moore this explanation A Personal Record what amounts to justice papers, a companion piece to the buck nigger of Haiti. At the to critics this explanation age of sixteen Conrad encountered his first Englishman in Europe. He calls him my unforgettable Englishman and describes him in boutique hotels the following manner: (his) calves exposed to according this explanation, the public gaze . . Summer Essays! . dazzled the beholder by the splendor of their marble-like condition and their rich tone of young ivory. . . According Of The Thesis This Explanation! . The light of a headlong, exalted satisfaction with the world of men. . . Essay Writing! illumined his face. . . and triumphant eyes.

In passing he cast a glance of kindly curiosity and a friendly gleam of of the davis-moore thesis this, big, sound, shiny teeth. Start With! . . his white calves twinkled sturdily. Irrational love and irrational hate jostling together in according to critics of the davis-moore the heart of that talented, tormented man. But whereas irrational love may at worst engender foolish acts of indiscretion, irrational hate can endanger the life of the community. Naturally Conrad is a dream for psychoanalytic critics. Perhaps the most detailed study of him in this direction is by Bernard C. Meyer, M.D. In his lengthy book Dr. System Papers! Meyer follows every conceivable lead (and sometimes inconceivable ones) to explain Conrad. As an example he gives us long disquisitions on the significance of hair and according of the thesis this hair-cutting in Conrad.

And yet not even one word is spared for his attitude to black people. Not even the discussion of Conrad's antisemitism was enough to spark off in Dr. Meyer's mind those other dark and start essay with explosive thoughts. Which only leads one to surmise that Western psychoanalysts must regard the kind of racism displayed by Conrad absolutely normal despite the profoundly important work done by Frantz Fanon in the psychiatric hospitals of French Algeria. Whatever Conrad's problems were, you might say he is according to critics of the thesis explanation, now safely dead. Quite true. Justice System! Unfortunately his heart of darkness plagues us still.

Which is to critics thesis, why an offensive and deplorable book can be described by a serious scholar as among the half dozen greatest short novels in the English language. And why it is today the most commonly prescribed novel in twentieth-century literature courses in English Departments of American universities. There are two probable grounds on which what I have aid so far may be contested. The first is that it is no concern of elements, fiction to please people about whom it is written. I will go along with that.

But I am not talking about pleasing people. I am talking about to critics davis-moore a book which parades in the most vulgar fashion prejudices and insults from arendt, which a section of mankind has suffered untold agonies and atrocities in the past and continues to according to critics thesis this explanation, do so in many ways and many places today. I am talking about a story in which the very humanity of hannah essays in understanding ebook, black people is according to critics davis-moore thesis this, called in question. Secondly, I may be challenged on the grounds of ebook, actuality. Conrad, after all, did sail down the Congo in 1890 when my own father was still a babe in arms. How could I stand up more than fifty years after his death and purport to contradict him? My answer is that as a sensible man I will not accept just any traveler's tales solely on the grounds that I have not made the journey myself. I will not trust the evidence even off man's very eyes when I suspect them to be as jaundiced as Conrad's. And we also happen to know that Conrad was, in according of the davis-moore explanation the words of his biographer, Bernard C. Meyer, notoriously inaccurate in the rendering of his own history.

But more important by writing far is the thesis this explanation abundant testimony about Conrad's savages which we could gather if we were so inclined from other sources and which might lead us to think that these people must have had other occupations besides merging into the evil forest or materializing out of it simply to plague Marlow and his dispirited band. For as it happened, soon after Conrad had written his book an event of far greater consequence was taking place in the art world of Europe. Arendt Essays In Understanding! This is davis-moore explanation, how Frank Willett, a British art historian, describes it: Gaugin had gone to Tahiti, the most extravagant individual act of turning to a non-European culture in the decades immediately before and after 1900, when European artists were avid for new artistic experiences, but it was only about 1904-5 that African art began to elements essay writing, make its distinctive impact. One piece is still identifiable; it is a mask that had been given to Maurice Vlaminck in 1905. He records that Derain was 'speechless' and 'stunned' when he saw it, bought it from Vlaminck and in turn showed it to Picasso and Matisse, who were also greatly affected by it. Davis-moore Thesis Explanation! Ambroise Vollard then borrowed it and had it cast in camp bronze. . . The revolution of twentieth century art was under way! The mask in question was made by other savages living just north of Conrad's River Congo. They have a name too: the Fang people, and are without a doubt among the world's greatest masters of the sculptured form. According Davis-moore Thesis This Explanation! The event Frank Willett is can you start essay a question, referring to marks the beginning of cubism and the infusion of to critics explanation, new life into European art, which had run completely out of strength.

The point of all this is to suggest that Conrad's picture of the people of the eliot Congo seems grossly inadequate even at the height of their subjection to the ravages of King Leopold's lnternational Association for the Civilization of according to critics this explanation, Central Africa. Travelers with closed minds can tell us little except about themselves. But even those not blinkered, like Conrad with xenophobia, can be astonishing blind. Let me digress a little here. One of the greatest and most intrepid travelers of all time, Marco Polo, journeyed to the Far East from the Mediterranean in essay writing the thirteenth century and spent twenty years in the court of Kublai Khan in China. According Davis-moore Explanation! On his return to Venice he set down in his book entitled Description of the World his impressions of the peoples and places and customs he had seen. But there were at least two extraordinary omissions in his account.

He said nothing about the art of summer essays, printing, unknown as yet in Europe but in full flower in China. He either did not notice it at all or if he did, failed to see what use Europe could possibly have for according to critics of the it. Whatever the reason, Europe had to boutique essay, wait another hundred years for Gutenberg. But even more spectacular was Marco Polo's omission of any reference to the Great Wall of China nearly 4,000 miles long and according to critics davis-moore thesis already more than 1,000 years old at the time of his visit. Again, he may not have seen it; but the Great Wall of China is the only structure built by man which is boutique essay, visible from the moon!

Indeed travelers can be blind. As I said earlier Conrad did not originate the image of Africa which we find in his book. It was and is the dominant image of Africa in the Western imagination and Conrad merely brought the peculiar gifts of his own mind to bear on of the davis-moore, it. For reasons which can certainly use close psychological inquiry the West seems to suffer deep anxieties about the precariousness of its civilization and to can you with, have a need for davis-moore thesis this constant reassurance by comparison with Africa. If Europe, advancing in civilization, could cast a backward glance periodically at Africa trapped in primordial barbarity it could say with faith and feeling: There go I but for the grace of arendt essays in understanding ebook, God. According To Critics Of The Thesis! Africa is to Europe as the can you picture is to Dorian Gray -- a carrier onto whom the master unloads his physical and moral deformities so that he may go forward, erect and immaculate. Consequently Africa is something to to critics explanation, be avoided just as the picture has to boutique hotels, be hidden away to safeguard the man's jeopardous integrity. Keep away from Africa, or else!

Mr. Kurtz of Heart of Darkness should have heeded that warning and the prowling horror in his heart would have kept its place, chained to according davis-moore, its lair. But he foolishly exposed himself to the wild irresistible allure of the jungle and lo! the darkness found him out. In my original conception of this essay I had thought to conclude it nicely on an appropriately positive note in which I would suggest from my privileged position in African and Western cultures some advantages the West might derive from Africa once it rid its mind of old prejudices and began to look at Africa not through a haze of distortions and cheap mystifications but quite simply as a continent of people -- not angels, but not rudimentary souls either -- just people, often highly gifted people and papers often strikingly successful in their enterprise with life and society. But as I thought more about the stereotype image, about its grip and pervasiveness, about the willful tenacity with which the West holds it to its heart; when I thought of the West's television and cinema and newspapers, about books read in its schools and out of school, of churches preaching to empty pews about the according davis-moore thesis need to send help to the heathen in Africa, I realized that no easy optimism was possible. And there was, in any case, something totally wrong in offering bribes to the West in return for can you start essay with a question its good opinion of Africa.

Ultimately the abandonment of according to critics, unwholesome thoughts must be its own and only reward. Although I have used the word willful a few times here to characterize the West's view of Africa, it may well be that what is happening at this stage is can you start essay, more akin to reflex action than calculated malice. Which does not make the situation more but less hopeful. The Christian Science Monitor, a paper more enlightened than most, once carried an interesting article written by its Education Editor on according to critics explanation, the serious psychological and learning problems faced by arendt essays little children who speak one language at home and then go to school where something else is spoken. It was a wide-ranging article taking in Spanish-speaking children in America, the children of migrant Italian workers in Germany, the quadrilingual phenomenon in according to critics davis-moore thesis this explanation Malaysia, and so on. And all this while the arendt in understanding article speaks unequivocally about language. But then out according this explanation, of the blue sky comes this: In London there is an enormous immigration of children who speak Indian or Nigerian dialects, or some other native language. I believe that the introduction of boutique hotels essay, dialects which is davis-moore explanation, technically erroneous in the context is almost a reflex action caused by an instinctive desire of the writer to downgrade the discussion to the level of Africa and India. And this is quite comparable to Conrad's withholding of language from his rudimentary souls.

Language is too grand for these chaps; let's give them dialects! In all this business a lot of violence is boutique essay, inevitably done not only to the image of despised peoples but even to words, the according of the this very tools of possible redress. Look at the phrase native language in the Science Monitor excerpt. Surely the only native language possible in London is essays, Cockney English. But our writer means something else -- something appropriate to to critics davis-moore this explanation, the sounds Indians and Africans make! Although the work of justice system papers, redressing which needs to be done may appear too daunting, I believe it is not one day too soon to begin.

Conrad saw and according of the thesis explanation condemned the evil of imperial exploitation but was strangely unaware of the racism on which it sharpened its iron tooth. Critical Essays! But the victims of racist slander who for centuries have had to live with the inhumanity it makes them heir to have always known better than any casual visitor even when he comes loaded with the gifts of a Conrad.