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Luxury Cars Essays and Research Papers. need for the red flag was removed in 1878.) The first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789. 19th century Among other . efforts, in 1815, a professor at language composition analytical, Prague Polytechnic, Josef Bozek, built an argument essay, oil-fired steam car . Walter Hancock, builder and language composition essay, operator of London steam buses, in 1838 built a four-seat steam phaeton. In 1867, Canadian jeweller Henry Seth Taylor demonstrated his 4-wheeled steam buggy at prayer in schools, the Stanstead Fair in language analytical, Stanstead, Quebec, and again the chicago following. Automobile , Diesel engine , Electric vehicle 856 Words | 3 Pages. ?Industry Overview A luxury car is any car costing greater than $30,000. Companies such as BMW, Mercedes, Lexus, . Analytical. Cadillac, and Lincoln sell high-end vehicles.
The luxury car industry accounts for about fifteen percent of the United States car market. Not only do luxury car dealers sell new high-end vehicles, but they also sell used vehicles. Most luxury car dealerships provide excellent customer relations and take pride in manchurian essay, their service management and repair services. The luxury car industry can be divided. Automobile , BMW , Cadillac 1667 Words | 8 Pages. Luxury Cars The automobile has been one of the most revolutionary inventions in the past few centuries. The . invention of the automobile has completely reshaped our way of life.
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Aston Martin , Automotive industry , Ford Motor Company 1044 Words | 3 Pages. State of essay, Luxury Car Sales and Distribution to Generation Y. State of Luxury car Sales and Distribution Distributing to Generation Y Team Members: Christopher Haydon . Prayer In Schools Essay. Fabiola Bayona Hardik Patel Tiffany Sarmiento Professor: Aviad Pe’er Class: Business Policy amp; Strategy Date: December 19th, 2011 Luxury vehicle is a marketing term used to describe cars with greater performance, comfort, innovation, and features that convey a brand image. As the industry has grown, it has become much more complex;. Automotive industry , BMW , Cadillac 3016 Words | 7 Pages. Raygain Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Ap English Language Composition Analytical Essay. Indian Luxury Car Market – An Insight The recent growth in the luxury . car market in India is much more than mere market dynamics in a particular car segment.
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The highest percentage in the industry, 50-60%, belongs to luxury cars . Follow fashion and accessories (excluding. Gucci , Luxury brands , Luxury good 1169 Words | 4 Pages. growth in language analytical, the luxury car market in India is much more than mere market dynamics in cruel angel thesis tab, a particular car segment. It is . a reflection of the changing lifestyle of the ap english language affluent class in write an essay reasons for causes of poverty, the country. Language Analytical Essay. Luxury car majors in argument essay, India - Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Audi put together have around 85% market share. The German car brand Mercedes-Benz had first-mover advantage as it had started operations in India in 1995 and there was no direct competition in this category. So, it remained ‘Numero Uno’ luxury car brand in India. Automotive industry , BMW , Luxury vehicle 278 Words | 2 Pages. Demand Elasticity of analytical, Luxury Automobiles.
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Using perceptual maps, one can quickly compare different brands and composition analytical essay, make strategic decisions about cruel thesis, whether or not your brand need to be repositioned. I chose to do my Perceptual Map on different Car Brands. The cars I chose are as follows: Audi BMW Mercedes Ford. Automotive industry , BMW , Car manufacturers 601 Words | 15 Pages. Car Buying Car Buying Yevonna Hartfield English 112 Car Buying Car buying should be an essay, . Candidate Essay. important and composition, fun time. You get to essay citation try out all the language composition analytical essay new cars , see what you like and cruel angel thesis tab, what you don’t like. Ap English Language Analytical Essay. It is very time consuming so you have to an essay on the of poverty make sure you are ready for that. Doesn’t matter if is your 1st, 2nd, or 3rd car , it is language still fun and you want to make sure you make the right decision.
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Branding , Gucci , Luxury good 1064 Words | 4 Pages. German Luxury - Car Makers Look Beyond Home Market BMW to language analytical expand Plant in U.S., Daimler Will Boost Investment in China Venture By . William Boston and Neal E. Write An Essay Reasons. Boudette Updated March 28, 2014 2:56 p.m. ET A new BMW X4 is unveiled last Friday at the BMW manufacturing plant in Greer, South Carolina as the Germany luxury auto maker announced a $1 billion expansion for composition essay the plant. Associated Press German luxury car manufacturers BMW AG and Daimler AG have unveiled plans to spend billions on new car factories. Audi , Automotive industry , Electric car 3992 Words | 9 Pages. ? Luxury goods in China Beyond bling Life is getting harder for purveyors of candidate essay, luxury in China, but the growth prospects are still . Language Composition Analytical. fabulous Jun 8th 2013 | SHANGHAI |From the print edition “IT WAS an amazing golden age,” reflects Guillaume Brochard of Qeelin, a Chinese jeweller. From 2007 to manchurian candidate essay 2011 many luxury -goods firms enjoyed double-digit annual growth in China, which became their most important market. The first blows came last year, with an economic slowdown and jitters about the language analytical political transition. China , Gucci , Luxury good 1052 Words | 3 Pages.
? LUXURY GOODS: NO SIGN OF SLOWING Discussion question : a) The word “ luxury ” is ambiguous, in chicago citation, the sense that the . perception of luxury is subjective. A poor person with less than $1 each day to survive on would think that a proper dinner is language luxury while the CEO of a MNC would consider five Ferrari cars as luxury . Thus, everything could be luxury depending on the circumstances, experiences and features of an cruel angel thesis tab, individual. Chevalier and Mazzalovo (2008) define a luxury brand as a brand that is. Goods , Gucci , Income elasticity of demand 2127 Words | 7 Pages. It seems like every day we're being told that the language composition essay big problem with cars is that they pollute and melt the icecaps and raise the essay oceans. Ap English Composition Analytical Essay. There's . another problem, and you'll be surprised to explanation hear that it's outlined in a nearly 40-year-old essay.P Don't get me wrong, cars play a part in language composition, fucking up our water resources, atmosphere, coasts, deserts, and just about everything else climate change is cruel thesis tab screwing over. That's just not the one and only problem with cars.P They are screwing up our lives, from. Automobile , Bicycle , Driving 1243 Words | 4 Pages.
It is universal truth that luxury brand industry is still booming even during financial crisis because today's people have the right mind-set . that luxury products are purposeful and ap english language analytical, well thought out. In other words, they want to cruel show off their wealth and personal status. Ap English Composition Essay. Main Forces The Macroenvironment Facing The Luxury Brand Industry Analysing the macroenvironment facing the angel tab luxury brand industry, there are demographic forces, economic forces, cultural forces and technological forces. . Branding , Gucci , Luxury good 1996 Words | 7 Pages. now 1) The change of consumer 2) The change of the luxury itself -Old luxury -New luxury ? . Accessible super premium ? Old luxury brand extensions ? “Masstige” goods III. Language. Causes to the trend 1) Just for myself 2) The influence of others 3) Brand loyalty IV. The effects V. Conclusion Topic: The new consuming trend – --Buying luxury , not guilty anymore In your own definition, what is luxury ? I asked people.
In general, their answers would be ”priceless”. Branding , Goods , Luxury good 2374 Words | 7 Pages. Luxury consumer behavior in Mainland China. ? Luxury consumer behavior in Mainland China: What exists behind the style facade of new wealth? By Pierre Xiao LU China recently became the world’s . second largest market for ap english analytical luxury goods with an annual increase of more than 30% in 2010, even surpassing Japan. Write An Essay Reasons For Causes. Further estimates predict that China will become the largest upscale product and consumer goods market in the world. How does a country with an language composition, average GDP per samuel coleridge essays, capita of $3,800 USD, and classified behind 105 in ap english language composition analytical, the world ranking possess such a strong. China , Culture of China , Goods 2391 Words | 7 Pages. decision of luxury product A survey of chicago style citation, Chinese customer in China Prepared by: Zhang Yuwen (Grace) 014201100227 Lecture by: . Orlando R.Santos Subject for: Research Methodology President University Bekasi-West Jawa Indonesia ? Introduction 1.1 Background of language composition, Study For luxury product and brand in the past three decades, Chinese market is unprecedented booming.
From Pierre Cardin dominate early, later Louis Vuitton Illustrious, to each proliferation of luxury brands, the. Goods , Gucci , Luxury good 1407 Words | 5 Pages. rise fall of the Japanese luxury market. 1) How does luxury consumption in Japan differ from in other countries ? I guess the main difference is the fact that Japanese people . Samuel Coleridge Essays Own Times. consume luxury in composition analytical essay, mass. Or at candidate essay, least, they did. Ap English Composition. Indeed, Japan is the candidate first and only mass luxury market. This behavior finds its origins in the need of ap english language analytical essay, showing their identity and write reasons for causes of poverty, self-worth, and they do it by wearing luxury products.
In fact, as there is not much space and lots of traffic jams there, the Japanese can’t build huge houses and own many cars , as we, Western. Branding , Goods , Gucci 1551 Words | 4 Pages. In the article A Mild Defense of ap english composition, Luxury , James Twitchell paints a vivid picture of how luxury is manchurian perceived. Ap English Language Composition Essay. He gives us a . close snapshot about how we fell about luxury in our society. Our society has defined so many materials like clothing, liquor, appliances, furniture, etc., that we have created our own standard when compared to what luxury should be and how can we attain it.
Many years we classified what is considered luxury by having majestic homes and essay chicago citation, servants. What a big difference. 1998 albums , Happiness , Luxury good 1092 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION:- A Luxury car is a styled, luxurious automobile intended for comfort and satisfaction of ap english analytical essay, its owner or driver, . sacrificing passenger space, cargo capacity and other practical concerns for the sake of style, style. The luxury cars are very expensive and its price range is above Rs 20 lakhs. Hence these cars are affordable and are preferred by high income group. Analytical. A Luxury car segment is one which is packed with extra dose of luxury features, designed with perfection and beauty for a guaranteed. 1990s automobiles , 2000s automobiles , 2010s automobiles 1660 Words | 5 Pages. ? Luxury Brand is prayer a brand name good that is sold on ap english analytical essay the open market. Most luxury brands are extremely expensive and the . consumer most pays for name recognition and not product quality The modern understanding of in schools essay, a brand is consumer and identity oriented.
Accordingly, brands are regarded as images in the minds of consumers and other target groups (Esch 2010, p. 22), which are designed by companies to ap english language composition analytical essay identify their products (Kotler et al. Taylor Coleridge Essays Own Times. 2009, p. 425). Analytical. Luxury brands are highly associated. Brand , Brand management , Branding 1643 Words | 5 Pages. Luxury sports cars are fancy, classy cars which are mainly preferred by a certain group of essays own times, customers. In actual . sense most luxury sport cars are mainly for indulgence rather than a necessity.
They are usually excessively expensive evidenced by their sumptuous living. Ap English Analytical. Luxury sports cars are ranked in essay citation, various categories. There are coupes and ap english language composition analytical essay, convertibles. A coup is a car with a luggage chamber and thesis, two doors and front seats. Language Composition Analytical Essay. Convertibles involve cars which are cars with tops that can be removed or folded.
Facebook , Marketing , Mass media 814 Words | 3 Pages. The paper “ Luxury brand marketing —the experience is everything!” by Glyn Atwal and Alistair Williams talks about A NEW . LUXURY PARADIGM It is generally acknowledged that western consumption of luxury in the 1980s and 1990s was motivated primarily by status-seeking and appearance. This means that social status associated with a brand is an essay style citation, important factor in conspicuous consumption. Language Essay. The baby boom generation luxury consumer has a passion for self-indulgence while maintaining an iconoclastic. Luxury good , Luxury vehicle 870 Words | 3 Pages. Luxury stores audit Gucci and Celine stores, Russian experience Monaco 2012 INTRODUCTION Monaco is a small country, but well known all . over the world. All over manchurian candidate essay the world it is known as a place of luxury . Every year a lot of tourists visit Monaco to have a good vacation visiting casinos, luxury restaurants and off course to do a shopping in a most known, luxury brands.
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Case Study: The Classic Car Club of America ? 2002 Company Background The Classic Car Club of America (CCCA) was formed in . 1952. Manchurian Candidate. Its focus was on essay luxury cars of the late 1920's and 1930's (and into the early 1940's). The list of recognized Classic Cars is in schools essay not all-encompassing of the era, but rather it segregates models based on ap english language composition analytical essay rarity, quality and price. For example: 1940 saw many cars from candidate essay, many manufacturers, yet only a handful of them are considered Classic Cars by the CCCA. In trying. Automobile , Car classifications , Classic car 846 Words | 3 Pages.
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5 Forces Analysis SWOT Analysis Complete Marketing Audit using PEST Analysis Marketing Segmentation and ap english composition essay, Targeting for the A-Class Model Portfolio . Analysis for Mercedes-Benz entire range of passenger cars Potential Strategies to move forward Competitive Analysis 5 Forces The objective of this analysis is to investigate how the organization needs to reasons for causes form its strategy in order to develop opportunities and protect itself against language composition analytical essay competition and other threats. The bargaining power of candidate essay, suppliers. Automotive industry , BMW , Competition 799 Words | 4 Pages. Swot Analysis of Chinese Luxury Cars Industry. opportunities.
Such is the case in the Chinese auto market. The urge to language analytical splurge on luxury represents a new phase for China's . car industry, the world's second largest auto market. As overall sales in prayer, China are swelling, it is analytical a particular concentration of prestigious brands that care causing the high end of the market to expand twice as fast as the industry average. Opportunities The market demand for cars in China relates to a wide variety of prayer in schools, variables: the language health of the manchurian candidate essay broader economy, personal. Automobile , BMW , Cadillac 697 Words | 2 Pages. Luxury industry in France Luxury is ap english language artificial definition and angel thesis tab, cannot be easily transferred into real life. It is a notion . of anything that is ap english analytical useless and cruel, superfluous in real life.
However, it can be often associated with beauty (art, entertainment, design, decor or trend) and ap english composition essay, remains one of the driving forces behind society’s spending. It is true that luxury speaks and manchurian, renown’s itself by big spending and indeed, outlandish expenditure is often associated with it. The world luxury market. Gucci , Luxury good , Luxury vehicle 1667 Words | 6 Pages. Comparison of Three European Sports Cars ; Mercedes-Benz Sls Amg, Ferrari 458 Italia, Lamborghini Gallardo Lp570-4 Superleggera. European Sports Cars ; Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG, Ferrari 458 ITALIA, Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 SUPERLEGGERA Chapter 1 Background of the . Ap English Language Composition Analytical. Study When people see these three luxury cars , they immediately think “wow” luxurious. more often than not, though, that’s usually followed by, “but would you choose it over any of the europeans and all over the world?” In all honestly, i’d thought about an essay reasons, it a few times, and still wasn’t sold on this car . Ap English Language Essay. however, experiencing this three luxury cars can change. 2010s automobiles , Ferrari , Luxury vehicle 731 Words | 3 Pages.
Luxury Selling: Strategies to Sell Luxury Cars. The High-Net-Worth Market Is Important, but the an essay on the for causes of poverty Comfortably Well-Off Consumers Make More of a Difference for Today's Luxury Marketers Unity . Marketing helps luxury marketers understand the implications of key trends in the luxury market Stevens, Pa July 7, 2007 -- The just-published 11th annual World Wealth Report, compiled by language composition analytical essay Merrill Lynch and Capgemini Group, examines the high-net-worth market made up of 9.5 million people worldwide who hold more than US$1 million in assets. Among the key. Goods , Household income in the United States , Luxury good 532 Words | 2 Pages. Electric Vehicle Electric vehicles use electric motors to drive their wheels. They derive some or all of their power from prayer in schools essay, large, rechargeable batteries. . All-electric EVs, where the battery is the only power source. Composition Analytical Essay. Most current (non- luxury ) models have a quoted range of 80-120 miles (130-190 km). In practice, range varies according to cruel thesis tab driving style, terrain and the use of auxiliary equipment such as heating/air conditioning. Electric Vehicle Component Type of Electric Vehicle Battery electric. Electric car , Electric vehicle , Lead-acid battery 1694 Words | 6 Pages.
Ad-Comm Group “Whitebook”: Cross-Marketing Platform for Luxury Brands in language, Japan. Ad-comm Group “Whitebook”: Cross-marketing Platform for Luxury Brands in Japan 1. What is essay explanation a Whitebook? What role(s) does it play in the . Marketing strategy of Ad-comm’s client companies? Answers 15 lines maximum. Whitebook is a cross marketing platform, a magazine that is published in Japan every 4 months and essay, which displays nine luxury brands in nine diverse types of product.
The magazine is customized for each luxury sponsors. The Whitebook plays an manchurian candidate, important role in terms of marketing strategy. Branding , Luxury good , Luxury vehicle 1691 Words | 6 Pages. US Targets Buyers of China-bound Luxury Cars. US Targets Buyers of China-Bound Luxury Cars ” —The New York Times Description . of Event Nowadays, there is a trend that US targets buyers of ap english language, China-bound luxury cars for prayer in schools essay the reason of a looking to profit from growing demand in China for cars from the analytical likes of Mercedes, BMW and Range Rover. According to The New York Times, a business man named Michael Downs has done this business for three year old, he buy new cars from dealerships in the US, then. Automobile , BMW , BMW 7 Series 680 Words | 2 Pages. PROJECT CASE 1 Luxury Retaling: INTRODUCTION SCENARIO: The Indian economy has evoked a lot of interest globally given its statistics of . Manchurian Essay. some of the highest disposable incomes and increase in the number of millionaires. We are not new to luxury . Indian princes had a penchant for luxury goods from the ap english language analytical essay west. The last couple of candidate essay, years have seen a profusion of luxury brands into ap english the Indian market.
With one of the highest levels of disposable incomes, the well-traveled Indian luxury consumer is being. Gucci , Luxury good , Luxury vehicle 1199 Words | 4 Pages. ? Luxury Goods Market in China 2015-2019 Luxury goods are different from necessity goods as the argument essay explanation demand for these goods increases . with an increase in ap english composition analytical, income. Luxury goods consist of watches, cosmetics, perfume, personal care products, leather goods, men's wear, jewelry, footwear, women's wear, and accessories. People buy luxury goods to improve their standard of living, stand apart from the crowd, express individuality, as a status symbol, and for candidate an overall consumer experience. Composition Analytical. Covered in this Report.
Cosmetics , Goods , Gucci 298 Words | 3 Pages. More Than Just a Car The first time I laid my eyes on her, I knew it was love at first sight. The way she glimmered in the sunlight when she . was cleaned up and the way she looked so beautiful with all of those curves of hers. Essay. I knew that this was going to be a great relationship before she was even mine and that it could blossom into composition analytical essay that lasting thing that I had been looking for. Write An Essay On The For Causes. This 1982 Jaguar was just the car I had been looking for. The car company, Jaguar, came out with a car that had outstanding. Automobile , Brazil , Daimler Motor Company 1247 Words | 3 Pages. 101 The Rise of ap english language analytical essay, Muscle Cars The muscle car had a huge impact on Americans in the 1960’s and the 1970’s, still . today these V-8 muscle machines with three hundred horsepower under the candidate hood are everywhere you look. These automobiles have made it to become a culture that many people enjoy and have it as a hobby. Muscle cars have attracted a lot of analytical, attention from a widespread of many different sources from Magazines to essay movies even T.V shows. Today a muscle car that has been totally restored.
Automobile , Drag racing , Muscle car 734 Words | 3 Pages. Global Luxury Products for Kids Market Share, Global Trends, Analysis, Research, Report, Opportunities, Segmentation and Forecast, 2014 . Future Market Insights www.futuremarketinsights.com [email protected] Report Description Report Description Luxury goods comprises of products such as accessories, footwear, apparel, watches and others which are quite expensive and target those consumers who belongs to premium class. The market for ap english composition luxury goods consist of prayer in schools, three types of end consumers. Gucci , Luxury good , Marketing 930 Words | 7 Pages. Five Forces Analysis of Retail Car Industry. Assignment 1 Module Code: PICS01C Student Number: 7305-272-8 Due Date: 15 March 2011 [pic] a) Five-forces diagram for analysis of the language analytical essay retail . car industry in the greater Johannesburg area 1. Competitive Rivalry Competitive rivalry exists between companies with the same or similar products/services and similar markets. Factors to be considered include: • The number and size of competitors • The rate of industry growth • Differentiation and switching costs • Fixed.
Automotive industry , Barriers to entry , BMW 1832 Words | 7 Pages. Fashion: Branding and Luxury Brands. luxury brands and candidate essay, industries in composition essay, step with lifestyles, values and attitudes of modern society and culture? “ Luxury is a . necessity that begins where necessity ends” Coco Chanel The display of argument explanation, luxury signifies individual power and achievements. The manner which people dress reflects economic, political, social standing and self worth. Christian Dior quoted “it seems to me that women and men instinctively yearn to exhibit themselves”. Ap English Analytical. Luxury in the fashion industry is usually defined in elements.
Brand , Branding , Gucci 1907 Words | 6 Pages. multi brand strategy 2. Dependence on in schools essay star designers Strengths: 1. Leading luxury goods companies - $ 12 billion fashion and language composition essay, liquor . conglomerate 2. Strong brand portfolio with 10 star brands and 60 top brands 3. Wide geographical presence 4. Leadership and charisma of Bernard Arnault 5. Human resource management LVMH Opportunities: 1. World wide presence through acquisitions of famous brands 2. Cruel Thesis. Growing luxury markets in language composition analytical, emerging economy Threats: 1. Intense Competition 2. Consumer loyalty. Advertising , Brand , Brand management 491 Words | 3 Pages. Pricing Luxury Handbags in candidate essay, Recession. Marlee Watson, and Kim White Group 14 RCSC 304, Eastlick Written Retail Applications Exercise Pricing Merchandise The article, “Accessories . Composition Analytical Essay. After the Fact,” found online in The Wall Street Journal showcased the pricing strategies that luxury goods like handbags, shoes and manchurian candidate essay, leather-goods have used throughout 2009 thus far.
Their retail prices and therefore their markups have dropped dramatically due to economic conditions outside of the company’s control but conditions that they must react. Gucci , Luxury good , LVMH 841 Words | 3 Pages. Muscle Cars Introduction: How it all started from the beginning. The late 1900’s muscle cars and the great spike in 1900 muscle . cars . I. Why are they so expensive? A. They have gone extinct B. They aren’t sold now in days C. There’s only a hand full of composition analytical essay, them left in the world II. How much would one cost to on his own times restore a 1900’s muscle car ? A. Depends on how bad the language essay car looks B. The model of the coleridge on his own times car C. If the ap english language composition parts of the car expensive to find III.
Why do some late 1900’s muscle cars cost. Automobile , Chevrolet , Chevrolet Camaro 1871 Words | 5 Pages. A RESEARCH ON HOW DO WORLD’S TOP 10 LUXURY BRANDS HANDLE THEIR PR MARKETING IN INDIA Assignment on research . problem Dipika Sharma MFM (I Semester) [pic][pic][pic] [pic][pic] ______________________________________________________________________________________ STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM A luxury brand is a brand for which most of products offered are luxury goods. Luxury goods in general refer to products or services which are. Branding , Fashion , Fashion week 1375 Words | 5 Pages.
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University Degree: European Union Law. Meet our team of inspirational teachers. Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents. What is the language essay, meaning of the term 'measure equivalent to argument a quantitative restriction' for the purposes of Article 28 EC? Dassonville were a French company who exported Scotch Whiskey and they appealed that it would be very difficult for third party exporters to obtain such a certificate in respect of ap english language analytical essay, goods already in free circulation in the third country. The ECJ upheld the in schools, Dassonville appeal, stating that the law would impose a greater burden on those seeking to language composition import goods into Belgium, and would therefore hinder free movement, and is consequently a MEQR as prohibited by the Treaty. What is in schools essay, important to note in this decision, is that the ECJ will take a very broad view of measures which hinder the free flow of goods between Member States. Council Directive 2004/707 on transporting retired people (fictitious), adopted on 1 November 2000, requires all Member States: a. to implement measures by language analytical, March 2007 giving all retired EU workers beyond the age of 65 years the right to travel within the.
Bill, a Spanish national was a teacher for 15 years in candidate Spain before he moved to the UK. After working for 3 years as a secondary teacher in the UK, he decided to take life easier and stopped his job. Ap English Language Analytical. At 55, he has agreed with friends that he will take care of their gardens as long as they cook for him afterwards. He now wishes to candidate spend the winter of every year in Spain where the warmer climate is better for his health. Bill goes to his Department of Transport to ask for his free flight, but his request is refused. EU Law - age discrimination and market access case studies.
Firstly, the provision must be sufficiently clear, precise and unconditional. The case of C-148/78 Pubblico Ministero v. Ratti decided that the implementation date of the language composition analytical essay, directive has to have passed, while the case of C-271/91 Marshall v Southampton South West Health Authority stated that there was no horizontal direct effect of Directives, they can only be invoked against essay a state or public authority. Here, the Directive is being used against B, an ap english language essay employer, and not a state or public authority, so it would appear the test is not satisfied, even though the implementation date has passed, and even if it is found that the provision is sufficiently clear. Free movement of capital and payments. Although the 1957 Treaty of Rome included free movement of capital among the foundational provisions of the European Common Market, this freedom was expressed in write more ambiguous terms than the composition essay, other freedoms. 2 Who can rely on the free movement of capital? European Union citizens, legal persons and third-country nationals can all rely on the treaty provisions.
3 Direct effect: In contrast to the position prior to the amendments made by the Maastricht treaty noted above, the current prohibition has been held to be directly effective2. This is the case whether we are considering prohibitions on restrictions on capital movements between member states or between member states and third countries. 4 Free movement of Payments: Free movement of payments relates to transfers of foreign exchange as consideration for a transaction and an essay on the for causes of poverty, not, as in the case of capital movements, to investment of the language composition essay, funds in question3. With reference to the works of two or more comparative lawyers and other sources, critically discuss the essay, proposition that the language composition essay, comparative method drives integration rather than separation among legal systems: This has fused elements from all legal systems to cruel ensure that there is clarity for the many business, who wish to conduct their affairs throughout different countries and continents, and to ensure that disputes are resolved more quickly, cheaper and ap english language analytical, effectively. The second aera that I shall look and it ii how the European project has managed to effectively create a legal stystem which has satistied common and civil law counties. The rise of the need for a comparative method for international trade: International trade can be a complicated area of law to because there are numerous levels of an essay reasons, trade organizations and interactions. Critically discuss the language composition essay, proposition that the Treaty of Lisbon has completed the in schools essay, evolution of the EU legal system. The European Charter of Human rights (the Charter) has also been given the status of EU primary law. In this essay, I will explore whether the change in the makeup of the EU legal system, most notably the issue of fundamental rights in the EU, has completed the evolution of a legal system or not. Language Composition. 2 The origins of fundamental rights in in schools the European legal system: 2.1 In its first two decades the EUCJ was very reluctant to adjudicate on issues which were not economic in nature.
EU Freedom of Establishment. In this essay I will discuss the definition of establishment and consider the relevant case-law which has shaped this fundamental freedom. paid to essay that person directly and in full The ECJ rejected the prayer essay, argument that the prostitutes were in subordination to the pimp and thus in language analytical essay an employment contract. This was rejected, as the Dutch government failed to produce enough evidence of such a relationship. The ECJ also mentioned the Morgenbesser2 case and reinforced the settled law that a person does not need to taylor coleridge own times undergo professional training to be providing a service with regards establishment. 2.4 The entry and residence of Self employed persons are the same rights as workers under Directive 2004/38. Effects of the European Union on England and Wales Law. Directives require implementation into national law by a state's legislative body before taking effect.
Failure to properly implement a directive into ap english language composition analytical national law by a Member State, the taylor, directive may give to direct effect provided the date of the final implementation has passed. The European Union Court of Justice deems this as a compulsory measure in order to ensure the effectiveness of directives. The European Union legislation derives decision taken at the European Union level while implementation occurs at the national level. The democratic deficit is a concept created by the euro sceptics regarding the European Union and the alleged lack of democracy within its institutions. We can be sure that the Treaty increases the power of democratically elected European Parliament and introduces the Citizen's initiative which is another democracy-increasing factor. The view is that the Community institutional set-up is composition analytical, too bureaucratized and it lacks democratic legitimacy.
The question of democratic legitimacy has become increasingly sensitive at every stage of the European integration process. Explanation. Treaties such as Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice have triggered the inclusion of the principle of democratic legitimacy within the institutional system by reinforcing the composition essay, powers of Parliament with regard to the appointment and control of the Commission and successively extending the scope of manchurian candidate essay, co decision procedure. Cassis de Dijon case analysis. Having considered the ap english language, two essential legal principles in Community law from Cassis, it is important to recognize that the judgment of the case in question may support the in schools, principle of supremacy in European Union law in that. Evidently, the Court of Justice (CJEU) found that the Italian Republic have failed to fulfil the ap english analytical essay, obligations under Article 34 of the TFEU, as it infringed the Community law set out in Article 34 TFEU that prohibits obstacles to the free movement of goods. The Commission added that such restriction significantly obstructs access to the Italian market. 3 Therefore the Court followed the commission's line of argument by stating that Article 34 aims to prohibit all rules enacted by prayer in schools, Member States which are capable of hindering, directly or indirectly, actually or potentially, intra - Community trade 4 as laid out in the case of Procureur du Roi v Dassonville  also known as the 'Dassonville formula'. Eu Directives Problem Case.
Difficulties arise in situations such as the one faced by Gunilla, where Directives are improperly transposed or ignored by the implementing national authority. Colson v Land Nordrhen-Westfalen (1984)2 also said: that national courts are bound to interpret national law in light of the wording and purpose of the directive. Difficulties arise in language composition analytical situations such as the one faced by Gunilla, where Directives are improperly transposed or ignored by prayer in schools essay, the implementing national authority. A Directive which has not been properly transposed creates legal anomalies in the domestic legal system in question. Directives are used to harmonise national legislation, regulation and language composition essay, administrative provisions. They require co-operation between the Community and the Member States. The democratic legitimacy of the Unions legislative process may have been enhanced by the growing influence of the European Parliament, but it remains deeply flawed by the role of the Commission and the functioning of the Council.
do in order to represent that democratic legitimacy. Democratic legitimacy has been described by Abraham Lincoln as depending upon, ''government by the people, of the people, and for the people'' that is based on political participation, citizen representation and in schools, effective government.3 As argued by Daniel Gaus, the nature of legitimacy can be described as the ''worthiness of a political system'' and, shows in language composition essay successfully operating legitimations or, in other words, in generally accepted justifications of a political order.4 There is a sense in which the EU does enjoy sufficient legitimacy for the tasks it undertakes. In theory, the European Commission represents the EU interest, the European Parliament acts as the voice of the people of the EU, and the Council represents the chicago style citation, interests of national governments. The reality is quite different. Discuss. From these facts it seems clear that the Commission represents EU interest and not the interests of ap english composition essay, individual member states.
However, given that the 27 commissioners consist of one commissioner from each member state, the independence of individual commissioners must be seen in write an essay reasons for causes of poverty relative terms. Ap English Language Composition Analytical Essay. Chosen because of well-connected and established prior political careers in their countries (with over two-thirds chosen from a party in government at the time of appointment), they often act as links between the Commission and the member states.3 The Court of Justice have stated that Commissioners were required to ensure that the general interest of the European Union took precedence at all times over both national and personal interests. 'The inauguration by the Court of Justice of the doctrines of direct effect and supremacy marked an important shift in write on the reasons of poverty the emphasis of European integration.' (M. Dougan, 2004) Explain the language composition, relationship between the principle of supremacy and that of. With each stage, the coleridge, supremacy of EU law was enlarged and deepened. The doctrine of essay, 'supremacy' applies to national law that 1) pre-dates the argument essay explanation, EU law 2) post-dates the EU law 3) and that of a constitutional nature. The doctrine of supremacy was first given credence in 1964 during the Costa v Enel case2, Court of Justice of the ap english language composition, European Communities. Prayer In Schools Essay. The Court clarified that the EEC Treaty had created its own legal system, which had become an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States and which their courts were bound to ap english composition analytical apply. The Problem With The ECJs Approach To Free Movement Is Not Whether It Has Found The Ideal Analytical Techniques For Determining The Boundaries Of The Treaty Prohibitions, But Rather That Its Application Of The Proportionality Principle Undermines An. This was largely based on the reasoning that indistinctly applicable rules which relate to essay chicago style citation product composition and packaging create a dual burden for the importer, as the importer will have to comply with 2 sets of regulations. The court mitigated the effects of ap english analytical, this widening, by allowing distinctly applicable rules to be justified by the Article 30 derogations, but also creating judicially created derogations known as mandatory requirements (discussed further on).
With regards to essay selling arrangements, i.e. those rules concerning who sells the product, when they sell the product and how they sell the product7, the ECJ in Keck8 carved a solid exclusion for provided they meet the two provisos universality neutrality. EU Protection of Fundamental Rights. Furthermore, it held that rights conferred on individuals by the EC legislation should be enforceable by those individuals in national courts. With growing awareness of fundamental rights, especially throughout the European Community, these rights undoubtedly began to play a crucial role and therefore their protection became inevitable. In the ap english language analytical essay, 1970 case of candidate essay, Handelsgesellschaft7, which portrayed the importance of fundamental rights, the German Verwaltungsgericht referred to the ECJ the question of whether the import and export licensing system under the common organisation of the grain market was valid.
Parliamentary Supremacy as the dominate characteristic of political institutions. The theory of natural and divine law was long held to govern long before the Bill of ap english language analytical, Rights. In many cases, the common law will control Acts of Parliament, and sometimes adjudge them to be utterly void: for when an Act of Parliament is against common right and essay, reason, or repugnant or impossible to ap english be performed, the common law will control it, and adjudge such an Act to essay be Void.iii A proposition by A.V Dicey suggested that the concept of parliamentary sovereignty has two parts, both a positive and ap english language analytical, negative strand. The principle proposed by the positive strand, is that Parliament can make or unmake any law whatsoever. Critically evaluate the impact of the E.U. Directive on Copyright in an essay on the an Information Society, 2001/29/EC, on the problems posed for musical copyright owners by the development of the Internet. Does the Directive achieve, in your view, a workable and effec.
It manages to promote some level of standardisation within the EU regarding copyright and ap english language essay, related rights. This was a necessity for the successful enforcement of copyright owners' rights. Essay Chicago Citation. Prior to standardisation, the laws governing the Internet within the ap english, EU were so fragmented that they could be circumvented by a user merely setting up a server in a country other than his own which had a lower standard of applicable laws and enforcement of those laws. The standardisation within the EU now means that all Member States have a degree of harmonisation and can enforce this Directive without dispute as to governing law (within the EU). Institutional development perspective is a crucial point of the enlargement process not least because before accepting new members, significant institutional reforms must be accepted. The process of interaction and integration with direct neighbours depend the future success or failure of the EU.
Hence, Ronald Dannreuther suggests: The impact of write reasons for causes of poverty, EU enlargement is also not limited to the accession of new members but involves the definition of new borders and creation of new neighbours. (Dannreuther, 2004: 2) Fraser Cameron claims (2004) The scenario presented involves an Irish national, Gerard, who had migrated to the UK unaware of a new legislation which posed an obligation on language analytical him to register with the on the reasons of poverty, UK Border Agency upon arrival, because he was a non-UK national. Gerard appealed the ap english language composition essay, d. wrongly dealt with as it is the role of the European Union law to on the reasons for causes of poverty govern such matters with the regulations laid down through various treaties. Ap English Language Composition Essay. The problem must be dissected into fragments to consider each action taken by or against Gerard, the validity of these actions in accordance with EU law, the argument, lawful procedure that Gerard should have experienced under terms of EU law and which authorities were responsible for handling the case. Whether Gerard has remedies that allow him to ap english language composition analytical essay enforce his rights must be also be revised. The least one can expect from a Court is that it be consistent and promote legal certainty. If the thesis tab, Court of Justice decides that directives only impose obligations on ap english language composition analytical Member States and prayer essay, only after the period for their transposition has expired, liti.
Thus, from analytical essay, this definition, it could be stated that Directives cannot in argument essay themselves automatically create substantive rights that citizens are then able to ap english composition analytical essay enforce and it is thesis, this initial premise, which we shall consider. In Van Duyn1, the court observed that where an obligation has been imposed on a Member State to ap english language composition analytical essay pursue a particular course of essay, conduct, the ap english composition, useful effect of such an act would be weakened if individuals were prevented from relying on it before their national courts and if the latter were prevented form taking it into consideration. . can utilise the direct actions, namely Art 230 (actions against coleridge essays EU institutions for exceeding powers), and Art 232 (actions against Community institutions for failure to act). Provided that the language composition analytical, possibility of non-compliance has been notified, in angel thesis the scenario given, the Commission can engage in composition analytical informal discussion with the United Kingdom. This is known as the essay, informal stage or mediation. The Commission will also identify the severity of the breach and will prescribe a time limit within which the UK must comply with the relevant obligation under the Treaty, namely its obligation under Art 39(1) The comitology procedures focus too much on institutional balance, and not enough on deliberation. Discuss. Over the ap english composition, years, many criticised the Comitology Decision, especially whether the prayer, Decision infringed upon the (Community) institutional balance of ap english composition analytical, powers and Article 145, third indent10. Argument Explanation. As a result, new Comitology Decisions were introduced. Before examining whether the comitology procedures focus too much on language analytical essay institutional balance and not enough on argument essay explanation deliberation, it is important to outline the different comitology procedures; advisory, management, regulatory and regulatory with scrutiny.
The advisory procedure is the one which the Commission has the greatest freedom. The Commission need only to take utmost account of the opinion delivered by the committee11 but remains free to disregard it12. In this case the Court of ap english analytical essay, Justice discussed how community law is a unique system that is citation, able to override any conflicting legislation. By 1964 where there were situations of conflict, the language analytical essay, Court of Justice ruled that community law always prevails no matter what the situation was. A state that is in violation of community law may be challenged before its own national courts. The principles of direct effect and taylor essays, supremacy come into play. A complainant may choose to bring proceedings at national level in so far as that may offer legal protection unavailable at EC level: this will. Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out. Do they use key words from the title or question? Do they answer the question directly? Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion? In conclusion, the decentralisation of EU competition law will inevitably lead to a risk of inconsistent application and language, a decline in central guidance from the Commission as they will have very little influence over the process in national courts. These factors will affect undertakings self assessment due to uncertainty over how Article 81 (3) will be applied and lack of guidance. However, any disputes over the legality of agreements will be dealt with quickly and efficiently, which should promote confidence and certainty in undertakings. In Conclusion it can be seen that the Commission has a very difficult task to perform when it comes to Competition law.
On one hand it does not want to stifle companies from trying to invest and grow with the market it is within, but does not want to allow companies to prayer in schools essay become so powerful that there is no competition. The main feeling I have is language analytical essay, that in the days of huge multinational comes that don#039;t care about final end users but only in schools essay, that of language, shareholders. People will want to look at see that there freely elected representative are doing as much as possible to curtail these companies from samuel taylor essays on his own times, having to much influence in there daily life#039;s. In the years to come if people feel that they rights are not being expressed we will find ourselves in a world full of festering hate and greed. In conclusion the freedoms of service and establishment are economic notions they link back to ap english language composition analytical essay the very reason the EU was first formed. They are very important as they give rights to self employed and companies, with little reference to small businesses. Competitiveness amongst the movement of workers and establishment prevents the service doctrine from growing. EU citizens would benefit greatly from manchurian candidate, growth in the services sector. They would be able to choose the best services for themselves with the best price on the entire market. This will help to maintain a borderless Europe.
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and effct essay WRITING CAUSE AND EFFECT PAPERS. Cause and ap english composition analytical effect papers use analysis to examine the reasons for and the outcomes of situations. They are an attempt to discover either the origins of something, such as an event or a decision, the manchurian candidate effects or results that can be properly attributed to it, or both. Cause and effect papers answer questions like the following (A is composition essay your topic): Why did A happen? (discovering the causes of A) What happened as a result of A? (discovering the effects of explanation, A) What might happen as a result of A? ( predicting further effects of A) You may write a cause and effect paper primarily about composition essay, causes, primarily about effects, or a combination of both. Before you begin writing or even researching, make a list of all the causes of this event you already know about.
Ask questions like these: Why did this happen? What preconditions existed? Were the results foreseen? Could they have been foreseen? Then do some preliminary research, using what you already know to guide the direction of your reading. Change or add to your original list of causes to prayer, reflect new information gathered from your research.
Done in language composition analytical essay depth, this kind of analysis is likely to cruel thesis, uncover an almost unlimited chain of linked causes, far more than you can effectively address in one paper. Identify one to three of them as more important (or interesting, or overlooked) than the others. Then, acknowledging that multiple causes exist, limit your discussion to those most important (or interesting, or overlooked). As you brainstorm possible causes, do not fall into ap english language essay, the trap of manchurian candidate essay, thinking that, simply because one event followed another, that there was necessarily a causal relationship. (The mere fact that four youths were seen running away from the scene of an assault does not itself logically implicate them in the assault; they could have been running for help, chasing down the alleged criminal, or simply jogging by.) Also, do not confuse a necessary precondition for a cause: A large number of costumed students milling about in downtown Chico on Halloween night may be a necessary precondition for a riot, but it is language analytical not, in itself, the cause of a riot. Candidate? As you write, use the transitions, or signal words, that tell readers you are demonstrating causal relationships between your ideas: The following example names the ap english analytical cause first, followed by the effect: Because the technology program received independent funding from grants and federal Title I funds, it was relatively untouched by the school district's own budget cuts. If you choose to chicago style citation, write about effects, first brainstorm: Make a list of all the analytical essay effects you know about, and use this list to direct your research to learn more. Have the effects had great impact on history, culture, or your own life? Or have they had a small impact with few results? Again, be sure you can demonstrate the causal relationship.
Just as there are usually several causes for anything, there are a multitude of argument essay explanation, effects that proceed from any one cause. Don't try to ap english language, address a long chain of effects in one paper. Taylor Coleridge Own Times? Acknowledge that many effects of various kinds exist, and analytical essay then limit your discussion to prayer in schools, the most important ones. Language Composition? Transition words that suggest to the reader that you are discussing effects include the following: The following statement names a cause first, and then an effect: Employees at companies that offer flexible work schedules are more productive and file fewer claims for mental-health benefits; consequently, the cruel angel number of companies offering flextime is on the rise. (As a matter of argument, you could claim that the example above shows two linked effects of the flextime policy: First, it caused employees to be more productive; and second, their enhanced productivity, in turn, caused more companies to adopt flextime. Linked causes and effects are typical of this type of paper.) Cause and effect papers often make predictions based on known facts, trends, and developments. Language Composition? Prediction moves from the known and angel thesis tab observable into the unknown and possible. Prediction tries to answer questions like these: What are the possible or likely consequences?
Are these results likely to have great impact on language, my life or the lives of others? Are these results likely to have great impact on shaping public policy, society, or history? What preconditions would have to exist before my predictions could come about? If you choose to make predictions, as is common, for example, in political science, education, science, and prayer in schools essay philosophy, be sure to use credible evidence and language composition analytical essay strong reasoning. If you do not handle predictions with finesse and ground them in in schools established fact, they are apt to ap english language analytical, appear fantastic and unbelievable. Avoid overstating your case; use language couched in an appropriate degree of uncertainty ( might, may well be, is likely to, can expect, is entirely possible ). Signal words and verb forms such as these suggest to the reader that you are making the move from observation to prediction: Here is a prediction using two of the above transitions: If the governor fails to clearly declare his position and take a leadership role in reforming the state's workers' compensation system, voters are likely to cruel tab, take matters into their own hands and call for a statewide referendum. Ap English Language Essay? A cause and in schools effect paper relies heavily on your analysis of the situation. Although there are many ways to interpret any situation and the effects that it has produced, in the end the convincing power of ap english language essay, your paper depends on specific evidence, clear and write an essay reasons convincing language, and logical development.
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conclusion chapter Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the language analytical, same. The Blair decade. Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.
Organisation of this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and prayer, Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.
1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the Act. Commentary on ap english language analytical the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.
1977-82 Matters for Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.
1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. Samuel Coleridge! But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece.
If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to language reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of manchurian essay extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the ap english language analytical essay, number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is argument essay, available online. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for the school curriculum was previously ascribed to HMI. In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. This has been corrected in the chapter below and in the Timeline; and the full text of the document is now available online.
My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of ap english language composition analytical essay education. Neo-liberalism became the dominant force in British politics with the election in 1979 of the Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Candidate Essay! Her government's policies 'accelerated the closing down of unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Soaring inflation and a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for her, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands and she was able to language play the part of heroic war leader in the Falklands War between March and June 1982. In Schools Essay! The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.
With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from 44 to 144), she felt emboldened to take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at the general election in 1987. Her majority of 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the ap english essay, introduction of a form of poll tax. It proved to be her undoing and she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only industry and commerce but also public services.
Conservative legislation sought to drive neo-liberal principles into the heart of public policy. An emphasis on cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against reasons for causes of poverty, the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and the promotion of new forms of public management. The outcome of these processes was a form of governance in which market principles were advanced at the same time as central authority was strengthened. (Jones 2003:107) Thus the twin aims of Margaret Thatcher's education policies in the 1980s were to ap english language composition analytical essay convert the nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of this policy can be traced back to the establishment in 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to persuade the Conservative Party to abandon the post-war welfare consensus and embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in essay style citation, Evolution by choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to the Black Paper of 1977. (For more on the Black Papers see the previous chapter). He set out to 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on language 'absolute freedom of cruel angel thesis choice by application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of 'ability and ap english composition analytical, aptitude'. If it was undersubscribed it would face the possibility of closure.
The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. There would be an 'effective and samuel taylor coleridge on his own times, independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in ap english analytical essay, Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by commitment to the market and to cruel angel tab privatisation' (Benn and analytical essay, Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to be radical and thesis tab, modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to ditch the composition essay, elitist policies of the past. The most obvious of these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. Cruel Angel Thesis Tab! The Tories had underestimated the popularity of ap english language analytical essay comprehensive schools, and attempts to reintroduce or extend selection in Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Solihull all failed as a result of strong local opposition.
But the Tories weren't going to give up. 'Such defeats served to encourage Conservative Ministers to opt for argument explanation rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at establishing a wider variety of secondary schools and providing for greater parental choice' (Chitty and language analytical, Dunford 1999:25). They began work on a series of radical changes characterised by the absence of any popular demand for them from any section of the education community nationally or locally, nor even from the populist media. One by one all had to be imposed by means of a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from all other political parties and from much of the samuel coleridge on his own times, educational establishment. (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the language analytical essay, ground. When she took office in May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. Samuel Taylor Essays Own Times! He was 'moderate and essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and language composition analytical, freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the manchurian essay, state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in ap english composition analytical, Chitty and Dunford 1999:1).
This suited Thatcher because at first reform of education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the an essay on the for causes of poverty, rate of inflation (causing very high levels of unemployment in the process) and ap english language composition analytical, with curbing the power and influence of the trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in September 1981 by the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the essay, right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the government's agenda. Ironically, as secretary of state for ap english language composition analytical essay education Joseph found himself commanding an angel, apparatus that was now increasingly involved in specifying the everyday practice of schools. . Joseph, like the language composition analytical essay, ministers who succeeded him, organised in the name of 'effective education' a vast new complex of regulations and regulators that would measure and direct the processes and outcomes of schooling. (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the education department, Thatcher set about manchurian, preparing to take control. This meant confronting the 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and national and local inspectors and language composition analytical essay, advisors. There would be action on three fronts: the write an essay for causes, curriculum - traditionally seen as the language composition essay, 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to enter; the teachers - controlling their training and development and restricting their role in essay, curriculum development; and the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the 'Great Debate' on ap english language essay the nature and purposes of argument essay explanation education. Under the Thatcher administration, the debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the publication in 1979 of LEA Arrangements for the School Curriculum which required local authorities to language publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in tab, which the ap english language analytical essay, secretaries of cruel angel thesis tab state (for Education and Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the approach to the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in the years ahead'.
Every local education authority was expected to language essay frame policies for manchurian essay the school curriculum consistent with the government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the ap english language composition essay, DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in the light of the advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in its area, and its arrangements for making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the extent to which current provision in the schools is consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of schools, teachers and others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to essay chicago style citation provide: (a) a report on the progress which has been made in drawing up a policy for composition analytical essay the curriculum in its primary and secondary schools . (b) a description of the roles played in the processes of drawing up the policy by essay chicago heads and other teachers, governors, parents and other interested parties in the local community; (c) a brief statement of the ways in which the policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the steps being taken and planned by ap english language composition analytical the authority to seek to ensure that the curriculum is planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to ensure that the curriculum is appropriately related to what happens outside school, and includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in samuel taylor own times, mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of how far the resources available to ap english the authority . Essay Explanation! are enabling it to ap english composition give effect to its policy for the curriculum. (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the DES issued A framework for the school curriculum in 1980; and HMI produced a number of essay style citation publications, including: A View of the Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from ap english composition 5 to an essay on the reasons for causes of poverty 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). Ap English Composition Analytical! The HMI documents were progressive in outlook. The Curriculum from 5 to 16 , for example, argued that the manchurian essay, school curriculum should be thought of in terms of 'areas of learning and experience' and analytical essay, that it included not only the formal programme of on the reasons for causes lessons, but also the 'informal' programme of so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the quality of ap english essay relationships, the concern for equality of opportunity, the values exemplified in the way the school sets about its task and explanation, the way in which it is organised and managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to government ministers.
In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . This consultation document set out plans for analytical the introduction of a national curriculum and associated assessment procedures. An Essay Reasons Of Poverty! Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in haste: the cover was printed but the ap english composition analytical essay, contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the previous year). Central government also sought greater control over teachers. In 1984 the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to reduce the influence of teachers in curriculum development, the Schools Council, in essay citation, which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in 1984. Its work was shared between the School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by the secretary of state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to language 'concern itself with policy'. And in 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and performance-related pay. The result was a year of industrial action by essay explanation teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the local authorities - many of them run by Labour - were an irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on composition analytical essay in the schools.
Her government therefore set about weakening the role of the essay explanation, LEAs by dismantling the triangular framework of responsibility - central government, local authorities and the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in the running of ap english language composition analytical essay schools. The LEAs were already in a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the manchurian candidate essay, number of LEAs was reduced from 146 to 104. Many of the ap english language composition essay, reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to some widely publicised resignations of Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over the service. Furthermore, after the coleridge essays on his, 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for analytical essay local politics to consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). Now, in essay chicago style citation, the 1980s, public spending was being cut and the differences between the language analytical essay, spending of different LEAs widened. As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to essay ebb back to central government. Thatcher enlisted the right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. Papers like The Sun and the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the absurdities perpetrated - often in the name of equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Analytical! Ealing, for example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. It wasn't true, of course (I know - I was there!), but the endless repetition of argument essay such stories damaged the image of local authorities in analytical essay, the eyes of the prayer in schools essay, public - which is precisely what it was intended to do.
The government took another swipe at the local authorities in 1982, when it launched the Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at 14-18 year olds. LEAs were not allowed to ap english language composition participate. Instead, it was administered by the Department of Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). It was not exactly a success. Essays On His Own Times! 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in this area and so was expenditure: £89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only a year or two in existence' (Benn and Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for language essay Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in 1986 to promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the candidate, government announced that schools would in future be allowed to offer vocational courses like those from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of vocational qualifications' (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) in analytical essay, an attempt to create a single new system of vocational qualifications: GNVQ for educational qualifications and NVQ for qualifications gained through work. Angel! For a brief moment it looked as if at last a British government was going to catapult the ap english language analytical, country into a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and an integration of essays on his own times vocational and academic education. Language! (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to be.
The Major administration (see the next chapter) chose not to pursue the integration of academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the process of giving more power to prayer parents. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to choose schools (6) and the right to appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the ap english, creation of an essay reasons new schools and the closing of existing ones (12), and the number of school places (15); the Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to pay for 30,000 children to go to private schools (17); the obligation on local authorities to provide free milk and meals was removed, except in the case of children from families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and language, local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).
Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the publication of the explanation, 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to identify the needs of essay children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for ascertaining those needs (5-6); and candidate, produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at ap english language composition analytical School . 1983 Education (Fees and in schools, Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the secretary of state to require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to students 'not having the requisite connection with the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man' and to exclude such students from being eligible for certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.
This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to be given to LEAs for language essay government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in taking control of education policy away from the LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in 1987 when Specific Grants for INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the limit set in section 2(1) of the Education (Grants and Awards) Act 1984 on expenditure approved for education support grant purposes, and excluded remuneration for lunchtime supervision from the Remuneration of Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. Samuel Taylor! He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in ap english composition analytical, the job. The first (and much the shorter - 5 pages) was the 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and in schools essay, the pooling of ap english language composition essay expenditure by local authorities. 1986 Education (No.
2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only much longer than the first, it was also profoundly more important. It implemented the proposals set out in the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the importance of the LEAs and put the write an essay for causes of poverty, focus on the Department and the schools. Governors were to be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and staffing. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for ap english language essay specific responsibilities including the 'determination and organisation of the secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about essay explanation, what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the power to exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the Act introduced the concept of educational law, so that lawyers became involved in education for the first time. It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of language composition analytical essay governing bodies was changed - the number of parent governors was to be equal to the number of LEA governors and there were to be staff governors and others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of essays on his parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of ap english composition its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.
If taught (it didn't have to be), sex education had to encourage pupils 'to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the essay chicago citation, school's curriculum (20); discipline was the responsibility of the head, though the principles underlying it were to be supplied by governors (22); there were new rules on pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to produce an annual report (30) and hold an annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for the appointment and ap english essay, dismissal of staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to be no political indoctrination in schools - this was an attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in an essay on the reasons of poverty, a number of schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by ap english language composition the state (47); provision was made for in schools essay the appraisal of teachers (49); governors were required to supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to provide training for governors (57); and the secretary of state was no longer required to produce annual report (60). Language! Download the Education (No. 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).
The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from 'promoting teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by New Labour in November 2003). Download the Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the argument essay, most important education act since 1944. It is sometimes referred to as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of ap english language analytical essay state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).
The Act was presented as giving power to the schools. Explanation! In fact, it took power away from the LEAs and the schools and gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and language composition essay, turned it into a market - something the Tories had been working towards for a decade. Chitty and Dunford (1999:25) argue that the 'meretricious agenda' of the 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to the remarkable resilience of the comprehensive ideal'. Having failed to get selection reinstated in 1979, the argument, Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and the introduction of local markets . as attempts to introduce selection by composition essay the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and assessment councils; admission of pupils to prayer county and voluntary schools; local management of schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and the abolition of ILEA.
Download the Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for language analytical a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in all maintained schools, consisting of manchurian candidate essay religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). Composition! The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the knowledge, skills and understanding which children would be expected to have by the end of each key stage; the 'programmes of study' to be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for assessing pupils at the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of candidate essay three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and physical education); plus a modern foreign language at key stages 3 and 4 (3(1-2)). Analytical! Schools in Welsh-speaking areas of Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out new rules on religious education: every day was to explanation begin with an 'act of collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Every LEA was required to set up a standing advisory council on religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of representatives of language religious groups, the Church of England, teachers and the local authority (11(4)).
Agreed Syllabuses for on his own times Religious Education should 'reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in ap english language analytical, Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to be established: the essay explanation, National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to have its own Curriculum Council for Wales). The members of the councils would be appointed by ap english essay the secretary of state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the curriculum and advise the secretary of state, carry out programmes of research and development, publish and own times, disseminate information relating to the curriculum and ap english language analytical, perform 'such ancillary activities as the Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of examinations and essay chicago citation, assessment; it was also to make arrangements with appropriate bodies for the moderation of assessments made in pursuance of assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of Pupils to County and Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the language composition analytical, admission of pupils to maintained schools, in particular the conditions which were to be met if the angel tab, authority responsible for admissions to a school wished to reduce the analytical, 'standard number' of places in a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and prayer, Staff.
Before 1988, schools had only had control over 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to books and materials. Language Composition Essay! The staff were employed and the buildings maintained by style the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of analytical essay schools' (LMS), the explanation, schools were to be given far greater control, managing almost the whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the composition, authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the school in respect of that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for essay that year to be spent for the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on the basis of an 'allocation formula' based on the number and analytical essay, ages of the essay, pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff would be transferred from the local authority to schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for composition analytical the establishment of grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and funded directly by argument explanation central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the composition essay, articles of government (58); the conduct of parents' ballots to prayer essay decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and staff to ap english analytical the governing bodies (74-5) and chicago citation, the grants (maintenance, special purpose and capital) payable to the schools (79). It made clear that funds directed to grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.
The Act provided for the establishment of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and City Colleges for the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and ap english composition analytical essay, laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and Further Education. Part II of the Act made changes to the provision and funding of on the reasons for causes of poverty higher and further education and provided for the establishment of two new funding bodies: the Universities Funding Council (UFC) and language analytical, the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of state. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for the funding of schools. Part III Education in Inner London. Part III of the Act provided for the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and liabilities to the inner London boroughs.
Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the Act covered a number of other matters: the establishment and functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the essay citation, Act was written by a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in its design or construction. It was almost entirely content-based. Dennis Lawton, of the University of London Institute of Education, described it as the language composition, reincarnation of the 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and essay chicago style, therefore unmanageable, especially at the primary level, and language analytical, its introduction resulted in a significant drop in reading standards. It divided the curriculum up into essay discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and ap english language, 'project' work difficult if not impossible. But perhaps the most damaging outcome of samuel essays own times it was that it prevented teachers and schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to curriculum 'deliverers'.
It was also constantly revised. Right-wing think-tanks and ap english composition analytical, pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and Anglicisation of the on the, national testing system, so as to emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). Ap English Language Analytical Essay! The New Right gained control of the curriculum and assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to redesign the national curriculum, reducing the amount of detail and candidate essay, removing 'the stronger signs of the traditionalist and ap english composition analytical essay, ethnocentric enthusiasms of the New Right'. The 1995 revision of the national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the curriculum, and its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. They were based on the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT) led by Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the essay, Black Report).
The report was sound on the purposes of language analytical essay assessment. It began by listing four criteria for a national assessment scheme: the assessment results should give direct information about manchurian candidate, pupils' achievement in relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the ap english language composition essay, results should provide a basis for decisions about pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the scales or grades should be capable of chicago citation comparison across classes and schools, if teachers, pupils and parents are to share a common language and common standards: so the assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in which criteria and analytical, scales are set up and used should relate to expected routes of educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at different ages: the assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to be addressed: the undesirable effects of testing on children (stress etc); the taylor, possible damage to ap english analytical essay relationships between parents and schools; the candidate essay, fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in ap english analytical essay, league tables, 'leading to essays on his ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). Unfortunately, the composition analytical essay, Report went on to propose a system of testing at ages 7, 11, 14 and 16 (at the end of the Key Stages) in which each pupil was to be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of 'Attainment Targets' in the ten National Curriculum subjects. This was hugely complicated and essay, never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the proposals and language essay, favoured simpler external tests of children at explanation 7, 11 and 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in the educational validity of the composition analytical essay, assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the education market place she was so determined to create. So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to where to send their children. Three inevitable - and undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to take on samuel essays on his pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to concentrate their efforts on children who were on the borderline between one level and the next rather than on those who needed attention most; and the curriculum became skewed by the need to practise for the tests.
On religious education and collective worship, it is interesting to compare the Act's stipulations that the majority of analytical a school's 'acts of collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and an essay of poverty, that Christianity should be the predominant religion in religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is never mentioned - because it was taken for granted. Composition! For more on religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the role of the manchurian candidate essay, head teacher and governors. The head was no longer an educationalist but an institutional manager. S/he now had to learn about language composition essay, recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in argument essay explanation, relation to the control of a school's budget and to the appointment and dismissal of staff. No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.
Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on the role. Because school budgets were to language composition be based largely on pupil numbers, schools had to attract as many pupils as possible in order to survive. This led to some bizarre cases of schools offering gifts to parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Prayer In Schools Essay! Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to language composition essay around 85 per cent of the coleridge on his own times, total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an important element in the creation of an composition, 'education market'; it took financial control away from the style citation, local authorities; and it enabled the government to 'pass the buck' to ap english language analytical essay the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the second year of LMS onwards. Indeed, school budgets were cut in six of the eight years following 1988.
The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on the LEAs. It was also iniquitous because, to bribe schools into opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at the expense of the essay, remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of their pupils on the basis of ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to language composition essay become grant-maintained in manchurian, the first year or two, but when the extra cash dried up, so did the applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the schools that did opt out language composition analytical essay, were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on education tended to chicago citation be lower. A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to go grant-maintained were concentrated in language, just 12 of the 117 education authorities in England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by taylor essays on his New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the ap english language, state and independent sectors. He told the TES : What we have at present is seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to rise to essay citation ten per ap english analytical cent; and on the other side, a huge continent: 93 per cent in the state-maintained sector. . What I think is striking in the British education system is that there is essay, nothing in between . Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of half-way house. I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.
I think many parents would as well. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to destroy the power of the LEAs (and to composition analytical essay reintroduce selection) by cruel angel thesis tab involving private enterprise in education. A hundred of the colleges were to be set up across the country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per pupil far higher than in the neighbouring local authority schools. In the event, only a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to pick up the bill. The last CTC to ap english essay be authorised, in April 1991, was Kingswood in Bristol. Cruel Angel Thesis Tab! The chair of Cable and Wireless and former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the required £2m; the government handed over the remaining £8m. Ap English Essay! Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that £8m for capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the £4.5m he had for capital spending on the county's other 150,000 children. With the extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and there would still have been enough left over to on the reasons give all primary schools an extra nursery class for a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the analytical, Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and essay chicago, profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by Labour politicians who were not afraid to ap english composition analytical comment on central government policies. Tory MPs called for its abolition in 1980 but were overruled by education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and she would have liked to explanation get rid of ILEA at the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.
But ILEA's days were numbered. An amendment calling for its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into the 1988 Act. It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and ap english language composition analytical, its responsibilities delegated to the London boroughs. The destruction of ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and state vandalism: it had had a proud record of supporting schools in deprived areas and promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and committed to the wellbeing of explanation London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in 1977, had sought to combat racism, sexism and class prejudice in schools and society.
And in language analytical, 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to identify problems, the scale of which is, in some cases, unique in this country.' (A form of overall local government for write London was reintroduced by New Labour in May 2000, when the composition analytical essay, first elections to the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Ken Livingstone became the first elected Mayor of chicago style London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for ap english analytical essay HE students and so began the diminution of manchurian candidate essay student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Discussion.
As part of the 'Great Debate' called for in 1976 by composition essay Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and candidate, their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. 1164) that surveys of the quality of primary schools should be conducted at ap english composition least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the whole school age range. Essay Chicago Style! They were: 1978 Primary education in ap english language composition, England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the chicago style citation, Thatcher government and published its interim report, West Indian Children in our Schools , in 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in our education system. Urgent action is needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).
It noted that in both primary and secondary schools the curriculum, books and teaching materials were often inappropriate to meet the needs and backgrounds of West Indian pupils and that this was 'a cause of their lack of motivation and commitment to the work and language composition analytical essay, their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for prayer essay the underachievement of West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on the part of teachers and the education system as a whole, and on ap english the part of West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). They therefore recommended a range of specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to bring about fundamental changes in essay, attitude and practice in the longer term. Taken together, these constitute a programme for ap english language analytical essay action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to prayer fulfil their true potential in our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on the teaching of ap english language analytical maths, in the light of concerns expressed by the Education, Arts and Home Office Sub-Committee of the Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in July 1977. These concerns related to the apparent lack of basic computation skills in many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on adults, the lack of samuel coleridge own times qualified maths teachers, and the confusing multiplicity of maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Its terms of reference were: To consider the teaching of mathematics in primary and secondary schools in England and Wales, with particular regard to composition analytical the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and adult life generally, and to for causes of poverty make recommendations. The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in November 1981 and ap english, it was published in January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.
The Committee of Enquiry into style citation the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and recommendations were: there is no single cause of underachievement and therefore no single solution; education has a major role in changing the attitudes of the white majority population; there is a need for ap english language composition greater sensitivity in the education of 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to raise teachers' awareness; in initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of both teachers and pupils; the reasons of poverty, first priority should be the learning of English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of instruction; and schools should not take on responsibility for composition analytical the teaching and maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to reconcile the candidate, concerns and aspirations of ap english language both the majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the prayer in schools essay, fragmentation of our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the ap english composition, stability and cohesion of society as a whole. (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is not how to educate children of coleridge on his own times ethnic minorities, but how to educate all children. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by a Committee of Inquiry chaired by Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for ap english language composition analytical 16-18 year olds. It argued that the current A Level system was too narrow and that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the prayer, recommendations.
1989 Cox Report. Chaired by Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of English Literature at Manchester University, the National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to make recommendations on attainment targets and programmes of study for the English component of the new National Curriculum. The result was the Cox Report English for ap english language composition analytical ages 5 to candidate 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to lead an enquiry into discipline in schools in England and analytical, Wales. The Elton Committee's report Discipline in Schools was published in the spring of 1989. Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and the School Examinations and Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on early years education. Produced by a committee chaired by Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the education of angel thesis tab 3 and 4 year olds.
It was published in November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over as education secretary. Tory attitudes to education - and to education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the bill which was shortly to become the 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the Tory Party Conference in ap english analytical, October 1986: It is crucial for parents to understand where power in the education system lies. Our Education Bill radically changes the composition of essay explanation school governing bodies. It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. We will end the dominance of the local authority and its political appointees. There will be more parent governors elected by all the parents. Control over sex education will be removed from the teachers and local authorities and given to the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on language composition analytical essay them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.
But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and manchurian candidate, the last straw for many was her determination to ap english composition analytical essay introduce a form of argument poll tax. This led, in March 1990, to the worst riots London had seen for language essay a century. She lost the confidence of thesis her colleagues and in November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and prime minister by John Major. Benn C and ap english analytical, Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.
DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in Britain: 1944 to manchurian the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in our Schools Interim report of the Committee of Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.
Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by choice' in CB Cox and R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Row. Swann (1985) Education for All Report of the Committee of Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.