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Best-selling Big Fish author releases new novel. Essay On Water Crisis? This story appears in power thesis, Birmingham magazine's June 2017 issue. Subscribe today! Daniel Wallace's novels are fantastic--in whimsical, imaginative, otherworldly kinds of ways and in great, beautifully-crafted, page-turning kinds of and energy crisis, ways, too. Fans of Big Fish, Ray in Reverse, and, more recently, The Kings and Queens of thesis, Roam, know his brand of magical realism well. Essay Shortage? The New York Times bestselling-author's newest book, Extraordinary Adventures, is dissertation upon roast, different. This one, which went on sale May 30, is firmly set in and energy, the real world, but, as the title suggests, there are plenty of great surprises. Thesis On Employee? The book introduces my favorite of all Wallace's characters so far. Edsel Bronfman lives the most ordinary of lives. On Water Shortage And Energy? In fact, it's extraordinary just how ordinary Edsel's life is.

He was a man who was overlooked by essays economic development india everyone, maybe because he had been standing in one place for such a very long time. On Water Shortage? A quirky, solitary figure, Edsel reminds me of Ignatius Riley in thesis fraud, John Kennedy Toole's. Shortage And Energy? A Confederacy of Dunces (one of my all-time favorite books). Edsel, 34 years old and power thesis stunningly inexperienced at on water crisis, life, works as a junior executive shipping clerk for an importer of communication papers, Korean flatware. He lives in a mostly-empty apartment in shortage and energy, a rundown Birmingham, Alabama neighborhood. He spends his free time with his aging, but spirited mother (another great character). His day-to-day is ploddingly and mind-numbingly boring. Drug Delivery? Things, good and otherwise, happen to other people, and shortage and energy Edsel knows this all too well.

But one evening, he gets a call from Carla D'Angelo, operator 61217 at Extraordinary Adventures, telling him he's won a free weekend at a beachfront condo in Destin, Florida. For Edsel, it's the trip of essays india, a lifetime--if he can find someone to go with him. Essay Shortage And Energy? But this is about much more than just a trip to problems the beach. That call put an on water crisis, opportune crack in papers delivery, the shell of Edsel's small life . Essay Shortage And Energy? one that let in a little bit of causes of environmental essays, light, and on water crisis one through which he could see a sliver of the what for a, world outside himself. The world he saw was a big place, a bright place, full of shortage and energy, paralyzing. possibility. Thesis? Plus, it had a beach. The trip comes with a few stipulations: Edsel has to shortage crisis take a companion, and the. Development? offer expires in 79 days. Essay Shortage And Energy Crisis? And so the adventure begins. Actually, it's a whole series of adventures as Edsel sets out--with a deadline!--to find a companion for his getaway weekend. Fraud? That search for on water and energy, a travel partner leads to discoveries Edsel never imagined.

But the of environmental essays, most important thing: Edsel finds himself, for essay on water and energy crisis, the first time ever, open to power thesis the possibilities of essay on water and energy crisis, life. This novel is causes of environmental essays, bighearted in a way that will stay with readers for a long time. Essay Crisis? It's funny and thesis fraud warm and optimistic. Essay Shortage? Plus, there's a beach trip involved, so it pretty much begs to be read with your toes in power thesis, the sand. Essay On Water Crisis? Big Fish, of course, was adapted and communication data released as a Tim Burton-directed film in 2003 before it became a Broadway musical. I'm hoping that Extraordinary Adventures also has a big-screen future. It's written in a highly-detailed, very visual way that puts readers right in the middle of on water, Edsel's changeable life, and dissertation upon pig essay I'd love to essay on water crisis experience the story all over upon pig essay, again as a movie. Each of essay on water and energy crisis, these books will take you somewhere new. The Shark Club by Ann Kidd Taylor (Viking)

This novel--on sale June 6--is about essays family, love, loss, and sharks. It is a beach read in the most literal sense. On a beautiful summer day in 1988, on and energy crisis, the Gulf of Mexico, Maeve Donnelly is kissed by Daniel, the dissertation upon pig essay, boy of essay on water shortage, her dreams, and attacked by a blacktip shark. Of Environmental Problems? When the essay on water shortage, book opens, Maeve has grown up and become a successful marine biologist; people call her the shark whisperer, and these apex predators are what she studies. Between trips around the world, she always returns home to her grandmother's fancy beachside hotel, The Hotel of the Muses, which is fraud, decorated not with any nautical theme but with thousands of essay on water shortage, books. Maeve arrives home this time, after working for months alongside a handsome colleague named Nicholas, to essays economic india find that her twin brother has written his own book--a novel that appropriates Maeve's own love life. Forgiving him is just one of the obstacles she has to navigate. She runs into Daniel and on water shortage and energy crisis discovers a huge shark-finning operation, setting in papers, motion an environmental mystery.

This book is shortage, a highly-readable mix of research targeted drug, marine science and on water shortage romance, set on the picturesque beaches of South Florida. A Fraction of the economic development, Whole by Steve Toltz. And Energy Crisis? This novel by development an Australian writer was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize in on water crisis, 2008, so it's available in dissertation roast pig essay, beach-ready paperback. Pack it because it's a thoroughly entertaining and slyly scathing look at modern life. Shortage And Energy Crisis? It's also laugh-out-loud funny.

Jasper Dean was raised by communication papers research his certifiably paranoid and grandly delusional father, Martin, a man who overanalyzed everything and essay shortage taught Jasper everything he knows. Professional Writing? Jasper's European mother is a mystery, but his outlaw uncle, Terry Dean, is quite famous (for killing athletes who cheat, thereby protecting the spirit of sportsmanship). Essay Crisis? The trajectory of Jasper's strange childhood takes readers from the what is an analysis poem, Australian bush to bohemian Paris to the jungles of Thailand--with stops in strip clubs, asylums, criminal hideouts, and a famous labyrinth built by and energy crisis Martin. Essays Development India? The well-written story--related in essay shortage, turn by delivery Jasper and by and energy Martin--is told through a really long bedtime story, Martin's chaotic diary entries, and Jasper's intimate conversation. Details sometimes are fantastical, so readers will have to for a poem play along. At the heart of the essay on water and energy, novel and the ultimate lasting takeaway: a touching, thoughtful story of a father and research papers targeted delivery a son who are more alike than either will ever admit. Essay Crisis? Faithful by Alice Hoffman (Simon Schuster) Millions of essays economic development india, fans have loved Alice Hoffman for and energy crisis, many years. She's written more than 30 works of fiction including Practical Magic, The Dovekeepers, and The Marriage of essays development india, Opposites.

Her latest book, as beautifully written as all the on water shortage and energy, rest, is about Shelby Richmond, a broken young woman who is trying to find her way in an imperfect world. Writing Services Rates? Shelby walked away from an accident that destroyed her best friend's future, but she was not entirely unscathed--she struggles with extreme guilt. Essay Shortage And Energy? Shelby discovers a circle of lost and found souls in New York City--including an angel who's been watching over rates, her since the night of the and energy crisis, accident. But it's Sue Richmond, with the love only causes of environmental problems essays a mother can provide, who ultimately guides Shelby to essay shortage crisis a better, healthier place. With a cast of is an poem, unforgettable characters, Hoffman's trademark magical realism satisfies once again. On Water And Energy Crisis? What It Means When a Man Falls From the Sky by Lesley Nneka Arimah (Riverhead Books) This debut, short-story collection is causes problems, perfect for essay shortage and energy, travel and lazy summer days with tales that are just long enough to communication data research pick up and put down at your leisure. These stories--stunning and haunting--will stay with you far longer than just a summer. This book looks at various ties that bind--ties between parent and essay on water crisis child, husband and rates wife, lovers and friends--but these are unexpected, sometimes otherworldly connections. In Who Will Greet You at Home, a woman desperate for shortage and energy, a child weaves one out of communication papers, hair with surprising results. Shortage Crisis? In another story, an American teen and her Nigerian cousin find uneasy common ground after a disastrous night out. Arimah was born in development, the UK, raised in Nigeria, and on water crisis now lives in the U.S.

Her writing pulls from all these places and more. Data Papers Research? This was one of the essay on water shortage, most anticipated books of 2017, and after just one story, it's easy to upon roast pig essay see why. Registration on or use of on water shortage crisis, this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Upon Pig Essay? 2017 Alabama Media Group. All rights reserved (About Us).

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Essay: Invesigating MH17 Forensic DNA analysis. On July 17th 2014 a Malaysian airplane crashed near Hrabove, Ukraine. There were 15 crew members and 283 passengers on board of this deadly crash. Crisis? During this time the development india, plane was flying over a warzone, the suspicion therefor is that the plane might have been hit by a missile as part of essay on water shortage and energy a terrorist attack. Researchers must investigate the cause of the crash of the of environmental, MH17 flight. One of the goals of the investigation is to recover and identify the victims on board. This report focuses on the identification of the victims through forensic DNA analysis. It describes the steps that needs to be taken before DNA profiling can begin and shortage various DNA analysis techniques.

Lastly there will be a transcript of an interview with a forensic DNA expert. For the identification of humans in mass disasters, DNA analysis is a gold standard especially when a victim cannot be identified using their physical characteristics (e.g. birthmarks, tattoos, medical implants, clothing and jewelry), forensic anthropology, fingerprints, odontology and radiology. Forensic DNA typing is used for identification if/when sufficient DNA data can be collected from any biological sample and body parts. DNA can sometimes be recovered even when victim`s remains are fragmented and DNA is research targeted delivery, degraded. Essay On Water Crisis? DNA analysis is also often used for the re-association of targeted delivery severely fragmented remains with the victims, because this is the only technique that allows it. DNA analysis is a technique that requires more time, effort, and specialized, skilled personnel [1]. In order to make a positive identification, reference samples from possible victims are collected so the DNA samples can be compared to each other. Reference samples can be collected from several different sources.

It can be collected from on water shortage crisis personal belongings that were frequently used by the victim (e.g. toothbrush, hairbrush, razor, unwashed undergarments). Banked samples can also be used. Think of banked sperm or archival biopsy tissue that is stored in a medical facility. Other biological samples that can be used is blood stain cards, blood stored for elective surgery, pathology samples, and extracted adult or baby teeth. Another source for dissertation roast pig essay a reference sample is via biological relatives of the victim that are collected using buccal swaps [1]. The reference samples can be categorized by the DNA quality of the DNA that is available on the samples and they are good sources of essay DNA, fair source of DNA and poor sources of for a poem DNA (see table 1). On Water And Energy Crisis? [2]. Table 1: Categorization of data papers research reference samples in good, fair and poor sources of DNA[2] Good sources of DNA Fair sources of DNA Poor sources of DNA. Tooth brushes Lipstick Jewelry. Razors Deodorant sticks Wrist watches. Hair brushes Pillow cases Outer clothing.

Bone marrow samples Used cups/glasses Towels. Blood cards from PKU screening Used underwear Shoes. National bio banks Fingernail clippinds Hair bands. Criminal databases Cigarette buds Baby hair. Serum samples Pipe Dentures. Sperm bank samples Mouth piece/guard Hair rollers. Dried umbilical cords Helmets/caps/hats Trimmers. Pathology speciman Earplugs. Inner clothing items (bra, socks, t-shirts)

Pen with teeth marks. There is several preferred combination of family reference samples. The preferred combinations are; both parents; one parent, spouse, children; children and spouse; one parent and sibling; two or more siblings; known identical twin. Essay Shortage Crisis? From all the combinations possible for the kinship analysis, the probability for their effectiveness has been calculated. Communication Data Papers? The three lowest combinations are one full sibling (92.1%), sibling and aunt (94.4%) and sibling and two aunts/uncles from same side of the family (97.8%). The three highest combinations are three grandparents (96.7%), four grandparents (99,99%) and lastly three grandparents and siblings (99,994%). The full list is shown in table 2. [3]

Table 2: Probability of identity using various combinations of family references [2] Family references Probability of identity (%) One full sibling 92.1. Sibling and essay shortage and energy aunt (or uncle) 94.4. Sibling and of environmental essays two aunts (or uncles) from same side of the family 97.8. Sibling, aunt, uncle from different sides of the family 99.8. Sibling and half sibling 98. Sibling and two half siblings (same mother) 99.4. Two siblings 99.91. Sibling and parent 99.996. Father and one maternal half sibling 99.95.

Father and two maternal half siblings 99.996. Father and maternal aunt 99.993. Three grandparent 96.7. Four grandparents 99.99. Three grandparents and sibling 99.994. Previously identified fragmented remains that were already identified using DNA can also be used to make identification [1]. There are several limitation as to the retrieval of remain and reference samples. One of these limitations can be environmentally harsh condition at incident sites. Essay On Water Crisis? This can severely limit the quantity of is an analysis poem usable DNA from human remains. Also passengers that travel via airplanes, take their personal belongings with them in on water shortage and energy crisis the luggage. Analysis Essay For A? This means that these personal items may also be destroyed during the plane cash and cannot be used to make a reference sample.

In some cases using DNA from a close relative can also be difficult. Reasons being that sometimes families travel together and are also victims in the crash. Sometimes certain relatives also choose or are unable to give a DNA sample. It is also important to establish that personal items collected was only essay on water shortage, used by the victim in order to avoid getting a mixed profile or giving a wrong identification. [1]. Parameters of DNA identification. The importance of DNA in the identification process is dependent on the degree in which the human remain is fragmented or degraded. Of Environmental Essays? Sometimes multiple methods are used in order to identify a victim. This doesn’t always include DNA. In an airplane crash only on water shortage and energy crisis, about 25% of victims are identified by only using DNA analysis as a method of economic india identification. The parameters are set by policy makers and it is the job of the laboratory director to determine the nature and essay on water shortage extent of the laboratory`s response. [1].

Defining goal of identification process. Depending on the scope of the identification process, a decision can be made on if every human fragment is for a poem, going to be identified. In an airplane crash for instance, there can be 50 victims and each remains can be fragmented in multiple pieces. If the goal or policy is to identify each victim, one would be done sooner with the identification process. This because DNA analysis would be stopped when all 50 victims have been identified. Some human fragments will therefore never be analyzed and returned to the families.

Whenever the goal or policy is the attempted identification of essay shortage and energy crisis all fragments, obviously this will result in communication a greater work for the laboratory. The scope of the investigation is essay on water and energy, determined by how large and devastating a mass disaster incident is to a community, a country or to the world [1]. Minimum fragment size. Depending on is an analysis poem the goal or policy of the identification process a minimum fragment size for DNA testing needs to on water shortage be established. If all fragment pieces would be collected and then tested, many of them would not give out a positive result. This would also cause the identification process to take longer and would also make it very costly. Even though the families are able to receive more human remains of their loved one, but they very well are going to be unprepared on analysis essay the condition of the fragment and the time it might take to be able to identify them. Knowing all that, decisions will be made regarding the minimum fragment size, the statistical threshold that must be met.

The minimum fragment, which is usually one to ten cm long should be based on three criteria. The first criteria is maximizing the probability that all victims are identified. The second criteria is the on water shortage, recognizing the emotional needs of the victims’ families and friends and the third criteria is he providing forensically relevant information. The defining of the papers targeted delivery, fragment size is important, because this will affect the identification effort. On Water And Energy? It will determine how fragment sizes needs to be collected at the crash site, how they will be processed and economic development the likelihood of getting a useable DNA profile [1]. A preliminary decision concerning the DNA technology that should be used is made by the laboratory. On Water? If the recovery effort is long, the DNA of the research papers drug delivery, fragments will start to degrade and can affect your choice of DNA method for analysis. The decision to use another DNA method that are not the on water shortage, standard choices can be implemented, depending of the environmental conditions at the crash site and the resulting DNA degradation.

It can also depend on causes essays the scope and essay on water shortage and energy the duration of the on employee, DNA effort that has been set [1]. STR (Short Tandem Repeat) analysis has been proven to be a powerful method for shortage crisis DNA identification in mass fatality incidents. There are three known airplane crashes where the victims were identified only by using STR analysis. Remains from after WTC attacks, demonstrated that STR`s work on degraded tissue and bone fragments if DNA extraction is causes of environmental essays, optimized. Although additional methods may be needed if a sample is severely compromised to generate a statistical threshold. Other methods that can be used are mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA) and SNP (Single nucleotide Polymorphism) [1]. Length of recovery effort. The length of the recovery effort it dependent on the location site and essay on water the mass fatality of the crash and determines the DNA identification of the victims. When remains are collected from an airplane crash on land, it will usually take up to two weeks for it all to be collected. In a mass fatality identification process will begin as the samples are collected and delivered to the laboratory.

It is more effective and efficient to wait for all the is an analysis for a poem, samples to be collected, but with the pressure from the public and families for a rapid confirmation this is not possible. The collecting of the reference samples also plays a part on on water and energy crisis the length of the identification process. After a mass fatality personal belongings and biological samples are sent in batches. So the of environmental problems essays, number of batches and the frequency of which they are sent to the laboratory is dependent on efficiency and duration of the reference collection process [1]. After considering all of the above, the laboratory`s must determine its analytical processes. Several key variables has to be assessed in order to determine this. These variables are the number of victims, number of recoverable fragments, percentage of samples to be reworked, numbers of personal items per victim, percentage of personal items to be reworked, personal items quality control samples and number of kinship analysis.

In order to and energy predict the labor and material resources required for DNA analysis, a DNA analysis workload worksheet can be used (see appendix 1) [1]. In a mass fatality event DNA identification response demands forensic casework skills and high throughput genotyping or databasing from the public and/or private sector. In case of STR genotyping, there is upon roast, a difference in analysis for medical or research purposes. This means that laboratories that can perform high quality clinical or research purposes, can be considered only after careful consideration. DNA collection from human remains and personal items all require chain of custody protocols that clinical or research laboratories are not typically using. DNA extraction needs to be performed by using forensic casework extraction protocols. Kinship samples on the other hand are more assessable to standardized high-throughput processes used by essay on water crisis forensic databasing laboratories and non-forensic genotyping laboratories. Thesis On Employee? In most cases forensic databasing laboratories have the experience with outsourcing work to on water private laboratories then forensic casework laboratories. On Employee? In case that work is outsourced to other laboratories, it is important to ensure that all laboratories involved use the same molecular ladders as size standards for allelic interpretation.

They also all have to use the same DNA analysis protocols that permits standardized evaluation of victims profiles. On Water Shortage Crisis? The way of work in laboratories between forensic and non-forensic laboratories can vary. It is the duty of the laboratory director to fully define certain terms like ‘acceptable positive and negative controls’ and ‘standard reaction volume’ [1]. Next to DNA analysis the laboratory might also be responsible for sample accessioning and tracking, making identifications and dissertation roast resolving metadata problems, quality control, interacting with families and media and long-terms sample storage. Failure to address these activities will results in shortage and energy crisis source shortfalls. For A Poem? The laboratory director must also consider the impact of the essay on water shortage and energy, mass fatality incident response on the laboratory`s primary mission. Backlog and turnaround times will most likely increase for the regular casework. That’s why plans to manage both a mass fatality and regular casework should always be developed in case of an emergency. The duration of recovery effort also has an effect on the capacity of the laboratory. A rapid recovery effort that usually takes from one to three months creates a spike in research papers targeted drug the casework, but because that is a short casework they are able to recover quickly. A longer recovery effort is possible without affecting regular casework, however the on water shortage and energy, identification process will still drain the personal and resources.

Good planning is critical in order to migrate the disruption [1]. Sample tracking is an important factor in ensuring quality and accuracy throughout the process of communication data papers DNA identification. So this means that chain of custody and origin are very important when handling samples. They are critical aspect to the identification management process and to the collection of reference samples for comparison. And Energy Crisis? If samples are not properly coded and tracked this can have a consequence on the identification process.

Even ‘simple’ problems like the inadvertent reference-sample switching by families of the victims, misspellings in names or unlinked names nicknames to papers targeted drug delivery last names. Also inconsistent case numbering during sample collection on the crash site. All those mentioned above can greatly influence the efficiency and accuracy of essay on water identification process [1]. Public forensic institutes usually have a chain of custody in place already and will use this system with only slight changes if the need arises in a mass fatality incident. When documentation is started on a reference sample brought in by a family member of a victim, it might not be unusual to get a mixed DNA profile as a result. So this is also an important note to economic india make when getting a result on your samples. But before these decision are made is how they are going to threat the mass fatality incident. They can be dealt with as a humanitarian effort, civil incident or criminal requirements. By establishing what type of treatment you are dealing with, you can decide what your chain-of custody requirements will be.

The implications of treat incidents are shown in figure 1 [1]. Figure 1: An overview of the possible treat incident and their implications [1] Laboratories will already have an information management system in place. Essay On Water Crisis? In a mass fatality they can keep using the system they already have in place in order to maintain a high efficiency for their sample tracking. If chosen to modify the system the director of the laboratory should consider tracking the mass fatality samples separate from their regular casework samples.

The coding of the fraud, samples should begin with another number sequence that is regularly used in the designated laboratory. The laboratory should also consider having a team whose sole purpose is to essay and energy crisis enter the collected data and check if all samples are correctly coded. Another task that the laboratory director has to establish is the sample naming that differentiates the personal items, kinship samples and the disaster samples from thesis on employee fraud each other. The laboratory will also need to document the number and the type of analysis performed on every sample that is tested. In table 1 there is an overview of the documentation that are generally noted on test samples [1]. Table 3: Coding that should be present on test samples [1] Victim samples Personal effects samples Kinship samples. Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Victim identification number Victim identification number. Extraction attempt number Identity of laboratory that performed extraction and analysis* Relationship to victim. Type of analysis Extraction attempt number.

Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. Type of analysis. Plate number, tube number, well number, etc. *These are usually noted in a multi-laboratory response. The recovery and preservation of samples are very important steps for the identification of human remains, especially when they are highly fragmented. It is very important for samples to be collected as soon as possible. Shortage And Energy? But depending on the crash site and upon pig essay the environment it sometimes take much longer.

Proper preservation is also important so that DNA can stay intact and in that way get a successful DNA profile [2]. Depending on the state of shortage and energy crisis preservation that is available, different tissue types should be collected. When sample collection cannot be done immediately and takes several weeks after the incident and/or the crash site was in challenging environmental conditions, bone and teeth proved to be the most reliable sources for a successful DNA profile. In case of a bone sample, the cortical bone from weight bearing long bones of the legs should be the first choice for DNA extraction. With degraded remains it is however still recommended to also take a swab in addition with the bone sample. The type of sample that should be collected is economic development, dependent on the state or condition that the body is in. Figure 1 shows an overview of the post-mortem sample condition that is dependent on on water the condition of the body [2]. Because it is a possibility that commingling of essays development DNA can be happen, this can often lead to false DNA-based associations. This is especially true for fragmented remains.

Blood from different fragmented remains that contaminate each other or animal activity, can often be the source of the comingling of DNA. This means that analyst always has to be on the lookout for cross contamination. When collecting samples in the field, workers should never assume that fragments go together or belong to the same victim based on their appearance. It is also advisable to have an anthropologist or a trained forensic pathologist on field in order to make sure that animal remains are not collected along with human tissue. The amount of samples that is going to be collected during a mass fatality may very well be too much for one laboratory to store. So in on water shortage and energy crisis that case the laboratory that is research delivery, going to be handling the analysis can ask other trustworthy laboratories to store a collection of their samples. To keep decomposition to a minimum, samples need to be stored in low temperatures of around -20oC. Dried stains also needs to be stored in freezing temperatures, but if this is not possible room temperature in a low humidity temperature will also work. Skeletal remains that are going to essay on water shortage and energy crisis be stored also needs to be at room temperature.

Reference samples are precious and communication data papers can be limited, so the shortage crisis, proper storage for is an for a reference samples are also very important [2]. In order to be able to crisis perform a successful DNA analysis, the laboratory needs to essays have sufficient additional processing are. Because of the mass fatality the laboratory is crisis, going to be dealing with a lot of samples and might need to consider using a robotics system. This can minimize human error and contamination. In case of mass disasters contamination and mixtures of samples is unavoidable. For this reason the causes of environmental problems, DNA typing used to make be able to make profiles needs to be well established. The most used DNA typing methods which are STR and mtDNA are the most used for identification purposes. But depending on essay shortage and energy crisis the state of the samples, other typing methods can also be used [3]. Before DNA analysis can be performed, the DNA needs to be extracted from the reference and victims samples first. It is customary to perform DNA extraction on the unknown evidentiary samples before the known or reference samples.

With samples from a mass disaster it may not be possible to dissertation roast still extract samples in that order. But DNA extraction from victim’s samples and reference samples should be separated by time and/or space. DNA typing relies on the success of DNA extraction that yields enough quantity, quality and purity. Because of this naturally the most desired extraction methods are the ones that minimizes DNA loss and the ones that overcome, removes or dilutes enzymatic inhibitors [3]. The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) Current techniques that include organic solvents and ion exchange resins are time consuming, use more than one centrifugation step, uses toxic organic solutions and/or do not remove PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) inhibitors well enough. A system that was used for the extraction of WTC samples proved to be the best. The DNA IQ’ System (Promega Corp, Madison, WI) uses a magnetic resin that the DNA can bind to. It also has a denaturing agent that disrupts many types of cells/tissue.

The DNA will then be purified by eluding it from the resin. DNA typing can then be performed without needing further preparation. See figure 3 for a schematic overview of the essay on water and energy crisis, extraction. The system minimizes the loss of DNA and the efficiency of DNA extraction also increases [3]. As is mentioned above organic extraction is also an extraction method that is widely used in the forensic community for DNA typing. As the name indicates, organic extraction uses organic chemicals in order to analysis essay extract DNA. This occurs in four steps. In the first step EDTA is added to the lysis buffer. EDTA is added to on water prevent the degrading of DNA. Tris which is also present in the buffer makes sure the outer cell membrane become permeable. Essays India? In the second step the proteins are denaturized and hydrolyzed.

The lysing of the essay shortage and energy, cell is carried out by on employee fraud using detergents Proteinase K and dithiothreitol (DTT) which are present in the lysis buffer. They insure that proteins and cell debris are separated into organic phase and the DNA remaining in the aqueous phase. Essay? They make sure that the cell membrane lyse, separate histones and denature histone proteins and destroy protein structures [5]. In the on employee, third step the on water shortage crisis, proteins and cell debris are removed by adding phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol to the mixture. Causes? The phenol present wont mix with water and the proteins and debris will have an affinity with the organic phase. After centrifuging the mixture will have visible layers.

DNA will be present in on water and energy crisis the upper layer called the aqueous phase. After transferring this phase to a new tube, in the fourth step DNA can be purified by using alcohol precipitation [5]. Figure 4 shows a schematic overview of the organic DNA extraction. Another popular extraction method in the forensic community is Chelex. Chelex comes in different purities with a purity of 100 being preferred in a forensic capacity. The resin has a styrene divinylbenzene copolymers with paired polyvalent metal ions. Because of this polyvent metal ions can bind to analysis essay poem the resin. In an aqueous alkaline condition the chelex has increased affinity for heavy metal.

When the mixture is also boiled, this disrupts cell membranes, cell proteins and it denaturizes DNA. After centrifuging the resin and cellular debris is separated. The advantages of Chelex is that its time saving, doesn’t cost much and it minimizes contamination potential. Contamination potential is minimized, because unlike organic extraction it has less steps. Other advantages are that it uses no hazardous chemicals and essay on water shortage crisis removes some PCR inhibitors. Papers? Some disadvantages includes potential degradation for long term storage, the resin remain which can inhibit PCR and won`t work with all samples [5].

A schematic overview of the chelex extraction is shown in figure 5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) After extraction is essay on water crisis, completed the DNA goes through PCR. PCR is an enzymatic process in which a specific DNA fragment is being replicated over thesis on employee fraud, and over again. On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis? The process works by upon pig essay the heating and cooling the DNA extracted samples in a precise thermal cycle pattern for ?? 30 cycles [6]. Crisis? The PCR has three steps that forms one cycle [1]. Dissertation Roast Pig Essay? In each cycle it starts with denaturing the DNA template by heat. Crisis? In the second step the temperature is cooled so that primers can anneal (bind) to the DNA. In the upon roast, last step the temperature is raised again at the optimal temperature for DNA polymerase so it can activate. The DNA polymerase extends the template strands (see figure 6) [6].

When the cycles are repeated multiple times, you will get an exponential accumulation of crisis your desired DNA fragment when present. Even with a small amount of isolated DNA, the PCR can generate a large amount of DNA [1]. The primer, which is mentioned above, is the most important PCR component. The primer is a short DNA sequence that positions itself before the DNA fragment that needs to be copied. This means that the on employee fraud, primer serves to identify the DNA fragment that needs to crisis be copied. It is added in high concentration in upon pig essay relative to the DNA template in order to drive the PCR reaction. Other components that are added is naturally your template DNA that is going to essay shortage and energy be copied. Also added to the mix is a four nucleotide building blocks called dNTP`s and DNA polymerase that helps put the building blocks in upon the correct order on the template DNA.

The DNA polymerase used is essay on water shortage and energy, Taq polymerase, which comes from a bacterium called Thermus aquaticus that inhibits hot springs. When setting up multiple samples that use the same primers, a master mix is made. From the master mix an equal amount of dissertation upon roast pig essay volume is pipetted in the PCR tube. By making this master mix you are insured homogeneity between samples and the pipetting of small volumes can be avoided [6]. In this version of the PCR more than one DNA fragment will be copied simultaneously. This is achieved by shortage crisis adding more than one primer to the mixture. In order for it to work properly, the primer pairs added should have similar annealing temperatures. Analysis Essay? With the adding of on water extra primer pairs the complexity of primer interactions increases. Excessive regions of complementarity has to be avoided in order to prevent primer-dimer formation. Primer-dimers are when added primers bind to problems each other instead of the template DNA. The possibility of primer-dimer formation increases with every new primer pair that are added [6].

After DNA extraction, DNA quantification is essential for essay shortage polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based analysis. This is important because a low concentration is preferable when working with multi-plex PCR. Generally an amount of 0,5 to 2,0 of DNA is optimal when using STR kits. When a higher amount of DNA is essays india, used, this makes the interpretation of results harder and more time consuming. With a low amount of DNA, this can result in loss of alleles. This makes it harder to essay crisis properly compare profiles with each other [7]. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) Like it was indicated above, quantification test is performed to essays development determine amount of DNA that can amplified. A test that can indicate the quality and and energy quantity of on employee extracted DNA or PCR products, is beneficial for determining steps that need to be taking for the analysis of the DNA.

The most common approach to on water shortage and energy crisis perform a qPCR is to use a flourogenic 5? nuclease assay, better known as TaqMan or with the use of an intercalating dye, like the thesis on employee, SYBR green, that is specific for essay on water crisis double stranded DNA molecules. The TaqMan monitors changes of a fluorescence while the SYBR green detects formation of PCR product [7]. Probes for the TaqMan has two fluorescent dyes that emit at different wavelengths. The probe hybridizes specifically in DNA target region between two PCR primers. The probe has a slightly higher annealing temperature the primers. This way hybridization of the communication data research, probes can begin when extension of primers begin.

At the 5? end of the probe, a reporter (R) dye is attached, while at essay on water shortage and energy the 3? end a quencher (Q) dye is communication data, synthesized See figure 7. While the probes are still attached together, fluorescence won’t occur, because of the essay on water crisis, suppression due to analysis poem energy transfer of the two. When polymerization starts during the PCR run, any TaqMan probe attached to target sequence will be displaced. Because Taq polymerase has a 5? exonucleae activity. This means that it will chew at the TaqMan probe attached. When the dyes are released from the probe, they will begin to essay on water and energy fluorescence. Dissertation Upon Roast Pig Essay? This means that, the more fluorescence that is signaled, the more target sequence is present as complementary to the probe [7]. Real-time PCR analysis. The PCR process is defined in three phases. Shortage And Energy Crisis? The exponential phase, linear amplification and plateau region.

These regions can be made visible in a plot of fluorescence versus the PCR cycle they are on (see figure 8). There is a high degree of precision of the making of new PCR products during exponential amplification. At 100% efficiency, there should be a doubling of PCR products with every PCR cycle. In a plot of cycle numbers versus log scale DNA concentration, will have a result of a linear relationship during the research papers drug, exponential phase of the polymerase chain reaction (see figure 8). The next phase is the linear phase. In this phase concentration of essay and energy components falls and amplification efficiency slows down. This happens in an arithmetic increase. The final phase is the plateau region. This is of environmental problems essays, where the production of the PCR products slowly stops. Multiple components that are being used for the amplification have reached the end.

The signal that is shortage and energy crisis, being emitted slows down, causing the plateau to level out. The exponential phase of the thesis on employee fraud, real-time PCR analysis is the optimal place for measuring. This is the on water shortage, phase where the PCR product and the input DNA amount are most likely to be consistent. The instruments use for real-time PCR uses a cycle threshold (CT) its calculations. What Is An Analysis Essay Poem? This value stands for the terms of cycles when the essay on water shortage and energy, level of fluorescence passes a threshold that is essays, set by the software of the real-time PCR instrument. The less cycles that is used to get to essay on water shortage crisis this threshold, the economic india, higher the input DNA molecules that was present in PCR reaction. This is why there is a plot of log DNA and CT for every sample in on water shortage a linear relationship with a negative slope. A rise in essays economic india fluorescence can be traced to initial DNA template amount, when it is compared to samples that has known concentration. In figure 8, there are five samples (a, b, c, d, e) that were used in order to develop a standard curve. If the samples used have a good consistency and precision, a sample that has an unknown concentration can be calculated from the standard curve [7]. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis.

STR analysis is the first method of essay on water and energy analysis that is causes of environmental, used [1]. 99,9% of the DNA in humans are the same. In the on water shortage and energy, 0,1% region of causes of environmental problems DNA short tandem repeats are present as the region that exhibits a large variation between individual [7]. STR`s are short DNA sequence that keep repeating. For example in the DNA sequence ATTCGCATCATCATCATCATCATCATCGCCA, the sequence ATC is repeated 7 times. Short tandem repeats are present at the same position on chromosomes in on water crisis the human genome, but the repeat unit varies per individual. With the help of PCR reaction a STR analysis can be performed.

Primers that can be labeled binds to papers the DNA at essay shortage and energy crisis a specific STR loci and multiplied. Because of the label that is attached at the primer, the amplified products can be detected at the end of the dissertation upon roast pig essay, PCR reaction. Essay Shortage? By analyzing more than multiple STR`s at once, a DNA profile that is unique enough to identify an individual can be made [7]. Sometimes a DNA sample is too degraded to get a DNA profile using the standard STR markers. In order to dissertation pig essay still be able to use this degraded DNA to get a profile, primers were repositioned. By repositioning the primers closer to the repeat region that needs to be amplified, the amplified product that is resulted is much smaller.

As a result it makes genetic characterization of the sample for more STR`s, other that is used traditionally. This makes STR miniplex invaluable for degraded samples [1]. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis. By using the SNP`s genetic markers, the shortage, PCR amplified product can be much smaller than is upon pig essay, possible in a STR miniplex [1]. SNP is a single nucleotide mutation that occurs in the DNA sequence and is also the most common polymorphism in the human genome. These mutations can be a result from DNA replication or chemical damage. A polymorphism is a variation/mutation in the DNA sequence that has a frequency of more than 1% in the population. Shortage And Energy Crisis? SNP occurs once every 1000 base pairs and communication data research tends to remain stable in the population [8]. For example in essay on water shortage crisis a known DNA sequence of CCTAA, a mutation of the second C to a T occurs (see figure 9). The amplified PCR product that can result from using SNP markers can be reduced by up to 60-80 bp.

This makes severely degraded DNA samples that could not be typed using STR`s still typable. Using a method that was validated during the WTC identification effort, typing on samples that were much compromised was still able to be identified. The method uses a florescent detection system. By labeling the possible alleles with a fluorescent dye, the signal of the dyes could be compared [1]. Mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mitochondria is an organelle that resides outside the cell nucleus.

They contain their own chromosomal DNA. mtDNA are smaller, circular in shape and development india are inherited maternally. They consist of approximately 16,569 base and essay on water shortage and energy crisis have a high copy number in a cell. What Is An Analysis For A? Because mtDNA is passed down maternally, it is a good method to essay and energy crisis perform when reference samples are taking from maternal relatives. Using mtDNA can be an advantage when dealing with very small or degraded extracted DNA. Because of the dissertation upon, high copies number of shortage mtDNA that is available, an development identification can still be possible using mtDNA markers, instead of STR markers that are found in nuclear DNA [1]. There are several differences in the characteristic of the mtDNA and the nuclear DNA. The first being the size of the genome. Nuclear DNA has about shortage 3,2 billion bp and what for a poem is 99.75% of total DNA. While mtDNA has 16,569bp and 0,25% content DNA per cell. Essay On Water Crisis? While mutation rata for nuclear DNA is what is an essay, low, mtDNA has a 5-10 times higher mutation rate. The sequence of the essay on water crisis, mitochondrial DNA is a functional one and also highly conserved, it’s because of this that there isn’t a very big variation between individuals.

But there is non-coding D-loop (1000bp long), also known as control loop, that has two hypervariable regions called HV1 and HV2 (see figure 8). The variations observed in this part of the DNA tend to be Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The length of the mtDNA doesn’t change with the presence of the SNPs and that’s why this are the what is an for a poem, regions that are used for forensic analysis. Due to on water shortage crisis the lack of DNA reparation, mtDNA has a large mutation. This causes the variations between individuals. Fraud? The variation is on water and energy crisis, not a lot, with HV1 and HV2 having only a 1-3% difference between individuals who are not related [10]. When analysis is performed, mitochondrial DNA is extracted and then with the help of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the HV1 and HV2 regions are amplified. Next step is to determine the sequence of the amplified product by using DNA sequencing.

After this samples can be compared to targeted each other to essay on water crisis get a possible identification [10]. The Y-chromosome is small and found in only male individuals. This chromosome is altered through infrequent happening of a mutation. The combination of alleles between father and son is theoretically the same, if mutation does not occur [9]. The advantages of Y-chromosome analysis are that in a mixture profile with female DNA for example in a sexual assault case, male specific amplification can take place to research delivery separate the two. Mixtures in fingernail scraping and crisis saliva on economic india skin can also be analyzed. Essay And Energy? Another advantage is that it facilitates tracing family lineages in the paternal transmission. Limitations that arises are that it’s hard to distinguish between male family members when Y-STR typing is performed. Duplications and deletions that are present in the DNA sequence, can make analysis more complicated. The Y-chromosome analysis is performed with the analysis of the STRs or SNPs. Y-STRs changes more rapidly and thus has more variables.

This makes it useful for economic development india forensic applications [10]. Last step in analysis of DNA is the essay on water crisis, separation and detection of the amplified DNA. In order to causes problems separate and detect them a capillary electrophoresis is used. A basic capillary electrophoresis apparatus is consists of a narrow glass capillary, two buffer vials, two electrodes connected to high voltage power supply, laser excitation source, fluorescent detector, autosampler for samples and a computer that controls the sample injection and detection. The capillaries are made out of glass, have an internal diameter of 50 ??m and is 50 cm long. The capillary which is a glass tube is filled with a polymer that serves as a gel in which molecules can migrate. Samples are injected in the capillary when high voltage is applied, which helps to separate the DNA fragments. Fluorescent dye labels that are present in the DNA mixture are analyzed when they pass by a detector that uses a laser beam. The results are then analyzed and stored on a computer [10]. A schematic of the capillary electrophoresis is shown in figure 9. DNA separation occurs when DNA fragments separate through the capillary when voltage is applied.

Smaller fragments go through the capillary faster than the bigger fragments. The time is converted to essay on water shortage and energy base pair size with the help of internal size standards. Several components can affect the DNA separation. The polymer used, the capillary, the buffer and the voltage used [10]. The two primary polymer are POP-4 and POP-6. Drug? The POP stands for performance optimized polymer and is made out of a linear, uncross-linked dimethyl polyacrylamide. On Water? The 4 and 6 in the POP, stands for the 4% and 6% concentration of targeted drug delivery this component. Essay Shortage And Energy Crisis? The POP-4 is used for thesis fraud the analysis of STR typing and POP-6 for DNA sequencing. Recently a Pop-7 has been introduced that can be used for both the STR typing and DNA sequencing [10]. The buffer is used to on water and energy stabilize and papers research solubilize the DNA. It also provide a charge for the electrophoresis current.

Buffer concentration is an important aspect, because when it’s too high this can result in overheating of the capillary and a loss of essay on water shortage crisis resolution. In order to avoid any problems with the running of the electrophoresis, the buffer should be replaced regularly with a fresh sample [10]. The capillary is central for the separation during the electrophoresis. The capillary is made of what analysis essay for a glass or fused silica. The inner walls also have a hydroxyl groups that are negatively charged. Positive ions from the buffer, creates a double layer.

The movement of ions creates an electroosmotic flow, that can be reduced or eliminated when a coating is added to the inside layer of the capillary (see figure 10). Uncoated walls create problems for essay shortage reproducible DNA separation. Suggested is to change the capillary after 100-150 runs or whenever a decline of resolution is noted [10]. Sanger method for DNA sequencing is a process where the use of polymerase incorporation is involved. The polymerase incorporation uses dideoxyribonucleatide triphosphates (ddNTPs) as chain terminators that is in india turn followed by a separation step that is capable of single nucleotide resolution. On Water? Because there is no hydroxyl group at the end of the 3? ‘end of the nucleotide with a ddNTP the growing chain cannot continue growing. In the mix there are both dNTPs and communication data ddNTPS present, this way some DNA portions are still able to essay on water and energy continue growing. Therefor at communication papers research the end of the reaction there will be a series of strands that only differs one molecule from essay shortage and energy each other.

See figure 11 for a schematic overview of the DNA sequence. Each DNA strand uses one forwards or reverse primer in a separate reaction. Attached to the ddNTPs are fluorescent dyes. ddTTP (thymine) has a red dye attached to it, ddCTP (cytosine) a blue label, ddATP (adenine) a green dye and essays economic india lastly, ddGTP (guanine) a yellow dye. After the reaction is over, the sample goes through capillary electrophoresis, which separates the strands. On Water Shortage? In the results of the electrophoresis, the sequence of the DNA strand is shown [7]. DNA Databases and CODIS. A DNA database is a database which stores DNA data and is used for analysis. There are different types of papers drug DNA databases.

The National DNA databases are maintained by the government for storing DNA profiles of its population. These DNA profiles are based on PCR and STR analysis. DNA databases serve as valuable tools in aiding investigations. Essay And Energy? CODIS (COmbined DNA Index System) is a DNA database that consists of papers 13 STR loci’s. These are CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51 and crisis D21S11. Also the Amelogenin is used for gender determination [6] [10] [11]. To make the job easier and avoid confusion with buffers it is dissertation pig essay, better to use a complete STR kit. These kits come with their own buffer and control DNA. On Water Shortage Crisis? There are a lot of papers drug delivery distributors of complete STR kits. It all depends on the research what kind of kit there is needed. Shortage Crisis? Multiplex STR kits allows the is an analysis for a poem, amplification of the 13 CODIS loci [6].

The most widely known and used kits are from shortage and energy crisis Promega. The product components normally consists of a buffer, primer pair mix (again, it depends on the research what kind of primer that will be used), control DNA. These are for the PCR product. After the PCR, the is an poem, kits come with an Allelic Ladder mix and essay shortage and energy crisis an internal standard to be used for the gel. Chemicals that sometimes should be supplied that do not come with the kit are Nuclease-free water and taq DNA polymerase. The kits come with their own protocol and thesis on employee fraud should be used in on water and energy crisis that specific order [6]. Here is an example of the PowerPlex 16 HS System, which allows co-amplification of the 13 CODIS loci and Amelogenin for gender determination. All loci are amplified in papers targeted drug delivery a single tube and analyzed in on water and energy a single injection and is also compatible with ABI. This system consist of Powerplex HS 5X Master Mix, Powerplex 16 HS 10X Primer Pair Mix, 2800M Control DNA and water (Amplification Grade) in the Pre-amplification components box. In the problems, Post-amplification components box there is a PowerPlex 16 HS Allelic Ladder Mix and Internal Lane Standard.

How the mixes for the PCR amplification should be made is displayed below in figure 10 [6] [12]. Statistical interpretation of DNA profile. When it comes to getting a match with a DNA profile, it’s important to determine if the DNA profile are from the same individual or if maybe there is another individual with the same profile. It’s practically impossible to on water shortage get a DNA from every individual. In order to still determine a match probability, Allele frequencies from different ethnic groups, from validated databases are collected [13]. More than one data point will need to be collected in order to get a reliable estimation of allele frequency.

There has to be a minimum where the on employee fraud, assurance is there that an and energy allele has been sufficiently sampled for is an analysis for a use in statistical test. An allele has to be observed for a minimum of five times in order to be qualified for use in a statistical calculations. The frequency for the minimum allele is determined using the formula 5/ (2N). N stands for the number of individuals and 2N for chromosomes counted before they pair [13]. In order to calculate the frequency of a DNA profile, the frequency of shortage crisis every allele analyzed are multiplied. The frequency of the allele can differ dependent on is an analysis poem the population database.

The database that is used needs to essay on water and energy be sufficiently large and representative of the population of the papers delivery, individual whose DNA is being examined [13]. In figure 12, DNA profile frequencies are given for the U.S. Caucasian. Take for example allele 11 of D13S317 shown in figure 12. Samples of 604 alleles were taken where it was observed 205 times. This translates to an allele frequency of 0,33940. In other words, there is a 34% chance that a random individual will have the same allele. The same goes for allele 14 of D13S317. This allele was observed 19 times in a population of 604. Frequency is therefore q=0,04801. So an individual with the alleles 11 and 14 for the D13S317, can be calculated using the formula 2pq (p standing for shortage crisis the first allele and q standing for the second allele).

Putting the dissertation roast, frequency calculated in the formula creates 2 x 0,33940 x 0,0481= 0,0326. This frequency indicates that ??3% of the U.S. Caucasian population. The frequency of all the genotypes will then be multiplied to get the frequency of the DNA profile. In case of the DNA profile in figure 12, this comes to a combined frequency of 8,37 x 1014. So 1 in on water shortage and energy 837 trillion [13]. In order to ensure that DNA testing is being performed correctly there are standards that the communication, laboratories has to adhere to. These standards has to assurance the quality of the work.

Every laboratory should have a quality assurance program in place. Organization and management. First thing is to have a management staff that the crisis, authority and means to carry out the duty that is assigned to them and keep the quality assurance in the laboratory. There should also be a technical leader that is in charge of the technical operations. If the CODIS is in causes use at the laboratory, there should be a casework CODIS administrator who is accountable for CODIS on site.

The laboratory should also have two full time employees who are qualified DNA analysts. The responsibility, authority and interrelation of every personal operational at the laboratory has to be specified and essay on water shortage and energy documented. Lastly a contingency plan has to what is an analysis poem be in planned and approved in the case that a technical leader position is essay on water and energy crisis, vacated [14]. The employees of the laboratory has to have the papers drug, proper education and experience. The job description of the personnel needs to have a written job description that can be expended with documentation of the and energy, responsibilities, duties and skills. Upon Roast Pig Essay? The laboratory needs to be in possession of the training program for shortage crisis qualifying all analyst. Included are all the DNA analytical procedures that will be performed by the personnel. Also all the papers drug, practical exercises needs to include the examination of a range of samples that are routinely analyzed at the laboratory. On Water Shortage? The training program needs to teach and asses the skills and ability to perform a successful DNA analysis. The trainee needs to give an essays india individual demonstration of capability, which shall be documented by the laboratory. When a new analyst is hired the technical leader is tasked with accessing the essay on water shortage and energy, new hire`s previous training and be responsible for the proper documentation.

If modification of the what analysis essay poem, training program is made, then this also has to be documented. All the analyst has to successfully complete the essay and energy crisis, competencies test that covers the DNA techniques before working on actual casework. A documented program needs to be in place so that the technical qualifications are being kept. This can be done by attending seminars, course, professional meetings or any other documented classes that are relevant. This all needs to add to a minimum of eight hours annually. If training is given by the laboratory itself, all relevant information about the training and essays the presenter needs to be documented. When training is done externally, certificates, program agenda or travel documentation can serve as the proper documentation of attendance. Multimedia and internet based programs needs to be approved by the technical leader.

Attendance needs to be formally documented and when the program is finished the technical leader reviews and approves it. Shortage? The laboratory also needs to fraud have an approved program that is used for annual review of scientific literature. This way the analyst ongoing reading of essay shortage crisis scientific literature is targeted drug, documented. The laboratory needs to have access to collections of information’s containing DNA analysis [14]. The technical leader also has certain qualification that needs to be tended to. The minimum education requirements are a Master`s degree in on water shortage biology, chemistry or forensic science.

In addition they also need to have a successfully completed 12 semester or equivalent credit hours in the subject’s biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology and statistics or population genetics. In the 12 semester completed, there needs to be at least one graduate level course for the period of targeted drug 3 semesters. The technical leader of also needs to have a minimum of three years of experience in a forensic DNA laboratory, in which the crisis, laboratory participated in upon roast pig essay the identification and essay on water shortage and energy crisis evaluation of biological evidence in a criminal matter capacity. The duties of the technical leader includes overseeing the technical operation of the laboratory and being able to make decision of initiating, suspending od resuming DNA analytical operations. Other responsibilities include the evaluating and documenting of the validation of what is an poem methods used and proposing new or modified analytical procedures.

Also reviewing academic documents, training records and approve qualifications of essay crisis new analyst before they are allowed to perform analysis on casework independently. Economic Development? The technical leader has to approve specifications for outsourcing agreements and review internal and external DNA audit that might needs to be corrected and documented. Lastly the technical leader is responsible for annually reviewing and documenting of laboratory procedures and reviewing and approving of training, quality assurance and proficiency testing. The technical leader needs to be a full time employee and needs to be accessible for consultation onsite, via the telephone or electronically [14]. As an employee of the laboratory, the analyst needs to have a minimum education of a bachelor`s degree or advanced degree in biology, chemistry or forensic science related area, The analyst is expected to have completed the course work successfully with subject areas of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, statistics and population genetics. Shortage Crisis? The analyst needs to have at least six months of experience in forensic human DNA laboratory experience. The experience of the analyst needs to be documented and if needed, experience augmented by additional training of DNA identification handlings of the laboratory. Before participating in casework, the analyst needs to complete analysis of a range of samples that the laboratory regularly encounters and complete a competency test [14]. Laboratories needs to be designed in thesis a manner where the essay on water shortage crisis, integrity of communication research analyses and essay on water shortage evidence is ensured. Entry to the laboratory needs to be controlled in order to prevent unauthorized personnel.

When keys or combinations are handed out, these needs to be documented and limited to personnel that is designated by laboratory management [14]. Before PCR is performed, the DNA extraction and PCR set up, needs to be performed in either separate times or separate space. The amplified DNA, needs to be developed, processed and data research maintained on a room(s) that is separate from on water shortage where the evidence examination, DNA extraction or PCR setup areas are performed. Communication Papers Research? A robotic workstation can be used, only if the essay shortage and energy crisis, analytical process has been validated. In that case DNA extraction, PCR setup and amplification can be performed in a single room. Lastly procedures for the cleaning and problems decontaminating of the facilities and its equipment needs be in place and on water and energy followed [14]. In order to ensure the integrity of the pig essay, physical evidence, the essay shortage and energy, laboratory needs to have a documented evidence control system.

Evidence needs to be marked with a unique tag on package of the evidence. A definition of the evidence and work product needs to be clearly defined. When a tag is thesis, not used, a system for distinguish samples when they are being processed needs to be devised and put in place. Chain of custody needs to be documented and maintained, either on essay shortage crisis a hard copy or in an electronic format. India? A signature or something equivalent in case of an electronic format needs to be present for all who received and transferred the and energy crisis, evidence, with corresponding date. Documented procedures needs to be in place in order to minimize loss, contamination and deleterious change of communication data papers evidence.

A proper placement for shortage evidence storage and papers research work product that is still in progress needs to be in and energy place, which is controlled and secure [14]. Analytical procedure that are to research be had and followed, needs to be approved by essay shortage and energy crisis the technical leader. The procedures needs to be reviewed annually. Every analytical method needs to have their own standard operating procedure that needs to specify items like the reagents, sample preparation, extraction methods, equipment and controls. A written procedure for the documentation of commercial and papers delivery formulated in-house reagents needs to be in place. Label commercial reagents with the crisis, name of the reagent and expiration date. Formulated in-house reagents are to be labeled with the name of reagent, either the date of preparation or expiration date and the analyst who formulated the reagent. Critical reagents in test kit or systems for dissertation pig essay quantitative PCR and genetic typing needs to be identified and evaluated before they are used on on water shortage and energy crisis evidence samples. Essays? Thermostable DNA polymerase, primer sets and allelic ladders, also needs to be identified and and energy evaluated [14].

Before DNA amplification, evidence samples needs to be quantified. Communication Research? Only when a validated method system is used that have shown to give reproducibly and reliably yield a successful DNA amplification, quantification is not needed. When quantifying, quantification standards are to on water be used. Causes Of Environmental Essays? The positive and negative control needs to be amplified at the same time as the case samples at the same loci with the same set of essay and energy crisis primers as the case samples. Blank reagent controls that are being used for extraction, are to be extracted simultaneously, amplified by using the same primers, instrument and conditions as the case samples and essays economic typed by using the same instrument and and energy injection conditions. The DNA procedures used by the laboratory are to be checked annually or when a major change is papers, made in on water shortage crisis the method [14]. Procedure for the taking and of environmental maintaining casework notes needs to be in place. These needs need to support conclusion taken in the reports. The laboratory needs to essay on water and energy maintain and retain, in hard or electronic form, all notes and documentation from analyst regarding their analysis. The casework reports needs to have the case identifier, a description of the evidence that was examined, description of the method used, the amplification system, results and/or conclusion, an interpretive statement, date that report is papers drug delivery, issued, the disposition of the evidence and lastly a signature and title [14]. Twice a year, with the first one occurring in the first six months and the second in the last 6 months f a year, a proficiency testing needs to essay shortage crisis be undergone by the analyst, technical reviewers, technicians and papers targeted delivery personnel appointed by the technical leader.

Workers who regularly use manual and on water crisis automated methods, will need to go through a proficiency testing at least once a year. New workers needs to go through proficiency testing in india the first six months. The proficiency testing needs to be defined, documented and use the correct dates. The exact items from the proficiency testing that needs to be recorded are the test set identifier, the analyst/participant, date of analysis and and energy its completion, copies of data and notes that supports the conclusions taken, the proficiency test results, discrepancies and if needed the corrective actions that were taken [14]. 1. Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/214781.pdf. 2. M.prinz, A. Carracacedo; DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic genetics for targeted drug disaster victim identification (DVI); Forensic Science International: Genetics; Pages 3-12; 2007. 3. Shortage And Energy? B. Budowle, F.R. Bieber, A.J.

Eisenberg; Forensic aspects of mass disasters: Strategic considerations for DNA-based human identification; Legal Medicine; page 230-243;2005. 4. Research Targeted? Mo Bi Tec molecular biotechnology. 5. NFSTC Science serving justice. 6. Forensic DNA typing STR: Page 62-64, 84-86,92,93. 7. Butler John M.; Advanced topic in forensic DNA typing: methodology; 2012; Elsevier, Maryland USA, page 371, 372, 141-150,417,418. 8. Sequencing, forensic analysis and genetic analysis http://www.atdbio.com/content/20/Sequencing-forensic-analysis-and-genetic-analysis#Short-tandem-repeats.

9. Sirius genomics. 10. Forensic science central; DNA. 11. FBI biometric analysis. 12. Promega technical manual for the powerplex 16 system. 13.

Butler John M.; Fundamentals of forensic DNA typing; 2010; Elsevier; Maryland USA; page 111-121, 229, 238-241, 251, 252. 14. Quality Assurance standards for forensic DNA testing laboratories. DNA analysis workload estimated worksheet. Search our thousands of essays:

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Types Of Biotechnology Essays and Research Papers. ?What is biotechnology ? Contrary to its name, biotechnology is not a single technology. Rather it is a group of technologies . that share two (common) characteristics -- working with living cells and their molecules and having a wide range of practice uses that can improve our lives. Biotechnology can be broadly defined as using organisms or their products for commercial purposes. As such, (traditional) biotechnology has been practices since he beginning of records history. (It has been used. Bacteria , Biology , Cell 1594 Words | 5 Pages. ? Biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad discipline in which biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are . exploited to develop new technologies. Essay Shortage And Energy! New tools and products developed by biotechnologists are useful in research, agriculture, industry and the clinic.

Blue Biotechnology : the term is causes of environmental problems, used to essay on water shortage crisis describe the applications that biotech has for communication papers research, the marine environment and essay shortage and energy crisis, other water based (aquatic) phenomena Green Biotechnology : as one might guess, green biotech refers to biotechnology. Biotechnology , Carbon nanotube , Chemistry 1811 Words | 5 Pages. Biotechnology and its Prospects: Past and Present situation in Nepal The word ‘ biotechnology ’ itself sounds whimsical and it does . have some research glamour on it but in the simplest way biotechnology is the research oriented subject where people can do research from zero level to thesis on employee gene level. Science and innovation has taken a great leap, have deciphered thousands of on water shortage crisis human life related riddles that were unanswered two decades ago. In quest of discoveries, biotechnology has emerged as a new field. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Biology 1080 Words | 3 Pages. ? MEDICAL USES Diagnostic Biotechnology Uses Biotechnology plays a vital part in the diagnostic science, as it uses our . knowledge of both DNA and papers research, genes to help determine the following. Determine the sex of an essay crisis unborn baby Prenatal Screening, such as screening for Down syndrome.

New-born Screening, used to pick up diseases such as HIV Presymptomatic testing for adult onset disorders, this includes testing for familial high blood cholesterol. Conformational testing for of environmental problems, diagnosis of symptomatic. Agriculture , Bacteria , Biotechnology 1255 Words | 4 Pages. increase if not used in suboptimal conditions. Essay Crisis! Microinjection is another form of transfection and involves directly injection of naked DNA. This form of . transfection is costly and technically demanding. Each cell must be separately injected but this type of transfection can be used for many different animals.

Regulating transgenic cows: benefits and consequences of Transgenesis In New Zealand, transgenic cows are classed as new organisms and are regulated by the Hazardous Substances and New. Bacteria , Cell , DNA 1282 Words | 4 Pages. Applications of Biotechnology in Medicine Overview of the applications of biotechnology in research papers, medicine that will be dealt here: . 1. Gene Therapy 2. Pharmacogenomics 3. Genetic Testing 4. Shortage! Cloning What is Biotechnology ? Biotechnology can broadly be defined as the art of understanding and manipulating living organisms’ genes (code of of environmental essays life) and essay on water shortage and energy crisis, their products for the production of food, medicine, drink, or for thesis on employee fraud, other benefits or useful purposes to mankind and other organisms. Basically. Bacteria , Biology , Biotechnology 1070 Words | 4 Pages.

Research Paper Medical Biotechnology History and on water shortage and energy, Philosophy of Science Table of Content Part I . Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..3 Part II Medical Biotechnologies Drug Production……………………………………………………………………………. 5 Pharmacogenomics…………………………………………………………………………. Fraud! 6 Gene therapy…………………………………………………………………………………7 References……………………………………………………………………………………8 Part I Introduction. The topic of my research paper is the Medical Biotechnology , because of its great history. Acetone , Bacteria , Biology 1268 Words | 5 Pages. MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY : A DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FUTURE Biotechnology's first impacts occurred on a terrestrial level, but there's an end to essay on water and energy crisis the . diversity of terrestrial life.

And if you go back and thesis on employee fraud, ask a fundamental question: Where on earth does the biodiversity reside, you realize it is the ocean (William Fenical, Scripps Institution). Marine biotechnology is defined as the on water shortage and energy application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by marine biological agents to development india provide. Biology , Biotechnology , DNA 1937 Words | 6 Pages. Chapter Nine: Future of Biotechnology in Healthcare Biotechnology can offer patients more and essay shortage, better healthcare choices. . New, innovative diagnostics and therapies are changing how some human diseases are prevented and others are treated. This monumental healthcare shift is in its early stages, with novel medicines, diagnostics and research, technologies in development that hold great potential to improve patients’ lives.

Future of Biotechnology in Healthcare 31 Personalized Medicine Personalized. Cancer , Cell , Cellular differentiation 1138 Words | 4 Pages. Define plant biotechnology . Using examples discuss how it is different from essay on water shortage crisis, traditional / conventional methods plant breeding. Plant . What Is An For A! biotechnology has been defined as the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology and engineering sciences in-order to achieve technological application of micro-organisms and cultured tissue cells in the transfer of essay genetic traits from research papers delivery, one crop species to another to obtain transgenic plants that are of essay beneficial use to human kind (Lawrence .W; 1968). Analysis Essay For A Poem! Heldt H and. Biotechnology , DNA , Gene 1474 Words | 5 Pages. ? Biotechnology regulations Biotechnology is the science of modifying the genetic composition of plants, animals, and crisis, . microorganisms. Historically, biotechnology has relied on essays economic india conventional plant and essay and energy, animal breeding practices to modify genetic composition. Modern biotechnology relies on causes newer techniques, such as genetic engineering, to on water shortage crisis incorporate genetic material from one living organism into research papers, another.

Products of biotechnology include medications, human insulin, enzymes used in laundry detergents. Biotechnology , Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research , Clinical trial 946 Words | 4 Pages. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY Assignment: AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY ` ABSTRACT The following paper is an attempt to . understand the idea of agriculture biotechnology , its evolution, and how it affects us. This research paper has a brief overview of shortage and energy crisis various technologies involved in the production of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops using Agriculture Biotechnology , citing the advantage of the uses of GM Crops and ethical concerns related to its consumption. Lack of awareness among the thesis people, and. Agriculture , Biotechnology , DNA 2012 Words | 7 Pages. Effects of Biotechnology in Healthcare. The Effects of Biotechnology in Healthcare 2 Technology continues to shortage have a major impact on healthcare and how it’s delivered in the . U.S. The use of the technological developments in healthcare is what is an for a poem, what raises basic questions and the issue of whether or not it is ethical or moral to on water and energy do so.

The technology and research used in the US have no ranked one of the of environmental essays highest, are known as the best worldwide, and shortage crisis, have therefore allowed Americans promising breakthroughs in communication data papers, the areas that include cancer. Biotechnology , Chronic , Chronic illness 1760 Words | 6 Pages. Khaini Chewing Tobacco (Raja Type ) Pan Masala Darbari Type Khaine (Chewing Tobacco) Kimam Chewing Tobacco Nicotine from . Tobacco Waste Pan Masala Pan Masala, Meetha, Saada, Zarda Making(Gutkha) and Packing Scented Supari Sweet Scented Supari Tobacco Zarda Zafrani Baba type Zarda Kimam N. 60, 120, 160, 240, 300, 400 Zarda Kimam (Tobacco) Zarda Kimam, No. 60,90 120, 160, 240, 300 400 Tobacco Tooth Paste From Tobacco Dust 1/2 Tobacco Creamy snuff (pico) type Tobacco Seed Oil Protein. Areca nut , Chewing tobacco , Market research 509 Words | 2 Pages. BEL718- Term Paper Mass Spectroscopy Applications in Combinatorial Biotechnology By Mehul Bhardwaj 2008BB50021 Table of Contents: 1. . Introduction What is on water shortage and energy crisis, Mass Spectroscopy? Operating principle Steps 2. Development India! Application in and energy crisis, Combinatorial Biotechnology Advantages/ summary 3. References 3 3 4 4 6 7 9 3 Introduction: Mass spectrometry’s is fraud, one of the most important analytical methods, due to its outstanding characteristics such as, high sensitivity, detection limits, speed and ease of handling.

Chemical ionization , Chemistry , Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance 1664 Words | 7 Pages. Biotechnology and Stem Cell Research. ?Running Head: UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Biotechnology and on water shortage and energy, Stem Cell Research Gladys Masker Contemporary . Applications of the Sciences SCI215 Argosy University Online UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Biotechnology is the concept in which any living thing can be changed or altered such as plants, animals, agriculture, food, health, and has been used in the manufacturing of chemicals. These changes in biotechnology are supposed to benefit and provide better goods. Biotechnology , Bone marrow , Cancer 1273 Words | 6 Pages. Stem Cell Research - Biotechnology. STEM CELLS - BIOTECHNOLOGY The biotechnology being discussed is STEM CELL THERAPY. For A! Using cells from a young embryo and essay on water, . Drug Delivery! implanting them in a patient's body, people can recover diseased or dead cells.

Stem cell research has the potential to save millions of lives, but has sparked much controversy and debate around the on water and energy crisis world. There are many kinds of causes problems essays stem cells, including: EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS, which come from a five to essay on water shortage six-day-old embryo. Essays Economic India! They are able to form virtually any type of cell found in. Biotechnology , Cell , Cellular differentiation 687 Words | 4 Pages. Biotechnology : The Next Revolution Continuing through the twenty-first century, technology is ever so expanding and to all aspects of life for . the essay shortage crisis purpose of fixing worldwide problems to causes essays making our lives much easier. In the past few years, a new branch of technology has opened up, called Biotechnology . Involving science and engineering to develop and improve products and processes, biotechnology exists in essay shortage and energy crisis, all aspects of causes of environmental problems our lives from food and medicine to plants and animals. Supporters of on water shortage and energy Biotechnology. Agriculture , American Chemical Society , Bioethics 827 Words | 3 Pages. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food Industry. ? Biotechnology in Agriculture and drug delivery, Food Industry, Is it safe?

Biotechnology had been used since many years ago, the simplest . example of biotechnology is traditional biotechnology , which is making bread, cheese, wine and beer using a specific bacteria or fungi, and it is called fermentation. Essay On Water Shortage Crisis! According to book Green Business: An A-to-Z Guide, Biotechnology is the application of sciences and technology to living organism as well as parts, product, and models thereof, to dissertation alter living or nonliving materials. Biotechnology , DNA , Food industry 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and . other fields requiring bioproducts. The concept encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to essay shortage and energy human purposes. For thousands of research targeted drug years, humans have used selective breeding to essay and energy crisis improve production of crops and roast pig essay, livestock to use them for food.

In selective breeding, organisms with desirable characteristics are mated to produce. Bacteria , Biotechnology , DNA 952 Words | 3 Pages. advantages and essay and energy, disadvantages of food biotechnology . Are there implications that you see that could be beneficial and/or harmful to the . population? 750-1000 words. When assigned this writing assignment I had no idea what “food biotechnology ” was. I started by looking up the meaning for papers drug delivery, biotechnology and found that it means the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products. It was discovered in the 70s and has been used ever since.

Food biotechnology is when these uses are applied. Agriculture , Allergy , Bacteria 795 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION: Biotechnology is a branch where technology is essay on water crisis, combined with biology for research development. Biotechnology . involves wide range of subjects such as engineering, genetics, biochemistry, microbiology and chemistry. Data Research! There are various applications of biotechnology in fileds such as animal husbandry, growth of vaccines and medicines, agriculture, pollution control, energy production and conservation, healing of prolonged disease and ecological conservation. It also helps in development. Academic degree , Agriculture , Bachelor's degree 2594 Words | 12 Pages.

work directly with ­ they are the essay on water shortage raw materials of biotechnology ­ . cells are the smallest unit of life that makes up all living organisms, these can be manipulated in many ways ­ Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) is a bacterium that is commonly used by biotechnology companies for the development of products ­ multicellular­ composed of more than one cell ? frost resistant strawberry plants or endangered animals ­ any fields of biotechnology require a thorough understanding of cellular composition . DNA , Metabolism , Nucleic acid 1126 Words | 5 Pages. How Biotechnology Benefits the Human Environment. Biotechnology is is an, used to improve the living of organisms. Biotechnology can be defined as the use of essay and energy crisis technology to produce . products and involve the communication research use of essay on water living things to drug improve the life of humans. Shortage! “Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to upon combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, use less and cleaner energy, and have safer, cleaner and more efficient industrial manufacturing processes.”1 Biotechnology has been used. Bacteria , Biology , Biotechnology 1558 Words | 5 Pages. FUTURE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Anna Treohan 1993 Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute INTRODUCTION The recent emphasis on environmental awareness . has challenged scientists to find solutions for better and on water and energy crisis, safer living conditions. Essays Economic! The added threat of on water and energy deadly diseases such as AIDS and is an essay, resistant strains of tuberculosis and gonorrhea have forced scientists to look for new therapies within the field of biotechnology . The structure of DNA was deciphered by James Watson, a geneticist, and Francis Crick, a. Biotechnology , DNA , Gene 1570 Words | 5 Pages.

Biotechnology in London The phrase “location, location, location” is often used from the real-estate side of business. This phrase is . also essential for essay shortage and energy, an organization to determine where they are going to set up their operations in order to drug delivery have success. Shortage And Energy! When doing business in another country there are several factors that CEO’s must take into account. Predominantly culture is the major concern because there are some variables that cannot be measured; how will the locals react to us being. House of causes of environmental problems Lords , London , New York City 850 Words | 3 Pages. ?Arzaga, Eunisse C. BSA1FHC APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Medicine In medicine, modern biotechnology finds applications in . areas such as pharmaceutical drug discovery and production, pharmacogenomics, and genetic testing (or genetic screening). On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis! Pharmacogenomics (a combination of what is an analysis essay for a pharmacology and genomics) is the essay on water crisis technology that analyses how genetic makeup affects an individual's response to is an for a poem drugs.

It deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene. Biotechnology , Cancer , DNA 856 Words | 3 Pages. Biotechnology: Human and Fine Economic Balance. Biotechnology Over the past decade, Biotechnology has advanced much to the advantage of essay shortage and energy many people. We have . learned that with certain chemicals, we are able to cut-and-paste the DNA of certain organisms, and alter them to comply to our sociable needs. But this can also affect modern medicine, political factors, economic, and societal balances in our nation. For medicine, Biotechnology has been a blessing, healing people who suffer from. Biology , Biotechnology , DNA 783 Words | 3 Pages.

? Biotechnology is the use of living systems and essays, organisms to essay and energy develop or make products, or any technological application that uses biological . systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. Communication Papers! 2).[1] Depending on essay and energy crisis the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering,biomedical engineering, etc. Dissertation Roast Pig Essay! The wide concept of biotech or biotechnology encompasses a wide. Bacteria , Biology , Biotechnology 2655 Words | 7 Pages. Contributions of Ibn Sina to Biotechnology. ? Ibn Sina: Discoveries and essay on water shortage, Contributions to Biotechnology Ibn Sinas discoveries and contributions to biotechnology . Essays Development India! Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, contributed to the advancement of biotechnology through his important discoveries which were among some of the on water major contributors to the progression of of environmental not only biotechnology but also to humanity in general. On Water And Energy! He was born in essay poem, Bukhara a city in Persia in 908 (Sneader, 2005).

He was an Islamic scientist-philosopher and was known to be among. Cancer , Disease , Epidemiology 1640 Words | 5 Pages. Applicaton of Biotechnology Including Its Benefits and Potential Risks. Discuss the applications of biotechnology including its benefits and shortage and energy crisis, potential risks. We all talk of biotechnology thse . Data Papers Research! days but the question that we need to ask is; what do we really understand by shortage crisis, this term? Different definitions have come up with time and one of them is:”The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to dissertation upon pig essay perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes.” It is a field of biology that involves the use of living things. Bacteria , Biology , Biotechnology 1863 Words | 7 Pages. Chapter 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology I. Overview: Flowers of Deceit 1. Angiosperm flowers can attract pollinators . On Water! using visual cues and volatile chemicals 2. Communication Data Papers Research! Many angiosperms reproduce sexually and asexually 3. Symbiotic relationships are common between plants and other species II. Concept 38.1: Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits are unique features of the angiosperm life cycle 1. Shortage And Energy Crisis! Diploid (2n) sporophytes produce spores by data research, meiosis; these grow into. Flower , Flowering plant , Fruit 1531 Words | 8 Pages.

Biotechnology Paper Biotechnology products are the essay on water shortage and energy crisis yield of engineering labors that process biological material and agents to . produce a modified biological substance. Examples of biotechnology drugs are monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA. Monoclonal antibodies are important reagents in the treatment and diagnosis of disease. What Analysis Essay Poem! They have been used for diagnosis of pregnancy, detection of presence and concentration of drugs in shortage and energy crisis, the blood, histocompatibility assay, and detecting shed tumor. Ankylosing spondylitis , Antibody , Immune system 1924 Words | 6 Pages. ?At its simplest, biotechnology is technology based on biology - biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to . develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet. We have used the biological processes of microorganisms for more than 6,000 years to make useful food products, such as bread and fraud, cheese, and to preserve dairy products.

Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases. Agriculture , Bacteria , Biotechnology 470 Words | 2 Pages. ?Polysaccharide Biotechnology essay “It has been claimed that polysaccharides are relatively simple substances without much variety in terms . of their structure and their application in an industrial or medical contact.” Write an essay giving a reasoned treatise why you do or do not agree with this statement. In your answer, compare and contrast the structure, costs of production, possibility for chemical/enzymatic modification and the industrial applications of two structural polysaccharides. Bacteria , Cell wall , Cellulose 1507 Words | 4 Pages. Plant Biotechnology Question Papers. Plant Biotechnology Long questions * What is in vitro propagation? How can we produce virus-free/pre-basic seed potatoes by essay, . What! thermo-therapy and meristem culture? what is micro propagation?

Describe with illustration the protocol of DAS-ELISA. Essay And Energy! X2 * Define germplam and cryo-preservation (x2). Describe the steps involved in cryopreservation of shoot tip as a germplasm. X3 * Describe the process of essays T-DNA transfer and essay on water crisis, its integration in plant cell by the infection of Agrobacterium. X2. Agarose gel electrophoresis , DNA , Gel electrophoresis 581 Words | 3 Pages.

Biotechnology in Cloning Brian Hopkins South University Online BIO1020 Unveiled to the world’s press by Ian Wilmut and colleagues at research targeted delivery the . Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland on February 22, 1997, Dolly the sheep was the essay shortage and energy crisis first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was actually born a few months earlier on July 5, 1996. The world was certainly awed when the of environmental problems first superstar sheep Dolly was introduced. It was that date in history when the world first heard about successful. Cloning , Dolly , Domestic sheep 1011 Words | 3 Pages. bacteria. Essay Crisis! E) B and D above. 3) Current applications of gene cloning include A) A and C only. B) A, B, and C. Causes Of Environmental Problems Essays! C) cleaning up toxic waste. Essay On Water Crisis! D) instilling pest . resistance in plants.

E) manufacturing human growth hormone. 4) Plasmids are important in biotechnology because they are A) a vehicle for the insertion of recombinant DNA into bacteria. B) surfaces for research papers targeted delivery, respiratory processes in bacteria. Essay Shortage Crisis! C) recognition sites on data papers research recombinant DNA strands. D) surfaces for protein synthesis in eukaryotic recombinants. Bacteria , Cell , DNA 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Biotechnology industry Analysis BACKGROUND The health care industry Provides health products and service which involved the leading . technology of life science. On Water Shortage Crisis! It is a fast-growing industry and will continue to grow in the future because of the increasing request to the advanced medical care. The Global Industry Analysis (GIA,2009) predicted that the prescription drug market is value around $897 billion in world economy in 2015, and Asia-Pacific region is expected to have highest growth in prescription.

Biotechnology , Clinical trial , Health 1121 Words | 4 Pages. Recent Trends in the Biotechnology of Chrysanthemum: a Critical Review. Recent trends in communication papers research, the biotechnology of Chrysanthemum: a critical review G.R, Rout, P. On Water Shortage And Energy! Das * Plant Biotechnology Division, Plant . Tissue Culture Laboratory, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar 751 015, India Received 5 March 1996 Abstract Various techniques have been developed which could help breeders to meet the is an analysis essay poem demand of the cut flower industry in the next century. Available methods for the transfer of genes could significantly shorten the breeding procedures and overcome some. Bud , Cell culture , Chrysanthemum 1299 Words | 4 Pages. In certain circumstances other items of protective equipment may be necessary, e.g., a face shield. Different types of gloves exhibit . different chemical resistance properties; listings of these properties are available (Forsberg and Keith, 1989). Essay And Energy Crisis! Gloves should, however, be regarded as the last line of economic defense and should be changed if they become contaminated, because many types of essay on water shortage crisis chemicals pass relatively freely through rubber. If possible, handling procedures should be designed so that. American Chemical Society , Chemistry , Fume hood 1302 Words | 2 Pages.

Biotechnology Position Paper Genetically engineered and papers, modified foods are not only one of the worlds prime concerns, but have recently . developed into one of the most widely debated issues in all of North America. Arguments aside, the problem is going to essay on water crisis be one that the world is going to have to papers drug delivery feel the essay crisis results of, whether prepared or not. Newly expanded research regarding biotechnology presents a willing audience with a whole new outlook on of environmental problems essays just how far scientific investigation and expansion. Genetic engineering , Genetically modified food , Genetically modified organism 2100 Words | 6 Pages. LECTURE 1 DATA TYPES Our interactions (inputs and outputs) of a program are treated in many languages as a stream of bytes. These bytes . Essay Shortage Crisis! represent data that can be interpreted as representing values that we understand. Additionally, within a program we process this data that can be interpreted as representing values that we understand. Additionally, within a program we process this data in various way such as adding them up or sorting them. This data comes in different forms.

Examples include: your. C , Data type , Data types 1808 Words | 7 Pages. ? Tad Sherman Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Essentially the same disease, Type 1 and Type 2 . diabetes share many different attributes as to when and how a person is diagnosed and methods of treating the essays economic development disease. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have some similarities in the way they are treated and diagnosed as well as some differences in treatment and essay on water and energy crisis, diagnosis. Type 1 diabetes is the less common of the two and is generally diagnosed in younger and type 2 diabetes is diagnosed at any age and. Blood sugar , Diabetes , Diabetes mellitus 1155 Words | 3 Pages. Axia College Material Appendix F Type I and Type II Diabetes What are the differences between Type I and . Type II diabetes?

By completing this chart, you will create an of environmental essays easy-to-read reference that will help you understand how the two forms of diabetes mellitus differ. Use Ch. 13 of the text in addition to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Web site at http://www.diabetes.org/about-diabetes.jsp to find details about the essay on water two types of pig essay diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus Matrix |Form of Diabetes. Blood sugar , Diabetes , Diabetes mellitus 688 Words | 4 Pages. ?Basic science of n- type semiconductors Semiconductors are defined by their unique electric conductive behavior. Metals are good conductors . Essay! because at dissertation upon roast their Fermi level, there is a large density of energetically available states that each electron can occupy.

Electrons can move quite freely between energy levels without a high energy cost. Metal conductivity decreases with temperature increase because thermal vibrations of crystal lattice disrupt the on water shortage and energy free motion of electrons. Insulators, by contrast. Atom , Condensed matter physics , Electric charge 1439 Words | 4 Pages. • Type Of Bank Accounts Survey of Various types of Bank Accounts, rate of interest offered Mr. Pinto (name changed on . request) of Axis Bank Limited of Nerul Branch was very co-operative. Premium • Types Of Bank Accounts 1960s.

Since then, there have been numerous banks offering different types of banking accounts Demat account. A brokerage account where the customer's securities. Premium • Different Types Of Bank Accounts in half year by most of the. Bank , Bank account , Banking 1366 Words | 6 Pages. distinct layers of soil record your observations in the uppermost and bottom rows of the data table, leaving the middle layer row blank. Total . ThicknessTop LayerMiddle Layer *If presentBottom LayerWater in Jar (after settling) Determining Soil Type Thickness of Layer (in cm)6.7inches 3inches 2.7inches 1inchAppearance of problems Water Clear/Cloudy?

Color?Very cloudyFor this part of the lab you will use the soil sample in the zip lock bag (from #2 in the procedure).Take a pinch and rub it between. Brown , Color term , Primary color 539 Words | 3 Pages. objectives are the following: 1. Distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes by comparing and contrasting their . definitions, bodily effects, warning signs, target groups, and current treatments in a table. On Water And Energy! Type I Diabetes* Type 2 Diabetes Definition Type 1 is targeted drug, caused by on water and energy crisis, the body producing antibodies that attack the pancreas destroying the beta cells. Because of this the pancreas is problems, not able to produce adequate amounts of insulin.

Type 2 is caused by essay shortage, insufficient amounts of development india insulin production. Adipose tissue , Diabetes , Diabetes mellitus 1555 Words | 5 Pages. ? Types of Agency There are numerous types of essay on water and energy crisis agencies in the field of real estate. Research Drug Delivery! An agent is a person that represents the . interest of another person. Essay On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis! They are also specialist who gives professional advice.

Agents charge either a percentage of the transaction price, which is a commission, or a fee for time and expenses. A real estate agent is licensed by essays development, the state they practice in. There is an agreement between the agent and the client. The agreement creates the agency, identifies the assignment. Contract , Lease , Leasehold estate 883 Words | 3 Pages. Soil and its types : What is the Soil? ‘Soil' is the thin layer on the surface of the essay on water shortage and energy Earth on on employee fraud which the living beings survive.

Soil is the essay on water . layer which is composed with many substances; in this layer various plants have their roots. Soil is made of many substances like weathered rock particles, and thesis, decayed plant and essay on water shortage crisis, animal matter. Soil is dissertation upon roast, made of diverse materials like broken down rock particles and organic material. Essay On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis! There are different types of soil and various ways to classify it. Classification: . Agriculture , Humus , Organic matter 1182 Words | 4 Pages. Technological Environment for Biotechnology Cluster in Lithuania. TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Hi again, Let’s get familiar with technological environment for biotechnology in lithuania gt;gt;gt;gt; . Roast! RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES To begin with, there is shortage and energy crisis, a number of data research institutions that you can see on the left performing modern biotechnological investigations it’s institute of biotechnology , KTU, VGTU and many others On the left there are private lithuanian companies sicor, amilina, fermentas, biocentras that have developed the shortage crisis strong research. Bacteria , Biology , Biotechnology 794 Words | 3 Pages. researched four types of organizational culture, which may be accepted by companies. Dissertation Upon Pig Essay! The first type is “the power culture”, which . means that the power is concentrated in one person and essay and energy, dominated by economic india, one person in on water and energy crisis, the company (Greener, 2010). One person influences all decision-making.

A type of dissertation upon roast organization with this cultural type is able to solve problems and provide solutions easily, however solutions depend on essay on water shortage and energy crisis the central person for their success. The fact is data, that with this cultural type it is difficult. Cross-cultural communication , Culture , Geert Hofstede 868 Words | 3 Pages. TYPES OF COMPOUNDS Endocentric: AB = B A= modifier B= head Take a look at the following example toothpaste Is it a type of essay and energy crisis . tooth? or; Is it a type of paste? Definition of toothpaste from www.macmillandictionary.com soft thick subtance (paste) that you put on thesis a toothbrush to clean your teeth Tooth is the modifier (A) of the head (B) paste. AB=B toothpaste = a type of paste for brushing teeth In most cases the head is the rightmost component of the compound. Essay Crisis! English N-N Compounds . Chemical compound , Compound , Grammatical number 703 Words | 4 Pages. Types of Contracts [pic] Choosing type appropriate contract type is essential to targeted drug successful performance under a . Shortage Crisis! contract. The type of contract determines the cost and performance risks which are placed on dissertation upon the contractor. Crisis! There are two broad contract groups--fixed price and cost reimbursement.

Within each of these groups, there are various types of causes problems essays contracts which can be used individually or in combination. [pic] Firm Fixed Price Contracts [pic] This type of contract requires the contractor. Contract , Contractual term , Cost 710 Words | 3 Pages. NETWORK TYPES Esteban Solorzano-Vivar Wilmington University WIS.200.B2N01.SP2013 March 13, 2013 Introduction In today’s world, . computers have had a quite impressive evolution. Computers are not only needed to do homework, but they have also become essential tools for work, social life, and everyday tasks. With the help of essay on water technology, computers now allow us to papers share information (emails, documents, etc.), resources and software applications in just seconds.

This sharing often occurs through. Computer network , Ethernet , Local area network 1171 Words | 4 Pages. TYPE OF COMMUNICATION Communication Communication is a process of essay shortage crisis exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through . speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to essays the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel. Types of Communication People communicate with each other in a number. Communication , Facial expression , Metacommunicative competence 900 Words | 4 Pages.

Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow and Scientific Advisor to GlycaNova, Norway. Biotechnology ? ? ? ? ? ? . Biotechnology is the major technology of the twenty-first century – yet few people realise how much it impacts on many aspects of essay on water shortage crisis human society. The defining aim of this new fifth edition is to re-establish the correct understanding of the term biotechnology . Using the fraud straightforward style that made the previous editions of essay shortage his textbook so popular, John. Bacteria , Biology , Biotechnology 1039 Words | 8 Pages. There are many different types of evangelism including mass evangelism, personal evangelism, evangelistic preaching, literature evangelism, . church evangelistic crusades, evangelistic counseling, radio and television programs, entertainment, Sunday school evangelism, and evangelistic bible study. By mass evangelism is meant the preaching of the message in research, open-air meetings or in very large gatherings.

The first mass meetings are described in the New Testament as occurring spontaneously. Shortage Crisis! Since the. Bible , Christianity , Evangelism 1218 Words | 4 Pages. ensure that their profit margin was not lost by raising the fare for tickets. This type of inflation occurs generally across the retail aspect . of the world, affecting prices when the production cost increases for example. Stagflation - The is the situation in which the inflation continues to rise despite the economy not following suit, in other words when prices rise even though the upon country is in recession. On Water And Energy! This type of inflation can have disastrous effects but is generally a short lived form of.

Built-in inflation , Cost-push inflation , Demand-pull inflation 961 Words | 3 Pages.

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The first digit in the ID must be 1 through 9. It cannot be 0. Essay On Water And Energy? Also, this number cannot be the same as the extensions on the CCM cluster for economic this agent. If you change the Agent ID (Peripheral ID), you must cycle the on water and energy PG to populate the new agent ID and information in the CTI Toolkit IPCC Supervisor Desktop. This step creates the Agent record. If you did not use the Select Person button to associate the agent with an existing Person record, a new Person record is automatically created for the agent. You can also add many agents at one time using the Bulk Configuration tool. For scripting and reporting purposes, if you configure the script to send a call directly to an agent and that agent is poem permanently deleted, the call/script fails. Also, you can run historical reports for essay shortage and energy permanently deleted agents.

Deletes the agent as well as the associated person. Accesses an Agent record. Complete the remaining fields on this tab as described in the Configuration Manager online help. Economic Development India? Designates the agent as a supervisor. Allows you to begin defining a new agent team. Complete the window, adding desired agents to the team. Allows you to select agents to add to the team. Allows you to essay crisis designate a supervisor for the team. With Unified CCE, assign both a primary and a secondary supervisor to each agent team. For more information about configuring CTI OS Logout and Not Ready Reason Codes, see CTI OS System Manager's Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . This section describes how to perform the following tasks: Configure Unified CCE for Redirection on No Answer on IP IVR.

The recommended Redirection on fraud, No Answer situation configuration is detailed in the procedure below. Allows you to define the following: A Redirection on No Answer time Redirection on No Answer dialed number (to access the Redirection on No Answer script defined in Step 3, below) The Redirection on essay on water crisis, No Answer timer is not applicable if the Auto answer option is enabled because the Redirection on No Answer feature and Force Answer are mutually exclusive. Papers Research? If both are defined, Auto answer takes precedence over essay on water shortage and energy, Redirection on No Answer. This step sets up the call type and associates it with the dialed number and the routing script. Economic Development India? This step allows you to define routing logic used for situations when an assigned agent does not answer. Essay Shortage And Energy Crisis? This script queues the call at the highest priority in the skill group(s) defined within the call variables; otherwise, the call is no longer the first call to be routed off of the queue, as it was when it was first assigned to the (unavailable) agent. Papers Drug Delivery? Also, call variables that were set in the original routing script are still present in essay on water and energy, the ring-no-answer script.

Consequently, you might want to set variable values in one script that can be checked and data papers acted upon in the other script. If you configure the Redirection on No Answer timer in essay and energy, the Unified ICM agent desk settings, it is not necessary to configure the Unified CM Call Forward No Answer fields for the agent extensions in the Unified CM configuration. If you want to what essay poem configure them for cases when an agent is not logged in, set the Unified CM system service parameter for the Unified CM Call Forward No Answer timer at least 3 seconds higher than the Unified ICM Redirection on No Answer timer on each of the Unified CM nodes. If you want to ensure that Redirection on No Answer calls adversely affect the service level, define the service level threshold to essay on water be less than the Redirection on No Answer timer at of environmental problems essays the call type and service. Configure Unified CCE for Redirection on No Answer on essay on water and energy crisis, Cisco Unified CVP. For Unified CCE systems in which Unified CVP is deployed, the Unified CM does not control Unified CVP and cannot send an unanswered call back to Unified CVP for re-queuing. You configure the Re-route on Redirection on No Answer feature to only make the economic development agent state Not Ready when the agent does not answer a call; you can use the Unified CVP Target Requery feature to re-queue the call.

For more information, see Installation and Configuration Guide for Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . Important: Unified CM does not control the queuing platform (Unified CVP); therefore, Unified CM cannot send the call back to Unified CVP for re-queuing. Recommended configuration for Redirection on No Answer situations is detailed in the procedure below. Allows you to define the following: A Redirection on No Answer time: Set this number less than the essay number set for the No Answer Timeout for the Target Requery that you set in Unified CVP (causes agent to be made unavailable after the Redirection on what is an essay for a poem, No Answer timer expires, but cannot invoke the Redirection on No Answer mechanism to re-route the call—see Step 3, below) Redirection on No Answer dialed number (to access the Redirection on No Answer script): Leave this field blank. On Water And Energy? The Redirection on No Answer timer is not applicable if Auto-answer is essays economic enabled because the Redirection on No Answer feature and Force Answer are mutually exclusive. If both are defined, Auto-answer takes precedence over Redirection on No Answer. This step causes Unified CVP to issue a requery to the system software, if the assigned agent does not answer.

In the VBAdmin tool, use the SetRNATimeout command to set the ring-no-answer timeout to a duration that is two seconds longer than the Redirection on No Answer time set in Step 1. Set this timeout to under 30 seconds because the system software waits 30 seconds for Unified CVP to return a routing label and and energy crisis then fails, so Unified CVP needs to requery before this happens. Use the Target Requery script feature. Do not create and schedule a new Routing script for Redirection on thesis on employee, No Answer purposes in Unified CVP deployments. Allows you to report on Redirection on No Answer information. This script enables Requery (selects the Requery check box) on the node in the script that selects and delivers the essay on water shortage and energy crisis call to the first agent. Depending on the type of development node used, the essay on water shortage crisis Requery mechanism selects a new target from the available agents or requires additional scripting. For information about how Requery works for the different nodes, see Scripting and Media Routing Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . Important: This script queues the call at is an essay the highest priority in essay on water crisis, the skill group(s) defined within the call variables. Otherwise, the call is no longer the first in essays, queue, as it was when it was first assigned to the (unavailable) agent.

If you configure the Redirection on No Answer timer in the Unified ICM agent desk settings, it is not necessary to configure the Unified CM Call Forward No Answer fields for the agent extensions in the Unified CM configuration. To configure them for cases when an on water shortage and energy, agent is not logged in, set the Unified CM system service parameter for the Unified CM Call Forward No Answer timer at least 3 seconds higher than the Unified ICM Redirection on No Answer timer on each of the Unified CM nodes. To ensure that Redirection on No Answer calls adversely affect the service level, define the service level threshold to dissertation upon pig essay be less than the Redirection on No Answer timer at the call type and service. Automatic wrap-up allows you to force agents into Wrap-up mode when they are finished with inbound or outbound calls. Use these two fields to enable automatic wrap-up: Work mode on Incoming Work mode on outgoing. Choose either Required or Required with wrap-up data to indicate automatic wrap-up.

Also, enter the time, in seconds, allocated to an agent to wrap-up a call. This configuration allows you to on water shortage and energy crisis determine if and when agents are required to enter a Reason Code when they log out development india or enter a Not Ready state. Configure Supervisor Assist and Emergency Alert. This step allows you to essay on water shortage define the following: This step allows you to what is an set up the call type and associate it with the dialed number and the routing script. This step allows you to define the following: Allows you to define the Supervisor script dialed number option. Use the Agent to Agent node to route the call to the primary supervisor by editing the formula with the call preferredagentid. In addition, in case this routing fails, set up a route to the skill group or precision queue where the secondary supervisors are located. This step allows you to report on blind conference and consultative call information.

This script associates the on water and energy supervisor's dialed number with the script using the Script Editor's Call Type Manager window. For more information about agent desk settings, agent teams, and what is an essay for a poem dialed numbers, see Installation and Configuration Guide for Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Hosted and the Configuration Manager online help. Essay Shortage And Energy? For more information about dissertation pig essay Reason Codes, see CTI OS System Manager's Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . On Water Shortage Crisis? This section explains how to configure the supervisor logged-in state for CAD. Configure Supervisor Logged-In State for economic development india CAD. This step creates separate desk settings for the CAD supervisor. Leaving this option blank keeps a supervisor logged in to Cisco Agent Desktop. Shortage And Energy? A CAD supervisor uses Cisco Supervisor Desktop to view agent activity, silently monitor, record agent calls, send Team Performance Messages, and chat with agents and other supervisors. Essays Economic Development? A supervisor can only barge in, intercept, or view skill statistics if Cisco Agent Desktop is running on the supervisor's computer. Essay On Water And Energy Crisis? For more information about agent desk settings, see Installation and Configuration Guide for Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Hosted and communication the Configuration Manager online help. Essay On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis? For more information about barge-in and intercept, see CTI OS System Manager's Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted. Your administrator must provide you with this address.

The Login page appears. Dissertation Roast? Enter your supervisor username and password. In a Unified CCE system, the login name to the Agent Re-skilling Tool may or may not be case sensitive . This is determined by the Login case sensitive value in the System Information screen under Miscellaneous Tools in the Configuration Manager. If this link does not appear on the Login Page you can only log in on water crisis, using your login name. For security purposes, log out when you are finished using the Agent Re-skilling Tool. Select the Log Out link at the top-right of the problems page. This action returns you to the Login page. Sessions also time-out automatically after 30 minutes of inactivity. If your session ended due to inactivity, you are prompted to login again to resume using the tool.

For more information about using the Unified CCE Agent Re-skilling tool, see the online help. Network Transfer for IVR Configuration. Essay? Configure Network Transfer from IP Phone. Do not define the labels of agents for the Unified CM PG. Instead, define the labels for the VRU PIM so that the route result is research papers delivery returned to VRU instead of a Unified CM PG. If you do define the agent labels for essay shortage and energy the Unified CM PG, the Router returns the on employee fraud route result to the VRU PIM, if Network Transfer Preferred is on water and energy crisis enabled on the Unified CM PG and VRU PIM and returns the route result to research targeted delivery the Unified CM PG if Network Transfer Preferred is disabled on shortage, the Unified CM PG and VRU PIM. Configure Network Transfer from CTI OS Desktop. This chapter explains the tasks you must be familiar with when setting up agents for your Unified CCE contact center. You must ensure that you have already set up agent desk settings before configuring agents. If you want to associate this agent with an existing Person record, select the papers research Select Person button.

This step creates an Agent record associated with the Person record. Agent IDs can be up to shortage crisis nine digits long. The first digit in the ID must be 1 through 9. It cannot be 0. Also, this number cannot be the same as the extensions on the CCM cluster for papers targeted this agent. If you change the Agent ID (Peripheral ID), you must cycle the PG to populate the new agent ID and information in the CTI Toolkit IPCC Supervisor Desktop. This step creates the Agent record.

If you did not use the Select Person button to associate the agent with an existing Person record, a new Person record is essay on water crisis automatically created for the agent. You can also add many agents at one time using the Bulk Configuration tool. For scripting and reporting purposes, if you configure the essays development india script to send a call directly to essay on water shortage crisis an agent and that agent is development permanently deleted, the call/script fails. Also, you can run historical reports for permanently deleted agents. Deletes the agent as well as the associated person.

Accesses an Agent record. Complete the remaining fields on shortage crisis, this tab as described in the Configuration Manager online help. Designates the what is an essay for a agent as a supervisor. Allows you to begin defining a new agent team. Complete the window, adding desired agents to the team. Allows you to select agents to add to the team.

Allows you to designate a supervisor for the team. With Unified CCE, assign both a primary and a secondary supervisor to each agent team. For more information about configuring CTI OS Logout and Not Ready Reason Codes, see CTI OS System Manager's Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . This section describes how to essay on water shortage and energy perform the following tasks: Configure Unified CCE for Redirection on No Answer situations on IP IVR and Unified CVP Configure automatic wrap-up Configure supervisor assist and fraud emergency alert situations. Configure Unified CCE for Redirection on No Answer on IP IVR. The recommended Redirection on No Answer situation configuration is on water shortage detailed in communication papers, the procedure below. Allows you to define the following: A Redirection on No Answer time Redirection on No Answer dialed number (to access the Redirection on shortage and energy, No Answer script defined in Step 3, below) The Redirection on No Answer timer is not applicable if the Auto answer option is enabled because the Redirection on No Answer feature and Force Answer are mutually exclusive. If both are defined, Auto answer takes precedence over Redirection on No Answer. This step sets up the call type and thesis on employee fraud associates it with the dialed number and the routing script. This step allows you to on water shortage and energy crisis define routing logic used for situations when an assigned agent does not answer. This script queues the call at the highest priority in the skill group(s) defined within the call variables; otherwise, the call is no longer the first call to be routed off of the queue, as it was when it was first assigned to the (unavailable) agent.

Also, call variables that were set in the original routing script are still present in the ring-no-answer script. Thesis? Consequently, you might want to set variable values in one script that can be checked and acted upon in the other script. If you configure the Redirection on No Answer timer in the Unified ICM agent desk settings, it is essay shortage crisis not necessary to configure the Unified CM Call Forward No Answer fields for the agent extensions in the Unified CM configuration. If you want to configure them for cases when an agent is not logged in, set the Unified CM system service parameter for the Unified CM Call Forward No Answer timer at least 3 seconds higher than the Unified ICM Redirection on research papers targeted drug, No Answer timer on each of the Unified CM nodes. Essay And Energy? If you want to ensure that Redirection on No Answer calls adversely affect the service level, define the development india service level threshold to be less than the Redirection on No Answer timer at the call type and service. Configure Unified CCE for on water and energy Redirection on thesis fraud, No Answer on Cisco Unified CVP. For Unified CCE systems in which Unified CVP is deployed, the Unified CM does not control Unified CVP and cannot send an unanswered call back to Unified CVP for re-queuing. You configure the Re-route on Redirection on No Answer feature to only make the agent state Not Ready when the agent does not answer a call; you can use the Unified CVP Target Requery feature to essay crisis re-queue the call. For more information, see Installation and Configuration Guide for Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . Recommended configuration for Redirection on problems, No Answer situations is detailed in the procedure below. Allows you to define the following: A Redirection on No Answer time: Set this number less than the number set for the No Answer Timeout for the Target Requery that you set in Unified CVP (causes agent to be made unavailable after the Redirection on No Answer timer expires, but cannot invoke the Redirection on No Answer mechanism to re-route the essay shortage crisis call—see Step 3, below) Redirection on No Answer dialed number (to access the Redirection on No Answer script): Leave this field blank.

The Redirection on development india, No Answer timer is not applicable if Auto-answer is essay and energy enabled because the Redirection on No Answer feature and Force Answer are mutually exclusive. If both are defined, Auto-answer takes precedence over Redirection on No Answer. Dissertation Upon Roast Pig Essay? This step causes Unified CVP to issue a requery to the system software, if the essay crisis assigned agent does not answer. In the VBAdmin tool, use the problems SetRNATimeout command to set the ring-no-answer timeout to a duration that is two seconds longer than the Redirection on No Answer time set in Step 1. Set this timeout to under 30 seconds because the essay on water and energy crisis system software waits 30 seconds for Unified CVP to return a routing label and then fails, so Unified CVP needs to upon pig essay requery before this happens. Use the Target Requery script feature. Do not create and schedule a new Routing script for Redirection on No Answer purposes in Unified CVP deployments. Allows you to report on Redirection on No Answer information. This script enables Requery (selects the Requery check box) on the node in the script that selects and essay shortage delivers the thesis on employee fraud call to the first agent. Depending on essay shortage and energy crisis, the type of node used, the Requery mechanism selects a new target from the available agents or requires additional scripting. For information about how Requery works for the different nodes, see Scripting and Media Routing Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . If you configure the Redirection on No Answer timer in the Unified ICM agent desk settings, it is not necessary to configure the thesis on employee Unified CM Call Forward No Answer fields for crisis the agent extensions in the Unified CM configuration. To configure them for cases when an agent is not logged in, set the Unified CM system service parameter for essays development india the Unified CM Call Forward No Answer timer at least 3 seconds higher than the Unified ICM Redirection on No Answer timer on each of the Unified CM nodes.

To ensure that Redirection on No Answer calls adversely affect the service level, define the service level threshold to be less than the Redirection on No Answer timer at the call type and service. Essay? Automatic wrap-up allows you to force agents into Wrap-up mode when they are finished with inbound or outbound calls. Economic India? Use these two fields to enable automatic wrap-up: Work mode on on water and energy crisis, Incoming Work mode on outgoing. Choose either Required or Required with wrap-up data to indicate automatic wrap-up. Also, enter the time, in seconds, allocated to an agent to wrap-up a call. This configuration allows you to determine if and when agents are required to enter a Reason Code when they log out is an analysis essay for a or enter a Not Ready state. Configure Supervisor Assist and Emergency Alert. This step allows you to define the on water crisis following: This step allows you to essays development set up the essay call type and associate it with the of environmental essays dialed number and the routing script.

This step allows you to define the following: Allows you to define the on water shortage and energy crisis Supervisor script dialed number option. Use the Agent to Agent node to route the thesis on employee call to the primary supervisor by editing the formula with the call preferredagentid. In addition, in case this routing fails, set up a route to essay the skill group or precision queue where the secondary supervisors are located. This step allows you to report on blind conference and consultative call information. This script associates the supervisor's dialed number with the script using the economic development Script Editor's Call Type Manager window. For more information about agent desk settings, agent teams, and dialed numbers, see Installation and Configuration Guide for Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Hosted and the Configuration Manager online help. For more information about Reason Codes, see CTI OS System Manager's Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted . This section explains how to configure the supervisor logged-in state for CAD. Configure Supervisor Logged-In State for CAD. This step creates separate desk settings for the CAD supervisor.

Leaving this option blank keeps a supervisor logged in to Cisco Agent Desktop. A CAD supervisor uses Cisco Supervisor Desktop to crisis view agent activity, silently monitor, record agent calls, send Team Performance Messages, and chat with agents and other supervisors. Of Environmental Essays? A supervisor can only barge in, intercept, or view skill statistics if Cisco Agent Desktop is running on essay shortage and energy, the supervisor's computer. For more information about agent desk settings, see Installation and Configuration Guide for Cisco Unified Contact Center Enterprise Hosted and papers targeted drug the Configuration Manager online help. For more information about barge-in and intercept, see CTI OS System Manager's Guide for Cisco Unified ICM/Contact Center Enterprise Hosted. Your administrator must provide you with this address.

The Login page appears. Enter your supervisor username and password. Essay Crisis? In a Unified CCE system, the login name to the Agent Re-skilling Tool may or may not be case sensitive . This is thesis fraud determined by on water shortage crisis, the Login case sensitive value in is an poem, the System Information screen under Miscellaneous Tools in the Configuration Manager. If this link does not appear on the Login Page you can only essay on water crisis log in using your login name. For security purposes, log out fraud when you are finished using the Agent Re-skilling Tool. Select the Log Out link at the top-right of the page. Essay Shortage And Energy Crisis? This action returns you to the Login page. Sessions also time-out automatically after 30 minutes of inactivity.

If your session ended due to inactivity, you are prompted to login again to resume using the tool. For more information about using the Unified CCE Agent Re-skilling tool, see the online help. Network Transfer for communication IVR Configuration. Configure Network Transfer from IP Phone. Do not define the labels of agents for the Unified CM PG.

Instead, define the essay shortage crisis labels for the VRU PIM so that the dissertation roast route result is on water shortage and energy crisis returned to VRU instead of a Unified CM PG. Causes Of Environmental? If you do define the agent labels for the Unified CM PG, the Router returns the route result to the VRU PIM, if Network Transfer Preferred is enabled on crisis, the Unified CM PG and VRU PIM and returns the route result to the Unified CM PG if Network Transfer Preferred is disabled on the Unified CM PG and VRU PIM.

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Descriptive essays , derived from the word describe, is a genre of essay that asks the shortage crisis student to economic development india, describe something—object, person, place, experience, emotion, situation, etc. Writers use the essay on water and energy crisis descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay , which reveals meaning through a personal story, the. Emotion , Essay , Meaning of life 794 Words | 3 Pages. ?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. The first issue at . hand is to make sure you know what type of paper you are writing. The descriptive essay is often creative, personal, or simply artistic. Discuss the roast pig essay assignment with your professor or teacher before you begin. On Water Shortage And Energy? Even though your descriptive essay is more personal than a standard five-paragraph or compare-contrast essay , there is still quite a bit of homework to poem, be done. Here is a list of important rules.

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I would just look. Card game , Game , Luck 1678 Words | 4 Pages. do sociologists believe the Nuclear Family to be functional? (12 Marks) The Nuclear Family is a traditional family . type that is tied by blood and marriage, it will include a mother, father and causes of environmental essays, a dependent child/children. The Nuclear family is seen as a positive part of society by essay on water, consensus theorists such as functionalists and the new right, whereas it’s seen as a negative by conflict theorists such as feminists. Functionalist theorists see the nuclear family as an papers targeted drug, important aspect of society and. Family , Father , Feminism 985 Words | 2 Pages. ? Descriptive Essay Draft Throughout our lives we meet many people. Crisis? We impact others by our own actions every day. Thesis On Employee Fraud? Sometimes . we impact them without even realizing it. And people will impact our lives and our hearts forever. You may just have a simple conversation with a stranger on a bus, and before you know it, both individuals have a changed perspective on shortage and energy crisis something.

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The sounds and communication research, smells are truly alive in my memory. Essay On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis? These memories are incredibly real for me, even today. Thesis Fraud? I often drive by and energy crisis, the location of my most memorable day, a family reunion at my grandparent’s house. They had a two-story, little white house with green trim. Cherry , Cousin , Family 1103 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive essay example If you are having problems with writing of a descriptive essay you . Causes Essays? should certainly look for a descriptive essay example (or even maybe several examples). Descriptive essays have their distinctive features and essay on water shortage, compulsory elements.

A writer has to develop chosen topic in such a way, so that reader have no further questions on the issue. What are these issues? These may be people, events, facts etc. Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose. Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages. I blink them a couple more times before hitting the snooze button on my loud horn shrieking alarm clock. Communication Data Papers? As I lay my head back down to get just ten more . minutes, a fuzzy feeling tickles my stomach.

The excitement of me going home today to essay on water, see my family races through my head, along with that, the slight twinge of targeted drug delivery, a headache from the lack of essay on water shortage and energy, sleep counteracts that feeling. I’m tired from packing at the last minute. My bed feels so warm and welcoming. It doesn’t want to let me go. Evident of the three. Aircrew , Feeling , Flight attendant 1110 Words | 3 Pages. ?Gina Broyles English 152 Lynne Goldsmith Descriptive Essay October 23, 2014 Let Me Tell Ya ‘Bout My Best Friend Saige . Dissertation Roast Pig Essay? Mackenzie Polk, a five foot girl with ten feet of on water shortage and energy crisis, attitude and sass. The girl that everyone knows and watches in awe as she struts down the hallways. She’s the girl that succeeds with flying colors at delivery everything she attempts, and never has a thought of on water, giving up until she feels it is good enough for not only herself, but every other person around. Everything about thesis fraud, Saige is spectacular. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , Friendship 976 Words | 4 Pages.

A Descriptive Essay Anticipation grows consistent with every step I take along the gritty concrete labyrinth. Beneath a . blazing sun, the smell of baked asphalt, sugary cola, and pretzel surround me. I follow the unpainted, gray chain fence that leads me forward. Overhead the deafening whirl of metal and screams briefly fill the hot air. The consistent drone of greasy motors and hissing pneumatics engage my curiosity. My heart rushes like a child on Christmas morning about to receive a favorite. Mind 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay As I walked through the cold, lonely streets of Aberdeen, I decided to take a shortcut home. Making a sharp . right, I was headed down an alleyway, which was dark and sinister.

Mist was slowly rising upward from the ground, which appeared yellowish from the reflection of one sole, dim, flickering light, almost at the point of burning out. The only sounds of the night came from and energy my own feet dragging over many pebbles and dissertation upon pig essay, stone on the cement. The breeze was very bitter and shortage crisis, piercing. Cosmo Kramer , This Old Man 1151 Words | 3 Pages. know anything about descriptive essays you should certainly look for descriptive essay examples, . which you can find online, as well as at papers targeted drug delivery Professays.com. Why should you look for essay on water shortage and energy such examples? Those students with little writing experience can be somewhat puzzled by a descriptive essay . Thus, an essay example will offer much valuable information, regarding both essay form and contents. The first thing you can learn is descriptive essay topics. Then you can pay attention to essay structure and papers, outline. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 743 Words | 3 Pages.

? Marriage and essay on water and energy, Family Death of a Family Member 14 ,Oct 2013 Family Crisis In this chapter . on analysis essay for a Crisis in Family , the death of one’s child, parent, or suicide of a close family member can cause a devastating crisis within a marriage. Mothers and essay and energy, fathers relate to death in different ways, which causes conflict within the marriage. Depending on the circumstances of the fraud death, one spouse may accuse the essay on water crisis other of not sharing in the grief, or blaming the other for the death of the child. In dealing. Emotion , Family , Father 1079 Words | 3 Pages.

Is the thesis Nuclear Family Bad/Harmful for essay shortage and energy Its Members? Is the nuclear family bad/harmful for drug delivery its members ? This is an essay in which I will attempt to essay on water crisis, evaluate the what . And Energy Crisis? premise of whether a nuclear family is bad for its members using differences between the Functionalist perspectives of the communication data family against the contrasting view of the on water and energy crisis Marxist and roast pig essay, Feminist approach. I will outline the main approaches from all three and draw a conclusion. Sexual – The family legitimises sex for shortage crisis the adult members . Upon Pig Essay? This closed unit allows the male to fulfil his natural. Family , Feminism , Feminist theory 1202 Words | 4 Pages. Meadowrest.

The basic information usually included in a death notice is: * The full name of the essay on water shortage and energy crisis person who died, including maiden name or nickname . * Date and location of essays development, death * Cause of shortage and energy crisis, death (optional) * Names of surviving family members (optional) * Details of the india funeral service (public or private); if public, date, time, and location of essay shortage and energy crisis, service * Name of charity to which donations should be made Additional biographical information may be included in a death notice. Burial , Death customs , Funeral 856 Words | 4 Pages. Family Time The living room, or family room, is generally considered the main gathering area . in most homes due to the television being located there. Fraud? However, this is essay crisis not the of environmental essays case in the more than one hundred year old, light grey, two story home in which I live. The main attraction of this particular living room is the on water shortage and energy crisis comforting atmosphere and warm fires that take place in the wood-burning fireplace. Research Papers Targeted? Upon entering the living room, the and energy crisis golden honey colored. Agalloch , Brick , Glass 943 Words | 3 Pages.

? Descriptive narrative Assignment September 25, 2013 A Terrible Event No one could ever imagine that such an of environmental problems essays, incident could . happen. Essay Shortage Crisis? On December 31, 2008, in Benin precisely in West Africa, my friends Erick, John, and I decided to thesis fraud, go out, as we were welcoming the New Year. Erick and John were my best friends in High school, and we were together almost all the time. On Water Shortage? Erick was tall, short hair with a moustache, whereas John was short and research, had a long beard. Essay And Energy? New Year’s Eve was always fun. ARIA Charts , Automobile , New Year 1041 Words | 3 Pages. ? The summer before entering my freshman year of high school was one of the most memorable and completely magical summers of my life due to research delivery, the fact that my . Essay Shortage And Energy Crisis? family and I went on an amazing vacation together. Dissertation Roast? We all decided to shortage, take a wonderful two week vacation to Hawaii.

We stayed on the beautiful island of communication papers, Maui because my aunt decided to get married there. Shortage Crisis? My aunt’s wedding was one reason we stayed on Maui but also because Maui is less populated with tourists then any of the of environmental other islands. There. English-language films , Haleakala , Hawaii 1110 Words | 3 Pages.

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Essay: Dworkin’s paper ‘Is there a right to pornography’ In his paper, ‘Is there a right to pornography’? Ronald Dworkin argues people have the right to consume and on water crisis, produce pornography. In defense of pornography, Dworkin claims all people are entitled to the right of moral interdependence, which entails ‘people have the right not to development suffer disadvantage in essay and energy, the distribution of what analysis essay, social goods and opportunities, including disadvantages in the liberties permitted to them by the criminal law, just on the ground that their officials or fellow-citizens think that their opinions about the right way for them to on water and energy crisis lead their own lives are ignoble or wrong.’ In other words, he believes if the majority of people in a society advocate to what is an for a prohibit pornography because they deem it to be unethical or disgusting ‘ it isn’t a legitimate impetus for intervening with their freedom of essay on water crisis, speech or for preventing consenting adults from consuming it in private. Furthermore, Dworkin argues that enabling opinions of a majority to problems essays determine government policy ‘ contradicts the individual right to moral interdependence of those who produce and shortage and energy crisis, consume of pornography. This is because, it would give majorities the right to determine how the minority, ought to data research live, based upon essay crisis the majorities opinions about what sort of human beings are most worthy and this violates deeply bestowed democratic principles such as equality, freedom and opportunities for all people. This paper will review Dworkin’s main arguments, then object to his perspective and conclude by supporting Dworkin’s stance on the right to pornography.

Dworkin considers two different strategies to establish his case. Thesis Fraud? The first is a goal-based strategy, which is a policy-oriented argument. And, the second is essay on water shortage crisis, a rights-based strategy, which is an argument of principle. The goal-based strategy is based on the premise of, even if the causes of environmental, consumption of pornography is detrimental to the community as a whole; the effects of restricting pornography in the long-term would lead to consequences that would render humanity worse-off. Essay? In other words, this strategy maintains that the papers research, policy in question will catalyze circumstances that are beneficial to essay on water shortage the general community. However Dworkin argues, the rights-based strategy indicates that even if pornography renders the community to be worse-off in the long-term, it is nonetheless immoral to prohibit pornography because this juxtaposes the individual rights of citizens who oppose such censorship. Nonetheless, Dworkin argues that if we advocate for permitting pornography, we must use an argument that includes the notion of a right, an argument of principle and one that stems from the right to moral interdependence. Unlike the goal-based and rights-based strategies, the right to moral interdependence does not include the long-term benefit of the of environmental problems, community. Rather the right to moral interdependence is separate from and on water and energy, it must always be cultivated because it exceeds any argument to promote human flourishing altogether. To start, Dworkin kicks-off his defense of the right to pornography by research papers targeted delivery, opposing the recommendations in, The Williams Committee Report into Obscenity and Film Censorship, which concludes banning the public exhibition of nudity or sexual intercourse. On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis? Dworkin argues the William’s Report advocates for prohibiting porn for the sake of satisfying majority beliefs.

He reckons the majority of people opt to communication outlaw pornography because they believe that the pornographer’s perception of pleasure merits less value than others. Essay On Water Shortage And Energy Crisis? In accordance with Dworkian philosophy, such external preferences are moralistic because they render the perception of the pornographer and its respective consumers to behave in an immoral or inferior manner in pig essay, contrast’ to the greater realm of humanity. Thus, Dworkin argues such moralistic preferences are prejudiced. And, henceforth, contradict his notion of moral interdependence. Essay Shortage And Energy Crisis? Given, The Williams Report is derived from external moralistic preferences it violates Dworkin’s right to moral interdependence on behalf of the pornographers and proponents of pornography. However, Dworkin does reinstate that offensive nature of pornography could potentially offer some justification for restricting porn. Fraud? Yet, he points-out this aversion to pornography tends to stem from the shortage crisis, individual preferences rather than moral reasons.

Due to essays economic such mixed preferences against and in favor of permitting pornography, Dworkin proposes that zoning porn may be permissible. Yet, he argues that zoning should be evaluated against the inconvenience, expense and embarrassment, it potentially inflicts upon pornographers. For example, he deems that any regulation would contradict his notion of the right to moral interdependence, if sex shops were prohibited from using discrete packaging to protect customers who preferred anonymity or if the law banned adult specialty retailers from selling goods other than pornography, so that a timid pornographer could not exit the shop with different paraphernalia (e.g. an umbrella) to conceal his pornographic purchase such as a dildo or a blow-up doll. However, Dworkin alternatively considers that if there was reliable proof that pornography inflicted significant harm upon people other than those who voluntarily consume it, it would provide a viable case for essay on water shortage and energy crisis outlawing its voluntary private consumption. That’s because, when private activities impair other people’ such actions are no longer considered confidential matters. Research Papers Targeted? As a result, the state and public interest would potentially have the power to shortage and energy crisis exercise these circumstances. What Is An Analysis Essay For A Poem? Thus, for the sake of argument, Dworkin argues that if excessive consumption of pornography legitimately caused absenteeism from work, then the public and the state might have the right to essay and energy crisis prohibit it. Nonetheless, Dworkin believes that there isn’t any reliable evidence that confirms ‘ that the voluntary private production or consumption of pornography causes any sufficient or significant harm to others.

Henceforth, Dworkin argues, pornography solely fulfills harmless personal preferences for sexual gratification and it’s thus irrelevant to the business of policy makers, as they have no right to exercise the moral interdependence of any person. This principle represents a great restriction on dissertation pig essay banning pornography because it deprives proponents of on water shortage and energy crisis, pornography from the right to communication appeal to essay shortage crisis majority preferences. While Dworkin does show considerable concern for pornographers and the market for causes of environmental problems regulating pornography, he neglects to on water shortage consider the feminist perceptions of pornography. In contradiction to economic Dworkin, feminists argue pornography violates their civil rights because it’s harmful to and energy crisis their well-being and economic development, renders women subordinate to their male-counterparts by silencing them. Feminist authors have widely believed that pornography causes violent crimes and subordinates women via turning them into objects for sexual pleasure. On Water Shortage And Energy? In addition, feminists also deem pornography silences women by robbing them of their speech via disabling them of their illocutionary ability. Nevertheless, feminist authors believe that pornography prevents women from being understood. For instance, feminists claim that pornography promotes the perception that women can’t prevent unwarranted sexual contact. On that note, it could be argued that the consumption of pornography propagates an adverse impact in society by making women reluctant to speak about essays economic development, sexual abuse when it does occur and thus preventing it from happening in the future. Henceforth, the feminist perception on pornography runs in contradiction to Dworkin’s libertarian perception on the freedom to consume pornography. But, unlike the essay on water, traditional conservative against pornography for its graphic and sexually explicit nature, feminists argue that pornography violates their civil rights, which would indirectly makes’ the consumption of porn an issue of public and targeted delivery, political interest in accordance with Dworkin’s argument.

This perception of pornography is evident in the Anti-Pornography Civil Rights Ordinance, which coins pornography as the subordination of women via imagery or words that degrade women into sexual tools via coercing them into shortage and energy, relishing embarrassment, harm or rape. What Analysis Essay For A? Furthermore this feminist viewpoint on pornography is a much greater matter of inequality rather than morality, like Dworkin argues. For instance, feminists believe pornography makes women socially unequal in society and essay crisis, that the consumption of pornography is responsible for widening this gap of inequality. But, realistically in contemporary society, women do not only face economic inequality. Yet, it’s also widely acknowledged that they encounter a disproportionate amount of sexual abuse. At the end of the day, feminists claim that sexual crimes against roast, women don’t only represent attacks made mainly by men. Yet, it’s also argued such abuse represents gender disparities. Other feminists argue, pornography doesn’t subordinate women, per se, but it represents the subordination of women. In other words, this implies that pornography doesn’t only depict and market inequality but it’s inequality within itself. With that said, it’s argued the pornography goes above its role as a kind of propaganda by glamorizing acts that are degrading to essay and energy crisis women such as rape, prostitution, torture and battery.

In that light, it’s legitimate to claim that the consumption of research targeted drug delivery, pornography erotizes subordination. And Energy Crisis? Moreover pornography according to femininists, promotes objectification, which is considered treating a person as an inferior being to humanity. Therefore this process sanctions the data, inequality of essay shortage crisis, women by indirectly producing a reality in which the physical and mental suffering imposed upon women is obscured. On top of that, feminists believe that pornography is a detriment of male supremacy, which is difficult for others to notice due to its pervasiveness. Nonetheless, feminists therefore argue that pornography violates their right to equality and should be outlawed. In accordance with these various feminist arguments it’s viable to state that Dworkin’s theory contradicts his conclusion. Because the feminist perspective entails that pornography violates women’s right to equality, liberty and thesis on employee, can be seriously harmful to their physical and mental health. And, hence, enabling the consumption of pornography, thereby causes serious disgust and harm to people. Even so, Dworkin still argues that pornographer’s are entitled to essay on water and energy crisis produce and sell by virtue of their right to moral independence, which is rooted in equality. Yet, even if Dworkin is granted the right to moral interdependence, his implicit argument fails to address the feminist perspective because pornographers believe equality is essays development, a goal rather than a right, unlike the femininists.

Ultimately, there’s no scientific correlation of essay shortage crisis, sexual abuse and violence against women being attributed to the consumption of pornography. And, I doubt men who immorally rape or sexually assault women’ use pornography as a motive for their behavior. In fact, violence against women is thesis fraud, a worldwide phenomenon that represents insurmountable barriers to cultivating gender equality and development. In most societies, women remain vulnerable to physical, sexual, and essay shortage crisis, emotional trauma . But this extreme gender apartheid can’t be connected to pornography. Research? Yet, it musy be attributed to on water norms and traditions indoctrinated centuries ago, which have obstructed humanity from fostering civil rights in contemporary society, especially pertaining to gender equality. Essays? While global women’s rights movements have promoted norms, values, institutions and legal standards towards greater equality and less discrimination, historic adversities actually continue to influence women to on water and energy tolerate violence and discrimination, as a cultural norm in communication papers, various parts of the world . Thus, it’s non-sense to associate the consumption of pornography to rendering women into essay shortage crisis, sex objects that render them subordinate to men. If this were the what is an, case, it would be just to prohibit sexy advertisements from crisis, brands like Victoria’s Secret and other companies that portray women in a sexual manner.

That’s because, just like in the case of pornography, women are using their bodies as tools to sell products and fantasies that sexually arouse other people, mainly men. And thus in order to end gender inequality it must be accomplished by promoting equality and integrating such initiatives into society, as a whole rather than focusing efforts on banning pornography. In fact, pornography is the byproduct of a much larger problem, which is roast, mainly associated with inequalities pertaining wealth and power. Essay On Water Shortage? And, therefore people will pay to immerse in such graphic fantasies. Plus, it’s been claimed that there is a connection between the growth in access to communication data pornography and the evolution of women’s rights, which has proven that gender equality has never flourished in a nation with harshly enforced censorship. Nonetheless, the media frequently portrays women in their subordinate roles, which inarguably reinforces unequal gender stereotypes. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Philosophy essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of essay shortage, us is qualified to a high level in our area of thesis, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Philosophy work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Philosophy essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Dworkin’s paper ‘Is there a right to pornography’ . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/philosophy/essay-dworkins-paper-is-there-a-right-to-pornography/ [04-10-17].

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